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Sample records for chernobyl accident exposures

  1. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  2. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  3. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  4. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  5. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG)

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

  7. Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  9. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Srobarova (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more eimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. The accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl constituted the largest release of radioactivity ever recorded in a single technological accident. It was caused by a combination of design and management errors, and produced a highly variable pattern of fallout, strongly correlated with local rainfall. Even at 1500 km, fallout in some places far exceeded the levels recorded during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The burden of 31 acute deaths was surprisingly small, and was limited to emergency workers who had to cope with the fire at the plant. The cost of potential chronic health effects, including as many as 28,000 cancers worldwide, in contrast, is surprisingly large, and is localized in Soviet Europe and non-Soviet Europe in approximately equal parts. The author discusses how the pattern of dispersion and exposure due to Chernobyl demands reconsideration of emergency planning for nuclear power stations, not only in the Soviet Union, but also in the West. Revised emergency plans should involve the combination of decentralized and centralized response efforts capable of providing not only acute risk management but also adequate protection against chronic exposure, particularly via ingestion

  12. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the cf about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean-up operations at the reactor site in 1986 and 1987. (author)

  13. Radiation exposure to the population of Europe following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of the 20. anniversary of the Chernobyl accident an attempt has been made to evaluate the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the global burden of human cancer in Europe. This required the estimation of radiation doses in each of the 40 European countries. Dose estimation was based on the analysis and compilation of data either published in the scientific literature or provided by local experts. Considerable variability has been observed in exposure levels among the European populations. The average individual doses to the thyroid from the intake of 131I for children aged 1 y were found to vary from ?0.01 mGy in Portugal up to 750 mGy in Gomel Oblast (Belarus). Thyroid doses to adults were consistently lower than the doses received by young children. The average individual effective doses from external exposure and ingestion of long-lived radiocaesium accrued in the period 1986-2005 varied from ?0 in Portugal to ?10 mSv in Gomel Oblast (Belarus) and Bryansk Oblast (Russia). The uncertainties in the dose estimates were subjectively estimated on the basis of the availability and reliability of the radiation data that were used for dose reconstruction in each country. (authors)

  14. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  15. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  16. 131Iodine: Biokinetics, radiation exposure and risk assessment following the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl, this paper describes the biokinetics of radioiodine in man and discusses the radiation exposure resulting from intake of 131I. The risk of radiation-induced thyroid carcinomas and of congenital abnormalities is evaluated. Assuming a linear dose/risk relationship, one can calculate an increase in mortality from thyroid carcinomas amongst children in southern Germany of 100 to 101 per million children. For adults in southern Germany, and for the rest of the population in Germany, the figure is considerably lower. Gonadal dose from the 131I released is so small, compared with the annual natural radiation exposure, that it is not appropriate to discuss genetic effects. (orig.)

  17. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  18. Estimate of the radiation exposure of the Austrian population due to the reactor accident Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl an estimate as objective as possible of the average exposure of the Austrian population in the first year after the accident is attempted. Besides the exposure path of external radiation from the cloud and ground and the exposure due to inhalation the most important path, that caused by ingestion of radionuclides via contaminated food is described in detail. The contribution of various food stuffs to the ingestion dose is described. The effective equivalent dose estimated from the average activity concentration and the average consumption per year of the respective food stuffs amounts to 0.46 mSv for the adult and 0.40 mSv for the one year old infant in the first year. In addition to the dose due to external radiation and inhalation this results in a total dose of 0.53 mSv for the adult and 0.47 mSv for the infant. The ingestion dose estimated in this way poses possibly a substantial overestimation since the whole body activity content measured in numerous whole body counter measurements results in only one third of the dose estimated from food activity concentrations. 18 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  19. Pathways, levels and trends of population exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper main regularities of the long-term exposure of the population of former USSR after the Chernobyl accident are described. Influence of some natural, human and social factors on the forming of external and internal dose in the rural and urban population was studied in the most contaminated regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine during 1986-1994. Radioecological processes of I, Cs and Sr nuclides migration in biosphere influencing the processes of population dose formation are considered. The model of their intake in human body was developed and validated by large-scaled measurements of the human body content. The model of external exposure of different population groups was developed and confirmed by the series of individual external dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters. General dosimetric characteristics of the population exposure are given along with some samples of accumulated external and internal effective doses in inhabitants of contaminated areas in 1986-1995. Forecast of the external and internal population effective dose is given for the period of 70 years after the accident

