Reifel, Stuart; Garza, Margaret
Children's knowledge of daily events in full-day child care was assessed. Interviews with 14 children produced spontaneous narratives that revealed script-like knowledge of the child care day, including events such as indoor play, outdoor play, breakfast, lunch, nap, and snack. Younger children reported a smaller number of events in their…
The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…
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CERN, Child Care Initiative
This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.
Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos
Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...
Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.
Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…
Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.
Working for Change, 1995
Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…
Blau, David M., Ed.
Economic issues are an important part of the debate over child care policy. This volume presents findings from economic analyses of research on child care issues surrounding recent policy decisions and scholarly debates. The book's introduction discusses four main issues; government involvement in child care policies, its effect on quality of…
Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…
Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.
The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…
Child care and early education subsidies are an important part of government efforts to increase economic independence and improve development of children in low-income families in the United States. This chapter describes the main subsidy programs in the U.S., discusses economic issues that arise in designing such programs and evaluating their effects, and surveys evidence on the effects of the programs. An important theme of the chapter is the tradeoff between the policy goals of increasing...
Alkon, A; Crowley, AA; Neelon, SE; Hill, S.; Pan, Y.; Nguyen, V.; Rose, R.; Savage, E; Forestieri, N; Shipman, L; Kotch, JB
BACKGROUND: To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A seven-month randomized control tr...
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
The Illinois Child Care Collaboration Program promotes collaboration between child care and other early care and education providers, including Early Head Start (EHS), by creating policies to ease blending of funds to extend the day or year of existing services. While no funding is provided through the initiative, participating programs may take…
Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed
Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)
Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.
Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…
... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...
Minnesota Child Care Resource and Referral Network, Rochester.
Intended for audiences with an interest in child care, this video examines the low compensation characteristic of the child care field and the social factors contributing to the low status and wages of caregivers. The video first looks at the social history of child care, noting that the function served by child care differed by social class. The…
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Blau, David M.
The effect of group size, staff-child ratio, training, and other characteristics of child care on child development is estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In contrast to most previous research, the sample is large and nationally representative, the data contain good measures of the home environment, and there are repeated measures of child development. Child care characteristics have little association with child development on average. Associations are found ...
Families and Work Inst., New York, NY.
Produced as a touchstone for the White House Conference on Child Care, this brief video (5 minutes) presents a collage of voices speaking on the need for quality child care. The voices include those of parents, physicians and child development experts, and child care workers. Among the threads touched upon by these voices are working mothers, the…
ERS Spectrum, 1998
A significant correlation exists between quality child care and outcomes. Quality-related outcomes include cooperative play, sociability, creativity, ability to solve social conflicts, self-control, and language and cognitive development. Legislatures and agencies should strengthen standards; require initial and ongoing staff training; recruit,…
Provides advice on how to set up child day-care services within a school to allow teen mothers to continue their education. Among the advice given are to provide a comprehensive program, be prepared for resistance, tap multiple funding sources, pay attention to staff training and necessary paperwork, have clear guidelines and rules, and be…
The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social policies such as child care services and parental leave entitlements. A related second topic is how child care quality is produced and influenced by policy measures. Positive findings from the UK and US...
Del Boca, Daniela
This paper discusses several approaches to examining the relationship between child care and mothers' labor supply. The focus is on child care for children aged 0-3, because this is a critical period for working mothers and their children and because most European and American households with children aged 3-5 already use child care centers. The paper provides data concerning availability of, government spending on, and quantity and quality standards for child care in different countries, the...
Formal child care services can expand women's economic opportunities and promote equity through early childhood development. However, academics and policy makers often overlook the role of relatives as child care providers. This note discusses how grandparent-provided child care can be factored into child care policies in the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developmen...
Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.
This booklet provides answers to 12 questions about the rights and responsibilities of child care providers in California concerning the issue of child abuse. The questions are (1) Who is a "Child Care Custodian?" (2) How do I decide whether or not to report? (3) How do I recognize 'abuse' and 'neglect'? (4) How and when should I tell the parent…
Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha
Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…
Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…
Sharma, A; Gupta, S
In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status. PMID:12317284
Hawkinson, Laura E.
Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…
Godfrey, Michael K.
The purpose of this study was to identify the individual, familial, and child-care characteristics related to children's perceptions of their nonparental child-care environments. One-hundred seventy-five children, their families, and child-care providers participated in this study. Children attended one of three forms of child care: large center-based child-care settings, home-based child-care settings, and a preschool. Correlates of children's perceptions of their child-care experiences came...
P. CHONE; D. LE BLANC; I. ROBERT-BOBEE
We use household income tax data to estimate a structural model of female labor supply and utilization of paid child care outside the home. We find that child care costs have little impact on the participation decision of mothers of young children. However, they influence hours of work, as well as the decision to utilize paid child care. We use our results to simulate various policy reforms. Suppressing the APE (Parental Education Aid) would cause the participation rate in our sample to rise ...
Modelling and SimulationANP3 introductionNAP2 introductionThe Exended Node EquationsThe input languages of ANP3 and NAP2The output from ANP3 and NAP2Literature......Modelling and SimulationANP3 introductionNAP2 introductionThe Exended Node EquationsThe input languages of ANP3 and NAP2The output from ANP3 and NAP2Literature...
Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.
With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain, but maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents’ job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child care-related work disruption using two samples and both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models. Child care-related work disruptions are fou...
In this paper, I suggest an empirical framework for the analysis of mothers' labor supply and child care choices, explicitly taking into account access restrictions to subsidized child care. This is particularly important for countries such as Germany, where subsidized child care is rationed and private child care is only available at considerably higher cost. I use a discrete choice panel data model controlling for unobserved heterogeneity to simultaneously estimate labor supply and the dema...
Brower, Mary R.; Sull, Theresa M.
Contends that child care facility owners, boards of directors, staff, and parents need to focus on financial management, as poor financial health compromises the quality of care for children. Specifically addresses the issues of: (1) concern for providing high quality child care; (2) the connection between quality and money; and (3) strengthening…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.
This handbook details requirements for family day care homes in Oklahoma for providing child nutrition through the Child and Adult Care Food Program. The handbook includes contact information for state consultants. The basic responsibilities for sponsors of family day care home child nutrition programs are outlined, and the sponsoring organization…
Blau, David M.
The effect of child care regulations on outcomes in the child care market and the labor market for mothers of young children is examined. The analysis uses a time series of cross sections and examines the robustness of previous cross-section findings to controls for state-level heterogeneity. Child care regulations as a group have statistically…
Seguret, M. C.
