#### Sample records for chi square distributions

1. A proposal for a different chi-square function for Poisson distributions

Almeida Jr., F. M. L.; Barbi, M; Vale, M. A. B. do

1999-01-01

We obtain an approximate Gaussian distribution from a Poisson distribution after doing a change of variable. A new chi-square function is obtained which can be used for parameter estimations and goodness-of-fit testing when adjusting curves to histograms. Since the new distribution is approximately Gaussian we can use it even when the bin contents are small. The corresponding chi-square function can be used for curve fitting. This chi-square function is simple to implement and presents a fast...

2. A proposal for a different chi-square function for Poisson distributions

We obtain an approximate Gaussian distribution from a Poisson distribution after doing a change of variable. A new chi-square function is obtained which can be used for parameter estimations and goodness-of-fit testing when adjusting curves to histograms. Since, the new distribution is approximately Gaussian we can use it even when the bin contents are small. The corresponding chi-square function can be used for curve fitting. This chi-square function is simple to implement and presents a fast convergence of the parameters to the correct value, especially for the parameters associated with the width of the fitted curve. We present a Monte Carlo comparative study of the fitting method introduced here and two other methods for three types of curves: Gaussian, Breit-Wigner and Moyal, when each bin content obeys a Poisson distribution. It is also shown that the new method and the other two converge to the same result when the number of events increases

3. The rate of convergence of some asymptotically chi-square distributed statistics by Stein's method

Gaunt, Robert E.; Reinert, Gesine

2016-01-01

We build on recent works on Stein's method for functions of multivariate normal random variables to derive bounds for the rate of convergence of some asymptotically chi-square distributed statistics. We obtain some general bounds and establish some simple sufficient conditions for convergence rates of order $n^{-1}$ for smooth test functions. These general bounds are applied to Friedman's statistic for comparing $r$ treatments across $n$ trials and the family of power divergence statistics fo...

4. A Simple Chi-Square Statistic for Testing Homogeneity of Zero-Inflated Distributions

Johnson, William D.; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Beyl, Robbie A.; Romer, Jacob E.

2015-01-01

Zero-inflated distributions are common in statistical problems where there is interest in testing homogeneity of two or more independent groups. Often, the underlying distribution that has an inflated number of zero-valued observations is asymmetric, and its functional form may not be known or easily characterized. In this case, comparisons of the groups in terms of their respective percentiles may be appropriate as these estimates are nonparametric and more robust to outliers and other irreg...

5. Dos and don'ts of reduced chi-squared

Andrae, Rene; Melchior, Peter

2010-01-01

Reduced chi-squared is a very popular method for model assessment, model comparison, convergence diagnostic, and error estimation in astronomy. In this manuscript, we discuss the pitfalls involved in using reduced chi-squared. There are two independent problems: (a) The number of degrees of freedom can only be estimated for linear models. Concerning nonlinear models, the number of degrees of freedom is unknown, i.e., it is not possible to compute the value of reduced chi-squared. (b) Due to random noise in the data, also the value of reduced chi-squared itself is subject to noise, i.e., the value is uncertain. This uncertainty impairs the usefulness of reduced chi-squared for differentiating between models or assessing convergence of a minimisation procedure. The impact of noise on the value of reduced chi-squared is surprisingly large, in particular for small data sets, which are very common in astrophysical problems. We conclude that reduced chi-squared can only be used with due caution for linear models, w...

6. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica reg-sign computer programs which are provided

7. Chi-squared goodness of fit tests with applications

Balakrishnan, N; Nikulin, MS

2013-01-01

Chi-Squared Goodness of Fit Tests with Applications provides a thorough and complete context for the theoretical basis and implementation of Pearson's monumental contribution and its wide applicability for chi-squared goodness of fit tests. The book is ideal for researchers and scientists conducting statistical analysis in processing of experimental data as well as to students and practitioners with a good mathematical background who use statistical methods. The historical context, especially Chapter 7, provides great insight into importance of this subject with an authoritative author team

8. The Shape of the Noncentral Chi-square Density

Yu, Yaming

2011-01-01

A noncentral chi-square density is log-concave if the degree of freedom is nu>=2. We complement this known result by showing that, for each 00 such that the chi-square with nu degrees of freedom and noncentrality parameter lambda has a decreasing density if lambda <= lambda_nu, and is bi-modal otherwise. The critical lambda_nu is characterized by an equation involving a ratio of modified Bessel functions. When an interior mode exists we derive precise bounds on its location.

9. Chi-squared and Associations in Tabular Audiology Data

Muhammad N. Anwar; Michael P. Oakes; Ken McGarry

2010-01-01

In this paper, we have used the chi-squared test and Yule’s Q measure to discover associations in tables of patient audiology data. These records are examples of heterogeneous medical records, since they contain audiograms, textual notes and typical relational fields. In our first experiment we used the chi-squared measure to discover associations between the different fields of audiology data such as patient gender and patient age with diagnosis. Then, in our second experiment we used Yule’s...

10. 改进卡方检验%A Modified Chi-Squared Goodness-of-Fit Test

戴家佳; 杨爱军

2009-01-01

In goodness-of-fit tests,Pearson's chi-squared test is one of most widely used tools of formal statistical analysis.However,Pearson's chi-squared test depends on the partition of the sample space.Different constructions of the partition of the sample space may lead to different conclusions.Based on an equiprobable partition of sample space,a modified chi-squared test is proposed.A method for constructing the modified chi-squared test is proposed.As an application,the proposed test is used to test whether vectorial data come from an uniformity distribution defined on the hypersphere.Some simulation studies show that the modified chi-squared test against different alternative is robust.

11. Chi-Square Goodness-if-Fit Tests for Randomly Censored Data

Habib, M. G.; Thomas, D R

1986-01-01

Two Pearson-type goodness-of-fit test statistics for parametric families are considered for randomly right-censored data. Asymptotic distribution theory for the test statistics is based on the result that the product-limit process with MLE for nuisance parameters converges weakly to a Gaussian process. The Chernoff-Lehmann (1954) result extends to a generalized Pearson statistic. A modified Pearson statistic is shown to have a limiting chi-square null distribution.

12. Chi-square Fitting When Overall Normalization is a Fit Parameter

Roe, Byron

2015-01-01

The problem of fitting an event distribution when the total expected number of events is not fixed, keeps appearing in experimental studies. In a chi-square fit, if overall normalization is one of the parameters parameters to be fit, the fitted curve may be seriously low with respect to the data points, sometimes below all of them. This problem and the solution for it are well known within the statistics community, but, apparently, not well known among some of the physics community. The purpose of this note is didactic, to explain the cause of the problem and the easy and elegant solution. The solution is to use maximum likelihood instead of chi-square. The essential difference between the two approaches is that maximum likelihood uses the normalization of each term in the chi-square assuming it is a normal distribution, 1/sqrt(2 pi sigma-square). In addition, the normalization is applied to the theoretical expectation not to the data. In the present note we illustrate what goes wrong and how maximum likeliho...

13. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

2016-06-01

RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

14. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

2016-04-01

RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

15. Clarification of the use of chi-square and likelihood functions in fits to histograms

We consider the problem of fitting curves to histograms in which the data obey multinomial or Poisson statistics. Techniques commonly used by physicists are examined in light of standard results found in the statistics literature. We review the relationship between multinomial and Poisson distributions, and clarify a sufficient condition for equality of the area under the fitted curve and the number of events on the histogram. Following the statisticians, we use the likelihood ratio test to construct a general Z2 statistic, Zsub(lambda)2, which yields parameter and error estimates identical to those of the method of maximum likelihood. The Zsub(lambda)2 statistic is further useful for testing goodness-of-fit since the value of its minimum asymptotically obeys a classical chi-square distribution. One should be aware, however, of the potential for statistical bias, especially when the number of events is small. (orig.)

16. A Chi-Square Program for a Microcomputer Using a Tape Unit.

Dreger, Ralph Mason

1979-01-01

A program is described utilizing a microcomputer and tape drive with any contingency or chi-square table from 2x2 to 8x8. It requires only the entering of the number of rows and number of columns, plus one-time entry of cell frequencies. (Author/JKS)

17. R by C Chi-Square Analysis with Small Expected Cell Frequencies.

Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

1986-01-01

A nonasymptotic Chi-Square analysis algorithm is presented to investigate r by c contingency tables where small expected cell frequencies render the usual asymptotic analysis inappropriate. A FORTRAN subroutine is provided for analyzing the tables having highly disproportionate or small marginal totals. (Author/GDC)

18. A chi-squared-transformed subspace of LBP histogram for visual recognition.

Ren, Jianfeng; Jiang, Xudong; Yuan, Junsong

2015-06-01

Local binary pattern (LBP) and its variants have been widely used in many recognition tasks. Subspace approaches are often applied to the LBP feature in order to remove unreliable dimensions, or to derive a compact feature representation. It is well-known that subspace approaches utilizing up to the second-order statistics are optimal only when the underlying distribution is Gaussian. However, due to its nonnegative and simplex constraints, the LBP feature deviates significantly from Gaussian distribution. To alleviate this problem, we propose a chi-squared transformation (CST) to transfer the LBP feature to a feature that fits better to Gaussian distribution. The proposed CST leads to the formulation of a two-class classification problem. Due to its asymmetric nature, we apply asymmetric principal component analysis (APCA) to better remove the unreliable dimensions in the CST feature space. The proposed CST-APCA is evaluated extensively on spatial LBP for face recognition, protein cellular classification, and spatial-temporal LBP for dynamic texture recognition. All experiments show that the proposed feature transformation significantly enhances the recognition accuracy. PMID:25769153

19. chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} decay angular distributions at the Fermilab Tevatron

Kniehl, Bernd A; Palisoc, C P

2003-01-01

We consider the hadroproduction of chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} mesons and their subsequent radiative decays to J/psi mesons and photons in the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics, and study the decay angular distributions, by means of helicity density matrices, in view of their sensitivity to color-octet processes. We present numerical results appropriate for the Fermilab Tevatron.

20. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Takahashi, Keitaro

2016-01-01

RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. Especially, we focus on if the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock data of polarization spectrum and the one from RM CL...

1. Chi Square Feature Extraction Based Svms Arabic Language Text Categorization System

2007-01-01

This paper aims to implement a Support Vector Machines (SVMs) based text classification system for Arabic language articles. This classifier uses CHI square method as a feature selection method in the pre-processing step of the Text Classification system design procedure. Comparing to other classification methods, our system shows a high classification effectiveness for Arabic data set in term of F-measure (F=88.11).

2. Chi-square goodness of fit tests for weighted histograms. Review and improvements

Weighted histograms are used for the estimation of probability density functions. Computer simulation is the main domain of application of this type of histogram. A review of chi-square goodness of fit tests for weighted histograms is presented in this paper. Improvements are proposed to these tests that have size more close to its nominal value. Numerical examples are presented in this paper for evaluation of tests and to demonstrate various applications of tests

3. Asymptotic Expansions of the Probability Density Function and the Distribution Function of Chi-Square Distribution%卡方分布密度函数与分布函数的渐近展开

陈刚; 王梦婕

2014-01-01

通过对χ2分布概率密度函数的自变量进行标准化变换,将其展开成如下形式：2nχ2( x；n)=1+r1(t)n +r2(t)n +r3(t)n n +r4(t)n2éëùûφ(t)+o 1n2(),其中n为自由度,φ(t)为标准正态分布的密度函数,ri(t)(1≤i≤4)均为关于t的多项式。从该展开式得到χ2分布密度函数的一个近似计算公式。进一步建立φ( t)的幂系数积分递推关系,得到χ2分布函数的渐近展开式。最后通过数值计算验证了这些结果在实际应用中的有效性。%Through the transformation of the independent variable of χ2 distribution probability density function,degree of freedom of which is n,the equation can be expanded as follows: 2nχ2(x;n)=f(t;n)= 1+r1(t)n +r2(t)n +r3(t)n n +r4(t)n2éë ùûφ(t)+o 1n2( ) ,here,φ(t) is a density function of standard normal distribution;ri(t) is a 3i order polynomial of t(1≤i≤4). An approximate formula can be obtained from the expansion of the distribution density function. We further establish the integral recurrence relations of the power coefficients of the standard normal density function and obtain the asymptotic expansion of the distribution function ofχ2 . Finally,the effectiveness of these results in practical application was verified by the numerical calculations.

4. Exact Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Probability Test for 3 by 2 Cross-Classification Tables.

Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

1987-01-01

Subroutines to calculate exact chi square and Fisher's exact probability tests are presented for 3 by 2 cross-classification tables. A nondirectional probability value for each test is computed recursively. (Author/GDC)

5. Statistics of the Chi-Square Type, with Application to the Analysis of Multiple Time-Series Power Spectra

Sturrock, P A

2003-01-01

It is often necessary to compare the power spectra of two or more time series: one may, for instance, wish to estimate what the power spectrum of the combined data sets might have been, or one may wish to estimate the significance of a particular peak that shows up in two or more power spectra. Also, one may occasionally need to search for a complex of peaks in a single power spectrum, such as a fundamental and one or more harmonics, or a fundamental plus sidebands, etc. Visual inspection can be revealing, but it can also be misleading. This leads one to look for one or more ways of forming statistics, which readily lend themselves to significance estimation, from two or more power spectra. The familiar chi-square statistic provides a convenient mechanism for combining variables drawn from normal distributions, and one may generalize the chi-square statistic to be any function of any number of variables with arbitrary distributions. In dealing with power spectra, we are interested mainly in exponential distri...

6. Reconstructing Chi-squared Intra-table Distances in the Analysis of a Set of Contingency Tables

Zárraga Castro, María Amaya; Goitisolo Lezama, Beatriz

2007-01-01

To study similarities among the set of rows -and columns- of a contingency table, Correspondence Analysis uses chi-squared distances between row profiles -and column profiles- of that table. This article presents a factor analysis for the study of a set of contingency tables in which, unlike more classical methods such as the analysis of juxtaposition and Intra Analysis; the existing relationships within each table -defined across the chi-squared distances-, are not altered.

7. Use of the Chi-square Test to Determine Significance of Cumulative Antibiogram Data

Rocco J. Perla

2005-01-01

Full Text Available An important function of a hospitals Infectious Disease and Pharmacy programs is to review and compare the most recent antibiogram with that of the previous year to determine if significant changes in antibiotic susceptibility results are noted and to communicate this information and its consequences to the medical staff. However, there are currently no formal analytical (decision-making models in use to determine if the rate of resistance to an antibiotic from one year to the next has significantly changed more or less than one would expect due to sampling error and test reliability. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate the utility of using a well-established and simple nonparametric statistical technique (chi-square for analyzing annual variations in cumulative antibiogram data and to determine whether such variations are significantly different from chance and to what to degree. The chi-square model outlined here is a simple, practical, quick, low burden and easy to understand and execute approach that greatly improves the analysis of antibiogram data and decision-making by practitioners. More work and research is needed to develop additional inferential statistical methods and models that can be applied to antibiogram data.

8. An Efficient Algorithm for Auto Upload and Chi - Square Test on Application Software

2013-06-01

9. Chi-square analysis of the reduction of ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium

Yang Yuan

2012-06-01

Full Text Available This study explored the reduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI using chi-square analysis. Cells were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 μM Cr(VI for 12, 24, or 36 h. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT experiments and measurements of intracellular ATP levels were performed by spectrophotometry or bioluminescence assays following Cr(VI treatment. The chi-square test was used to determine the difference between cell survival rate and ATP levels. For the chi-square analysis, the results of the MTT or ATP experiments were transformed into a relative ratio with respect to the control (%. The relative ATP levels increased at 12 h, decreased at 24 h, and increased slightly again at 36 h following 4, 8, 16, 32 μM Cr(VI treatment, corresponding to a "V-shaped" curve. Furthermore, the results of the chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant difference of the ATP level in the 32-μM Cr(VI group (P < 0.05. The results suggest that the chi-square test can be applied to analyze the interference effects of Cr(VI on ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes. The decreased ATP levels at 24 h indicated disruption of mitochondrial energy metabolism and the slight increase of ATP levels at 36 h indicated partial recovery of mitochondrial function or activated glycolysis in L-02 hepatocytes.

10. An Efficient Algorithm for Auto Upload and Chi-Square Test on Application Software

2013-06-01

Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a novel algorithm for auto uploading the data in the cloud environment without any license consideration and suggest a novel framework where data is auto upload after a proper authentication and processing their task (gathering and sharing in the cloud environment. Here we present the authentication process with auto uploading process. We also use the traditional method of data uploading, data gathering and sharing. So that we compare our statistics. We use object oriented programing (OOP programs as a data which is used for data sharing and gathering. We use java programs for comparison. Then we apply Chi-Square test, to test the hypothesis for correctness. Then we check the program capability under three parameters; first is F-measure (FM, second is odds ratio (OR and third is power (PO. Based on the three parameters we can find the better application software as a service approach. Based on the above phenomena we can compare the execution time in different operating application with the help of software quality metrics.

11. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

2006-10-01

A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests. PMID:17165404

12. Asymptotic Chi-Square Tests for a Large Class of Factor Analysis Models

Amemiya, Yasuo; Anderson, T W

1990-01-01

Three types of asymptotic $\\chi^2$ goodness-of-fit tests derived under the normal assumption have been used widely in factor analysis. Asymptotic behavior of the test statistics is investigated here for the factor analysis model with linearly or nonlinearly restricted factor loadings under weak assumptions on the factor vector and the error vector. In particular the limiting $\\chi^2$ result for the three tests is shown to hold for the factor vector, either fixed or random with any distributio...