  20. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  1. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  2. The Chernobyl Accident: Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the former Soviet Union in 1986 exposed large numbers of people in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia to radioactive iodines, principally I-131 which concentrates in the thyroid gland (Hatch, et al. 2005; Cardis and Hatch, 2011).

  3. Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

  4. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  5. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  6. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described.

  7. The Chernobyl Accident: Collaborators

    Science.gov (United States)

    A special note is made of the extraordinary leadership of the late Dr. Elaine Ron, who helped shape and oversee the conduct of the NCI-Chernobyl program. The late Dr. Geoffrey Howe of Columbia University also made invaluable contributions to this research. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Gilbert Beebe, Jacob Robbins, and Terry Thomas, who were involved from the earliest days following the accident and continued to provide scientific input until the time of their respective deaths.

  8. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptabilitegy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 k Euro /person-Sv).

  9. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  10. Iodine-131 exposure of thyroid of Belarus population due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millions of inhabitancies of Republic of Belarus were exposed with 'iodine attack' due to Chernobyl accident. The formatted thyroid doses mainly by iodine-131 led to an unprecedented increase of thyroid cancer incidence, especially among the children and adolescences. The using of the method of radioecological modeling with taking in to account the regional specific of conditions of contamination has done the wide-scale reconstruction of thyroid dose of Belarus population. The estimations of average thyroid doses were carried out for more than 9,5 millions persons at 19 age groups (for 2 403 317 children and adolescences at 0 - 18 years and 6 929 109 adults) which resided in 23 325 settlements at the time of Chernobyl accident. An ecological study of Belarus and Russian areas with relatively good dosimetry resulted in a linear dependence of the excess risk in the range 0.05 to 3 Gy of thyroid doses, therefore 1 061 390 persons under 18 at the time of Chernobyl accident have to be taken under long-term medical follow-up. (Authors)

  11. Iodine-129 in soils from Northern Ukraine and the retrospective dosimetry of the iodine-131 exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-eight soil profiles down to a depth of 40 cm were taken in Russia and Ukraine in 1995 and 1997, respectively, in order to investigate the feasibility of retrospective dosimetry of the 131I exposure after the Chernobyl accident via the long-lived 129I. The sampling sites covered areas almost not affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident such as Moscow/Russia and the Zhitomir district in Ukraine as well as the highly contaminated Korosten and Narodici districts in Ukraine. 129I was analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 127I was measured for some profiles by RNAA or ion chromatography (IC). The results for 127I demonstrated large differences in the capabilities of the soils to store iodine over long time spans. The depth profiles of 129I and of 137Cs showed large differences in the migration behavior between the two nuclides but also for each nuclide among the different sampling sites. Though it cannot be quantified how much 129I and 137Cs was lost out of the soil columns into deeper depths, the inventories in the columns were taken as proxies for the total inventories. For 129I, these inventories were at least three orders of magnitude higher than a pre-nuclear value of 0.084±0.017 mBq m-2 derived from a soil profile taken in 1939 in Lutovinovo/Russia. From the samples from Mutovinovo/Russia. From the samples from Moscow and Zhitomir, a pre-Chernobyl 129I inventory of (44±24) mBq m-2 was determined, limiting the feasibility of 129I retrospective dosimetry to areas where the 129I inventories exceed 100 mBq m-2. Higher average 129I inventories in the Korosten and Narodici districts of 130 and 848 mBq m-2, respectively, allowed determination of the 129I fallout due to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the total 129I inventories and on literature data for the atomic ratio of 129I/131I=13.6±2.8 for the Chernobyl emissions and on aggregated dose coefficients for 131I, the thyroid exposure due to 131I after the Chernobyl accident was estimated for the inhabitants of four villages in the Korosten and of three villages in the Narodici districts. The limitations and uncertainties of the 129I retrospective dosimetry are discussed

  12. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igumnov, S.; Drozdovitch, V.