Examines the attitudes of the public authorities in various countries concerning child-care services for working parents and the different systems of care in operation in industrial and developing nations. (Author/CT)
The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic
Child Care, Inc., 2012
Like all difficult decisions, choosing child care can seem overwhelming, and this is particularly true when choosing care for children under three. The better you understand what your child's and your own personal needs are, and what is available and affordable to you, the more confident you will become in your decision-making process. This…
Floyd, Latosha; Phillips, Deborah A
The U.S. military has come to realize that providing reliable, high-quality child care for service members' children is a key component of combat readiness. As a result, the Department of Defense (DoD) has invested heavily in child care. The DoD now runs what is by far the nation's largest employer-sponsored child-care system, a sprawling network with nearly 23,000 workers that directly serves or subsidizes care for 200,000 children every day. Child-care options available to civilians typically pale in comparison, and the military's system, embedded in a broader web of family support services, is widely considered to be a model for the nation. The military's child-care success rests on four pillars, write Major Latosha Floyd and Deborah A. Phillips. The first is certification by the military itself, including unannounced inspections to check on safety, sanitation, and general compliance with DoD rules. The second is accreditation by nationally recognized agencies, such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children. The third is a hiring policy that sets educational and other requirements for child-care workers, and the fourth is a pay scale that not only sets wages high enough to discourage the rapid turnover common in civilian child care but also rewards workers for completing additional training. Floyd and Phillips sound a few cautionary notes. For one, demand for military child care continues to outstrip the supply In particular, as National Guard and Reserve members have been activated during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the DoD has sometimes struggled to provide child care for their children. And force reductions and budget cuts are likely to force the military to make difficult choices as it seeks to streamline its child-care services in the years ahead. PMID:25518693
Phillips, D; Adams, G
Studies of child development confirm that experiences with people mold an infant's mind and personality. Caregiving is, therefore, central to development, whether the caregiver is a parent, a grandmother, or a teacher in a child care center. This article uses data from new, national studies of families to examine the state of child care for infants and toddlers. The story it tells is complex, as the authors outline the overlapping impacts that diverse child care settings and home situations have on children. Early exposure to child care can foster children's learning and enhance their lives, or it can leave them at risk for troubled relationships. The outcome that results depends largely on the quality of the child care setting. Responsive caregivers who surround children with language, warmth, and chances to learn are the key to good outcomes. Other quality attributes (like training and staff-to-child ratios) matter because they foster positive caregiving. Diversity and variability are hallmarks of the American child care supply. Both "wonderful and woeful" care can be found in all types of child care but, overall, settings where quality is compromised are distressingly common. Children whose families are not buoyed by good incomes or government supports are the group most often exposed to poor-quality care. Given this balanced but troubling look at the status of child care for infants and toddlers, the authors conclude that there is a mismatch between the rhetoric of parental choice and the realities facing parents of young children in the United States. They call on communities, businesses, foundations, and government to play a larger role in helping parents secure good care for their infants and toddlers. PMID:11712454
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Anderson, Susan D.
Child care has been part of American culture for nearly a century. This paper takes a backward glance at the history of child care in the United States. During the industrial revolution, child care was disguised as child labor. As child labor laws were enacted, schooling became the focus of ideas about caring for groups of children. The idea of a…
Ryan, Rebecca M; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents' selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N = 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients' using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. PMID:21874092
Mattingly, Julie A; Andresen, Pamela A
Low-income American Indian preschoolers are at greatest risk for overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) program is an evidence-based intervention that promotes healthy weight development for children enrolled in child care centers. The goal of this continuous quality improvement program is for the child care staff to establish environmental policies and practices that positively influence nutrition and physical activity-related behaviors. A community needs assessment of a Head Start program on an American Indian reservation identified obesity as a priority issue. This project implemented NAP SACC at 15 Head Start sites on the reservation. PMID:27383778
This paper examines the impact of actual subsidy receipt of single mothers on their joint employment and child care mode decisions in the post-welfare reform environment, which places a high priority on parental choice with the quality and type of care chosen. Results indicate that single mothers are highly responsive to child care subsidies by increasing their employment while moving from parental and relative care to center care in the process.
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Werner, Claudia Denise
The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in center child care and to answer the question whether narrow-focused caregiver interventions are effective in improving child care quality. The reported meta-analysis shows that narrow-focus interv...
Nakagawa, Machiko; Ohta, Hidenobu; Nagaoki, Yuko; Shimabukuro, Rinshu; Asaka, Yoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Takayo; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Morioka, Keita; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Azami, Yuriko; Ikeuchi, Mari; Takahashi, Mari; Hirata, Michio; Ozawa, Miwa; Cho, Kazutoshi; Kusakawa, Isao; Yoda, Hitoshi
Previous studies have demonstrated that afternoon naps can have a negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep in children. These studies have mainly been based on sleep questionnaires completed by parents. To investigate the effect of napping on such aspects of sleep quality, we performed a study in which child activity and sleep levels were recorded using actigraphy. The parents were asked to attach actigraphy units to their child’s waist by an adjustable elastic belt and complete a sleep diary for 7 consecutive days. 50 healthy young toddlers of approximately 1.5 years of age were recruited. There was a significant negative correlation between nap duration and both nighttime sleep duration and sleep onset time, suggesting that long nap sleep induces short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset time. We also found a significant negative correlation between nap timing and nighttime sleep duration and also a significant positive correlation between nap timing and sleep onset time, suggesting that naps in the late afternoon also lead to short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset. Our findings suggest that duration-controlled naps starting early in the afternoon can induce a longer nighttime sleep in full-term infants of approximately 1.5 years of age. PMID:27277329
Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon
The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…
Harachi, Tracy; Anthony, Emily; Bleisner, Siri
Seattle's Comprehensive Child Care Program (CCCP) (Washington) is made up of a child care subsidy to offset child care costs for working and student families with low incomes, and quality assurance and technical assistance for 150 child care providers, including on-site evaluations, public health consulting, continuing education for providers, and…
Werner, Claudia Denise
The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in
Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.
Whether and how to regulate family child care has been a continuing policy dilemma facing child care advocates, policymakers, child care administrators, and child care regulators over the last 20 years. Insufficient attention has been given to what regulatory and/or non-regulatory methods might be used to ensure that all children, regardless of…
Manuela Pessanha; Cecília Aguiar; Joaquim Bairrão
Whereas child care quality has been extensively studied in the U.S., there is much less information about the quality of child care in other countries.With one of the highest maternal employment rates in Europe, it is important to examine child care in Portugal. Thirty toddler classrooms in child care centers were observed. The purpose of this studywas to determine whether structural features account for overall toddler child care quality. Results showed younger and better-paid teach...
Gong, Xiaodong; Breunig, Robert
We evaluate price subsidies and tax credits for child care. We focus on partnered women's labor supply, household income and welfare, demand for formal and informal child care and government expenditure. Using Australian data, we estimate a joint, discrete structural model of labor supply and child care demand. We introduce two methodological innovations: a quantity constraint that total formal and informal child care hours is at least as large as the mother's labor supply and child care expl...
Caldwell, Bettye M.; Boyd, Harper W., Jr.
Identifies negative public and professional attitudes that lie beneath the contemporary negative image of quality child care. Argues that concepts and principles of marketing are appropriate for influencing parents to choose high quality services and helping ensure that supplementary care is of sufficient quality to enhance, not inhibit, the…
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Child Day Care Planning Project, Cleveland, OH.
This report describes the Child Day Care Planning Project, which was developed by private and public representatives to meet the needs for child care in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The project consisted of five major components. The first component, the Data Project, documented the needs and resources of the community. The second component, the Quality…
Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.
With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…
Finance Project, Washington, DC.
The quality of child care in the United States has important implications for school preparedness, welfare reform, economic vitality, and the quality of family life. In this 8-minute videotape, business leaders describe why child care makes good business sense. Visuals explain the importance of early childhood for school and life success, and the…
Nemiroff, Robert J.; Allen, Alice
Caring for children should not derail potentially excellent future astronomers. It is therefore suggested that a mechanism be created for established astronomers to voluntarily will 10 percent of their estate to a fund that helps aspiring astronomers reduce child care costs. Statistics indicate that many scientists delay child rearing until they have secure jobs. This delay appears to be based on the early relative cost of child care and the perception that time spent raising children negatively impacts job performance and future employability. Having even a portion of child care expenses covered may increase the efficiency of early-career education and productivity of early-career scientific research. It is hoped that some established astronomers may be inspired to contribute by remembering their own lives as aspiring astronomers, while also wishing to add to their legacy. Only an expression of interest is requested here, both from established astronomers who might be interested in taking such a donation pledge, and from aspiring astronomers who feel their careers would be helped by child care assistance.