13. Landslide susceptibility mapping using decision-tree based CHi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) and Logistic regression (LR) integration

This article uses methodology based on chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID), as a multivariate method that has an automatic classification capacity to analyse large numbers of landslide conditioning factors. This new algorithm was developed to overcome the subjectivity of the manual categorization of scale data of landslide conditioning factors, and to predict rainfall-induced susceptibility map in Kuala Lumpur city and surrounding areas using geographic information system (GIS). The main objective of this article is to use CHi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) method to perform the best classification fit for each conditioning factor, then, combining it with logistic regression (LR). LR model was used to find the corresponding coefficients of best fitting function that assess the optimal terminal nodes. A cluster pattern of landslide locations was extracted in previous study using nearest neighbor index (NNI), which were then used to identify the clustered landslide locations range. Clustered locations were used as model training data with 14 landslide conditioning factors such as; topographic derived parameters, lithology, NDVI, land use and land cover maps. Pearson chi-squared value was used to find the best classification fit between the dependent variable and conditioning factors. Finally the relationship between conditioning factors were assessed and the landslide susceptibility map (LSM) was produced. An area under the curve (AUC) was used to test the model reliability and prediction capability with the training and validation landslide locations respectively. This study proved the efficiency and reliability of decision tree (DT) model in landslide susceptibility mapping. Also it provided a valuable scientific basis for spatial decision making in planning and urban management studies

14. A DoS/DDoS Attack Detection System Using Chi-Square Statistic Approach

Fang-Yie Leu

2010-04-01

Full Text Available Nowadays, users can easily access and download network attack tools, which often provide friendly interfaces and easily operated features, from the Internet. Therefore, even a naive hacker can also launch a large scale DoS or DDoS attack to prevent a system, i.e., the victim, from providing Internet services. In this paper, we propose an agent based intrusion detection architecture, which is a distributed detection system, to detect DoS/DDoS attacks by invoking a statistic approach that compares source IP addresses' normal and current packet statistics to discriminate whether there is a DoS/DDoS attack. It first collects all resource IPs' packet statistics so as to create their normal packet distribution. Once some IPs' current packet distribution suddenly changes, very often it is an attack. Experimental results show that this approach can effectively detect DoS/DDoS attacks.

15. Quantum key distribution by swapping the entanglement of {chi}-type state

Gao Gan, E-mail: gaogan0556@163.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tongling University, Tongling 244000 (China)

2010-06-01

We propose a quantum key distribution protocol using entanglement swapping of {chi}-type state; in this protocol, Alice and Bob transmit a particle sequence to each other and perform {chi}-type state measurements. Alice's and Bob's roles are completely symmetric.

16. A DoS/DDoS Attack Detection System Using Chi-Square Statistic Approach

Fang-Yie Leu; I-Long Lin

2010-01-01

Nowadays, users can easily access and download network attack tools, which often provide friendly interfaces and easily operated features, from the Internet. Therefore, even a naive hacker can also launch a large scale DoS or DDoS attack to prevent a system, i.e., the victim, from providing Internet services. In this paper, we propose an agent based intrusion detection architecture, which is a distributed detection system, to detect DoS/DDoS attacks by invoking a statistic approach that compa...

17. F-Test Alternatives to Fisher's Exact Test and to the Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity in 2x2 Tables.

Overall, John E.; Starbuck, Robert R.

1983-01-01

An alternative to Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for homogeneity in two-by-two tables is developed. The method provides for Type I error rates which are closer to the stated alpha level than either of the alternatives. (JKS)

18. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter Using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

Manungu Kiveni, Joseph [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

2012-12-01

This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This dataanalysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a backgrounddiscrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data.

19. NON-PARAMETRIC LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

ChaiGenxiang; HuaHong; ShangHanji

2002-01-01

By using the non-parametric least square method, the strong consistent estimations of distribution function and failure function are established, where the distribution function F(x)after logist transformation is assumed to be approximated by a polynomial. The performance of simulation shows that the estimations are highly satisfactory.

20. Block Least Mean Squares Algorithm over Distributed Wireless Sensor Network

T. Panigrahi

2012-01-01

Full Text Available In a distributed parameter estimation problem, during each sampling instant, a typical sensor node communicates its estimate either by the diffusion algorithm or by the incremental algorithm. Both these conventional distributed algorithms involve significant communication overheads and, consequently, defeat the basic purpose of wireless sensor networks. In the present paper, we therefore propose two new distributed algorithms, namely, block diffusion least mean square (BDLMS and block incremental least mean square (BILMS by extending the concept of block adaptive filtering techniques to the distributed adaptation scenario. The performance analysis of the proposed BDLMS and BILMS algorithms has been carried out and found to have similar performances to those offered by conventional diffusion LMS and incremental LMS algorithms, respectively. The convergence analyses of the proposed algorithms obtained from the simulation study are also found to be in agreement with the theoretical analysis. The remarkable and interesting aspect of the proposed block-based algorithms is that their communication overheads per node and latencies are less than those of the conventional algorithms by a factor as high as the block size used in the algorithms.

1. Finding a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution using least squares

In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

2. Finding a Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Distribution Using Least Squares

In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straight-forward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in closed form, and so an approximate beta distribution is used in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial aleatory model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that is often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

3. Ground Reaction Forces and Plantar Pressure Distribution Generated by Two Tai Chi Movements

Wong, Shiu Hong Trevor

2013-01-01

Tai Chi Chuan, Tai Chi (TC) in short, is a popular form of Chinese martial arts which have been practised by millions of people and provides various health benefits, such as improving balance control, strengthening leg muscles, reducing fear of falling, enhancing flexibility and many more. The American Geriatrics Society and the British Geriatrics Society have recommended TC as a suitable exercise for preventing falls of older people. However, it is not clear which TC components are the most ...

4. Topology of neutral hydrogen distribution with the Square Kilometer Array

Wang, Yougang; Wu, Fengquan; Chen, Xuelei; Wang, Xin; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Lee, Khee-Gan; Cen, Renyue

2015-01-01

Morphology of the complex HI gas distribution can be quantified by statistics like the Minkowski functionals, and can provide a way to statistically study the large scale structure in the HI maps both at low redshifts, and during the epoch of reionization (EoR). At low redshifts, the 21cm emission traces the underlying matter distribution. Topology of the HI gas distribution, as measured by the genus, could be used as a "standard ruler". This enables the determination of distance-redshift relation and also the discrimination of various models of dark energy and of modified gravity. The topological analysis is also sensitive to certain primordial non-Gaussian features. Compared with two-point statistics, the topological statistics are more robust against the nonlinear gravitational evolution, bias, and redshift-space distortion. The HI intensity map observation naturally avoids the sparse sampling distortion, which is an important systematic in optical galaxy survey. The large cosmic volume accessible to SKA w...

5. Stratospheric Assimilation of Chemical Tracer Observations Using a Kalman Filter. Pt. 2; Chi-Square Validated Results and Analysis of Variance and Correlation Dynamics

Menard, Richard; Chang, Lang-Ping

1998-01-01

A Kalman filter system designed for the assimilation of limb-sounding observations of stratospheric chemical tracers, which has four tunable covariance parameters, was developed in Part I (Menard et al. 1998) The assimilation results of CH4 observations from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Sounder instrument (CLAES) and the Halogen Observation Experiment instrument (HALOE) on board of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are described in this paper. A robust (chi)(sup 2) criterion, which provides a statistical validation of the forecast and observational error covariances, was used to estimate the tunable variance parameters of the system. In particular, an estimate of the model error variance was obtained. The effect of model error on the forecast error variance became critical after only three days of assimilation of CLAES observations, although it took 14 days of forecast to double the initial error variance. We further found that the model error due to numerical discretization as arising in the standard Kalman filter algorithm, is comparable in size to the physical model error due to wind and transport modeling errors together. Separate assimilations of CLAES and HALOE observations were compared to validate the state estimate away from the observed locations. A wave-breaking event that took place several thousands of kilometers away from the HALOE observation locations was well captured by the Kalman filter due to highly anisotropic forecast error correlations. The forecast error correlation in the assimilation of the CLAES observations was found to have a structure similar to that in pure forecast mode except for smaller length scales. Finally, we have conducted an analysis of the variance and correlation dynamics to determine their relative importance in chemical tracer assimilation problems. Results show that the optimality of a tracer assimilation system depends, for the most part, on having flow-dependent error correlation rather than on evolving the

6. Approximating Probability Levels for Testing Null Hypotheses with Noncentral F Distributions.

Fowler, Robert L.

1984-01-01

This study compared two approximations for normalizing noncentral F distributions: one based on the square root of the chi-square distribution (SRA), the other derived from a cube root of the chi-square distribution (CRA). The CRA was superior, and generally provided an excellent approximation for noncentral F. (Author/BW)

7. The probability distribution function for the sum of squares of independent random variables

Fateev, Yury; Dmitriev, Dmitry; Tyapkin, Valery; Kremez, Nikolai; Shaidurov, Vladimir

2016-08-01

In the present paper, the probability distribution function is derived for the sum of squares of random variables for nonzero expectations. This distribution function enables one to develop an efficient one-step algorithm for phase ambiguity resolution when determining the spatial orientation from signals of satellite radio-navigation systems. Threshold values for rejecting false solutions and statistical properties of the algorithm are obtained.

8. A note on the best invariant estimation of continuous probability distributions under mean square loss

Schürmann, Thomas

2015-01-01

We consider the nonparametric estimation problem of continuous probability distribution functions. For the integrated mean square error we provide the statistic corresponding to the best invariant estimator proposed by Aggarwal (1955) and Ferguson (1967). The table of critical values is computed and a numerical power comparison of the statistic with the traditional Cram\\'{e}r-von Mises statistic is done for several representative distributions.

9. Singular Value Decomposition of the Radial Distribution Function for Hard Sphere and Square Well Potentials

Hoppe, Travis

2013-01-01

We compute the singular value decomposition of the radial distribution function for hard sphere, and square well solutions. We find that decomposes into a small set of basis vectors allowing for an extremely accurate representation at all interpolated densities and potential strengths. In addition, we find that the coefficient vectors describing the magnitude of each basis vector are well described by a low-order polynomial. We provide a program to calculate in this compact representation for...

10. Mean square displacement evaluation by elastic neutron scattering self-distribution function

Magazù, Salvatore; Maisano, Giacomo; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

2008-06-01

In the present work an operational recipe for the mean square displacement (MSD) determination, highlighting the connection between elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) intensity profiles and the associated self-distribution function, is presented. The determination of the thermal behavior of the total MSD and of its partial contributions is tested on EINS data collected by the backscattering spectrometer IN13 (ILL, Grenoble) on a model system such as PolyEthylene Glycol with a mean molecular weight of 400 Dalton (PEG 400).

11. Expected distributions of root-mean-square positional deviations in proteins.

Pitera, Jed W

2014-06-19

The atom positional root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) is a standard tool for comparing the similarity of two molecular structures. It is used to characterize the quality of biomolecular simulations, to cluster conformations, and as a reaction coordinate for conformational changes. This work presents an approximate analytic form for the expected distribution of RMSD values for a protein or polymer fluctuating about a stable native structure. The mean and maximum of the expected distribution are independent of chain length for long chains and linearly proportional to the average atom positional root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSF). To approximate the RMSD distribution for random-coil or unfolded ensembles, numerical distributions of RMSD were generated for ensembles of self-avoiding and non-self-avoiding random walks. In both cases, for all reference structures tested for chains more than three monomers long, the distributions have a maximum distant from the origin with a power-law dependence on chain length. The purely entropic nature of this result implies that care must be taken when interpreting stable high-RMSD regions of the free-energy landscape as "intermediates" or well-defined stable states. PMID:24655018

12. Slip distribution of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake from GPS observation using least squares inversion method

2016-05-01

Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations showed significant crustal displacements as a result of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake. The Least Square Inversion method of Mentawai earthquake slip distribution from SuGAR observations yielded in an optimum value of slip distribution by giving a weight of smoothing constraint and a weight of slip value constraint = 0 at the edge of the earthquake rupture area. A maximum coseismic slip of the inversion calculation was 1.997 m and concentrated around stations PRKB (Pagai Island). In addition, the values of dip-slip direction tend to be more dominant. The seismic moment calculated from the slip distribution was 6.89 × 10E+20 Nm, which is equivalent to a magnitude of 7.8.

13. Asymptotic distribution for a discrete version of integrated square error of multivariate density kernel estimators

Tenreiro, Carlos

1998-01-01

In this paper we consider the weighted average square error An([pi]) = (1/n) [Sigma]nj=1{fn(Xj) -; f(Xj)}2[pi](Xj), where f is the common density function of the independent and identically distributed random vectors X1,..., Xn, fn is the kernel estimator based on these vectors and [pi] is a weight function. Using U-statistics techniques and the results of Gouriéroux and Tenreiro (Preprint 9617, Departamento de Matemática, Universidade de Coimbra, 1996), we establish a central limit theorem f...

14. Distribution of error in least-squares solution of an overdetermined system of linear simultaneous equations

Miller, C. D.

1972-01-01

Probability density functions were derived for errors in the evaluation of unknowns by the least squares method in system of nonhomogeneous linear equations. Coefficients of the unknowns were assumed correct and computational precision were also assumed. A vector space was used, with number of dimensions equal to the number of equations. An error vector was defined and assumed to have uniform distribution of orientation throughout the vector space. The density functions are shown to be insensitive to the biasing effects of the source of the system of equations.

15. Chi activity during transduction-associated recombination.

Dower, N. A.; Stahl, F. W.

1981-01-01

Chi is a genetic element that stimulates phage lambda recombination by the Escherichia coli recBC pathway during lytic infection [Stahl, F. W. (1979) Annu. Rev. Genet. 13, 7--24]. Herein we show that chi in lambda prophage influences exchange distribution in P1 phage-mediated transduction and in conjugation. This demonstration encourages the view that chi may influence genetic exchange in E. coli in the total absence of lambda.

16. Healing of subsurface damage after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

Chen, K. H.; Rau, R.; Dreger, D. S.

2009-12-01

Observation of six M 4.6 repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan from 1991 to 2007 reveals a unique temporal and spatial variation in seismic wave character associated with the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes that occurred ~90 km away. Post-Chi-Chi events have reduced waveform similarity, suggesting a sudden change of seismic wave propagation properties after the Chi-Chi event. The changes in seismic character are widely distributed over Taiwan and remain significant in 5 years after Chi-Chi. Since 2004, the waveform similarity gradually recovered to the pre-Chi-Chi level. The most recent repeating event occurred on 15 November 2007 reveals only a subtle variation in seismic character compared to the pre-Chi-Chi event. This indicates that the damaged rock has been regaining the strength with time. The healing of subsurface damage zone, however, is not fully complete even 8 yr after the Chi-Chi earthquake. Using cross correlation function derived time-lag between the pre- and post- Chi-Chi events, we also identify a ~1 sec delay for the 2001 repeating event at a number of stations. Such a large delay shown in different parts of seismograms for different stations may indicate a broad range of fluid-filled scatterers along the travel path. For the station with the longest distance from the M 4.6 event (~200 km), PNG station on Penghu island off the western coast of Taiwan, the 1sec delay appears on early P wave coda. This suggests that the scatterers are likely located down to a depth of at least 20 km.

17. The ordered distribution of natural numbers on the square root spiral

Hahn, Harry K

2007-01-01

Natural numbers divisible by the same prime factor lie on defined spiral graphs which are running through the Square Root Spiral (also named as the Spiral of Theodorus or Wurzel Spirale or Einstein Spiral). Prime Numbers also clearly accumulate on such spiral graphs. And the square numbers 4, 9, 16, 25, 36,... form a highly three-symmetrical system of three spiral graphs, which divides the square-root-spiral into three equal areas. A mathematical analysis shows that these spiral graphs are defined by quadratic polynomials. Fibonacci number sequences also play a part in the structure of the Square Root Spiral. Fibonacci Numbers divide the Square Root Spiral into areas and angle sectors with constant proportions. These proportions are linked to the golden mean (or golden section), which behaves as a self-avoiding-walk-constant in the lattice-like structure of the square root spiral.

18. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

Beno, J.H. (US Army (US))

1991-01-01

In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred.

19. A Cautionary Note on Using G[squared](dif) to Assess Relative Model Fit in Categorical Data Analysis

Maydeu-Olivares, Albert; Cai, Li

2006-01-01

The likelihood ratio test statistic G[squared](dif) is widely used for comparing the fit of nested models in categorical data analysis. In large samples, this statistic is distributed as a chi-square with degrees of freedom equal to the difference in degrees of freedom between the tested models, but only if the least restrictive model is correctly…

20. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

1. Analysis of composite tube sheets with a square array of holes under uniformly distributed load. Part 1

The end closures of calandria of reactor generally consists of two thick tube sheet having a square array of holes. At the location of these holes, the tube sheets are connected by lattice tubes. When such a structure is subjected to external loads, restraint is exerted by lattice tube, the shell connecting the tube sheets. The paper summarises different methods of solution adopted by a designer to find out the elastic deformation, stress distribution when the structure is subjected to uniformly distributed load. Assumptions and limitations of different methods which include some classical methods and others developed by the authors have been highlighted. The results obtained for some specific geometries by different methods have been compared. (author)

2. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Do Phuc Nguyen; Thi Anh Dao Nguyen; Thi Hien Le; Nguyen Minh Doan Tran; Thanh Phong Ngo; Van Chinh Dang; Takao Kawai; Masashi Kanki; Ryuji Kawahara; Michio Jinnai; Shinya Yonogi; Yuji Hirai; Yoshimasa Yamamoto; Yuko Kumeda

2016-01-01

To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken ...

3. Estimation of Slip Distribution of the 2007 Bengkulu Earthquake from GPS Observation Using Least Squares Inversion Method

2012-07-01

Full Text Available Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS observations showed significant crustal displacements as a result of the Bengkulu earthquake occurring on September 12, 2007. A maximum horizontal displacement of 2.11 m was observed at PRKB station, while the vertical component at BSAT station was uplifted with a maximum of 0.73 m, and the vertical component at LAIS station was subsided by -0.97 m. The method of adding more constraint on the inversion for the Bengkulu earthquake slip distribution from GPS observations can help solve a least squares inversion with an under-determined condition. Checkerboard tests were performed to help conduct the weighting for constraining the inversion. The inversion calculation of the Bengkulu earthquake slip distribution yielded in an optimum value of slip distribution by giving a weight of smoothing constraint of 0.001 and a weight of slip value constraint = 0 at the edge of the earthquake rupture area. A maximum coseismic slip of the optimal inversion calculation was 5.12 m at the lower area of PRKB and BSAT stations. The seismic moment calculated from the optimal slip distribution was 7.14 x 1021 Nm, which is equivalent to a magnitude of 8.5.