    2004-07-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-.

  13. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in th functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  14. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathways of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of Vaesterbotten, Sweden. Reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137Cs was 3-40 kBq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kBq/m2. Multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134Cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131I ground deposition. The effective dose equivalent from 131I became low, 137Cs activity concentration in different types of food was measured in approximately 8000 samples. The most important sources of Cs intake in man were lake fish, elk (European moose) and reindeer. Variations with time was studied in detail for four types of lake fish. Whole-body measurements on more than 250 persons showed that no group of people on average received more than 1 mSv from food during the first year after the Chernobyl accident. However, single persons eating large amounts of reindeer meat received up to 2.5 mSv. People buying all their food in ordinary provision-shops got less than 0.1 mSv from the food during the first year. The present level of 90Sr activity concentration in man will only give an effective dose equivalent of 0.004 mSv/year, most of it being a result of the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. (orig.)

  15. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Po Plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30, 1986; the clod remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days ans then disappared either dispersed by winds or washed by rains. The evidence in the atmosphere of radionuclides as tellurium, iodine, cesium was promply observed by the Istituto di Fisica. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma-spectroscope; a linear correlation is found between the radionuclide concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on Lake Como ecosystem: sediments, plakton, fishes and the overall fallout in the lake area have been investigated

  16. Simulation of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

  17. Measurements after the Chernobyl accident in relation to the exposure of an urban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident in-situ gammaspectrometric measurements have been performed in Munich and in smaller towns in Southern Bavaria. At the measurement sites about two thirds of the total contamination was deposited by rain. For grassland, the attenuation of the radiation from 131I, 103Ru, 134Cs, and 140Ba due to the initial migration of the radionuclides in the ground and due to the surface roughness was found to be similar. However, large variations between the retention of the various elements on smooth surfaces have been observed. The absorbed dose-rate inside houses due to Chernobyl radionuclides was the range of one tenth to one hundredth of the absorbed dose-rate over open grassland, depending on the type of house and the location in the house, especially on the angle of view from the detector position to outside locations. The absorbed dose-rate in air due to caesium, isotopes was measured over a period of 1 month to 8 years after the accident. To facilitate a use in models on radiation doses in urban environments, the time dependence of the results were approximated by analytical functions. (author)

  18. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in southern Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since April 30, 1986, comprehensive nuclide-specific measurements have been carried out in air, precipitations, soil, grass, and food in order to determine the fission product activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The increase in the gamma dose rate induced by the fission product fallout has been measured primarily in Bavaria. Some important results of the measurements so far are listed in the report. Based on these data, a preliminary assessment is made of the longterm radiation dose to the population in the region of southern Bavaria. The assessment takes into account the dose commitment emanating from external beta and gamma radiation, from intake with food, and by inhalation of fission products. (orig./HP)