Sarah Williams Leng, MA
Full Text Available Introduction Delaware is one state that has implemented comprehensive child care regulations to foster healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors of young children. This study describes the Delaware family child care environment and providers’ knowledge of and compliance with physical activity regulations. We analyzed the data to determine characteristics associated with predictors of knowledge of and compliance with these regulations. Methods A random stratified sample of 663 licensed Delaware family child care providers was mailed a survey on family child care characteristics and providers’ awareness and practices of the child care regulations. Three logistic regression models were used to explore the association between provider characteristics and their knowledge of and compliance with the regulations. Results Ultimately, 313 of the 663 eligible family child care providers participated in the survey (47.2% response rate. Controlling for covariates, we found that family child care providers’ education level was significantly associated with knowledge of the physical activity regulation. Another model showed that family child care providers with larger amounts of outdoor space were more likely to report compliance with the recommendation for unstructured physical activity than those without this described space (odds ratio, 2.45. A third model showed a significant association between available indoor space for all activities including running and reported greater compliance with the recommendation for structured physical activity than was reported by caregivers with less indoor space (odds ratio, 11.2. Conclusion To provide the recommended levels of physical activity for children in child care, the available physical space environment is an important area of focus for advocates of physical activity recommendations within the family child care environment.
Matthews, Hannah; Walker, Christina
Quality child care enables parents to work or go to school while also providing young children with the early childhood education experiences needed for healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary federal program that provides funding for child care assistance for low-income working parents. Child care…
The single most important and anxiety-ridden decision every working parent needs to make is, "Who will care for my child?" This book offers parents information needed to make informed decisions about child care, addressing the specific issues, joys, and obstacles of the child care center. The goal of the book is to give parents a comprehensive…
Mirna Albuquerque Frota
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.
Tarjei Havnes; Magne Mogstad
Many developed countries are currently considering a move toward subsidized, widely accessible child care or preschool. However, studies on how large-scale provision of child care affects child development are scarce, and focused on short-run outcomes. We analyze a large-scale expansion of subsidized child care in Norway, addressing the impact on children's long-run outcomes. Our precise and robust difference-in-differences estimates show that subsidized child care had strong positive effects...
Feldman, M A; Case, L.; Garrick, M; MacIntyre-Grande, W; Carnwell, J; Sparks, B
The present study identified and remediated child-care skill deficits in parents with developmental disabilities to reduce their risk of child neglect. Eleven mothers with developmental disabilities who were considered by social service and child welfare agencies to be providing neglectful child care were found in baseline to have several important child-care skill deficits (e.g., bathing, diaper rash treatment, cleaning baby bottles) compared to nonhandicapped mothers. Parent training (consi...
With the advent of "perestroika" and "glasnost," Russian childcare and education underwent a transitional period in practice and theory. Contrasting impressions from an earlier visit under the Communist regime, this book describes the experiences of Jean Ispa in her travels to Russia, observing children in six child care centers. Interviews are…
Crow, Merwin R.
This paper focuses on the process of staff selection of child care staff at a residential treatment center for children, ages 8-16. Phases of candidate selection, an "open-door" interview procedure, the orientation of hired candidates and the agency's philosophy, procedures and practices are discussed. (GO)
... NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) ... Sunsetted/For Reference Only The NICHD started the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), ...
Marc K Chan; Liu, Kai
We investigate the importance of various mechanisms by which child care policies can affect life-cycle patterns of employment and fertility among women, as well as long-run cognitive outcomes among children. A structural life-cycle model of employment, fertility, and child care use is estimated using Norwegian administrative data. The estimation exploits a large-scale child care reform, which provided generous cash transfers to mothers who did not use formal child care facilities. Combining w...
Jean Kimmel; Lisa Powell
The focus of this paper is to examine the interplay between nonstandard employment (i.e., shift work) and child care choice decisions of married mothers with young children. We contribute to the child care choice literature by examining the impact of nonstandard work on the child care choice decisions of mothers taking into account the likely endogeneity of nonstandard work. Also, we examine the extent to which child care prices simultaneously affect work status (no work versus standard work ...
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background as...
Governor's Advisory Committee on Child Development Programs, Sacramento, CA.
This document provides a revision of a report on employer supported child care prepared by the California Governor's Advisory Committee on Child Development. The focus of the document is a series of policy discussions and recommendations on employer sponsored child care; a description and a history of employer sponsorship of day care are given.…
Frank, Mary, Ed.; Caldwell, Bettye M., Ed.
Contains seven papers divided into three sections addressing: (1) the application of marketing principles to child care organizations and ways of remedying the negative public image of child care; (2) training child care professionals to develop marketing skills; and (3) successful uses of five basic marketing skills illustrated through four case…
The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…
Frankel, Arthur J.; And Others
Small grants of $7,500 with technical assistance were offered to the child care community of New Jersey to either start or increase licensed capacity in mini-child care centers. Results of a subsequent analysis showed that 26 grantees created 481 new child care slots at an average cost of $561 per slot. (Author/SM)
Fong, Monica; Lokshin, Michael
The authors model the household demand for child care, the mother's participation in the labor force, and her working hours in Romania. Their model estimates the effects of the price of child care, the mother's wage, and household income on household behavior relating to child care and mothers working outside the home. They find that: Both the maternal decision to take a job and the decision to use out-of-home care are sensitive to the price of child care. A decrease in the price of child car...
Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.
This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report notes that the rate…
Racine, Andrew D
The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. PMID:27044708
During the past few decades, this country has experienced many socio-economic changes including a rise in the number of dual-income families and single parent homes. Combined with a fluctuating economy and drastic reforms in welfare, one of the results has been an ever-increasing number of children being cared for in out-of-home settings. With almost 75% of all children under age 5 years and 50% of infants in some form of child care on a regular basis, opportunities abound for nurses to promote optimal health and safety in child care. To ensure quality child care for these children, health care professionals are uniquely positioned to provide consultation services to centers and family child care settings. With expertise in child development, infection control, disease prevention, and health promotion, pediatric and public health nurses can provide many types of child care health consultation services to impact the care of these children positively. PMID:12087643
Henriques, I; Vaillancourt, F.
This Paper Examines the Determinants of the Demand for Child Care Services in Canada. Using Survey Data Collected for 1981 by Statistics Canada and Probit Analysis We Find That the Likelihood of Using Child Care Services Increases with Variables Such As the Education of the Mother and the Age of the Child and Decreases with the Number of Children in the Family.
Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.
Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…
Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.
This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…
Havnes, Tarjei; Mogstad, Magne
There is a heated debate in the US and Canada, as well as in many European countries, about a move towards subsidized, universally accessible child care. At the same time, studies on universal child care and child development are scarce, limited to short-run outcomes, and the findings are mixed. We analyze the introduction of subsidized, universally accessible child care in Norway, addressing the impact on the long-run outcomes of children. Our precise difference-in-difference estimates show ...
Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn
The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…
Describes various approaches taken by Italian child-care programs to facilitate the young child's transition into a child care setting. Discusses the role of teachers as researchers, the role of parents as partners, and the benefits to young children. (KB)
Recchia, Susan L.
This paper focuses on one aspect of continuity--the caregiver-child relationship--within a larger global study of continuity in child care based at a university-affiliated child care center. Case studies are presented of two toddler boys, followed as they transitioned from their infant classroom to the preschool classroom at the age of…
Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael
Many countries are currently expanding access to child care for young children. But are all children equally likely to benefit from such expansions? We address this question by adopting a marginal treatment effects framework. We study the West German setting where high quality center - based care is severely rationed and use within state differences in child care supply as exogenous variation in child care attendance. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel provides comprehensive informa...
Zalm, Yvonne van der; Nugteren, Willem; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra van der; Venne, Cokky van der; Kool, Nienke; van Meijel, Berno
PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to ask about child abuse. They often feel insufficiently competent to respond effectively to patients with a history of child maltreatment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Psychiatric nurses need training in how ...
Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.
This document reports on a day care program for children of working mothers, the 4-C program. This program is a federally sponsored effort conducted through community cooperation. Its goals include: (1) more and better child care, (2) mobilization of community resources and coordination of existing and new child care programs, (3) ensuring the…
Chris M. Herbst; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies play a critical role in facilitating the transition of disadvantaged mothers from welfare to work. However, little is known about the influence of these policies on children's health and well-being. In this paper, we study the impact of subsidy receipt on low-income children's weight outcomes in the fall and spring of kindergarten. The goals of our empirical analysis are twofold. We first utilize standard OLS and fixed effects methods to explore body mass index as well as...
Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Guilkey, David K; Morgan, S. Philip; KRAVDAL, ØYSTEIN
The child-care and fertility hypothesis has been in the literature for a long time and is straightforward: As child care becomes more available, affordable, and acceptable, the antinatalist effects of increased female educational attainment and work opportunities decrease. As an increasing number of countries express concern about low fertility, the child-care and fertility hypothesis takes on increased importance. Yet data and statistical limitations have heretofore limited empirical tests o...
Klaveren, van, M.; Ghysels, J.
In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. We find that the individual labor supplies are hardly affected by changes in the prices of child care services. In addition, the child care price effects on the individual labor supplies are much smaller than the wage effects. Furthermore, we find that the additional earnings due to an increase in household non-labor income minus the child care expenditures are ma...
Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn
The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…
Extensive evidence exist, demonstrating an association between cortisol and child care attendance. Cortisol is regarded as a valid and reliable measure of stress. This review aim to summarize findings regarding child care and cortisol. The results reveal a trend of atypical levels of cortisol seen in children attending non-parental group-based child care, in particular encompassing children below age three. Long-term effects are evident in some children, resulting in a down regulation of the ...
Eddy, Annette Kari
The study examined the frequency of preschool mathematics activities at home and in the family child care setting. Provider perception and parent perception of the activities were also surveyed. Twenty-one family child care providers, 38 parents, and 42 preschool children participated in the study. Providers and parents participated in a telephone interview in which they completed either the Day Care Activities Checklist (DAC) or the Parent/Child Activities Checklist (PCAC). Research assistan...
The purpose of this survey and report is to gain information about parental planning for child-rearing when the mother is employed. This study is intended to explore mothers' perceptions of possible delegation of some basic child-rearing functions during the mothers' absence for employment. Comparison of the child care arrangements which the…
As an early childhood professional for 30 years operating both traditional and employer child care programs, the author believes that traditional center owners and operators have an opportunity to grow their business, serve more children and families, and stay relevant for future workforce needs by integrating employer child care practices into…
Describes contrasts in the author's visits to East and West Berlin in 1972 and 1990. Discusses visits to child care centers in East and West Germany in 1990 and concludes with speculation about the future of child care services in a reunited Germany. (DR)
Swedish Inst., Stockholm.
Child care services in Sweden are distinguished by a high standard of quality and by the fundamental principle that they exist for all children. This governmental fact sheet provides useful facts and figures on Swedish child care law and government policy. It is divided into 16 sections covering: (1) rights of children and their families; (2)…
Brownlee, J.; Boulton-Lewis, G.; Berthelsen, D.
Background: The quality of child care is of social and economic significance worldwide. The beliefs that child care workers hold about knowing and knowledge (epistemological beliefs) influence the quality of their professional work. However, attention to epistemological beliefs is rarely a focus in vocational education programmes. Aim: The aim of…
Ahn, Hey Jun
An observational study was conducted to examine teachers' emotional socialization strategies in three child care centers. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that teachers in child care centers respond to children's emotional expressions with various strategies. Teachers clearly expressed a preference for positive emotion through verbal…
Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2006
Cherokee Nation, along with 257 grantees, representing more than 500 Indian Tribes, Alaskan Native Villages, and Native Hawaiian Organizations, receives federal block grant funds to improve child care for Indian children. This article discusses child care, service, relationship between programs, initiative, implementation, cooperation, and setting…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child care services. 638.542 Section 638.542 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.542 Child care services. (a)...
Augustine, Jennifer March; Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crosnoe, Robert
The social and human capital that educational attainment provides women enables them to better navigate their children's passages through school. In this study, we examine a key mechanism in this intergenerational process: mothers' selection of early child care. Analyses of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that…
Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula Jorde
The "BAS for Family Child Care" is the first valid and reliable tool for measuring and improving the overall quality of business and professional practices in family child care settings. It is applicable for multiple uses, including program self-improvement, technical assistance and monitoring, training, research and evaluation, and public…
Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace
Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…
Zalm, Yvonne van der; Nugteren, Willem; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra van der; Venne, Cokky van der; Kool, Nienke; Meijel, Berno van
PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to as
Ahn, Hey Jun
Teachers have the opportunity to discuss the emotions of children as they occur in the context of the classroom. As such, teachers play an important role in the socialization of emotions of young children. This observational study examines teachers' discussions of emotions in three child care centers. The findings suggest that child care centers…
H. Naci Mocan
Using a newly compiled data set, this paper estimates multi- product translog cost functions for 399 child care centers from California, Colorado, Connecticut, and North Carolina. Quality of child care is controlled by a quality index, which has been shown to be positively related to child outcomes by previous research. Nonprofit centers that receive public money, either from the state or federal government, (which is tied to higher standards), have total variable costs that are 18 percent hi...
Full Text Available Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716 are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851 during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971. .
Kornstad, Tom; Thoresen, Thor Olav
Abstract: A discrete choice model for labor supply and child care for mothers of preschoolers is presented. The mothers are assumed to make choices from a finite set of job possibilities and from a finite set of child care options. The options in the markets for child care are characterized by opening hours, fees and a number of quality attributes, such as mode of care. Similarly, jobs are characterized by a (fixed) wage rate, working hours and a number of variables related to job satisfac...
Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.
Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Kröll, Alexandra; Borck, Rainald
In Germany, formal child care coverage rates have increased markedly over the past few decades. The expansion in coverage is particularly pronounced for under 3 year-olds. The present paper is concerned with how mothers' mental and physical health is affected by whether they place their child in formal day care or not. Furthermore, the effects of formal child care usage on mother-child interaction are examined. The analysis is based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 2...
Lanigan, Jane D.
Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…
Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not d...
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne
Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... universal preschool programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in preschool at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or the mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...
Kottelenberg, Michael J.; Lehrer, Steven F.
The rising participation of women in paid work has not only heightened demand for universal early education and care programs but also led to increased use of child care amongst children at earlier ages. Prior research investigating Quebec's universal highly-subsidized child care documented significant declines in a variety of developmental outcomes for all children aged 0-4 years. However, past analysis has not explored whether these effects vary for children of different ages. In this paper...
... Health Services Utilization > Prenatal Care Utilization Prenatal Care Utilization Narrative Early and adequate prenatal care helps to ... 20.3 6.0 Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Upon Initiation, * by Maternal Race/Ethnicity, 2011 Race/ ...
Magnuson, Katherine A.; Waldfogel, Jane
Parenting practices, including the use of physical discipline, are shaped by multiple influences. Although much research focuses on how parent, child, and dyadic characteristics shape parenting practices, extra-familial resources may also play a role. This paper focuses on how children's experiences of child care during the preschool years may…
Wubs, Dorijn; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura
The traumatizing effects of child sexual abuse are generally acknowledged. Successfully fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse requires specific skills and knowledge. What expertise do foster families caring for these vulnerable children have? What do they need to succeed? What do foster c
The movement toward professionalization of the child care field necessitates a look at the serious and complex problems of conceptualization and practical organization of roles, programs and personnel. (Author/CS)
Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra
Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality of...... child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values....
... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Print Share Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child Care or School Page Content Article Body In ...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...
Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie
Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. Access to quality child care is also proven to strengthen families' economic security. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the…
Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie
Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…
This article tells the story of the 4-year consensus-building process to design quality standards for the field of family child care. Working with the National Association for Family Child Care, the Family Child Care Project at Wheelock College was funded to create an accreditation system for home-based child care programs using innovative methods…
Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Andersen, Lise Geisler; Simonsen, Jacob;
The objective was to study the effect of age at first enrollment into child care and other child care-related factors on the risk for hospitalization from gastrointestinal infection.......The objective was to study the effect of age at first enrollment into child care and other child care-related factors on the risk for hospitalization from gastrointestinal infection....