4. Uncertainty squared: Choosing among multiple input probability distributions and interpreting multiple output probability distributions in Monte Carlo climate risk models

Baer, P.; Mastrandrea, M.

2006-12-01

Simple probabilistic models which attempt to estimate likely transient temperature change from specified CO2 emissions scenarios must make assumptions about at least six uncertain aspects of the causal chain between emissions and temperature: current radiative forcing (including but not limited to aerosols), current land use emissions, carbon sinks, future non-CO2 forcing, ocean heat uptake, and climate sensitivity. Of these, multiple PDFs (probability density functions) have been published for the climate sensitivity, a couple for current forcing and ocean heat uptake, one for future non-CO2 forcing, and none for current land use emissions or carbon cycle uncertainty (which are interdependent). Different assumptions about these parameters, as well as different model structures, will lead to different estimates of likely temperature increase from the same emissions pathway. Thus policymakers will be faced with a range of temperature probability distributions for the same emissions scenarios, each described by a central tendency and spread. Because our conventional understanding of uncertainty and probability requires that a probabilistically defined variable of interest have only a single mean (or median, or modal) value and a well-defined spread, this "multidimensional" uncertainty defies straightforward utilization in policymaking. We suggest that there are no simple solutions to the questions raised. Crucially, we must dispel the notion that there is a "true" probability probabilities of this type are necessarily subjective, and reasonable people may disagree. Indeed, we suggest that what is at stake is precisely the question, what is it reasonable to believe, and to act as if we believe? As a preliminary suggestion, we demonstrate how the output of a simple probabilistic climate model might be evaluated regarding the reasonableness of the outputs it calculates with different input PDFs. We suggest further that where there is insufficient evidence to clearly

5. Distributed Least-Squares Estimation of a Remote Chemical Source via Convex Combination in Wireless Sensor Networks

Meng-Li Cao

2014-06-01

Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of locating a continuous chemical source using the concentration measurements provided by a wireless sensor network (WSN. Such a problem exists in various applications: eliminating explosives or drugs, detecting the leakage of noxious chemicals, etc. The limited power and bandwidth of WSNs have motivated collaborative in-network processing which is the focus of this paper. We propose a novel distributed least-squares estimation (DLSE method to solve the chemical source localization (CSL problem using a WSN. The DLSE method is realized by iteratively conducting convex combination of the locally estimated chemical source locations in a distributed manner. Performance assessments of our method are conducted using both simulations and real experiments. In the experiments, we propose a fitting method to identify both the release rate and the eddy diffusivity. The results show that the proposed DLSE method can overcome the negative interference of local minima and saddle points of the objective function, which would hinder the convergence of local search methods, especially in the case of locating a remote chemical source.

6. 分布函数的非参数最小二乘估计%NON-PARAMETRIC LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

柴根象; 花虹; 尚汉冀

2002-01-01

By using the non-parametric least square method, the strong consistent estimations of distribution function and failure function are established,where the distribution function F(x) after logist transformation is assumed to be approximated by a polynomial.The performance of simulation shows that the estimations are highly satisfactory.

7. Mahalanobis' Distance Beyond Normal Distributions

Ekström, Joakim

2011-01-01

Based on the reasoning expressed by Mahalanobis in his original article, the present article extends the Mahalanobis distance beyond the set of normal distributions. Sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness are studied, and some properties derived. Since many statistical methods use the Mahalanobis distance as e vehicle, e.g. the method of least squares and the chi-square hypothesis test, extending the Mahalanobis distance beyond normal distributions yields a high ratio of output to...

8. Inferential procedures in stable distributions for class frequency data on incomes

Dijk, Herman; Kloek, Teun

1980-01-01

textabstractThis paper discusses inferential procedures for the family of stable distributions, when the data are tabulated in the form of interval frequencies. The estimation criteria used are minimum chi-square and multinomial maximum likelihood. In evaluating the theoretical probabilities corresponding to the intervals, use is made of the inversion theorem for characteristic functions. Chi-square tail probabilities for independent samples are pooled by means of theKolmogorov statistic. As ...

9. Digital squares

Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E

1988-01-01

Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages. ....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept......Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages...

10. Measures in progress for distribution facilities automation and cost reduction. Direct supply of 400V to South Port Cosmo Square, Osaka; Susumu haiden setsubi no jidoka, cost teigen taisaku. Nanko cosmo square ni okeru 400 volt chokusetsu kyokyu no donyu

Kanamori, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

1998-07-01

Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., has been working to elevate the distribution voltage of 6kV to 20kV, which is to respond to increasing demand for power. Using the experience of this approach, the corporation has designated Cosmo Square as a model area and plans to directly supply 400V to the area which is the voltage that clients demand. In this report, the plan is summarized and some examples of power receiving equipment newly developed for Cosmo Square are described. Cosmo Square has been developed to be a new base of international business, and lotting-out is now in progress. Upon completion, the center will be a group of gigantic buildings of which more than half will be creating a contract demand of 1000kW or more per building, and is expected to be consuming a total of 190MW finally. Power facilities under construction are to handle 20kV, and the voltage of 20kV will be stepped down to 400V for directly supply to 50-2000kW consumers. It is expected that, in this way, there will be various merits embodied, such as an extensive cost reduction in the construction of receiving equipment and other devices, efficient utilization of 230/400V appliances now in popular use, and reduction in safety-related expenditures. 4 figs.

11. Square Root +

Frederiksen, John G.

1969-01-01

A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

12. Economic-statistical design of variable parameters non-central chi-square control chart Projeto econômico-estatístico de gráficos de controle qui-quadrado não-central com parâmetros variáveis

Maysa Sacramento de Magalhães

2011-06-01

13. Rolling Squares

Holton, Derek; Knights, Carol

2008-01-01

Here, we investigate what loci are produced when a square of side-length one is allowed to rotate around a square of side-length n, where n is a whole number. We find that if i = 1, 2, 3 or 4 (mod 4), the loci obtained for n [congruent to] i (mod 4) all have the same symmetry and we show how the perimeter of each class can be determined. We also…

14. Creating Magic Squares.

Lyon, Betty Clayton

1990-01-01

One method of making magic squares using a prolongated square is illustrated. Discussed are third-order magic squares, fractional magic squares, fifth-order magic squares, decimal magic squares, and even magic squares. (CW)

15. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

Du, Yi-jian; Wu, Yong-shi

2016-01-01

In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl support the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula reproduces the Parke-Taylor formula for Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for gravitational amplitudes. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly M\\"obius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other $(n-3)!-1$ solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes.

16. The CHI 2013 interactive schedule

Satyanarayan, Arvind; Strazzulla, Daniel; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted;

2013-01-01

available. The CHI'13 Interactive Schedule helps attendees navigate this wealth of video content in order to identify events they would like to attend. It consists of a number of large display screens throughout the conference venue which cycle through a video playlist of events. Attendees can interact with...... these displays using their mobile devices by either constructing custom video playlists or adding on-screen content to their personal schedule....

17. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

2016-05-01

In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

18. Distribution of poles in a series expansion of the asymmetric directed-bond percolation probability on the square lattice

Inui, Norio

1998-12-01

We investigate numerically the percolation probability of the asymmetric directed-bond percolation on the square lattice with two parameters p and q based on Guttmann and Enting's procedure (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 344). A series in the form of 0305-4470/31/48/001/img1 is derived by using the finite transfer-matrix method. The denominator of 0305-4470/31/48/001/img2 is directly calculated from the determinant of the transfer matrix and it leads to a proof that poles all lies on the unit circle in the complex q plane. The solvability of the bond directed percolation is also discussed.

19. Democracy Squared

Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

2005-01-01

On-line political communities, such as the Norwegian site Demokratitorget (Democracy Square), are often designed according to a set of un-reflected assumptions about the political interests of their potential members. In political science, democracy is not taken as given in this way, but can be...... represented by different models which characterize different relationships between politicians and the citizens they represent. This paper uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis to analyze the communication mediated by the Democracy Square discussion forum in the first ten months of its life. In...... the quantitative analysis, citizens’ and politicians’ contributions are analyzed against four different democracy models: Consumer, Demo-Elitist, Neo-Republican and Cyber-Democratic. Whereas politicians’ contributions mainly reflected the Demo-Elitist model, citizens’ contributions tended to reflect...

20. All SQUARE

1972-01-01

With the existing Systems for using the accelerated protons, it is possible to supply only one slow ejected beam (feeding the East Hall) and, at the same time, to have only a small percentage of the beam on an internal target (feeding the South Hall). The arrangement will be replaced by a new System called SQUARE (Semi- QUAdrupole Resonant Extraction) which will give greater flexibility in supplying the three areas.

1. Tai Chi: Rx for Arthritic Knees

... that tai chi can be effective in helping sleep, while reducing stress, anxiety and depression. "The mind component [of tai chi] promotes psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and improved perceptions of health," said Wang. Dr. Matthew Hepinstall, an ...

2. Percolation of randomly distributed growing clusters: Finite-size scaling and critical exponents for the square lattice

Tsakiris, N.; Maragakis, M.; Kosmidis, K.; Argyrakis, P.

2010-10-01

We study the percolation properties of the growing clusters model on a 2D square lattice. In this model, a number of seeds placed on random locations on the lattice are allowed to grow with a constant velocity to form clusters. When two or more clusters eventually touch each other they immediately stop their growth. The model exhibits a discontinuous transition for very low values of the seed concentration p and a second, nontrivial continuous phase transition for intermediate p values. Here we study in detail this continuous transition that separates a phase of finite clusters from a phase characterized by the presence of a giant component. Using finite size scaling and large scale Monte Carlo simulations we determine the value of the percolation threshold where the giant component first appears, and the critical exponents that characterize the transition. We find that the transition belongs to a different universality class from the standard percolation transition.

3. Biomedical wellness by tai chi and sports

Chin, Daniel C.; Chin, Amita G.

2011-06-01

Tai-chi chuan is popular worldwide especially in China. People practice tai-chi chuan daily with faith believing that they will be rewarded with health and varieties of other rewords. The Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Chang and the Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Wang are translated to be the baseline of the tai-chi chuan. The theory described in these two papers clearly shows that the tai-chi power source is the combination of the two antigravity forces distinction by each foot. The ying, yang and hollowed, solid discussed in the papers are the properties and body relationship of the two antigravity forces. The antigravity forces presented inside of body are as air to the balloon termed chi. However chi could be generated by any muscle pressing; only the antigravity forces from feet are called nature chi that has the maximum strength of the person. When a person is soft, as an infant the nature chi will fulfill entire body with no time and effort. The sequence forms were designed for deploying the nature chi in speed and power. The combination of chi and tai-chi form make tai chi chuan supreme than other kinds of martial art. In the training process chi massages whole body many time for a sequence form practice that stimulate all organs and could lead to cure body diseases, lose weight, postpone aging process, and remove the aging symptoms. For the people practicing in the park daily with proper guidance they will fulfill their wishes. Tai chi exercise could also apply to other sports as in dancing and golfing they are discussed at the end of the paper.

4. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

2016-01-01

To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

5. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Do Phuc Nguyen

2016-01-01

Full Text Available To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%. The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%, followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%, beef (18/74, 34.3%, and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%. A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%, CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%, and CIT (118/342, 34.5% groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1% in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7% were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.. These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli.

6. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

2016-01-01

To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

7. A Study on Near-Fault Mortality from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake

Pai, C.; Tien, Y.; Teng, T.

2004-12-01

A new approach for estimating the relations between mortality and strong shaking from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake is introduced. We have finished the database giving the attributes of victims through a compilation of various after-earthquake survey documents. This survey was a comprehensive filed visit confirming exact locations of victims and their possible cause of death. Among the total 2492 victims of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 2039 victims (81.8% of the total) were located by using GPS. Through the attributive database of victims, digital maps and Geographic Information Systems, we can easily map the spatial distribution and the cause of death data of victims with accuracy of the smallest administrative districts in Taiwan. Moreover, a regression analysis gives correlated equations for the mortality as functions of the distance to the Chelungpu fault. We find that the percentage of the mortality M can be expressed as:\$M=\\frac{(1.626+0.0007\\timesd)} {(1+0.0125\\timesd)}\$ Here d is the closest distance to the fault in meter. As expected, the shorter distance to the Chelungpu fault causes the higher mortality. We device three disastrous levels and then suggest the orders and scopes of the earthquake disaster rescue according to the regression curve of the mortality and the closest distance to the fault. The difference in mortality between hanging-wall and footwall areas is also discussed and different regression curves of hanging-wall and footwall areas are suggested. In near-fault regions, the mortality for the residents lived in hanging-wall block (1348) is significantly higher than that in the footwall block (557). The death ratio of hanging-wall vs. footwall block is approximately 2.4:1. Finally, we gathered the data of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) data for the mainshock of Chi-Chi earthquake at the 63 seismic stations on both sides of the causal fault. The regression curve of the PGA and mortality as functions of the closest distance to the

8. Effects of the hanging wall and footwall on peak acceleration during the Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan Province, earthquake

2001-01-01

The M=7.6 Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake, Taiwan Province, on September 21, 1999 (local time) is a thrust fault style earthquake. The empirical attenuation relations of the horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations (PGA) for the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake are developed by regression method. By examining the residuals from the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake-specific peak acceleration attenuation relations, it is found that there are systematic differences between PGA on the hanging-wall and footwall. The recorded peak accelerations are higher on the hanging-wall and lower on the footwall. The clear asymmetry of PGA distribution to the surface rupture trace can also be seen from the PGA contour map. These evidences indicate that the PGA attenuates faster on the hanging-wall than on the footwall. In the study of near-source strong motion, seismic hazard assessment, scenario earthquake and seis-mic disaster prediction, the style-of-faulting must be considered in order that the attenuation model can reflect the characteristic of ground motion in various seismic environmental regions.

9. Least square fitting with one parameter less

Berg, Bernd A

2015-01-01

It is shown that whenever the multiplicative normalization of a fitting function is not known, least square fitting by $\\chi^2$ minimization can be performed with one parameter less than usual by converting the normalization parameter into a function of the remaining parameters and the data.

10. Wigner quasi-probability distribution for the infinite square well: energy eigenstates and time-dependent wave packets

Belloni, M; Robinett, R W

2003-01-01

We calculate the Wigner quasi-probability distribution for position and momentum, P_W^(n)(x,p), for the energy eigenstates of the standard infinite well potential, using both x- and p-space stationary-state solutions, as well as visualizing the results. We then evaluate the time-dependent Wigner distribution, P_W(x,p;t), for Gaussian wave packet solutions of this system, illustrating both the short-term semi-classical time dependence, as well as longer-term revival and fractional revival behavior and the structure during the collapsed state. This tool provides an excellent way of demonstrating the patterns of highly correlated Schrodinger-cat-like mini-packets' which appear at fractional multiples of the exact revival time.

11. Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology.

Alperson, Sunny Yim

2008-01-01

This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis. PMID:20531257

12. Typical reconstruction performance for distributed compressed sensing based on ℓ2,1-norm regularized least square and Bayesian optimal reconstruction: influences of noise

Shiraki, Yoshifumi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

2016-06-01

A signal model called joint sparse model 2 (JSM-2) or the multiple measurement vector problem, in which all sparse signals share their support, is important for dealing with practical signal processing problems. In this paper, we investigate the typical reconstruction performance of noisy measurement JSM-2 problems for {{\\ell}2,1} -norm regularized least square reconstruction and the Bayesian optimal reconstruction scheme in terms of mean square error. Employing the replica method, we show that these schemes, which exploit the knowledge of the sharing of the signal support, can recover the signals more precisely as the number of channels increases. In addition, we compare the reconstruction performance of two different ensembles of observation matrices: one is composed of independent and identically distributed random Gaussian entries and the other is designed so that row vectors are orthogonal to one another. As reported for the single-channel case in earlier studies, our analysis indicates that the latter ensemble offers better performance than the former ones for the noisy JSM-2 problem. The results of numerical experiments with a computationally feasible approximation algorithm we developed for this study agree with the theoretical estimation.

13. Higher-order multipole amplitude measurement in psi ' -> gamma chi(c2)

Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A. C.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

2011-01-01

Using 106 x 10(6) psi' events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, the higher-order multipole amplitudes in the radiative transition psi' -> gamma chi(c2) -> gamma pi(+)pi(-)/gamma K+K- are measured. A fit to the chi(c2) production and decay angular distributions yields M2

14. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

1998-12-17

We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

15. Site responses in the Taipei basin during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake sequence

On September 20, 1999 a magnitude ML 7.3 earthquake struck Taichung and Nantou in central Taiwan. Taipei basin located more than 100 km from the epicenter but also had many buildings damaged during the earthquake. In this study we use the main shock and aftershocks data of Chi-Chi earthquake to analyze the site effect of Taipei basin. The results show that the dominant low frequency band response is located in the western part of Taipei basin and Songshan area; the main high frequency band response areas are near the edge of basin. Another hand, comparing the results of amplification pattern with the location of damaged buildings found that the tall damaged buildings are located at the high response areas of low frequency band and the low-rise damaged structures are located at the high response areas of higher frequency band. From these results we can find the relationship between the site amplification and damaged structure distribution in the Taipei basin area during earthquakes. (authors)

16. A Comparison of the Exact Kruskal-Wallis Distribution to Asymptotic Approximations for All Sample Sizes up to 105

Meyer, J. Patrick; Seaman, Michael A.