  20. A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1500 children who were born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Study Groups 1 and 2) were identified from lists of children undergoing mandatory surveillance in the Minsk Chernobyl Dispensary. During pregnancy mothers of these children lived in highly contaminated territories in several areas of three Belarus Regions - Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest. Children in Study Group 1 were born between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. The mothers of these children during their pregnancy period were exposed both to radiocesium and radioiodine. Children in Study Group 2 were born between February 1, 1987 and December 31, 1987. The mothers of children from Study Group 2 lived in the same areas as the mothers of children from Study Group 1, but during their pregnancy period were mainly exposed to radiocesium. The Control Group consists of children born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987, to mothers living throughout pregnancy in the uncontaminated Vitebsk Region. These children were randomly selected from medical records of family-practice clinics, and were matched to Study Groups 1 and 2 by age and sex. To assess the health effects of in utero radiation exposure among the cohort, the specific protocol for annual health examination was developed in 1988. The study protocol included collection of data on family history; history of mothers pregnancy and delivery; head circumference at birth; annual measurements of standing height and weight; examination by neurologist; clinical thyroid evaluation, and ultrasound examination of the thyroid; annual measurements of levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies in children's blood (i.e. thyrotropin (TSH), total and free thyroxin (T4), triiodthyronin (T3), thyroglobulin (TG) and TG autoantibodies, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and anti-TPO (thyroid microsomal )assay; annual blood count; analyses of the components of the immune system (T- cells, B-cells, immunoglobulins, complement, etc.); and data on general health status of children in the study and control groups. The preliminary health survey showed that in early childhood children in Study Group 1 had higher incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than the controls. Serum TG and TG autoantibodies levels at the age of three were significantly higher in children from Study Group 1 than in the control group. Noticeable polymorphism was also observed more frequently on thyroid sonograms of children in Study Group 1 than on those of the controls. One of the major goals of this study was to reconstruct thyroid and whole body doses for children from the study and control groups. As the first step of this effort, thyroid doses received in utero have been reconstructed for a sample of 179 full-term children from Study Group 1 born in Narovlya, Bragin, Vetka and Khoinyki Regions between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. These children were randomly selected from our study database. Human fetal thyroid tissue can accumulate I 131 by the 12th week of gestation and continues to accumulate iodine throughout gestation. Among 179 children for whom in utero thyroid doses from I 131 were reconstructed, 32 children were exposed before the 12th week of gestation, and 147 children were exposed after the 12th week of gestation. Our evaluation of the fetal thyroid dose, from I 131 was based on an assessment of the thyroid dose to the mother. Estimates of individual-thyroid dose for mothers were derived from a large scale campaign to monitor I 131 activity in human thyroids of the Belarus population. This campaign was carried out within a few weeks following the accident and before I 131 decayed to negligible activities. Thyroid dose estimates for mothers were based on additional data, which consisted of answers to a detailed questionnaire with requested information on residence history, dietary habits, and use of potassium iodide during pregnancy. The interviewers were specially trained on the nature of interviewer and respondent bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation

  1. Asociación de carcinoma renal y la exposición a radiaciones ionizantes después del accidente de Chernobyl / Association of renal cell carcinoma and radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Blanco Espinosa; M., Leva Vallejo; F., Merlo de la Peña; P., Moreno Arcas; J.L., Carazo Carazo; M.J., Requena Tapia.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Después del accidente nuclear de Chernobyl, en la población de zonas contaminadas la incidencia de carcinoma renal se incrementó de 4,7 a 7,5 por 100.000 habitantes. La elevada concentración corporal de Cesium 137 (137Cs) así como su eliminación por vía renal los convierte en pacientes de alto riesg [...] o. Presentamos un caso de una paciente, residente en la zona contaminada que acudió a nuestro hospital por dolor abdominal y sensación de masa en flanco izquierdo. Realizamos una revisión de la literatura y analizamos el manejo en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english After the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, in the population of zones contaminated the malignant renal tumors was increased from 4,7 to 7,5 per 100.000 of total population. Cesium 137 (137Cs) constitutes 80- 90% of the internal exposure of these people as well as eliminated through kidneys becomes an [...] important risk factor. We present a case of a patient, residing in radiocontamined area, who consulted for abdominal pain and left flank mass. We review relevant literature and the management of these patients.