Burton, Alice; And Others
A 1994 state-wide survey examined the status of child care profession in Wisconsin. Surveyed were 326 family child care providers, 104 child care center directors, and 254 center teaching staff. Responses indicated that child care teaching staff have experienced a wage increase of just over 1 percent per year since 1988, and continue to earn low…
Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika
Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…
Brink, Anna; Nordblom, Katarina; Wahlberg, Roger
The effects of a recent Swedish child-care fee reform are compared with those of an alternative reform, increased child benefits. The fee reform implied considerably decreased fees and was intended to increase both labor supply among parents and their economic well-being. We estimate labor supply effects using a discrete choice labor supply model, and simulate behavioral responses to the changes. We find positive, but small, effects on labor supply from reduced fees, while increased child ben...
Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de
Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and ge
Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca
This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…
Söderbäck, Maja; Coyne, Imelda; Harder, Maria
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) asserts the right of every child to self-determination, dignity, respect, non-interference, and the right to make informed decisions. The provision of quality care in health services tailored to children's preferences means that health professionals have a responsibility to ensure children's rights, and that the child is encouraged and enabled to make his or her view known on issues that affect them. This paper will help illuminate and differentiate between a child perspective and the child's perspective in health care settings. The issues are supported with research which illustrates the different perspectives. Both perspectives are required to perceive and encounter children as equal human beings in child-centred health care settings. PMID:21685225
Although the literature on the effectiveness of child care centers in developing countries is thin, most of the studies have concluded that the provision of these services are beneficial to enhance the development of poor children at early ages. Using different matching techniques, the results in this paper contrast with that conclusion as it finds no support of a positive effect of a large scale child care program in Ecuador on any of the dimensions considered of cognitive development. This ...
Pia S. Schober
The time fathers spend and the activities they perform with children have risen continuously in most Western countries. Increasing father involvement in child care has also been an explicit policy objective with many European countries implementing individual parental leave entitlements for fathers. Whereas these policies mainly aimed at facilitating reconciliation of market work and family care and promoting maternal employment, consequences for child development have received less attention...
García-Morán, Eva; Kuehn, Zoe
Grandparents are regular providers of free child care. Similar to other forms of child care, availability of grandparent-provided child care affects fertility and labor force participation of women positively. However, grandparent-provided child care requires residing close to parents or in-laws. While living close can provide access to free child care, it may also imply costly spatial restrictions. We find that mothers residing close to parents or in-laws have lower wages and that the ...
Child Care as an Untapped Setting for Obesity Prevention: State Child Care Licensing Regulations Related to Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Media Use for Preschool-Aged Children in the United States
Kaphingst, Karen M; Story, Mary
Introduction Child care is a potential setting for obesity prevention; 8.6 million preschool-aged children participated in child care in 2001. Each US state creates and enforces its own child care licensing regulations. We analyzed obesity-related child care licensing regulations of US states. Methods We downloaded state licensing regulations for children in child care centers (CCCs), small family child care homes (SFHs), and large family or group child care homes (LFGHs) in each state and th...
Catterall, Barbara; Williams, Carol
From October 1982 through September 1984, the New Jersey Department of Human Services, Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS) piloted a research and demonstration project to test the outcome of using vouchers to finance the public provision of child care. Because of historical funding patterns which tied day care subsidies to particular…
Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Lodha, Rakesh; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian
Gender-based discrimination is reported across the spectrum of paediatric healthcare including emergency, inpatient, outpatient and preventive care and is mostly reported from South Asia and China with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. Biases against young girls have been documented even in immunisation percentage, home food allocation, seeking medical care for childhood ailments and percentage of household healthcare expenditures allocated to them. Such gender discrimination in access to medical care is likely to have an influence on the overall health of female children. Over the last five decades, the under-5 sex ratios are worsening in India with declining number of girls. Deliberate parental neglect of girls' essential and life-saving medical care is also an important contributing factor apart from sex-selective abortions to the declining gender ratios. Corrective measures and focused action are needed. PMID:24344176
This article has its roots in the basic contradictions, which go back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, between the self-interest and the care of others, exemplified by the delegation of responsibility for the care of children and other vulnerable persons. This splitting of human life-supporting activities has sealed women's dependence on men by setting off the lucrative area from the private, non-lucrative sphere of activities. These contradictions become paradoxical as soon as we consider the delegation of responsibility for the care of a child to someone not related to the child. This article addresses the question of how the child's developmental needs can be met without damage to his/her sensitivity, and his/her perception of others or of the cooperation involved. As soon as it is born, the child, a thoroughly interactive being, discerns the relationships it entertains with those who are in charge of him/her. The persons - mostly women - who take care of the child are not interchangeable, since they bring their own subjectivity into their dealings with the child and this is reciprocal. The women's skills, frequently thought to be “undefinable”, but which many women, whether related or not to the child, have developed or should develop, are brought into play and are either transmitted or acquired in the course of their care of the child; these skills are not by nature “feminine skills”, but they require a great deal of reactivity and sensitivity and therefore, many child professionals, mothers' aids and children's care-takers in the home are hurt and insulted by the low esteem in which they are held. These skills and human qualities, which are the result of feelings more than of formalised knowledge, techniques or theories - albeit these are also necessary - make child care and child rearing an art. These skills seem to be in total contradiction with those that are current in the world of labour, where the tempo of work, flexibility of working
Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care: The Effects of the Introduction of Market Focus on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector Mirjam Plantinga (RUG) This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on emplo
This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on employee governance, motivation and performance. The Dutch child-care sector is transitioning from a welfare sector into a market sector. The transition process in child care is co
Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal
A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being. PMID:23832797
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs (DOD), Washington, DC.
Good record keeping--along with a constant and detailed knowledge of expenses, income, profit, and loss--is the first step toward profitable management of a child care center. Good record keeping is especially important in a center that provides "drop-in" or occasional care because income may fluctuate greatly as a result of the variable number of…
Fram, Maryah Stella; Kim, Jinseok
A majority of U.S. children attend some type of child care before entering kindergarten. The quality of child care environment and of teacher-child interactions appear to influence children's development, but little attention has been paid to the influence of child-care peers. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort,…
... health and safety, nutrition, first aid, the recognition of communicable diseases, child abuse detection... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child care... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to...
Anderson-Goetz, Diana; Worobey, John
Reviews approaches to the study of temperament and ways in which knowledge about temperament can be helpful in planning day care and counselling parents. Discusses the nine dimensions of temperament developed by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1965) to describe infants and children and standardized instruments for measuring temperament developed by…
Accurso, Erin Cecilia
Therapeutic alliance may be an important predictor of mental health outcomes for children and their families, but the research literature in this area is limited. This study examined the extent to which child and caregiver alliance are associated with therapeutic outcomes in a sample of 209 children (ages 4-13) with disruptive behavior problems and their caregivers who received usual care services in community mental health clinics. Children, therapists, and observers rated child-therapist al...
... cause serious scalds or burns. To Relieve a Cough: Honey Do not give honey to babies under one ... or older: Try two teaspoons of honey. If honey is given at bedtime, make sure your child's teeth are brushed afterward. Cough drops or lozenges Consider cough drops or lozenges ...
Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade
Full Text Available Objective: Understanding the experiences of health professionals in primary care with the Child Health Booklet in child health care. Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach, in which participated nurses and doctors from six teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Belo Horizonte, MG. In total, were carried out 12 non-directive interviews, using two guiding questions. Results: A comprehensive analysis of the speeches enabled the construction of three categories that signal the experiences of the professionals with the booklet. The experiments revealed difficulties arising from the limitations of knowledge about the instrument; incomplete filling out of the booklet by many professionals that care for children; the daily confrontations of the process and the organization of work teams; disinterest of families with the instrument. Conclusion: The research points possible and necessary ways to improve the use of booklets as an instrument of full child health surveillance.
Current perceptions of day-care programs, philosophies of how day-care facilities should be run, and popular books on the subject were the topics of a special evening session sponsored by the Committee on Education and Human Resources at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The session, which was attended by about 20 people, featured Patricia Bourne, a sociologist who specializes in federal and local day-care policy.
Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith
Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…
It has been argued that when analyzing time use data, child care should be treated separately from leisure or housework because, unlike these two, its income gradient is positive. Using U.S. data from PSID-CDS, this paper computes parental child care during and outside of typical work hours (TWH) by income quintile for two-parent families. The TWH distinction is important because during TWH the opportunity cost of spending time with children is first and foremost in terms of forgone earnings,...
Del Boca, Daniela; Vuri, Daniela
In Italy the participation of women has not increased very much in the last few decades relative to other developed countries and it is still among the lowest in Europe. The female employment rate stands almost 13 percentage points below the EU average and 22 below the Lisbon target. One of the most important reasons is related to the characteristics of child care system. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of the child care system in Italy and its relationship to the labor market pa...
... care arrangements are unavailable. (2) Refusal to work when an acceptable form of child care is... child care? 261.56 Section 261.56 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY....56 What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care? (a)(1) If the individual is a...
Morrissey, Taryn W.
This study examined the use of multiple, concurrent, nonparental child-care arrangements among children under 5 with employed mothers in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N= 759). Older children, those primarily cared for in informal child care, those living in cohabitating or single-parent households, and those whose…
Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Wamsley, Erin J; Spreng, R Nathan; Alger, Sara E; Gibler, Kyle; Schacter, Daniel L; Stickgold, Robert
After information is encoded into memory, it undergoes an offline period of consolidation that occurs optimally during sleep. The consolidation process not only solidifies memories, but also selectively preserves aspects of experience that are emotionally salient and relevant for future use. Here, we provide evidence that an afternoon nap is sufficient to trigger preferential memory for emotional information contained in complex scenes. Selective memory for negative emotional information was enhanced after a nap compared with wakefulness in 2 control conditions designed to carefully address interference and time-of-day confounds. Although prior evidence has connected negative emotional memory formation to REM sleep physiology, we found that non-REM delta activity and the amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) in the nap were robustly related to the selective consolidation of negative information. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation benefits associated with napping and nighttime sleep are not always the same. Finally, we provide preliminary evidence that the magnitude of the emotional memory benefit conferred by sleep is equivalent following a nap and a full night of sleep, suggesting that selective emotional remembering can be economically achieved by taking a nap. PMID:25706830
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E
Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566
Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability. PMID:26831134
Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandergrift, Nathan; STEINBERG, LAURENCE
Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 ½ years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with escalating positive effects at higher levels of quality. The association between quality and achievement was mediated, in part, by earlier child care effect...
Pilarz, Alejandra Ros; Hill, Heather D.
Growing evidence suggests that child care instability is associated with child behavior problems, but existing studies confound different types of instability; use small, convenience samples; and/or control insufficiently for selection into child care arrangements. This study uses survey and calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to estimate the associations between three different types of child care instability—long-term instability, multiplicity, and the use of ...
Washington, Valora; Oyemade, Ura Jean
Reviews trends in family life-styles that affect the workplace. Identifies employer trends affecting employee expectations. Examines the prevalence, success, and limitations of employer-sponsored child care and government-sponsored initiatives. Finally, discusses the permanence of the trend. (SK)
Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn
Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…
Ispa, Jean M.
Compared goals and values of early childhood educators in six Moscow child care centers to those held before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Determined current goals and values from interviews, observations, and recent Russian pedagogical books. Found that changes include more emphasis on individualistic goals, more attention to fostering…
Reviews steps to determine the sale value of a privately owned child care business, including determining current pre-tax earnings, calculating add-backs, applying discounts, determining discretionary earnings, determining the appropriate multiple, and computing the center's value. Presents common structures of center purchases and negotiating…
Porter, Deborah; Morris, Jamie, Ed.
This workbook focuses on two primary needs of adult basic education (ABE) students--child care and transportation--and provides ideas to assist program administrators (especially in Texas) to develop appropriate, workable, community-based strategies to meet these needs. The book contains five chapters. Each chapter addresses a particular aspect of…
Freeman, Nancy K.; Brown, Mac H.
Describes the Collaborative Professional Assessment Process (CPAP) to guide the evaluation of the director of early childhood programs. Examines the assumptions upon which the CPAP is based. Lists the management skills and leadership abilities of successful child care directors. Includes the Director Self-Evaluation form and a program evaluation…
Discusses the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), developed by W. Edward Deming and Joseph Juran in 1940s, and its applications for child care centers. Discusses how TQM focuses on customer satisfaction, measuring performance, benchmarking, employee empowerment, and continuous training. Includes a list of suggested readings on TQM. (MDM)
The implications of the practitioner's personal values are explored in relation to the professional issues of child and youth care practice. Values are inevitably a component of decision-making and therefore are integrally connected to ethics in the field. The prevalence of subjectivity over objectivity is emphasized in relation to in-the-moment…
... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > AAP Schedule of Well-Child Care Visits Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email ...
Doherty, Gillian; Ferguson, Tammy McCormick; Ressler, Glory; Lomotey, Jonathan
Although considerable evidence confirms that a director with good leadership and administrative skills is vital for developing and sustaining a high quality child care program, many directors assume the role with little management experience or training. This paper reports on a training program in Canada that combined a formal curriculum to…
Krueger, Mark A.
Job satisfaction, which can be defined as a feeling of fulfillment or pleasure associated with one's work, comes from many personal sources but can be nourished by supportive agency practices, daily interactions, and long-term goals. Job satisfaction is important for child and youth care workers because (1) job satisfaction and competence are…
Barford, Sean W.; Whelton, William J.
Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations as it has been linked to turnover, absenteeism, a reduction in the quality of services, numerous physical and psychological disorders, and a disruption in interpersonal relations (Maslach et al. "2001"). Child and youth care workers are especially susceptible to burnout as the inherent…
FPG Child Development Institute, 2007
Children living in poverty often have less than ideal home environments and are at an increased risk for depression in adulthood. Because we know from existing research that experiences in child care can have long-term affects for children socially, FPG researchers wondered if such experiences could temper the mental health impact of lower quality…
Lower, Joanna K.; Cassidy, Deborah J.
The study explores the relationship between child care program administration, organizational climate, and global quality. The recently developed Program Administration Scale (PAS; Talan & Bloom, 2004) was utilized in the study. Both program administration and organizational climate were found to be positively correlated with preschool classroom…
... provider needs to use the bathroom or an infant is napping in one room while toddlers play in another room... alternate providers or the availability of substitute providers. Parents must be informed that they may...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Care Report to Congress is required by Section 658L of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act as amended by the Personal Responsibility...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Care Report to Congress is required by Section 658L of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act as amended by the Personal Responsibility...
Honig, Alice S.
This speech presents observations, made on a trip in June 1976, of the aesthetic environments of children in China, Japan, and Hong Kong. Home, school and day care environments are compared in terms of living and play space, room decor, the presence of art and toys, dramatic play and performance, music, nature and outdoor appreciation, food and…
Bananas, Inc., Oakland, CA.
Written for individuals and/or groups, this manual provides a step-by-step guide to the implementation of day care during special events such as fund raisers and workshops. The introduction includes information on staff, site, and insurance requirements. Next, instruction is provided on the preparation of business forms, meeting the unique needs…
... helps prevent tooth decay. Find out if there’s fluoride in your water. Fluoride is added to the drinking water in ... months to 5 years who don’t have fluoride in their water are covered under the Affordable Care Act , the ...
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward
In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…
..., 2010, at 75 FR 41793. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) [Per meal rates in whole or fractions... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...
..., 2009, at 74 FR 34295. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Lunch and Centers Breakfast supper \\1... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...
Gong, Xiaodong; Breunig, Robert; King, Anthony
The degree of responsiveness of Australian women's labour supply to child care cost has been a matter of some debate. There is a view that the level of responsiveness is very low or negligible, running counter to international and anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review the Australian and international literature on labour supply and child care, and provide improved Australian estimates of labour supply elasticities and child care demand elasticities with respect to gross child care price...