2013-01-01

The authors generated exact probability distributions for sample sizes up to 35 in each of three groups ("n" less than or equal to 105) and up to 10 in each of four groups ("n" less than or equal to 40). They compared the exact distributions to the chi-square, gamma, and beta approximations. The beta approximation was best in…

17. Distribución de las transformaciones lineales de los residuos mínimos cuadrados studentizados internamente = Distribution of linear transformations of internally studentized least squares residuals

Seppo Pynnönem

2012-03-01

18. Chi-Nu Level 2 Review

Haight, Robert Cameron [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Hye Young [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Donnell, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fotiadis, Nikolaos [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jandel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Neudecker, Denise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ching-Yen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bucher, Brian Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buckner, Matthew Quinn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, Roger Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2015-09-18

This series of slides presents information on Chi-Nu measurements and analysis of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) for neutron energy below 1 MeV for 235U. A key focus of the Chi-Nu measurement is to address the energy dependence of the low-energy emissions. The 235U PFNS evaluation is in progress. Chi-Nu delivered preliminary experimental data and input for part of the old experimental data base. The 239Pu PFNS evaluation is finalized and submitted for testing. Data from 252Cf spontaneous fission will also be obtained.

19. EXACT SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION

Dr.G.S.David Sam Jayakumar; A.Sulthan

2015-01-01

This paper proposes the sampling distribution of sample coefficient of variation from the normal population. We have derived the relationship between the sample coefficient of variation, standard normal and chi-square variate. We have derived density function of the sample coefficient of variation in terms of the confluent hyper-geometric distribution. Moreover, the first two moments of the distribution are derived and we have proved that the sample coefficient of variation (cv...

20. Effective Field Theory and $\\chi$pt

Holstein, Barry R.

2000-01-01

A brief introduction to the subject of chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$pt) is given, including a discussion of effective field theory and application to the upcoming Bates virtual Compton scattering measurement.

1. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

2015-12-01

We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

2. Unifying Least Squares, Total Least Squares and Data Least Squares

Paige, C. C.; Strakoš, Zdeněk

Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002 - (van Huffel, S.; Lemmerling, P.), s. 25-34 ISBN 1-4020-0476-1. [International Workshop on TLS and Errore-in-Variables Modelling. Leuven (BE), 27.08.2001-29.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030801 Grant ostatní: NSERC(CA) OGP0009236 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : scaled total least squares * ordinary least squares * data least squares * core problem * orthogonal reduction * singular value decomposition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

3. $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ production at $e^+e^-$ colliders

Czyz, Henryk; Tracz, Szymon

2016-01-01

Direct, resonant production of the charmonium states $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ in electron-positron annihilation is investigated. Depending on details of the model, a sizeable variation of the prediction for the production cross section is anticipated. It is demonstrated that resonant production could be observed under favorable circumstances.

4. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2016-08-30

Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

5. Tai Chi, Qi Gong and Reiki.

Chu, Dennis A

2004-11-01

Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and Reiki are complementary therapies that are gaining popularity with patients. Although these therapies seem simple and attractive in their philosophy and are easy to apply,more objective, well-designed research is needed to prove their efficacy and to gain acceptance from the medical community. PMID:15458751

6. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

Ching Lan; Ssu-Yuan Chen; Jin-Shin Lai; Alice May-Kuen Wong

2013-01-01

Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to heal...

7. Effect of near-fault earthquake on bridges: lessons learned from Chi-Chi earthquake

2002-01-01

The objective of this paper is to describe the lessons learned and actions that have been taken related to the seismicdesign of bridge structures after the Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. Much variable near-fault ground motion data was collected fromthe rupture of Chelungpu fault during the Chi-Chi earthquake, allowing the seismic response of bridge structures subjected to thesenear-fault ground motions to be carefully examined. To study the near-fault ground motion effect on bridge seismic design codes, atwo-level seismic design of bridge structures was developed and implemented. This design code reflects the near-fault factors in theseismic design forces. Finally, a risk assessment methodology, based on bridge vulnerability, is also developed to assist in decisionsfor reducing seismic risk due to failure of bridges.

8. A precursory ULF signature for the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

Y. Akinaga

2001-01-01

Full Text Available ULF emission data at Lunping (epicentral distance, 120 km have been analysed for the Chi-Chi earthquake (with magnitude 7.6 and depth of 11 km in Taiwan which occurred on 21 September 1999. Simple intensity analyses have not yielded any significant results but we have found, based on the analysis of polarization (the ratio of vertical magnetic field component Z to the horizontal component G, that the polarization (Z/G showed a significant enhancement for two months before the earthquake. This kind of temporal evolution of polarization seems to be very similar to previous results, so that it is highly likely that this phenomenon may be associated with the Chi-Chi earthquake. Also, the comparison of the results of polarization analyses, by changing the signal threshold, has given us an approximate intensity of the seismogenic emission of the order of the monthly mean value.

9. Geometry of Fractal Squares

2010-01-01

This paper will examine analogues of Cantor sets, called fractal squares, and some of the geometric ways in which fractal squares raise issues not raised by Cantor sets. Also discussed will be a technique using directed graphs to prove bilipschitz equivalence of two fractal squares.

10. Barbed congruence of the asymmetric chi calculus

DONG Xiao-ju; FU Yu-xi

2006-01-01

The chi calculus is a model of mobile processes. It has evolved from the pi-calculus with motivations from simplification and communication-as-cut-elimination. This paper studies the chi calculus in the framework incorporating asymmetric communication. The major feature of the calculus is the identification of two actions:x/x and τ. The investigation on the barbed bisimilarity shows how the property affects the observational theory.Based on the definition of the barbed bisimilarity, the simulation properties of the barbed bisimilarity are studied. It shows that the algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity have changed greatly compared with the chi calculus. Although the definition of the barbed bisimilarity is very simple, the property of closeness under contexts makes it difficult to understand the barbed bisimilarity directly. Therefore an open style definition of the barbed bisimilarity is given, which is a context free description of barbed bisimilarity. Its definition is complex,but it is a well-behaved relation for it coincides with the barbed bisimilarity. It also helps to build an axiomatization system for the barbed congruence. Besides the axioms for the strong barbed bisimilarity, the paper proposes a new tau law and four new update laws for the barbed congruence. Both the operational and algebraic properties of the enriched calculus improve the understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model.

11. A Novel Latin Square Image Cipher

Wu, Yue; Noonan, Joseph P; Agaian, Sos; Chen, C L Philip

2012-01-01

In this paper, we introduce a symmetric-key Latin square image cipher (LSIC) for grayscale and color images. Our contributions to the image encryption community include 1) we develop new Latin square image encryption primitives including Latin Square Whitening, Latin Square S-box and Latin Square P-box ; 2) we provide a new way of integrating probabilistic encryption in image encryption by embedding random noise in the least significant image bit-plane; and 3) we construct LSIC with these Latin square image encryption primitives all on one keyed Latin square in a new loom-like substitution-permutation network. Consequently, the proposed LSIC achieve many desired properties of a secure cipher including a large key space, high key sensitivities, uniformly distributed ciphertext, excellent confusion and diffusion properties, semantically secure, and robustness against channel noise. Theoretical analysis show that the LSIC has good resistance to many attack models including brute-force attacks, ciphertext-only at...

12. Dicty_cDB: CHI518 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI518 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11768-1 CHI518P (Link to Original ... CVRY YFKALVYSGKINKANLGMTKLPPPTKKMTKAAREALGSE--- ---skw *rnh*yqtnr*ckr*yfngscsfeccne*rskt*hcls*swscfgssnd*s ...

13. Dicty_cDB: CHI394 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI394 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16405-1 CHI394P (Link to Original ... sntvedctfdasglvyypkvynlkyskktkniw*ryshywlif kiiwws*fpy *fh*ck*tfcc--- ---TTFIGVRSGPSTTLTYIKPMISEIPTIENKIEK ...

14. CHI3L1 nuclear localization in monocyte derived dendritic cells.

Di Rosa, Michelino; Tibullo, Daniele; Saccone, Salvatore; Distefano, Gisella; Basile, Maria Sofia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Lucia

2016-02-01

Chitinase-3-like-1 protein (CHI3L1) is a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) highly expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases at infectious and non-infectious etiology. CHI3L1 is produced by a wide variety of cells including monocyte-derived macrophages cell lines such as polarized M1 and M2 type macrophages, osteoclasts and Kupffer cells. In this study we have examined the expression of CHI3L1 during the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells. Magnetically-isolated peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated toward immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDCs) through a combination of factors and cytokines. Our result showed, for the first time, that CHI3L1 is expressed during the process of differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells in time dependent manner. Furthermore, the CHI3L1 is evenly distributed in cytoplasm and in the nucleus of both the iDCs and mDCs. These results suggest that CHI3L1 may play crucial role in the DCs immunoresponse. PMID:26466985

15. Nonperturbative and spin effects in the central exclusive production of tensor \\chi_c(2^+) meson

Pasechnik, R S; Teryaev, O V

2009-01-01

We discuss central exclusive production (CEP) of the tensor $\\chi_c(2^{+})$ meson in proton-(anti)proton collisions at Tevatron, RHIC and LHC energies. The amplitude for the process is derived within the $k_t$-factorisation approach. Differential and total cross sections are calculated for several unintegrated gluon distributions (UGDFs). We compare exclusive production of all charmonium states $\\chi_c(0^+), \\chi_c(1^+)$ and $\\chi_c(2^+)$. Good description of the recent Tevatron data is achieved both with Martin-Ryskin phenomenological UGDF and UGDF based on unified BFKL-DGLAP approach. Unlike for Higgs production, the main contribution to the diffractive amplitude of heavy quarkonia comes from nonperturbative region of gluon transverse momenta $Q_{\\perp}<1 \\GeV$. At $y \\approx$ 0, we predict the contribution of $\\chi_c(1^+,2^+)$ to the $J/\\Psi + \\gamma$ channel to be larger than that of the $\\chi_c(0^+)$ one. This is partially due to a significant contribution from lower polarization states $\\lambda=0$ fo...

16. Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake of September 21, 1999. Findings for the nuclear installations in Switzerland: short report

problems with the electricity distribution system would be smaller in Switzerland than in Taiwan because the density of the grid is higher in Switzerland and connected to the neighbour countries. Furthermore, the Swiss NPP sites are located within the major electricity user centers. However, similar damage at the Swiss distribution system (transmission towers, switch gears, substations) is probable in a strong earthquake and can cause a sudden loss of power. Provident reflections would be beneficial in order to reduce the possibility of the trip of a NPP caused by such external problems. The evaluation of the strong-motion records at the Taiwanese NPP sites took several weeks. This could be avoided by the use of a modern instrumentation and evaluation procedure. In Switzerland, not all NPPs are prepared in a best possible way in this respect, too. The large amount of records from the modern Taiwanese free-field network might be very useful for many regions in the world. The modern technologies allow a rapid worldwide information exchange after an earthquake. It is important for a regulatory authority to be well prepared to respond appropriately within a short time after a major event, in particular to the public media. The favourable site locations of the NPPs with respect to the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake and the rapid information on maximum accelerations had a positive effect in this case

17. Chi 2 tests: how useful are they in the analysis of medical research data?

Osborn, J F

1989-01-01

This paper has outlined analyses of data for which the chi 2 test is commonly applied and has shown that on its own, a chi 2 test provides very little information about the interpretation of the data. In goodness to fit tests, at best, the chi 2 test is a mere first step in the interpretation of the data and much more information can be gleaned from the deviations between the observed and theoretical distributions, and graphical methods are more sensitive for assessing Normality. Similarly, the chi 2 test as the analysis of a 2 x 2 contingency table misses the most important features of the data. A chi 2 value and associated p value should not be presented without an estimation of the effect and its confidence interval. The use of NS, (not significant), after a chi 2 value (or any other test statistic) is particularly meaningless as it does not even specify a level of significance. The analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables should specify a measure of the effect such as the difference between two proportions, their ratio or the odds ratio. Confidence intervals should be calculated and least importantly, statistical significance assessed by the Standard Normal Deviate. Chi 2 has no useful role to play in the analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables. In fact, even with larger two dimensional tables, although chi 2 can be used to test the significance of associations between the rows and columns, such results are seldom of much interest as they give no indication of where in the table associations may exist. They are insensitive particularly if the categories of the row or column variables are quantitative since chi 2 takes no account of the ordering of the rows and columns. Although simple analyses of such tables are inefficient the advent of desk-top computers means that more sophisticated techniques such as logistic regression for proportions and Poisson regression for larger or multidimensional contingency tables can be applied. Although these methods may involve chi 2

18. Measurement of chi(3510) and chi(3555) production in 190 GeV/c piminus-beryllium interactions

Charmonium production in 190 GeV/c π--Be interactions has been observed. The states chi(3510) and chi(3555) are seen through their radiative decay into J/Psi, and are found to correspond to 0.29 +- 0.09 of total J/Psi production for J/Psi's with x/sub f/ > 0.2. The rate of production for the two chi states appears as Bsigma(chi(3555))/Bsigma(chi(3510) = 0.60 +- 0.35. The fraction of J/Psi's produced through chi decay appears to rise with higher x/sub f/. For J/Psi's with x/sub f/ > 0.42, chi decay is responsible for 0.345 +- 0.09 of the total J/Psi sample, with the two states produced at the rate Bsigma(chi(3555))/Bsigma(3510) = 0.82 +- 0.45

19. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.

Chung-Ying Lin

Full Text Available To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18-45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ.With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49 = 5.20; p < 0.001, domain scores: t (49 = 2.72 to 3.87; p < 0.01, except for hair growth. Half of the domains scores (3 of 6 and the total score of Chi-PCOSQ had a medium responsiveness, but WHOQOL-BREF was not sufficiently responsive to clinical changes of PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL, as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088. The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time.Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS.

20. Measurement of the midrapidity transverse energy distribution from square root of [(s)NN] = 130 GeV Au + Au collisions at RHIC.

Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, D; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

2001-07-30

The first measurement of energy produced transverse to the beam direction at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is presented. The midrapidity transverse energy density per participating nucleon rises steadily with the number of participants, closely paralleling the rise in charged-particle density, such that / remains relatively constant as a function of centrality. The energy density calculated via Bjorken's prescription for the 2% most central Au+Au collisions at square root[s(NN)] = 130 GeV is at least epsilon(Bj) = 4.6 GeV/fm(3), which is a factor of 1.6 larger than found at sqrt[s(NN)] = 17.2 GeV ( Pb+Pb at CERN). PMID:11497762

1. CHY-Graphs on a Torus

Cardona, Carlos

2016-01-01

Recently, we proposed a new approach using a punctured Elliptic curve in the CHY framework in order to compute one-loop scattering amplitudes. In this note, we further develop this approach by introducing a set of connectors, which become the main ingredient to build integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$, the moduli space of n-punctured Elliptic curves. As a particular application, we study the $\\Phi^3$ bi-adjoint scalar theory. We propose a set of rules to construct integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$ from $\\Phi^ 3$ integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{0,n}$, the moduli space of n-punctured spheres. We illustrate these rules by computing a variety of $\\Phi^3$ one-loop Feynman diagrams. Conversely, we also provide another set of rules to compute the corresponding CHY-integrand on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$ by starting instead from a given $\\Phi^ 3$ one-loop Feynman diagram. In addition, our results can easily be extended to higher loops.

2. Weighted least squares estimation of logistic distribution parameters of no failure data%无失效数据的 Logistic 分布参数的加权最小二乘估计

马明玥; 宋文晶

2016-01-01

In the case of no failure data, when the product life is subject to logistic distribution, this paper analyzes weighted least squares estimation of parameters of()=

3. Measurements of polystyrene bead trajectories and spatial distributions in a turbulent water flow, square duct using high-speed digital holography

van Hout, Rene; Rabencov, Boris; Arca, Javier

2014-11-01

Near neutrally buoyant, polystyrene beads (583 micrometers) were tracked in a square (50 × 50 mm2), closed-loop, turbulent water duct at a bulk flow Reynolds number of 10,602 (friction velocity 0.0208 m/s) using single view, inline digital holographic cinematography (at 1 kHz). The volume of interest (50 × 17.4 × 17.4 mm3) was positioned at the bottom part of the channel. The mean bead diameter normalized by inner wall coordinates was d+ = 14.2, with Stokes numbers of 8.5. In-house developed algorithms, fine-tuned to tracking single and overlapping beads were developed. Bead in-focus positions were determined by maximum intensity gradient method. Results showed that in agreement with literature publications, ascending beads lagged the mean streamwise water velocity while descending ones had similar velocities. Average streamwise bead velocities and number densities collapsed onto wall-normal-streamwise and spanwise-streamwise planes, indicated preferential segregation of ascending and descending beads up to a height of 100 wall units. Spanwise `lane'' separation distances ranged between 150-200 wall units, larger but of the same order as the spanwise extent of coherent near-wall turbulence structures. Duct corners were nearly devoid of beads likely caused by secondary flows. Israel Science Foundation Grant 915/10 and COST Actions MP0806 and FP1005.

4. Time evolution of the phonon and ionized impurity limited 2D hot carrier distribution function in a n-GaAs square quantum well (QW)

Zandler, G.; Vass, E.

1988-10-01

The time evolution of the distribution function of hot electrons interacting with ionized impurities, acoustic and polar optical phonons is studied in terms of the Boltzmann integral equation. The calculated distribution functions are used to determine the charge carrier drift velocity, the average energy as well as the average momentum and energy loss rates as a function of time at constant values of the lattice temperature and charge carrier density. The stationary non-equilibrium values of these quantities are found to be established after 3-4 ps.