  2. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

  3. The Chernobyl Accident: About the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident happened during a routine test, intended to demonstrate how long the turbines would spin after a power loss. Prior to the test, the automatic shutdown mechanisms were disabled. Coolant water was reduced and the power output was increased. The operator tried to shut down the reactor but a flaw in the design caused a large power surge.

  4. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  5. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  6. Thyroid cancer risk following radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population based case-control study of thyroid cancer in young people has been curried out in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Russia (Bryansk, Kagula, Orel and Tula). the study was jointly co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (SMHF). The study population was all those living in these regions who were aged 0-14 at the time of the accident in Belarus and 0-18 in Russia. Cases were recruited over the time period 1992-1998. Two sets of controls were matched to each case-one was matched finely on age at exposure, sex and exact settlement of residence at the time of the accident, the second was matched on age and sex in the same manner but more broadly on region of residence. In all, 301 cases and 1948 controls (489 matched on settlement and 1459 on oblast) were recruited into the study. The majority of subjects are from Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects using a detailed questionnaire, completed by a clinical and ultrasound examination and analyses of blood and urine samples of subjects who consented in donating such samples. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to I-131 in childhood and adolescence and the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation induced thyroid cancer risk. These include age at exposure, iodine intake, genetic background and reproductive history. Itic background and reproductive history. Individual radiation dose from 131I, and associated uncertainty, was estimated for each subject, as well as dose from external exposures and intake of long-lived nuclides. Each subject was also assigned an index of possible exposure to short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes. Descriptive analyses showed that risk of thyroid cancer in this study was significantly associated with a number of factor that are likely to reflect potential of exposure. Cases in Belarus tended to live more frequently in rural areas,in wooden houses, drink milk from local cows than their respective controls. Controls had more frequently taken preventive measures than cases. The differences between cases and controls in Russia were much less consistent. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. A significant dose response was seen for thyroid cancer. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates from studies of populations having received external radiation exposures during childhood. (Author)

  7. Thyroid cancer risk following radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E.; Kesminiene, A.; Tenet, V.; Chekin, S.; Ivanov, V. K.; Malakhova, I. V.; Polyakov, S.; Shibata, Y.; Tysb, A. F.

    2004-07-01

    A population based case-control study of thyroid cancer in young people has been curried out in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Russia (Bryansk, Kagula, Orel and Tula). the study was jointly co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (SMHF). The study population was all those living in these regions who were aged 0-14 at the time of the accident in Belarus and 0-18 in Russia. Cases were recruited over the time period 1992-1998. Two sets of controls were matched to each case-one was matched finely on age at exposure, sex and exact settlement of residence at the time of the accident, the second was matched on age and sex in the same manner but more broadly on region of residence. In all, 301 cases and 1948 controls (489 matched on settlement and 1459 on oblast) were recruited into the study. The majority of subjects are from Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects using a detailed questionnaire, completed by a clinical and ultrasound examination and analyses of blood and urine samples of subjects who consented in donating such samples. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to I-131 in childhood and adolescence and the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation induced thyroid cancer risk. These include age at exposure, iodine intake, genetic background and reproductive history. Individual radiation dose from 131I, and associated uncertainty, was estimated for each subject, as well as dose from external exposures and intake of long-lived nuclides. Each subject was also assigned an index of possible exposure to short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes. Descriptive analyses showed that risk of thyroid cancer in this study was significantly associated with a number of factor that are likely to reflect potential of exposure. Cases in Belarus tended to live more frequently in rural areas,in wooden houses, drink milk from local cows than their respective controls. Controls had more frequently taken preventive measures than cases. The differences between cases and controls in Russia were much less consistent. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. A significant dose response was seen for thyroid cancer. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates from studies of populations having received external radiation exposures during childhood. (Author)

  8. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. The Chernobyl Accident: 25 Years of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine. In addition to 28 near-term deaths due to radiation, the accident resulted in the exposure of 5 million people in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to fallout from the accident, principally radioiodines.