Hardy, Bradley; Hokayem, Charles; Ziliak, James P.
For parents of young children the decision to work strongly depends on the availability of affordable child care. Child care costs can take up a large portion of a family budget and may serve as an obstacle to work. In 2008 the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA) estimated that Kentucky families recently…
One in four young children in the United States lives in an immigrant family. Federal law establishes policies on immigrant eligibility for child care assistance, yet questions regarding eligibility remain at the state and local level. Most child care assistance is funded through the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) and the Temporary…
... state to perform child care. Affected Public: Individuals or households. Estimated Annual Burden a. VA... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human...' eligibility to participate in VA's child care subsidy program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Human... burden; it includes the actual data collection instrument. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before... INFORMATION: Titles a. Child Care Subsidy Application Form, VA Form 0730a. b. Child Care Provider...
This study using California Health Interview Survey 2005 Child Survey data presents disparities among three major immigrant groups' child care preferences. Asian immigrant families used a grandparent or a relative care and a preschool more than Latino and European immigrant families. Latino immigrant families used child care from a nonfamily…
Ebb, Nancy; And Others
This guide is designed to provide information about transitional child care (TCC) program policies and operations and to offer recommendations to policymakers and advocates. Transitional child care is a new federal child care program that every state must implement by April 1, 1990. Established by the Family Support Act (FSA) of 1988, TCC is…
Joesch, Jutta M.
Examined how the price of child care affects welfare recipients' paid work behavior according to past studies. Analyzed the relationship between child care prices and hours of paid work for recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The complex nature of AFDC child care regulations is taken into account in the context of a…
This bachleor work being titled ?Nursing care of children with traction? consists of two sections. The first section deals with theory, i.e. it represents a theoretical part which focuses on anatomy of bones, specific fractures of children?s fractures, children's accident frequency rate, diagnostics and fracture therapy, nursing process, hospital schools and volunteers at children?s wards. The second section deals with research. For the purpose of the research two goals have been established ...
Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan
Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…
Redlener, I.; Karich, K. M.
Each year, the New York City homeless family shelter system provides transitional housing for nearly 20,000 homeless children. While the health care needs of these children are substantial, there is currently no system-wide mechanism for ensuring that they have access to appropriate medical care. This report analyzes information from the Homeless Child Health Care Inventory, a survey conducted by Montefiore Medical Center's Division of Community Pediatrics, to examine the adequacy of health c...
In South Africa, alternative care solutions such as foster homes, child-headed households, placements with relatives and Child and Youth Care Centres (CYCCs), are under pressure to provide for the large numbers of children who need care. Child and Youth Care Centres include facilities such as children’s homes, places of safety, secure care facilities and schools of industry or reform schools. South African legislation offers guidelines towards the fulfilment of children’s needs in CYCCs by pr...
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne
Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly...
Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Sørensen, Thorkild IA
Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalen...
Accurso, Erin C.; Garland, Ann F.
This study examined the temporal stability and cross-informant agreement on multiple perspectives of child and caregiver alliance with therapists in usual care psychotherapy. Baseline predictors of alliance were also examined. Children with disruptive behavior problems (n=209) and their caregivers were followed for up to 16 months after initiating psychotherapy at a community-based clinic. Alliance was rated by children, caregivers, and therapists every four months for as long as families participated in treatment. Repeated-measures analyses using linear mixed models with random intercepts were conducted to determine whether child and caregiver alliance differed across time, as well to examine factors associated with each perspective on alliance. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) between child, caregiver, and therapist reports of alliance were also examined. Alliance was rated relatively high overall across perspectives. Clients (children and caregivers) tended to report the strongest and most stable alliance, while therapists reported the weakest alliance and perceived deteriorations in child alliance over time. Inter-informant agreement was variable for child and caregiver alliance; agreement was moderate between clients and therapists. Several predictors of alliance emerged, including child gender, anxiety diagnosis, caregiver race/ethnicity, and therapist experience. This study provides methodological information about reports of therapeutic alliance across time and informants that can inform current efforts to understand the alliance-outcome association. PMID:25314097
H. Naci Mocan
Using a newly compiled data set, this paper provides insights into the characteristics of the child care industry. First, there is no difference in average quality of the services produced between nonprofit and for-profit centers. This indicates that nonprofit status cannot be taken as a signal of higher quality. Second, the hypothesis of relative inefficiency of nonprofit centers with respect to for-profits is unfounded. On the other hand, centers that receive public money, either from the s...
Luke, Nancy; Xu, Hongwei; Thampi, Binitha V.
The authors tested theories of housework among tea plantation workers in India, where women comprise the main part of the workforce and are breadwinners in their families. Analysis of 49 semistructured interviews and survey data from 3,181 female workers revealed that although women were mainly responsible for domestic labor, more than half of husbands usually or sometimes helped their wives with cooking, fuel wood collection, and child care. The analyses revealed a curvilinear relationship b...
Ruch, Gillian Margaret
In recent years there has been a steady increase in risk-averse, bureaucratic responses to the uncertainty, ambiguity and risk inherent in contemporary child care social work. This thesis argues that for these conditions to be effectively addressed professional responses are required that challenge the domination of ineffective bureaucratic approaches, which have as their primary objective the elimination of uncertainty and risk. The emergence of relationship-based practice is an approach to ...
Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey
Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001-2006; N [image omitted]7,900), the authors examined child-care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: (a) "parental care," (b) "center care," (c)…
Henning-Smith, Carrie; Kozhimannil, Katy B
The objective of this study was to identify differences in child care availability by rural-urban location for all counties in Wisconsin, and describe implications for recruitment and retention of health care workforce. We used data on licensed child care slots for young children (age poverty and higher unemployment than micropolitan and metropolitan counties. The association between geographic location and child care availability remained, even after adjusting for household structure and labor force participation. The number of hours men worked and the percentage of men not working were both negatively associated with available child care slots, whereas there was not a significant relationship between women's labor force participation and child care availability. Rural areas face health care workforce shortages. Recruitment strategies to overcome shortages must move beyond individual-level incentives to focus on community context and family support, including availability of child care in rural counties. PMID:26596864
... Register on August 7, 2009 (74 FR 39535) and codified at 16 CFR 1500.87 (Children's products containing... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1199 Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Proposed Guidance... toys or child care articles that is not accessible to a child through normal and ]...
... that the children of employees' same-sex domestic partners fall within the definition of ``child'' for... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 792 RIN 3206-AL36 Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower... agencies' use of appropriated funds to provide child care subsidies for lower-income civilian employees,...
Joesch, Jutta M.; Maher, Erin J.; Durfee, Alesha
Many extant studies on the use of non-parental child care are based on data from the youngest child in the household. To date, it has not been addressed whether this approach introduces bias. We present reasons why child care arrangements for youngest children may differ from those of same-age older children and examine whether the use of child…
Casarico, Alessandra; Alessandro SOMMACAL
This paper studies the implications of introducing child care in the human capital production function when assessing the effects of labor income taxation on growth. We develop an OLG model where formal schooling and child care enter the human capital production function as complements and we compare it with a model where only formal schooling matters for skill formation. Using a numerical analysis we find that, depending on the quality of child care services relative to parental care, the om...
Beuch, Beth, Ed.; Beuch, Ethel, Ed.; Schloff, Pam, Ed.
Noting that accurate recordkeeping for tax purposes is extremely important for family child care providers, this calendar provides a format for recording typical family child care expenses and other information. Included are the following: (1) monthly expense charts with categories matching Schedule C; (2) attendance and payment log; (3) payment…
This study undertakes an econometric analysis of data on the use of child care services and labor force participation drawn from a survey of 1,720 households in 15 `favelas,` or slums, in Rio de Janeiro. The analysis examines the impact that access to child care services has on female labor force participation and final earnings.