5. A modified equilibrium void distribution model applicable to subchannel-scale vapor-liquid cross flow model for conventional square and tight lattice BWR fuel bundles

As a part of the advanced subchannel code development project sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan, this paper describes improvement of the equilibrium void distribution model that is a main part of the vapor-liquid cross flow model. The three-component cross flow (TCCF) model is defined as the present framework that separates contributions of diversion, turbulent mixing and void drift. The Lahey's void settling model is introduced to express the latter two components. Based on the high-resolution air-water database and other published data of steam-water tests, general trends of vapor-liquid cross flow processes are examined. It can be assumed that subchannel void distributions are dominated by the three major effects, i.e. the fluid dynamic effect, the geometrical effect and the narrow gap effect. The equilibrium void distribution model is modified to include the above-mentioned three effects. Three characteristic parameters are assigned for each of the three effects and they are identified experimentally as functions of the void fraction. Multi-dimensional lattice geometries are incorporated based on the two-dimensional flow network model. The network equation is constructed by mapping the equilibrium void balance problem into the force-deflection problem. The resultant models are verified based on equilibrium void distribution data obtained by Sadatomi and Kawahara

6. The Square Kilometre Array

Huynh, Minh; Lazio, Joseph

2011-01-01

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be the premier instrument to study radiation at centimetre and metre wavelengths from the cosmos, and in particular neutral hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. The SKA will probe the dawn of galaxy formation as well as allow advances in many other areas of astronomy, such as fundamental physics, astro-biology and cosmology. The SKA will have a collecting area of up to one million square metres spread over at least 3000 km, providing a collecting area more than twenty times greater than the current largest radio telescope. Its field of view on the sky will be several tens of square degrees with potentially several large (100 square degrees) independent beams at the lower frequencies, providing a survey speed many thousands of times greater than current facilities. This paper summarises the key science drivers of the SKA and provides an update on the international project.

7. Square and Delta reflection

Fontanella, Laura; Hayut, Yair

2016-01-01

Starting from infinitely many supercompact cardinals, we force a model of ZFC where $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ satisfies simultaneously a strong principle of reflection, called $\\Delta$-reflection, and a version of the square principle, denoted $\\square(\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}).$ Thus we show that $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ can satisfy simultaneously a strong reflection principle and an anti-reflection principle.

8. Categorization of Mechanics Problems by Students in Large Introductory Physics Courses: A Comparison with the Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser Study

Mason, Andrew

2016-01-01

With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser [1], we asked introductory physics students in three introductory physics classes to categorize mechanics problems based upon similarity of solutions. To evaluate the effect of problem context on students' ability to categorize, two sets of problems were developed for categorization. Some problems in one of the problem sets that students were asked to categorize included those available from the prior study by Chi et al. Our findings, which contrast from those of Chi et al., suggest that there is a much wider distribution of expertise among introductory students.

9. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

Lin, Chung-Ying; Ou, Huang-tz; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chen, Pei-Chi

2016-01-01

Objectives To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18–45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ. Results With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49) = 5.20; p PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088). The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time. Conclusion Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS. PMID:27124836

10. Asymptotic goodness-of-fit tests for the Palm mark distribution of stationary point processes with correlated marks

Heinrich, Lothar; Lück, Sebastian; Schmidt, Volker

2014-01-01

We consider spatially homogeneous marked point patterns in an unboundedly expanding convex sampling window. Our main objective is to identify the distribution of the typical mark by constructing an asymptotic $\\chi^{2}$-goodness-of-fit test. The corresponding test statistic is based on a natural empirical version of the Palm mark distribution and a smoothed covariance estimator which turns out to be mean square consistent. Our approach does not require independent marks and allows dependences...

11. Non-parametric asymptotic statistics for the Palm mark distribution of \\beta-mixing marked point processes

Heinrich, Lothar; Lück, Sebastian; Schmidt, Volker

2012-01-01

We consider spatially homogeneous marked point patterns in an unboundedly expanding convex sampling window. Our main objective is to identify the distribution of the typical mark by constructing an asymptotic \\chi^2-goodness-of-fit test. The corresponding test statistic is based on a natural empirical version of the Palm mark distribution and a smoothed covariance estimator which turns out to be mean-square consistent. Our approach does not require independent marks and allows dependences bet...

12. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles and Square Speed of Sound Parameter in p-p or p-p-bar Collisions over an Energy Range from 0.053 to 7 TeV

Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton (p-p) or proton-antiproton (p-p-bar collisions over an energy range from 0.053 to 7 TeV are studied by using the four-component Landau hydrodynamic model. The results calculated by the model are in agreement with the experimental data of the UA5, PHOBOS, UA1, P238, CDF, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations which present orderly from low to high energies. According to the distribution widths of different components, the values and some features of square speed of sound parameter cs2 for “participant” and “spectator” quark components are obtained. It is shown that the speed of sound for “participant” quark components agrees approximately with that for “spectator” quark components in the error ranges. The present work is useful for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions in the related energy range

13. Bi-normalized response spectral characteristics of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

徐龙军; 谢礼立

2004-01-01

To develop uniform and seismic environment-dependent design spectrum, common acceleration response spectral characteristics need to be identified. In this paper, a bi-normalized response spectrum (BNRS) is proposed, which is defined as a spectrum of peak response acceleration normalized with respect to peak acceleration of the excitation plotted vs. the natural period of the system normalized with respect to the spectrum predominant period, Tp. Based on a statistical analysis of records from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the conventionally normalized response spectrum(NRS) and the BNRS are examined to account for the effects of soil conditions, epicentral distance, hanging wall and damping. It is found that compared to the NRS, the BNRS is much less dependent on these factors. Finally, some simple relationships between the BNRS tor a specified damping ratio and that for a damping ratio of 5%, and between the spectra predominant period and epicentral distance for different soil types are provided.

14. Search for the Z_1(4050)^+ and Z_2(4250)^+ States in bar B^0 to chi_{c1} K^- pi^+ and B^+ to chi_{c1} K^0_S pi^+

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2012-04-10

We search for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} states, reported by the Belle Collaboration, decaying to {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} in the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} where {chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}. The data were collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at center-of-mass energy 10.58 GeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 429 fb{sup -1}. In this analysis, we model the background-subtracted, efficiency-corrected {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution using the K{pi} mass distribution and the corresponding normalized K{pi} Legendre polynomial moments, and then test the need for the inclusion of resonant structures in the description of the {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution. No evidence is found for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} resonances, and 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions are reported for the corresponding B-meson decay modes.

15. A $\\chi^2$ veto for continuous wave searches

de la Jordana, Llucia Sancho

2008-01-01

$\\chi^2$ vetoes are commonly used in searching for gravitational waves, in particular for broad-band signals, but they can also be applied to narrow-band continuous wave signals, such as those expected from rapidly rotating neutron stars. In this paper we present a $\\chi^2$ veto adapted to the Hough transform searches for continuous gravitational wave signals; we characterize the $\\chi^2$-significance plane for different frequency bands; and discuss the expected performance of this veto in LIGO analysis.

16. O Tai Chi Chuan na percussão

Teixeira, Mário Jorge Peixoto

2013-01-01

A good motricity and a strong psyche that allow for excellence in performance are essential in musical execution. Since Tai Chi Chuan is an activity that implies a considerable psychomotor and psychological development, it is the aim of this thesis to assess whether the practice of Tai Chi Chuan can be an optimising factor in a percussionist’s performance. Based on the outstanding physical and psychological effects that result from the practice of Tai Chi Chuan and the ce...

17. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

Ching Lan

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi. Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction, rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia, orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder, cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications.

18. Dicty_cDB: CHI194 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available 58.1 V112D8 mTn-3xHA/lacZ Insertion Library, strain Y2278 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic 5', genomic survey se...) Frame A: ksnfi*ii*knk*ynikndiisnylmy*gn*ndlktstrsi*kkyknsnkeiisinwfsd nwyifsictsmvfvtnwmdiygysmlwiilcwvcmw...uolar 4.0 %: nuclear 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for CHI194 is end 5' end seq. ID CHI194F 5' end se...CTTT TAATGGTTTAGTTTATAATCATTCATTTGCTGCTAGAAATTATTTGGATCTTTATAGAGT TGCTTTATTATCAAANNAATAAAATTAAATCATT Length of 3' end se...q. 754 Connected seq. ID CHI194P Connected seq. >CHI194P.Seq AAATCAAA

19. Graphs with $\\chi=\\Delta$ have big cliques

Cranston, Daniel W.; Rabern, Landon

2013-01-01

Brooks' Theorem states that if a graph has $\\Delta\\ge 3$ and $\\omega \\le \\Delta$, then $\\chi \\le \\Delta$. Borodin and Kostochka conjectured that if $\\Delta\\ge 9$ and $\\omega\\le \\Delta-1$, then $\\chi\\le \\Delta-1$. We show that if $\\Delta\\ge 13$ and $\\omega \\le \\Delta-4$, then $\\chi\\le \\Delta-1$. For a graph $G$, let $\\mathcal{H}$ denote the subgraph of $G$ induced by vertices of degree $\\Delta$. We also show that if $\\omega\\le \\Delta-1$ and $\\omega(\\mathcal{H})\\le \\Delta-6$, then $\\chi\\le \\Del... 20. Search for B --> chi_c K(*) decays Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Borgland, A W; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brochard, F; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bulten, H; Burchat, Patricia R; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Christ, S; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Colecchia, F; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L M; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Dickopp, M; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Druzhinin, V P; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Elsen, E E; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Farbin, A; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B J; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J M; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Geddes, N I; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Green, M G; Greene, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Honscheid, K; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Ivanchenko, V N; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Laplace, S; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Libby, J; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, A; Lü, C; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Miftakov, V; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Paick, K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petrak, S; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Re, V; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, Michael T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Rubin, A E; Ryd, A; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sandrelli, F; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Soha, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; T'Jampens, S; Tan, P; Tantot, L; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thiessen, D; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Treadwell, E; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Vuagnin, G; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; La Vaissière, C de 2004-01-01 We report on the search for the factorization suppressed decays B -> chi_c0 K(*) and B -> chi_c2 K(*), with chi_c0 and chi_c2 decaying into J/psi gamma. We use a sample of 124 million BBbar events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. No significant signal is found and upper bounds for the branching fractions are obtained. All results are preliminary. 1. chi_c0 and chi_c2 Decays into eta eta, eta eta', and eta' eta' Final States Adams, G S; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; López, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; al, et 2006-01-01 Using a sample of 3 x 10^6 psi(2S) decays collected by the CLEO III and CLEO_c detector configurations, we present results of a study of \\chi_{c0} and \\chi_{c2} decays into eta-eta, eta-etaprime, and etaprime-etaprime final states. We find B(chi_{c0} -> eta-eta)= (0.31+-0.05+-0.04+-0.02)%, B(chi_{c0} -> eta-etaprime) etaprime-etaprime) = (0.17 +- 0.04 +-0.02 +-0.01)%. We also present upper limits for the decays of \\chi_{c2} into these final states. These results give information on the decay mechanism of \\chi_c states into pseudoscalars. 2. Square Planar Monopole Antenna Ammann, Max 1999-01-01 A planar monopole may be realised by replacing the wire element of a conventional monopole with a planar element. In this case, the planar element which is square, is located above a groundplane and fed using an SMA connector as illustrated. The square monopole has a simple geometry and a smaller bandwidth compared to the circular-disc monopole. However, it is still a broadband antenna with a typical impedance bandwidth of 75 % at S band. This broadband antenna shows a constant radiation patt... 3. Community Recovery and Sustainable Development in the Region of Seismic Center in Taiwan after the 1999 CHI-CHI Earthquake Hsiu-Jen Jennifer, Yeh 2006-01-01 International audience The major purpose of this study is to evaluate the progress of community recovery and sustainable development of the region of seismic centre in Taiwan after the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake. Data analyzed in this study were collected from a face-to-face interview survey conducted in the research site of Tzu-Shan Town, Nan-Tau County, an area close to the epicentre of Chi-Chi Town, Nan-Tau County. The analysis of this study indicates that before the earthquake the residen... 4. Dicty_cDB: CHI458 [Dicty_cDB Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI458 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15607-1 CHI458P (Link to Original ... n*il nnnnynknnhqkhtlkkhkn*nkkkke*nn*kkiekimfqkv*lk*mis *qnlnh*ikll nlfhqmvivyikqlqtny*likilmkkrvkvmqrn*eq* ... 5. Description of the particle distribution in the space of composite suspension casting by statistical methods J. Grabian 2011-01-01 Full Text Available This article presents a description of the reinforcement phase distribution in the space of composite suspension casting. The statistical methods used include Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient combined with the significance test, Chi-square test of independence and the test of contingency. The reinforcement phase consisted of SiC particles (15% by weight, and the matrix was AlSi11 alloy. Composites were made by mechanical stir casting method. 6. Description of the particle distribution in the space of composite suspension casting by statistical methods J. Grabian; K. Gawdzińska; W. Przetakiewicz; M. Pijanowski 2011-01-01 This article presents a description of the reinforcement phase distribution in the space of composite suspension casting. The statistical methods used include Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient combined with the significance test, Chi-square test of independence and the test of contingency. The reinforcement phase consisted of SiC particles (15% by weight, and the matrix was AlSi11 alloy). Composites were made by mechanical stir casting method. 7. Model Waveform Accuracy Requirements for the$\\chi^2$Discriminator Lindblom, Lee 2016-01-01 This paper derives accuracy standards for model gravitational waveforms required to ensure proper use of the$\\chi^2$discriminator test in gravitational wave (GW) data analysis. These standards are different from previously established requirements for detection and waveform parameter measurement based on signal-to-noise optimization. We present convenient formulae both for evaluating and interpreting the contribution of model errors to measured$\\chi^2$values. Motivated by these formula, we also present an enhanced, complexified variant of the standard$\\chi^2$statistic used in GW searches. While our results are not directly relevant to current searches (which use the$\\chi^2$test only to veto signal candidates with extremely high$\\chi^2values), they could be useful in future GW searches and as figures of merit for model gravitational waveforms. 8. The Square Kilometre Array Lazio, Joseph 2009-01-01 The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is intended as the next-generation radio telescope and will address fundamental questions in astrophysics, physics, and astrobiology. The international science community has developed a set of Key Science Programs: (1) Emerging from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization, (2) Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, and Dark Energy, (3) The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Magnetism, (4) Strong Field Tests of Gravity Using Pulsars and Black Holes, and (5) The Cradle of... 9. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Ching Lan 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery, congestive heart failure (HF, and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD. 10. Dicty_cDB: CHI575 [Dicty_cDB Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI575 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16427-1 - (Link to Original site) ... yfg*ytlyiyiiq*nviffrtdfrkdgfhr*ry*ihgns*sck*irkryf*ngs ... nl*k*ncykiisins*fsk*csrkcc*mfrfin*ks*rftsnrny*yiik ... n--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value CHI575 (CHI575 ... 003.10. 2 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116956 |AC ... 12. 7 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value (Q86KD1) RecNa ... 11. The Square Kilometre Array Rawlings, Steve 2011-01-01 We review the current status of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) by outlining the science drivers for its Phase-1 (SKA1) and setting out the timeline for the key decisions and milestones on the way to the planned start of its construction in 2016. We explain how Phase-2 SKA (SKA2) will transform the research scope of the SKA infrastructure, placing it amongst the great astronomical observatories and survey instruments of the future, and opening up new areas of discovery, many beyond the confines of conventional astronomy. 12. Dynamic mechanisms of the post-seismic deformation following large events:Case study of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan of China ZHU ShouBiao; CAI YongEn 2009-01-01 The mechanism of postseismic deformation related to strong earthquakes is important in geodynamics,and presumably afterslip or viscoelastic relaxation is responsible for the postsesimic deformation.The 1999 Chi-Chi,Taiwan of China,earthquake occurred in the region where GPS observation station is most densely deployed in the world.The unprecedented GPS data provides a unique opportunity to study the physical processes of postseismic deformation.Here we assume that the interactions of viscoelastic relaxation,afterslip,fault zone collapse,poroelastic rebound,flow of underground fluids,and all these combined contribute to the surface displacements following the main shock.In order to know the essence of the postseismic deformation after the strong event,fault zone collapse,poroelastic rebound,flow of underground fluids,and so on,are represented equivalently by the variations of the focal medium properties.Therefore,the viscoelastic relaxation,afterslip,and the variations of the equivalent focal medium properties are inverted by applying the GPS temporal series measurement data with viscoelastic finite element method.Both the afterslip rate distribution along the fault and the afterslip evolution with time are obtained by means of inversion.Also,the preliminary result suggests that viscosities of the lower crust and the upper mantle in Taiwan region is 2.7×10~(18) and 4.2×10~(20) Pa.s,respectively.Moreover,the inversion results indicate that the afterslip contributing to postseismic deformation of 44.6% in 450 days after the Chi-Chi earthquake,with 34.7% caused by the viscous relaxation and 20.7% by other factors such as fault zone collapse,poroelastic rebound,and the flow of liquids. 13. Dynamic mechanisms of the post-seismic deformation following large events:Case study of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan of China 2009-01-01 The mechanism of postseismic deformation related to strong earthquakes is important in geodynamics, and presumably afterslip or viscoelastic relaxation is responsible for the postsesimic deformation. The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan of China, earthquake occurred in the region where GPS observation station is most densely deployed in the world. The unprecedented GPS data provides a unique opportunity to study the physical processes of postseismic deformation. Here we assume that the interactions of viscoelastic relaxation, afterslip, fault zone collapse, poroelastic rebound, flow of underground fluids, and all these combined contribute to the surface displacements following the main shock. In order to know the essence of the postseismic deformation after the strong event, fault zone collapse, poroelastic rebound, flow of underground fluids, and so on, are represented equivalently by the variations of the focal medium properties. Therefore, the viscoelastic relaxation, afterslip, and the variations of the equivalent focal medium properties are inverted by applying the GPS temporal series measurement data with viscoelastic finite element method. Both the afterslip rate distribution along the fault and the afterslip evolution with time are obtained by means of inversion. Also, the preliminary result suggests that viscosities of the lower crust and the upper mantle in Taiwan region is 2.7×1018 and 4.2×1020 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the inversion results indicate that the afterslip contributing to postseismic deformation of 44.6% in 450 days after the Chi-Chi earthquake, with 34.7% caused by the viscous relaxation and 20.7% by other factors such as fault zone collapse, poroelastic rebound, and the flow of liquids. 14. Best fitting distributions for the standard duration annual maximum precipitations in the Aegean Region Halil Karahan 2013-03-01 Full Text Available Knowing the properties like amount, duration, intensity, spatial and temporal variation etc of precipitation which is the primary input of water resources is required for planning, design, construction and operation studies of various sectors like water resources, agriculture, urbanization, drainage, flood control and transportation. For executing the mentioned practices, reliable and realistic estimations based on existing observations should be made. The first step of making a reliable estimation is to test the reliability of existing observations. In this study, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Square goodness of distribution fit tests were applied for determining to which distribution the measured standard duration maximum precipitation values (in the years 1929-2005 fit in the meteorological stations operated by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMİ which are located in the city and town centers of Aegean Region. While all the observations fit to GEV distribution according to Anderson-Darling test, it was seen that short, mid-term and long duration precipitation observations generally fit to GEV, Gamma and Log-normal distribution according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Chi-square tests. To determine the parameters of the chosen probability distribution, maximum likelihood (LN2, LN3, EXP2, Gamma3, probability-weighted distribution (LP3,Gamma2, L-moments (GEV and least squares (Weibull2 methods were used according to different distributions. 15. Use of dipole sum rules to estimate upper and lower bounds for radiative and total widths of chi (3414), chi (3508), and chi (3552) Upper and lower bounds on the widths for chi/sub J/→γpsi (3095) can be estimated by assuming E1 transitions and approximate Russell-Saunders coupling for the cc-bar system. Experimental widths for psi (3684) →γchi/sub J/ the lower bound more restrictive, giving radiative widths of 160→240, 230→400, and 280→480 keV for 3414-, 3508-, and 3552-MeV states, respectively. Cascade branching ratio data permit estimation of the total widths as >1.6, 0.3-1.5, and 0.6-4 MeV, respectively 16. Tai chi: physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health Li, J.; Hong, Y.; Chan, K. 2001-01-01 Objectives—To assess the characteristic effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on metabolism and cardiorespiratory response, and to measure its effect on cardiorespiratory function, mental control, immune capacity, and the prevention of falls in elderly people. 17. Dicty_cDB: CHI228 [Dicty_cDB Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI228 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16517-1 - (Link to Original site) ... *edmqvqv* ekviy*elkiffhlqevllnvvykvfqifilninhyymif*ivf *rtn*kkplihtyqql nqerdhkm*lylwlvvslmkrh*pftllil*ilv ... 18. ELMO Bumpy Square proposal The ELMO Bumpy Square (EBS) concept consists of four straight magnetic mirror arrays linked by four high-field corner coils. Extensive calculations show that this configuration offers major improvements over the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) in particle confinement, heating, transport, ring production, and stability. The components of the EBT device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory can be reconfigured into a square arrangement having straight sides composed of EBT coils, with new microwave cavities and high-field corners designed and built for this application. The elimination of neoclassical convection, identified as the dominant mechanism for the limited confinement in EBT, will give the EBS device substantially improved confinement and the flexibility to explore the concepts that produce this improvement. The primary goals of the EBS program are twofold: first, to improve the physics of confinement in toroidal systems by developing the concepts of plasma stabilization using the effects of energetic electrons and confinement optimization using magnetic field shaping and electrostatic potential control to limit particle drift, and second, to develop bumpy toroid devices as attractive candidates for fusion reactors. This report presents a brief review of the physics analyses that support the EBS concept, discussions of the design and expected performance of the EBS device, a description of the EBS experimental program, and a review of the reactor potential of bumpy toroid configurations. Detailed information is presented in the appendices 19. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Ching Lan; Ssu-Yuan Chen; May-Kuen Wong; Jin Shin Lai 2013-01-01 Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. T... 20. Tai Chi Quan and Stroke Prevention and Rehabilitation Yoshinaga, Shuri; Cai, Dingfang 2013-01-01 Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability across the globe and remains the third leading cause of death in China, with the total stroke incidence increasing 6.7% annually from 1984 to 2004. The prevention of strokes is more important than their treatment. Tai Chi Quan is a slow and graceful Chinese exercise that includes a form of mindful meditation known for its health benefits. Many studies have shown that Tai Chi Quan not only improves gait, balance cap... 1. Dicty_cDB: CHI718 [Dicty_cDB Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI718 (Link to dictyBase) - G20569 DDB0188420 Contig-U11787-1 CHI718P (Lin ... 4 (Q9QZ71) RecName: Full=Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus ... rece... 82 2e-14 (Q9R031) RecName: Full=Xenotropic ... and polytropic retrovirus ... rece... 82 2e-14 AF131096_1( AF131096 |pid:none) M ... 2. Investigating Students' Understanding of Square Numbers and Square Roots Hiebert, Erica Jemm Aileen 2013-01-01 The ideas related to square numbers and square roots, despite the apparent simplicity, appear problematic to high school students. I inquired into students' understanding of square numbers and square roots, focusing on obstacles that students face in considering these concepts and solution approaches that they prefer. The study followed a modified analytic induction methodology. A written questionnaire was administered to 51 pre-calculus 11 students and followed up with clinical interviews w... 3. CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected the subcommit......The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected the...... tremendous amount of work from all areas of the human-computer interaction community. As co-chairs of the process, we are amazed at the ability of the community to organize itself to accomplish this task. We would like to thank the 2680 individual reviewers for their careful consideration of these papers. We...... that you enjoy these papers and notes, which represent the best research in human-computer interaction.... 4. Bayesian least squares deconvolution Asensio Ramos, A.; Petit, P. 2015-11-01 Aims: We develop a fully Bayesian least squares deconvolution (LSD) that can be applied to the reliable detection of magnetic signals in noise-limited stellar spectropolarimetric observations using multiline techniques. Methods: We consider LSD under the Bayesian framework and we introduce a flexible Gaussian process (GP) prior for the LSD profile. This prior allows the result to automatically adapt to the presence of signal. We exploit several linear algebra identities to accelerate the calculations. The final algorithm can deal with thousands of spectral lines in a few seconds. Results: We demonstrate the reliability of the method with synthetic experiments and we apply it to real spectropolarimetric observations of magnetic stars. We are able to recover the magnetic signals using a small number of spectral lines, together with the uncertainty at each velocity bin. This allows the user to consider if the detected signal is reliable. The code to compute the Bayesian LSD profile is freely available. 5. Bayesian least squares deconvolution Ramos, A Asensio 2015-01-01 Aims. To develop a fully Bayesian least squares deconvolution (LSD) that can be applied to the reliable detection of magnetic signals in noise-limited stellar spectropolarimetric observations using multiline techniques. Methods. We consider LSD under the Bayesian framework and we introduce a flexible Gaussian Process (GP) prior for the LSD profile. This prior allows the result to automatically adapt to the presence of signal. We exploit several linear algebra identities to accelerate the calculations. The final algorithm can deal with thousands of spectral lines in a few seconds. Results. We demonstrate the reliability of the method with synthetic experiments and we apply it to real spectropolarimetric observations of magnetic stars. We are able to recover the magnetic signals using a small number of spectral lines, together with the uncertainty at each velocity bin. This allows the user to consider if the detected signal is reliable. The code to compute the Bayesian LSD profile is freely available. 6. Generalized conjugate gradient squared Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands) 1994-12-31 In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings. 7. Prompt charmonia production and polarization at LHC in the NRQCD with kt-factorization. Part II:\\chi_c$mesons Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P 2015-01-01 In the framework of kt-factorization approach,the production of prompt$\\chi_c$mesons in pp collisions at the LHC energies is studied. Our consideration is based on the off-shell amplitudes for hard partonic subprocesses$g^*g^*\\to\\chi_{cJ}$and non-relativistic QCD formalism for bound states. The transverse momentum dependent (unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Taking into account both color singlet and color octet contributions, we deduce the corresponding non-perturbative long-distance matrix elements from the fits to the latest ATLAS data on$\\chi_{c1}$and$\\chi_{c2}$transverse momentum distributions at$\\sqrt s = 7$TeV. We find that these distributions at small and moderate pt are formed mainly by the color singlet components. We successfully described the data on the differential cross sections and relative production rates$\\sigma(\\chi_...

8. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

2016-01-15

We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world. PMID:26549554

9. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

2016-04-01

1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

10. Squaring the Magic

Cacciatori, Sergio L; Marrani, Alessio

2012-01-01

We construct and classify all possible Magic Squares (MS's) related to Euclidean or Lorentzian rank-3 simple Jordan algebras, both on normed division algebras and split composition algebras. Besides the known Freudenthal-Rozenfeld-Tits MS, the single-split G\\"unaydin-Sierra-Townsend MS, and the double-split Barton-Sudbery MS, we obtain other 7 Euclidean and 10 Lorentzian novel MS's. We elucidate the role and the meaning of the various non-compact real forms of Lie algebras, entering the MS's as symmetries of theories of Einstein-Maxwell gravity coupled to non-linear sigma models of scalar fields, possibly endowed with local supersymmetry, in D = 3, 4 and 5 space-time dimensions. In particular, such symmetries can be recognized as the U-dualities or the stabilizers of scalar manifolds within space-time with standard Lorentzian signature or with other, more exotic signatures, also relevant to suitable compactifications of the so-called M*- and M'- theories. Symmetries pertaining to some attractor U-orbits of ma...

11. Distribution Fitting 2. Pearson-Fisher, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Wilks-Shapiro, Cramer-von-Misses and Jarque-Bera statistics

Jantschi, Lorentz; BOLBOACA, Sorana D.

2009-01-01

The methods measuring the departure between observation and the model were reviewed. The following statistics were applied on two experimental data sets: Chi-Squared, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Wilks-Shapiro, and Jarque-Bera. Both investigated sets proved not to be normal distributed. The Grubbs test identified one outlier and after its removal the normality of the set of 205 chemical active compounds was accepted. The second data set proved not to have any outliers. Kolmogorov-Smi...

12. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods in Ho Chi Minh City

Duy Tung BUI

2015-11-01

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the underlying factors affecting consumer acceptance of functional foods. The contribution of this study is to better understand customer willingness to buy such products in Ho Chi Minh City by shedding light on how socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants affect consumer's choices of foods. We conducted a survey using 217 respondents from Ho Chi Minh City. Next, we develop a binary-probit model to quantify the impact of each factor on consumer acceptance. The results show that having a sick relative, beliefs in health benefits positively affect acceptance level. Other than that, old people in Ho Chi Minh City tend to reject the use of functional foods. However, when they are provided with enough knowledge, they are the most intensive buyers of these products. Implications and further researches are also discussed.

13. New Squaring Schema for Residue Number System

2011-07-01

Full Text Available Residue number systems are an uncommon and non weighted numerical system. Some of methods of this systems are widely used in applications such as: digital signal processing, digital filters, coding, digital communication, RSA, Adhoc networks, distributed Storage and Retrieval Systems, error detection and correction and error tolerable systems. Computing the square is one of the important problems in this system that are applied in DSP applications based on RNS and even in computing the product. There are many methods that can compute square but most of them have a low speed or need high space. A new approach is proposed in this paper that can decrease squaring speed to a transistor delay

14. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of {approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

15. Observation of B0 -> chi_c0 K*0 and Evidence of B+ -> chi_c0 K*+

Aubert, : B.

2008-08-13

The authors present the observation of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0} as well as evidence of B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}, with an 8.9 and a 3.6 standard deviation significance, respectively, using a data sample of 454 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B meson factory located at the Standard Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The measured branching fractions are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) = (1.4 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the first quoted errors are statistical and the second are systematic. They obtain a branching fraction upper limit of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) < 2.1 x 10{sup -4} at the 90% confidence level.

16. Dicty_cDB: CHI642 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI642 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14351-1 CHI642E (Link to Original ... 37 (Q4G069) RecName: Full=Regulator of microtubule dynamics ... protein... 154 3e-36 AF151848_1( AF151848 |pid:non ... 36 (Q96DB5) RecName: Full=Regulator of microtubule dynamics ... protein... 153 5e-36 (Q5R8E4) RecName: Full=Regula ...

17. Dicty_cDB: CHI478 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI478 (Link to dictyBase) - G01678 DDB0185605 Contig-U11784-1 CHI478P (Lin ... lis melanin b... 82 4e-14 ( P07524 ) RecName: Full=Tyrosinase ; EC=1.14.18.1; AltNam... 81 9e-14 AP009493_2447( A ... us subsp. gri... 80 2e-13 ( P06845 ) RecName: Full=Tyrosinase ; EC=1.14.18.1; AltNam... 79 4e-13 A24089( A24089 ) ...

18. Search for Surface Magnetic Fields in Mira Stars. First Detection in chi Cyg

Lèbre, A; Fabas, N; Gillet, D; Herpin, F; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Petit, P

2013-01-01

In order to complete the knowledge of the magnetic field and of its influence during the transition from Asymptotic Giant Branch to Planetary Nebulae stages, we have undertaken a search for magnetic fields at the surface of Mira stars. We used spectropolarimetric observations, collected with the Narval instrument at TBL, in order to detect - with Least Squares Deconvolution method - a Zeeman signature in the visible part of the spectrum. We present the first spectropolarimetric observations of the S-type Mira star chi Cyg, performed around its maximum light. We have detected a polarimetric signal in the Stokes V spectra and we have established its Zeeman origin. We claim that it is likely to be related to a weak magnetic field present at the photospheric level and in the lower part of the stellar atmosphere. We have estimated the strength of its longitudinal component to about 2-3 Gauss. This result favors a 1/r law for the variation of the magnetic field strength across the circumstellar envelope of chi Cyg....

19. Square Source Type Diagram

Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

2014-12-01

Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

20. Quantitative analysis of urban sprawl in Tripoli using Pearson's Chi-Square statistics and urban expansion intensity index

Al-sharif, Abubakr A. A.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri

2014-06-01

Urban expansion is a spatial phenomenon that reflects the increased level of importance of metropolises. The remotely sensed data and GIS have been widely used to study and analyze the process of urban expansions and their patterns. The capital of Libya (Tripoli) was selected to perform this study and to examine its urban growth patterns. Four satellite imageries of the study area in different dates (1984, 1996, 2002 and 2010) were used to conduct this research. The main goal of this work is identification and analyzes the urban sprawl of Tripoli metropolitan area. Urban expansion intensity index (UEII) and degree of freedom test were used to analyze and assess urban expansions in the area of study. The results show that Tripoli has sprawled urban expansion patterns; high urban expansion intensity index; and its urban development had high degree of freedom according to its urban expansion history during the time period (1984-2010). However, the novel proposed hypothesis used for zones division resulted in very good insight understanding of urban expansion direction and the effect of the distance from central business of district (CBD).

1. Measurement of hadronic production of the chi /sub 1//sup ++/(3507) and the chi /sub 2//sup ++/(3553) through their radiative decay to J/ psi

Lemoigne, Y; Barate, R; Bareyre, P; Bonamy, P; Borgeaud, P; Brabson, B B; Crittenden, R R; David, M; Duane, A; Gentit, F X; Heinz, R M; King, G J; Krider, J; Laurens, G; Marshall, T; McEwen, J G; Namjoshi, R; Nandi, B C; Pietrzyk, B; Villet, G; Websdale, D M; Wiejak, J; Zaninotti, S

1982-01-01

The chi /sub 1//sup ++/(3507) and the chi /sub 2//sup ++/(3553) states have been observed in the Goliath spectrometer at the CERN SPS in 185 GeV/c\\pi^{-}-Be collisions. Their radiative decays contribute 27.7% (for the chi /sub 1//sup ++/) and 12.8% (for the chi /sub 2//sup ++/) to J/ psi production. At this energy, their cross sections are 65+or-19 nb and 96+or-29 nb, respectively.

2. Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan

M. Hayakawa

2005-06-01

Full Text Available The Schumann resonance phenomenon has been monitored at Nakatsugawa (near Nagoya in Japan since the beginning of 1999, and due to the occurance of a severe earthquake (so-called Chi-chi earthquake on 21 September 1999 in Taiwan we have examined our Schumann resonance data at Nakatsugawa during the entire year of 1999. We have found a very anomalous effect in the Schumann resonance, possibly associated with two large land earthquakes (one is the Chi-chi earthquake and another one on 2 November 1999 (Chia-yi earthquake with a magnitude again greater than 6.0. Conspicuous effects are observed for the larger Chi-chi earthquake, so that we summarize the characteristics for this event. The anomaly is characterized mainly by the unusual increase in amplitude of the fourth Schumann resonance mode and a significant frequency shift of its peak frequency (~1.0Hz from the conventional value on the By magnetic field component which is sensitive to the waves propagating in the NS meridian plane. Anomalous Schumann resonance signals appeared from about one week to a few days before the main shock. Secondly, the goniometric estimation of the arrival angle of the anomalous signal is found to coincide with the Taiwan azimuth (the unresolved dual direction indicates toward South America. Also, the pulsed signals, such as the Q-bursts, were simultaneously observed with the "carrier" frequency around the peak frequency of the fourth Schumann resonance mode. The anomaly for the second event for the Chia-yi earthquake on 2 November had much in common. But, most likely due to a small magnitude, the anomaly appears one day before and lasts until one day after the main shock, with the enhancement at the fourth Schumann resonance mode being smaller in amplitude than the case of the Chi-chi earthquake. Yet, the other characteristics, including the goniometric direction finding result, frequency shift, etc., are nearly the same. Although the emphasis of

3. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

Franchet, Chi Nguyen

1996-01-01

The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

4. Modulational instability in the nonlocal chi(2)-model

Wyller, John Andreas; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole;

2007-01-01

are recovered as the asymptotic limit of one of the branches of the plane waves (i.e. the adiabatic branch or the acoustic branch) of the full chi((2))-model by means of a singular perturbational approach. It is also proven that the stability results for the adiabatic branch continuously approach...

5. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

2002-01-01

We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn aroun...

6. Dicty_cDB: CHI113 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI113 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14338-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 37591_59( DQ437591 |pid:none) Variola virus strain Sumatra ... 1970... 33 3.0 AL844504_205( AL844504 |pid:none) P ...

7. Dicty_cDB: CHI816 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI816 (Link to dictyBase) - G20190 DDB0202068 Contig-U14357-1 - (Link to O ... BD080275 |BD080275.1 Transgenic plant with altered morphology ... and endo-1,4-beta-glucanase gene, promoter and pro ...