  11. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  12. The Chernobyl Accident: Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  13. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  14. Prevention of internal exposure to Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) radiation in inhabitants of an area contaminated by the chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, K

    1996-04-01

    On April 26th 1986, an accidental explosion occurred at Chernobyl nuclear power station #4, located in the Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union. From May 1991, in order to prevent internal exposure to cesium-137 ((137)Cs) in the inhabitants of the Chechersk district of the Gomel region in the Republic of Belarus, which was an area highly contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, the author continuously measured internal(137)Cs accumulations within inhabitants of the district with a whole-body counter, and the levels of(137)Cs in milk, beef, pork, mushrooms, potatoes and flour with a GM-semiconductor detector.Then the author analyzed the relationships between the inhabitants' daily habits and their measured cesium levels. The author measured(137)Cs accumulation within 528 inhabitants and in agricultural produce in the Chechersk disrict.There was no correlation between the internal(137)Cs levels within inhabitants and the surface contamination by(137)Cs within the residential area. However, a comparison of internal exposure levels by age and sex revealed a significant variation between adult males and both male and female children, and between adult males and females (p < 0.001).Food supplied in school was the cause of lower levels in children because it was strictly controlled by the local health authority. The difference between adult males and adult females was thought to be due to the difference in the length of working time in the fields, or in the amount of food from pastures, lakes and forests.Some of the measurement values of agricultural produce with the GM-semiconduc-tor detector exceeded the provisional standards of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus, where milk, beef, pork and mushrooms had been measured while potatoes and flour had not.Results for milk (r = 0.829), beef (r = 0.916), pork (R= 0.896) and mushrooms (r = 0.670) all showed a strong correlation with the concentration of(137)Cs on the surface for fields and pastures, while those for potatoes and flour showed no correlation.According to this survey, the internal levels of(137)Cs of inhabitants living within the contaminated areas were not related to the concentration of(137)Cs in the residential areas, but to the foodstuffs they consumed. Thehefore, by avoiding contaminated foodstuffs, the inhabitants could reduce internal exposure and their risk. PMID:21432417

  15. Global fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides released from the destroyed reactor bloc 4 in Chernobyl and the worldwide distribution as well as the regionally varying deposition are described. The deposition in various countries is contrasted and compared to the average population dose in these countries as evaluated by the UNSCEAR-Report 1988. As expected, much higher dose values per unit deposition result for more southerly countries than for northerly ones. The fallout from the Chernobyl accident is compared to the fallout from nuclear weapons testing, both with regard to the global fallout and the fallout in some selected countries. The radiation exposure in the first year is contrasted to natural background level and the trend of the radiation exposure in the following years is described. (Author)

  16. Nuclear accidents. Chernobyl (USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the accident that took place on April 26, 1986, the reactor no. 4 of the Tchernobyl power plant was not in its normal conditions of operation: it was undergoing a safety electrical test before a maintenance shutdown. After some details about the design of RBMK reactors, this article describes the progress of this test, performed in different conditions than the ones initially planned, and by transgressing various safety rules. This type of reactor is characterized by instability ranges at low power which led to its explosion. The article presents also some effects of this accident on the environment and the population. Finally, it shows the lessons learnt from this catastrophe by the ex-USSR and by the Western countries. (J.S.)

  17. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  18. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

  19. The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially 137Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of 137Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean asidered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

  20. Thyroid exposure in Belorussian and Ukrainian children after the Chernobyl accident and resulting risk of thyroid cancer. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986 - to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities - to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986-2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases - to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies - to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been accompanied by the BFS project StSch 4299 Range of applicability of epidemiological studies with aggregate data for risk factor determination. The purpose of that project is to explore by simulation calculations to which degree there is an ecologic bias in the risk ste there is an ecologic bias in the risk studies performed in the frame of the present project. The results of project StSch 4299 indicate that the ecologic bias of excess absolute risk estimates is small because: - radiation is the dominating cause of thyroid cancer among those who were children or adolescents in the highly contaminated areas at the time of the accident - there is no indication that the dose-response for thyroid cancer after exposures during childhood is non-linear in the dose range of 0.05-1.0 Gy - the variability of average doses in the age-gender groups of the considered settlements is larger than the variability of individual doses within the groups - the number of 131I activity measurements exceeds considerably the number of the age-gender groups in the different settlements (by a factor of 5) - there is no indication of a relevant correlation between dose and screening within the highly contaminated areas. (orig.)