Accurso, Erin C.; Garland, Ann F
This study examined the temporal stability and cross-informant agreement on multiple perspectives of child and caregiver alliance with therapists in usual care psychotherapy. Baseline predictors of alliance were also examined. Children with disruptive behavior problems (n=209) and their caregivers were followed for up to 16 months after initiating psychotherapy at a community-based clinic. Alliance was rated by children, caregivers, and therapists every four months for as long as families par...
... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...
Mariet Caroline, MPT,
Full Text Available Child care workers are those who take care of children in the absence of their parents. Child care workers are exposed to various kinds of occupational injuries which include infections, sprains and strains, trauma like bites from children, trip falls and noise exposure. The risks of injury among these workers are due to their nature of the job. One of the common occupational risks found in these workers is musculoskeletal injury, it occurs as a result of working in awkward postures such as bending, twisting, lifting and carrying in incorrect positions, which may result in various injuries like strain, sprain and soft tissue ruptures. Workers with poor physical conditioning may tend to undergo these changes very rapidly. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders in child care workers who are taking care of the babies. The study was conducted around various day care centres, among 160 women from who were chosen for the study and were given musculoskeletal analysis questionnaires (Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire , The Questionnaires were evaluated using descriptive statistics, analysed using SPSS and the results were computed in percentage. Following the analysis, it was concluded that low back injury was predominant among 44% of workers followed by 18% with neck pain, 11% of shoulder pain, 9% of knee pain, 7% of elbow, 6% of wrist, 4% of others and surprisingly 1 % had no musculoskeletal complaints.
S. Song; H. van den Brink; J. de Jong
While numerous studies on former child soldiers (FCS) have shown mental health needs, adequate services are a challenge. This study aimed to identify priorities, barriers and facilitators of mental health care for Sierra Leonean FCS. Thematic analysis was done on 24 qualitative interviews with parti
Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.
We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...
Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele
The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963184
This paper uses administrative data to investigate how a change in pension wealth affects a mother's employment decision after child birth. I exploit the extension of the child care pension benefit in 1992 as a natural experiment in a regression discontinuity design to estimate short- and medium-run employment effects. In comparison to most family benefits, the child care pension benefit is accumulated upon child birth but only becomes effective on the verge of retirement. Hence, the employme...
This paper uses administrative data to investigate how a change in pension wealth affects a mother’s employment decision after child birth. I exploit the extension of the child care pension benefit in 1992 as a natural experiment in a regression discontinuity design to estimate short- and medium-run employment effects. In comparison to most family benefits, the child care pension benefit is accumulated upon child birth but only becomes effective on the verge of retirement. Hence, the employme...
McBride, Susan L.
Investigated the relationships between maternal separation anxiety, maternal employment, and quality of child care for 49 mothers of 2- to 3-year olds in day care centers. Findings suggest that the mother's concern about separation is an important moderator of the effects of maternal employment and child care on children's development. (BB)
Dynerman, Susan B.
Examining over 20 years of research findings, including the most recent research on child care and child development, this book attempts to answer the three most important questions parents have about day care: Is day care harmful? Are babies damaged by the fact that their mothers work? and, Are working parents, by being absent during most of the…
Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F
Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331
Neelon, S E B; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, C S;
Background/Objectives:Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an......-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes.Results:A total of 17721 (63.7%) children...... overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047).Conclusions:Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy.International Journal of Obesity...
Minagawa, Junichi; Upmann, Thorsten
In this paper, we present a model of a one parentone child household where parental decisions on labor supply, leisure, and the demand for private and public child care are simultaneously endogenized and intertemporally determined. We characterize the path of the optimal decisions and investigate the impact of various public child care fees and of the quality of public child care services on the parents time allocation and the childs performance level. Our results show that different publi...
The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.
Young children bite each other frequently in child care settings, but the bites rarely break the skin and the risk of infection is minimal. Nevertheless, parents and child care personnel may be concerned about infection, especially with blood-borne viruses. The present document reviews the literature concerning infections following bites in child care settings, and provides recommendations for prevention and management of such incidents.
Ballance, Darra; Webb, Nancy
Childhood obesity is at crisis levels in the United States. Risk factors for obesity can begin as early as infancy. Approximately 12 million children up to five years of age spend about 22.5 hours per week in child care centers where they receive a significant portion of their daily nutrition. Child care center personnel may not know how to select nutritious meal and snack choices. A health sciences librarian, a child care center director and a dietitian designed an outreach...
Shimizutani, Satoshi; NOGUCHI Haruko
This is the first study that uses facility-level data to evaluate the cost efficiency of the child care market in Japan after controlling for quality of services. Japanese households in urban areas suffer from a severe undersupply of child care, and inefficient operation in public centers is allegedly responsible for the bottleneck. We take advantage of our unique and unusually rich data set on Japan's child care centers collected in summer 2002. We estimate quality-adjusted cost functions to...
Brilli, Ylenia; Del Boca, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara D.
This version: 19 September 2013. This paper investigates the effects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-10 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and significant effects of child care availability on both mothers' working...
This paper analyzes the most recent empirical research on social investments in children's human capital, focusing on policies providing non-parental child care. The empirical findings are conceptualized in a theoretical framework showing how policy interventions can shape parents' non-parental child care choices; this framework is also used to discuss the econometric issues arising for the identification of the child care effects. The results from both European and American contributions are...
Ylenia Brilli; Daniela Del Boca; Pronzato, Chiara D.
This paper investigates the e ects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-10 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and signi cant e ects of child care availability on both mothers' working status and children's Language test sc...
Slining Meghan; Walker Elizabeth M; Cradock Angie; Benjamin Sara E; Gillman Matthew W
ABSTRACT Objective To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States. Methods We conducted a review of regulations for child care facilities for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We examined state regulations and recorded key nutrition and physical activity items that may contribute to childhood obesity. Items included in this review were: 1) Water...
Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Huston, Aletha C.; Imes, Amy E.
We use observations from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) to compare structural and process characteristics of child care centers, family child care homes (nonrelative care in a home setting) and care by relatives for 2, 3- and 4 ½-year-old children. Type of care differences in structural and caregiver characteristics were consistent across ages: centers had higher child-to-adult ratios and bigger groups; centers had caregivers with better education, more tra...
Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Barto, Beth; Griffin, Jessica L; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Hodgdon, Hilary; Bodian, Ruth
Child maltreatment is a serious public health concern, and its detrimental effects can be compounded by traumatic experiences associated with the child welfare (CW) system. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a promising strategy for addressing traumatized children's needs, but research on the impact of TIC in CW is limited. This study examines initial findings of the Massachusetts Child Trauma Project, a statewide TIC initiative in the CW system and mental health network. After 1 year of implementation, Trauma-Informed Leadership Teams in CW offices emerged as key structures for TIC systems integration, and mental health providers' participation in evidence-based treatment (EBT) learning collaboratives was linked to improvements in trauma-informed individual and agency practices. After approximately 6 months of EBT treatment, children had fewer posttraumatic symptoms and behavior problems compared to baseline. Barriers to TIC that emerged included scarce resources for trauma-related work in the CW agency and few mental providers providing EBTs to young children. Future research might explore variations in TIC across service system components as well as the potential for differential effects across EBT models disseminated through TIC. PMID:26564909
I.I.E. Staal; J.M.A. Hermanns; A.J.P. Schrijvers; H.F. van Stel
Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional j
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.
Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The cur...
Full Text Available Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert′s scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother′s education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers′ knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.
Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl
Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…
de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marrianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.
To investigate the effects of child-caregiver ratio on the quality of caregiver-child interaction in child-care centers, 217 caregivers (ages 18-56 years) from 64 child care centers were observed during two structured play episodes: one with a group of three children and one with a group of 5 children. As predicted, a child-caregiver ratio of 3:1…
This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of employment and child care decisions of women after birth in order to evaluate the effects of mothers' decisions on children's cognitive ability. I use data from the NLSY to estimate the model. The results suggest that the effects of maternal employment and child care use on children's cognitive ability are rather sizeable. In fact, having a full-time working mother who uses child care during the first 5 years after the birth of the child is...