8. Bisimulation Lattice of Asymmetric Chi Calculus with Mismatch

Dong Xiaoju(董笑菊); Zhong Farong; Fu Yuxi

2003-01-01

This paper carries out a systematic investigation into the bisimulation lattice of asymmetric chi calculus with a mismatch combinator. It is shown that all the sixty three L-bisimilarities collapse to twelve distinct relations and they form a bisimulation lattice with respect to set inclusion. The top of the lattice coincides with the barbed bisimilarity.

9. Dicty_cDB: CHI610 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI610 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14350-1 - (Link to Original site) ... CFFFFFWI*kk--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames ) Frame A: nsnthlthysqkkk**ink**in*ink*nfihi*lnfls* ...

10. Measurement of $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ production with $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV $pp$ collisions at ATLAS

2014-01-01

The prompt and non-prompt production cross-sections for the $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ charmonium states are measured in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using 4.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The $\\chi_{c}$ states are reconstructed through the radiative decay $\\chi_{c}\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\,\\gamma$ (with $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$) where photons are reconstructed from $\\gamma\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}$ conversions. The production rate of the $\\chi_{c2}$ state relative to the $\\chi_{c1}$ state is measured for prompt and non-prompt $\\chi_{c}$ as a function of $J/\\psi$ transverse momentum. The prompt $\\chi_{c}$ cross-sections are combined with existing measurements of prompt $J/\\psi$ production to derive the fraction of prompt $J/\\psi$ produced in feed-down from $\\chi_{c}$ decays. The fractions of $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ produced in $b$-hadron decays are also measured. In addition to measurements of inclusive $\\chi_{c}$ production, the branching fraction ${\\cal B}(B^... 11. A note on the asymptotic distribution of likelihood ratio tests to test variance components. Visscher, Peter M 2006-08-01 When using maximum likelihood methods to estimate genetic and environmental components of (co)variance, it is common to test hypotheses using likelihood ratio tests, since such tests have desirable asymptotic properties. In particular, the standard likelihood ratio test statistic is assumed asymptotically to follow a chi2 distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of parameters tested. Using the relationship between least squares and maximum likelihood estimators for balanced designs, it is shown why the asymptotic distribution of the likelihood ratio test for variance components does not follow a chi2 distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of parameters tested when the null hypothesis is true. Instead, the distribution of the likelihood ratio test is a mixture of chi2 distributions with different degrees of freedom. Implications for testing variance components in twin designs and for quantitative trait loci mapping are discussed. The appropriate distribution of the likelihood ratio test statistic should be used in hypothesis testing and model selection. PMID:16899155 12. From Square Dance to Mathematics Bremer, Zoe 2010-01-01 In this article, the author suggests a cross-curricular idea that can link with PE, dance, music and history. Teacher David Schmitz, a maths teacher in Illinois who was also a square dance caller, had developed a maths course that used the standard square dance syllabus to teach mathematical principles. He presents an intensive, two-week course… 13. Algebraic Squares: Complete and Incomplete. Gardella, Francis J. 2000-01-01 Illustrates ways of using algebra tiles to give students a visual model of competing squares that appear in algebra as well as in higher mathematics. Such visual representations give substance to the symbolic manipulation and give students who do not learn symbolically a way of understanding the underlying concepts of completing the square. (KHR) 14. Latin and Cross Latin Squares Emanouilidis, Emanuel 2008-01-01 Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of… 15. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land) Annibaldi, A.; Truzzi, C.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche - Ancona, Department of Marine Science, Ancona (Italy) 2007-02-15 Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the ''Mario Zucchelli'' Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 4.7 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Pb 13.2-81 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 33 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cu 126-628 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 378 {mu}g g{sup -1}). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m{sup -3} (average 3.4 pg m{sup -3}), Pb 8.7-48 pg m{sup -3} (average 24 pg m{sup -3}), Cu 75-365 pg m{sup -3} (average 266 pg m{sup -3}). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb ({proportional_to}10% and {proportional_to}5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not 16. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land). Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G 2007-02-01 Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the "Mario Zucchelli" Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 microg g(-1) (average 4.7 microg g(-1)), Pb 13.2-81 microg g(-1) (average 33 microg g(-1)), Cu 126-628 microg g(-1) (average 378 microg g(-1)). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m(-3) (average 3.4 pg m(-3)), Pb 8.7-48 pg m(-3) (average 24 pg m(-3)), Cu 75-365 pg m(-3) (average 266 pg m(-3)). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb (approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not quantified marine biogenic source, at least for Cd. The estimated natural 17. Equilibrium charge-state distributions of highly stripped ions in carbon foils Asymmetric equilibrium charge-state distributions observed for heavy ions (Z approx. >= 7) in carbon foils at high velocities (v > 3.6 x 108 Z0sup(.)45 cm s-1) are closely approximated by a simple statistical distribution: the reduced chi-squared model. The dependences of the mean charge and of the standard deviation of the charge on the projectile velocity are obtained by a previously-known and a newly-proposed relation, respectively. Finally charge-state fractions may be easily predicted using a simple formula depending only on the atomic number and on the velocity of the projectile. (orig.) 18. Analysis of random laser scattering pulse signals with lognormal distribution Yan Zhen-Gang; Bian Bao-Min; Wang Shou-Yu; Lin Ying-Lu; Wang Chun-Yong; Li Zhen-Hua 2013-01-01 The statistical distribution of natural phenomena is of great significance in studying the laws of nature.In order to study the statistical characteristics of a random pulse signal,a random process model is proposed theoretically for better studying of the random law of measured results.Moreover,a simple random pulse signal generation and testing system is designed for studying the counting distributions of three typical objects including particles suspended in the air,standard particles,and background noise.Both normal and lognormal distribution fittings are used for analyzing the experimental results and testified by chi-square distribution fit test and correlation coefficient for comparison.In addition,the statistical laws of three typical objects and the relations between them are discussed in detail.The relation is also the non-integral dimension fractal relation of statistical distributions of different random laser scattering pulse signal groups. 19. Measurement of the$\\chi_b(3P)$mass and of the relative rate of$\\chi_{b1}(1P)$and$\\chi_{b2}(1P)$production Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander 2014-01-01 The production of$\\chi_b$mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of$\\sqrt{s}=7$and$8$TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The$\\chi_b$mesons are identified through their decays to$\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$and$\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$using photons that converted to$e^+e^-$pairs in the detector. The$\\chi_b(3P)$meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of$\\chi_{b1}(1P)$and$\\chi_{b2}(1P)$mesons as a function of the$\\Upsilon(1S)$transverse momentum in the$\\chi_b$rapidity range 2.0<$y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the$\\chi_{b1}(3P)$and the$\\chi_{b2}(3P)$states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the$\\chi_{b1}(3P)$meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*} 20. A SUCCESSIVE LEAST SQUARES METHOD FOR STRUCTURED TOTAL LEAST SQUARES Plamen Y. Yalamov; Jin-yun Yuan 2003-01-01 A new method for Total Least Squares (TLS) problems is presented. It differs from previous approaches and is based on the solution of successive Least Squares problems.The method is quite suitable for Structured TLS (STLS) problems. We study mostly the case of Toeplitz matrices in this paper. The numerical tests illustrate that the method converges to the solution fast for Toeplitz STLS problems. Since the method is designed for general TLS problems, other structured problems can be treated similarly. 1. Rates of convergence for estimation and testing in multinomial distributions This paper is concerned with various problems involving the multinomial distribution. Chapter 1 contains an asymptotic power comparison between the likelihood ratio test and a class of chi-square tests. The power comparison is based on the fact that suitably scaled the test statistics can be approximated by a normal. The comparison is similar to Hoeffding but his power comparison is made using the theory of large deviations. Chapters 2-4 deal with estimation of a single parameter. Expansion for the estimators and their mean square error are given. Many papers in this area have appeared including Rao, Effron, Ghosh and Subramanyam, and Robertson. Other authors justify the calculations for one fixed value of the parameter, in this paper it is shown how the calculations can be justified over the whole parameter space. It is also shown that there are other estimation procedures which have the same properties as minimum chi-square and maximum likelihood estimates. Chapter 4 contains examples of the expansions. When the examples are applied to the logistic model the results agree quite well with a computer study done by Berkson. Chapter 5 discussed estimation in the log-linear model. Under a full model a prior is defined for which the Bayes estimates can easily be calculated. Estimates for the submodel are obtained by projections. The results show that the contrasts in the log-odds of Lindley are Bayes with respect to a suitable prior 2. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter 2002-01-01 We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around and collide, and above which they continue to move-away from each other. For in-plane interaction, the theory allows prediction of the Outcome of a collision through the inwards escape angle, i.e., ... 3. Feynman Rules of Higher-order Poles in CHY Construction Huang, Rijun; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie 2016-01-01 In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples. 4. Consumer Behaviour. Case: iPhone Ho Chi Minh City Tran, Thi Xuan Oanh 2016-01-01 The main aim of this thesis is to figure out the factors that have influenced consumer behaviour of young iPhone users in Ho Chi Minh City. In this study, the author draw a conclusion based on the data collected from the survey and proposed some feasible recommendations for Apple and other high-end smartphone companies to understand their consumers and enhance brand equity. For the secondary data, a variety of theories, including consumers’ characteristics, promotion and the decision mak... 5. Euclid Squares on Infinite Planes W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy; Ilanthenral, K.; Florentin Smarandache 2015-01-01 In this book for the first time the authors study the new type of Euclid squares in various planes like real plane, complex plane, dual number plane, special dual like number plane and special quasi dual number plane. 6. SQUARE AND RHOMBUS CENTRAL CONFIGURATIONS 2000-01-01 In this paper, we consider the flat central configurations of bodies using the characteristic set method. We completely solve two special cases of four planets, namely,the square and the rhombus. For the square case, we obtain that a square is a central configuration only in the case where the masses are equal and there exactly are two different square central configurations determined by the mass and the angular velocity; for the rhombus case, we obtain that if a rhombus is a central configuration, then the masses of the diagonal vertices must be equal. Furthermore, there are two or three or four different rhombus central configurations determined by the masses and the angular velocity. 7. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between Duramazwi ReChiShona and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona * Emmanuel Chabata 2011-10-01 Full Text Available Abstract: In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, now the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. During the compilation process, DRC was known as the General Shona Dictionary and DGC as the Advanced Shona Dictionary. A simple analysis of these titles shows that the dictionaries are similar in some ways and also different in others. The writer tries to show the ways in which DGC is regarded as a more advanced dictionary when compared to DRC. Although the argument of the article is mainly built on those differences which make DGC the more advanced, attention is also paid to the similarities between the dictionaries. Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, ALRI, DURAMAZWI RECHISHONA, DURAMAZWI GURU RECHISHONA, DICTIONARY, SHONA, HEADWORD, SENSE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, CORPUS, IDIOM, PROVERB, PITHY SAYING Opsomming: 'n Gevorderde woordeboek? Ooreenkomste en verskille tussen Duramazwi ReChiShona en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona. In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelykende ontleding van Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC gemaak. Sowel die DRC en DGC is eentalige Sjonawoordeboeke, saamgestel deur ?n span navorsers by die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, tans die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. Gedurende die samestellingsproses was DRC bekend as die Algemene Sjonawoordeboek en DGC as die Gevorderde Sjonawoordeboek. 'n Eenvoudige ontleding van hierdie titels toon dat die woordeboeke op sommige maniere eenders en op ander ook verskillend is. Die skrywer probeer die maniere aantoon waarop DGC beskou word as 'n meer gevorderde woordeboek wanneer dit met DRC vergelyk word. Alhoewel die argument van die artikel hoofsaaklik gebou is op daardie verskille wat DGC die gevorderdste maak, word ook aandag gegee aan 8. Amplitude analyses of the decays chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi- Adams, G S; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B 2011-01-01 Using a data sample of 2.59 x 10^7 psi(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-. We find evidence for a P-wave eta' pi scattering amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have exotic J^PC = 1^-+ and parameters consistent with the pi_1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a_0(980) -> eta' pi and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a_0(980) -> eta' pi)/B(a_0(980) -> eta pi) = 0.064 +- 0.014 +- 0.014. The pi pi spectrum produced with a recoiling eta is compared to that with eta' recoil. 9. Monte carlo simulation study of the square lattice S=1/2 quantum heisenberg antiferromagnet Kim, J K 1999-01-01 For the two dimensional S= 1/2 isotopic quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice, we report our results of an extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulation for various physical observables such as the correlation length xi, the staggered magnetic susceptibility chi sub S sub T , the structure factor peak value S(Q), the internal energy epsilon, and the uniform susceptibility chi sub u. We find that chi sub S sub T approx chi sup 2 T and S(Q) approx xi sup 2 T sup 2 , in agreement with the predictions of the conventional theory but in disagreement with recent experiments. Our estimate of the spin stiffness constant rho sub s and spin wave velocity c, from the low temperature behavior of the chi sub u is shown to be consistent with the theoretical prediction of the low temperature behavior of the epsilon, and of the xi provided an additional correction up to T sup 2. However, our data are definitely inconsistent with the scenario of the crossover for the xi. 10. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN 2004-01-01 To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard. 11. Maximum likelihood, least squares and penalized least squares for PET The EM algorithm is the basic approach used to maximize the log likelihood objective function for the reconstruction problem in PET. The EM algorithm is a scaled steepest ascent algorithm that elegantly handles the nonnegativity constraints of the problem. The authors show that the same scaled steepest descent algorithm can be applied to the least squares merit function, and that it can be accelerated using the conjugate gradient approach. The experiments suggest that one can cut the computation by about a factor of 3 by using this technique. The results also apply to various penalized least squares functions which might be used to produce a smoother image 12. Measurement of the Branching Fraction for B+- --> chi_c0 K+- Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljevic, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graugès-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H 2004-01-01 We present a measurement of the branching fraction of the decay B+- --> chi_c0 K+- from a sample of 89 million BB pairs collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The chi_c0 meson is reconstructed through its two-body decays to pi+ pi- and K+ K-. We measure BR(B+- --> chi_c0 K+-)* BR(chi_c0 --> pi+ pi-) = (1.32^{+0.28}_{-0.27}(stat) +- 0.09(syst))*10^-6 and BR(B+- --> chi_c0 K+-) * BR(chi_c0 --> K+ K-) = (1.49^{+0.36}_{-0.34}(stat) +- 0.11(syst))* 10^-6. Using the known values for the chi_c0 decays branching fractions, we combine these results to obtain BR(B+- --> chi_c0 K+-) = (2.7+-0.7)* 10^-4. 13. The best approximation of$P-$metric space of$\\chi^{2}-$defined by Musielak NAGARAJAN SUBRAMANIAN 2014-06-01 Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the idea of constructing sequence space$\\chi^{2}$of best approximation in$p-$metric defined by Musielak and also construct some general topological properties of approximation of$\\chi^{2}$14. Effect of tai chi exercise on proprioception of ankle and knee joints in old people Xu, D.; Hong, Y; Li, J.; Chan, K. 2004-01-01 Objectives: To assess if tai chi, a traditional Chinese form of exercise, could improve proprioception in old people and if the effects of tai chi on proprioception are more evident than other exercise forms in the elderly. 15. Comparison of Distribution Models for Peakflow, Flood Volume and Flood Duration Mohsen Salarpour 2013-06-01 Full Text Available Besides peakflow, a flood event is also characterized by other possibly mutually correlated variables. This study was aimed at exploring the statistical distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume for Johor River in south of Peninsular Malaysia. Hourly data were recorded for 45 years from the Rantau Panjang gauging station. The annual peakflow was selected from the maximum flow in each water year (July-June. Five probability distributions, namely Gamma, Generalized Pareto, Beta, Pearson and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV were used to model the distribution of peakflow events. Anderson-Darling and Chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the best fit. Goodness-of-fit tests at 5% level of significance indicate that all the models can be used to model the distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume. However, Generalized Pareto distribution was found to be the most suitable model when tested with the Anderson-Darling-Smirnov test and the Chi-squared test suggested that Generalized Extreme Value was the best for peakflow. The result of this research can be used to improve flood frequency analysis. 16. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae Li-En Yang; Xing-Qi Huang; Yu Hang; Yin-Yin Deng; Qin-Qin Lu; Shan Lu 2014-01-01 Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of a-and b-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, b-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxy-lase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional comple-mentation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from b-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumu-lation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a b-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible e-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection. 17.$\\chi^2$-confidence sets in high-dimensional regression van de Geer, Sara; Stucky, Benjamin 2015-01-01 We study a high-dimensional regression model. Aim is to construct a confidence set for a given group of regression coefficients, treating all other regression coefficients as nuisance parameters. We apply a one-step procedure with the square-root Lasso as initial estimator and a multivariate square-root Lasso for constructing a surrogate Fisher information matrix. The multivariate square-root Lasso is based on nuclear norm loss with$\\ell_1$-penalty. We show that this procedure leads to an as... 18. Least-squares dosimetry unfolding: the program STAY'SL. [STAY'SL Code Perey, F. G. 1977-10-01 A PDP-10 FORTRAN IV computer program STAY'SL, which solves the dosimetry unfolding problem by the method of least squares, is described. The solution (the output spectrum and its covariance matrix) is calculated by minimizing chi-square based on the input data (the activation data, the input spectrum, the dosimetry cross sections and their uncertainties given by covariance matrices). The solution reflects therefore the uncertainties in all of the input data and their correlations. The correlations among the various dosimetry cross sections are taken into account; however, the activation data, input spectrum and cross sections as classes are assumed to be uncorrelated with each other. 19. Search for Factorization-Suppressed$B \\to{ chi_c} K^(*)$Decays Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, S; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H 2005-01-01 We search for the factorization-suppressed decays B -> chi_c0 K(*) and B -> chi_c2 K(*), with chi_c0 and chi_c2 decaying into J/psi gamma using a sample of 124 10^6 BBbar events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. 20. Squared Metric Facility Location Problem Fernandes, Cristina G; Miyazawa, Flávio K; Pedrosa, Lehilton L C 2011-01-01 Jain et al. proposed two well-known algorithms for the Metric Facility Location Problem (MFLP), that achieve approximation ratios of 1.861 and 1.61. Mahdian et al. combined the latter algorithm with scaling and greedy augmentation techniques, obtaining a 1.52-approximation for the MFLP. We consider a generalization of the Squared Euclidean Facility Location Problem, when the distance function is a squared metric, which we call Squared Metric Facility Location Problem (SMFLP). We show that the algorithms of Jain et al. and of Mahdian et al., when applied to this variant of the facility location, achieve approximation ratios of 2.87, 2.43, and 2.17, respectively. It is shown that, for the SMFLP, there is no 2.04-approximation algorithm, assuming P$\

1. A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square

2012-01-01

For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…

2. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

Full Text Available ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: taichi_nccamIMG_2962.jpg © Mariann Seriff ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Video › Tai Chi and Qi Gong for ...

3. Quasi-least squares regression

Shults, Justine

2014-01-01

Drawing on the authors' substantial expertise in modeling longitudinal and clustered data, Quasi-Least Squares Regression provides a thorough treatment of quasi-least squares (QLS) regression-a computational approach for the estimation of correlation parameters within the framework of generalized estimating equations (GEEs). The authors present a detailed evaluation of QLS methodology, demonstrating the advantages of QLS in comparison with alternative methods. They describe how QLS can be used to extend the application of the traditional GEE approach to the analysis of unequally spaced longitu

4. Signed shape tilings of squares

Keating, Kevin

1998-01-01

Let T be a tile in the Cartesian plane made up of finitely many rectangles whose corners have rational coordinates and whose sides are parallel to the coordinate axes. This paper gives necessary and sufficient conditions for a square to be tilable by finitely many \\Q-weighted tiles with the same shape as T, and necessary and sufficient conditions for a square to be tilable by finitely many \\Z-weighted tiles with the same shape as T. The main tool we use is a variant of F. W. Barnes's algebrai...

5. How The Semiotic Square Came

2012-01-01

In this paper, I intend to give a presentation of the diagram known in semiotics as “the semiotic square”. More precisely, I would like to retrace semiotic square’s origins and early history until its “official” presentation in a dictionary of semiotics. One would expect that the logical square should have taken a great part in the invention of the semiotic diagram. However, the trajectory of the semiotic square was more fluctuating and heterogeneous than what is expected a priori, coming und...

6. Least Squares Ranking on Graphs

Hirani, Anil N.; Kalyanaraman, Kaushik; Watts, Seth

2010-01-01

Given a set of alternatives to be ranked, and some pairwise comparison data, ranking is a least squares computation on a graph. The vertices are the alternatives, and the edge values comprise the comparison data. The basic idea is very simple and old: come up with values on vertices such that their differences match the given edge data. Since an exact match will usually be impossible, one settles for matching in a least squares sense. This formulation was first described by Leake in 1976 for ...

7. Dicty_cDB: CHI614 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available 850F7 (Roswell Park Cancer Institute Human BAC Library) complete sequence. 38 0.53 5 CR382125 |CR382125.1 Kluyveromyces lact...AAACCTTATTATCCA ATATTTTATTATCAGGTTTTAGG Length of 3' end seq. 743 Connected seq. ID CHI614P Connected seq. >...IILVXIINXVYNXFSGHS SEHTKNXLKXASKTSKKX--- ---DNHTFLRENRDPVKKMKHLPQGIL*sksirerffigfgtwhwwcts...ENRDPVKKMKHLPQGIL*sksirerffigfgtwhwwctsfsqss*ti*lc isitllvatyss*yv*tlvlcrn*sfmrtqisiikhwsrsksystmskrw*nya*ysts...d in the head. 40 2.1 2 CR238085 |CR238085.1 Forward strand read from insert in 5'HPRT insertion

8. Dicty_cDB: CHI740 [Dicty_cDB

Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI740 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16419-1 - (Link to Original site) ... krftxchenctx** Frame B: ---xkttslvfkmxtks*m*i**prssmlc kgsp**mfikmshmamnvklitmvknvxsd pidhhhqkfvh*dahqnmnv ... slrcptwp*m*s*sqw*rmlxqi p*ttttrslfikmptkt*m*i**sw*kmlc kdsl**sl*frlw*rf*m*n*t*wfkmlc p frkttpttt*km**empxrp ... *m*s*stwkrmlrccp*txtkmlfkmstkt*m*sqpxw*r mlc *sspr*mfiemstrp*m*s*stwkrmxrccp*tttemlikmstkt*m*nqs ... lw*rml c *k*k*lfnl*rpktvkekvyxvp*klyxlik Homology vs CSM-cD ...

9. Two-Photon Widths of the chi_cJ States of Charmonium

Ecklund, K M; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G

2008-01-01

Using a data sample of 24.5 million psi(2S) the reactions psi(2S)->gamma chi_cJ, chi_cJ->gamma gamma have been studied for the first time to determine the two-photon widths of the chi_cJ states of charmonium in their decay into two photons. The measured quantities are B(psi(2S)->gamma chi_c0)xB(chi_c0->gamma gamma)=(2.22+-0.32+-0.10)x10^-5, and B(psi(2S)->gamma chi_c2)xB(chi_c2->gamma gamma)=(2.70+-0.28+-0.15)x10^-5. Using values for B(psi(2S)->gamma chi_c0,c2) and \\Gamma(chi_c0,c2) from the literature the two-photon widths are derived to be \\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c0)=(2.53+-0.37+-0.26) keV, \\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c2)=(0.60+-0.06+-0.06) keV, and R=\\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c2)/\\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c0)= 0.237+-0.043+-0.034. The importance of the measurement of R is emphasized. For the forbidden transition, chi_c1->gamma gamma, an upper limit of \\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c1)<0.03 keV is established.

10. Investigation of a Dielectric Square Resonator with Microwave Experiments

Bittner, S; Dietz, B; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A

2014-01-01

We present a detailed experimental study of the symmetry properties and the momentum space representation of the field distributions of a dielectric square resonator as well as the comparison with a semiclassical model. The experiments have been performed with a flat ceramic microwave resonator and both the resonance spectra and field distributions were measured with different antenna configurations. The momentum space representation allows for a better understanding of the symmetry properties of the field distributions and the determination of the refractive index. The length spectrum deduced from the measured resonance spectrum and the trace formula for the dielectric square resonator are discussed in the framework of the semiclassical model.

11. A square from similar rectangles

Dorichenko, Sergey; Skopenkov, Mikhail

2013-01-01

In the present popular science paper we determine when a square can be dissected into rectangles similar to a given rectangle. The approach to the question is based on a physical interpretation using electrical networks. Only secondary school background is assumed in the paper.

12. Two-photon widths of the $\\chi_{c0, 2}$ states and helicity analysis for $\\chi_{c2}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma$}

Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R B; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M B; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A C; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, Kun; Liu, Kai; Liu, K Y; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S P; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ulrich, M U; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M W; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A Z; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

2012-01-01

Based on a data sample of 106 M $\\psi^{\\prime}$ events collected with the BESIII detector, the decays $\\psi^{\\prime}\\ar\\gamma\\chi_{c0, 2}$,$\\chi_{c0, 2}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma$ are studied to determine the two-photon widths of the $\\chi_{c0, 2}$ states. The two-photon decay branching fractions are determined to be ${\\cal B}(\\chi_{c0}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma) = (2.24\\pm 0.19\\pm 0.12\\pm 0.08)\\times 10^{-4}$ and ${\\cal B}(\\chi_{c2}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma) = (3.21\\pm 0.18\\pm 0.17\\pm 0.13)\\times 10^{-4}$. From these, the two-photon widths are determined to be $\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c0}) = (2.33\\pm0.20\\pm0.13\\pm0.17)$ keV, $\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c2}) = (0.63\\pm0.04\\pm0.04\\pm0.04)$ keV, and $\\cal R$ $=\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c2})/\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c0})=0.271\\pm 0.029\\pm 0.013\\pm 0.027$, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and those from the PDG ${\\cal B}(\\psi^{\\prime}\\ar\\gamma\\chi_{c0,2})$ and $\\Gamma(\\chi_{c0,2})$ errors, respectively. The ratio of the two-photon widths for helicity \\lambda=0... 13. Exclusive Baryon-Antibaryon Decays of the chi_cJ Mesons Naik, P; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; Méndez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A 2008-01-01 Using a sample of 2.59 \\times 10^7 psi(2S) decays collected by the CLEO--c detector, we present results of a study of chi_{cJ} (J=0,1,2) decays into baryon-antibaryon final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the chi_cJ -> p-pbar and chi_cJ -> Lambda-Lambdabar branching fractions, and the first measurements of chi_c0 decays to other hyperons. These results illuminate the decay mechanism of the chi_c states. 14. Tai Chi as a form of exercise training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Leung, Regina W M; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A 2013-12-01 Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art which incorporates elements of strengthening, balance, postural alignment and concentration. The benefits of Tai Chi in the healthy population have been widely examined. In comparison, only three studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing evidence suggests that the exercise intensity of Tai Chi reaches a moderate level in people with COPD. Furthermore, a short-term program of Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, balance and quadriceps strength in people with mild to moderate COPD. More studies are warranted to examine the effects of different styles of Tai Chi and the long-term benefits of Tai Chi as an exercise regimen for people with COPD. PMID:24224506 15. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai Laila Naher 2012-01-01 Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. 16. Long-period ground motion characteristic of the 1999 Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan, mainshock and aftershocks LI Chun-feng; ZHANG Yang; ZHAO Jin-bao; TANG Hui 2006-01-01 This paper investigates long-period ground motion characteristic of the 1999 Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan, mainshock and aftershocks on the basis of lots of high quality digital strong motion records. The study attaches the importance to the variation of strength of the long-period ground motion with the magnitude, distance, and site condition. In the meantime, the near-fault long-period ground motion characteristic is analyzed. The result shows that the shape of the long-period response spectrum is mainly controlled by site condition and magnitude (the spectrum of class D+E is wider than that of class B+C, and the spectrum of larger magnitude is wider than that of smaller magnitude), and the effect of fault distance on the shape is not evident. And near-fault long-period ground motion characteristic depends on fault activity apparently, that is to say, the long-term ground motion in the hanger is stronger than that in the footwall, and the long-term ground motion in the north is stronger than that in the south. 17. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai Laila Naher; Soon Guan Tan; Chai Ling Ho; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Siti Hazar Ahmad; Faridah Abdullah 2012-01-01 Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil pa... 18. High-level expression and characterization of two chitinases, ChiCH and ChiCW, of Bacillus cereus 28-9 in Escherichia coli Many chitinase genes have been cloned and sequenced from prokaryotes and eukaryotes but overexpression of chitinases in Escherichia coli cells was less reported. ChiCH and ChiCW of Bacillus cereus 28-9 belong to two distinct groups based on their amino acid sequences of catalytic domains, and in addition, domain structures of two enzymes are different. In this study, we established an ideal method for high-level expression of chitinases in E. coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins using pGEX-6P-1 vector. Both ChiCH and ChiCW were successfully highly expressed in E. coli cells as soluble GST-chitinase fusion proteins, and recombinant native ChiCH and ChiCW could be purified after cleavage with PreScission protease to remove GST tag. Purified chitinases were used for biochemical characterization of kinetics, hydrolysis products, and binding activities. The results indicate that ChiCW is an endo-chitinase and effectively hydrolyzes chitin and chito-multimers to chito-oligomers and the end product chitobiose, and ChiCH is an exo-chitinase and degrades chito-oligomers to produce chitobiose. Furthermore, due to higher affinity of ChiCW toward colloidal chitin than Avicel, C-terminal domain of ChiCW should be classified as a chitin-binding domain not a cellulose-binding domain although that was revealed as a cellulose-binding domain by conserved domain analysis. Therefore, the method of high-level expression of chitinases is helpful to studies and applications of chitinases 19. Chiral squaring and KLT relations Schreiber, Anders 2016-01-01 We demonstrate that amplitudes based on matter supermultiplets can be combined to provide amplitudes of vector supermultiplets by means of KLT relations. In practice we do this by developing a procedure for removing supersymmetry supercharges from super Yang-Mills theory and supergravity supermultiplets, reducing them to vector and chiral supermultiplets respectively. This way, we reduce the super KLT relations to chiral KLT relations making chiral squaring of amplitudes manifest. We study th... 20. Steenrod squares on conjugation spaces Franz, Matthias; Puppe, Volker 2005-01-01 We prove that the coefficients of the so-called conjugation equation for conjugation spaces in the sense of Hausmann-Holm-Puppe are completely determined by Steenrod squares. This generalises a result of V.A. Krasnov for certain complex algebraic varieties. It also leads to a generalisation of a formula given by Borel and Haefliger, thereby largely answering an old question of theirs in the affirmative. 1. Archimedes' calculations of square roots Davies, E B 2011-01-01 We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi. 2. The Distribution of Periodontal Disease and Loss of Attachment in Jaw Sextants in Different Age Groups – Cross–Sectional Study Špalj, Stjepan; Plančak, Darije 2003-01-01 The distribution of periodontal disease stages is not the same in both human jaws, parts of the same jaw or in different ages of life. In the sample of 2,730 sextants, 455 persons 15+ years of age, analysis of distribution of both periodontal disease and loss of attachment in jaw sextants in different age groups was made, using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA). Statistical significance testing was checked using the Pearson Chi-Square-test with p... 3. An Approximate Interval Estimate on the Parameter of Negative Binomial Distribution%负二项分布参数的一类近似区间估计 姜培华 2012-01-01 借助负二项分布和卡方分布的极限关系，推导给出当参数P较小条件下的近似区间估计，并通过数值例子介绍了此区间估计方法的应用．%An approximate interval estimate for small was gained with the limit relationship of negative binomi- al distribution and the chi - square distribution ; Finally, the method of interval estimate was studied and illustration was shown by examples. 4. The CHY representation of tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes de la Cruz, Leonardo; Weinzierl, Stefan 2015-01-01 In this paper we construct a CHY representation for all tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes. The quarks may be massless or massive. We define a generalised cyclic factor\\hat{C}(w,z)$and a generalised permutation invariant function$\\hat{E}(z,p,\\varepsilon)$. The amplitude is then given as a contour integral encircling the solutions of the scattering equations with the product$\\hat{C} \\hat{E}$as integrand. Equivalently, it is given as a sum over the inequivalent solutions of the scattering equations, where the summand consists of a Jacobian times the product$\\hat{C} \\hat{E}$. This representation separates information: The generalised cyclic factor does not depend on the helicities of the external particles, the generalised permutation invariant function does not depend on the ordering of the external particles. 5. The CHY representation of tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes de la Cruz, Leonardo; Kniss, Alexander; Weinzierl, Stefan 2015-11-01 In this paper we construct a CHY representation for all tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes. The quarks may be massless or massive. We define a generalised cyclic factor Ĉ( w, z) and a generalised permutation invariant function Ê( z, p, ɛ). The amplitude is then given as a contour integral encircling the solutions of the scattering equations with the product ĈÊ as integrand. Equivalently, it is given as a sum over the inequivalent solutions of the scattering equations, where the summand consists of a Jacobian times the product Ĉ Ê. This representation separates information: The generalised cyclic factor does not depend on the helicities of the external particles, the generalised permutation invariant function does not depend on the ordering of the external particles. 6. Parametric Optimization of Simulated Extrusion of Square to Square Section Through Linear Converging Die Mohapatra, S. K.; Maity, K. P. 2016-02-01 The effect of various process parameters for determining extrusion load has been studied for square to square extrusion of Al-6061 alloy, a most used aluminium alloy series in forming industries. Parameters like operating temperature, friction condition, ram velocity, extrusion ratio and die length have been chosen as an input variable for the above study. Twenty five combinations of parameters were set for the investigation by considering aforementioned five parameters in five levels. The simulations have been carried out by Deform-3D software for predicting maximum load requirement for the complete extrusion process. Effective stress and strain distribution across the billet has been checked. Operating temperature, extrusion ratio, friction factor, ram velocity and die length have the significant effect in decreasing order on the maximum load requirement. 7. The Effects of Tai Chi on Peripheral Somatosensation, Balance, and Fitness in Hispanic Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot and Feasibility Study Elisabeth I. Cavegn 2015-01-01 Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy and loss of somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes can increase risk of falls and disability. In nondiabetic older adult population Tai Chi has been shown to enhance balance and fitness through improvements in somatosensation and neuromuscular control, and it is unclear if Tai Chi would elicit similar benefits in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week, three-hour-per-week Tai Chi intervention on peripheral somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants were eight Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in the Tai Chi intervention and a convenience sample of Hispanic older adults as a referent group. Baseline and postintervention assessments included ankle proprioception, foot tactile sense, plantar pressure distribution, balance, and fitness. After intervention, older adults with type 2 diabetes showed significant improvements in ankle proprioception and fitness and decreased plantar pressure in the forefoot, with no statistical effect noted in balance or tactile sensation. Study results suggest that Tai Chi may be beneficial for older adults with diabetes as it improves ankle proprioception; however, study findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample size randomized controlled trial. 8. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching Jian-Jun Zhu 2008-10-01 Full Text Available The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction, with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground. Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more 9. Chiral squaring and KLT relations Schreiber, Anders 2016-01-01 We demonstrate that amplitudes based on matter supermultiplets can be combined to provide amplitudes of vector supermultiplets by means of KLT relations. In practice we do this by developing a procedure for removing supersymmetry supercharges from super Yang-Mills theory and supergravity supermultiplets, reducing them to vector and chiral supermultiplets respectively. This way, we reduce the super KLT relations to chiral KLT relations making chiral squaring of amplitudes manifest. We study these chiral KLT relations, discussing permutation symmetry and vanishing relations. Finally some explicit calculations are done to show how the relations work in detail. 10. Counting Square-Free Numbers Pawlewicz, Jakub 2011-01-01 The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding$n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors)$\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity$\\softO(n^{2/5})$and with memory complexity$\\softO(n^{1/5})$is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for$n=10^{1...