  1. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  2. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  3. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  4. Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Erik

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure.

  5. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  6. Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle consequence of Chernobyl accident, on the plan of the long term effects, is a very important increase of thyroid cancers frequency on children. The cause is certainly the very important thyroid contamination by radioactive iodine released in atmosphere during this accident. The excess in five years is about 500 cases for Belarus, Ukraine and Russia republics; the incidence has been multiplied by 50 in Belarus. These cancers, appeared in the great majority on children contaminated before they were five years old, are very invasive; local and regional extensions are important, metastasis are numerous. They are cured in an unperfect manner. It is impossible to tell what will be the future of this epidemic. It seems that children epidemic is going to decrease; the increase of adult epidemic is modest but it can become more serious. If stable iodine distribution had been correctly made, it is likely that the number of cases would have been lower. Iodine storages have been constituted in France, but distribution rules are not still defined. No augmentation of others cancers appeared especially for leukemia. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

  8. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

  9. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  10. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  11. Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was esof the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

  12. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  13. Realism and myths of Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is one of the scientific-publicistic book on the Chernobyl accident. It contains earlier unknown facts and cases as well as analysis of modern scientific data. The book gives an information on complex medical and social problems resulted from the accident occured in April, 26, 1996

  14. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

  15. Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab

  17. The accident in Chernobyl power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union. The accident, an uncontrolled power excursion, resulted in the destruction of the affected reactor. Thirty-one people gave their lives. Large amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment and widely dispersed. The accident was caused by major weaknesses in the design of the RBMK-reactor in connection with grave acts of maloperation by the staff. The accident has not shown unknown phenomena. In the light water reactors used in the Federal Republic of Germany power excursions with the potential to destroy the fuel are excluded by the design of these reactors. The findings made as a result of investigations of the Chernobyl accident show no reasons for reassessing the safety concept of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP)

  18. The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

  19. An accident with consequences. 25 years Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution covers questions to the institute for applied ecology in Freiburg concerning the following issues: situation in the institute following the information on the accident in Chernobyl, information for the public and German authorities, the radioactive cloud, the information chaos, the environmental consequences in Germany and the radiological impact on the population.

  20. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  1. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  2. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  3. The Chernobyl Accident: Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Radiation Epidemiology Branch (REB) is always looking for research fellows to join our team of investigators. There are numerous opportunities to evaluate research related to Chernobyl. It must be noted that these studies will probably not result in a first author publication for post-doctoral fellows. However, there are many research projects that do afford such an opportunity at REB.

  4. Long term exposure of the population of the Russian Federation as a consequence of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen regions of Russia were contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. Two and a half million persons live in areas contaminated with 137Cs above 0.04 MBq/m2 (1 Cikm2). The paper describes the main consequences of the long term exposure of this population. The influence of some natural, human and social factors on the forming of the external and internal doses of rural and urban populations has been studied in Bryansk and Tula, the most contaminated regions of Russia, during 1986-1994. Radioecological process of migration of caesium and strontium nuclides in the biosphere are considered. A model of their intake into the human body has been developed and validated by large scale measurements of the human body content. Also, a model of external exposure of different population groups has been developed and confirmed by a series of individual external dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters. General dosimetric characteristics of the exposure of the population are given, together with some samples of accumulated external and internal effective doses of inhabitants of some settlements of the Bryansk and Tula regions in 1986-1994. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Lessons from Chernobyl post-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has shown that the long-term management of its consequences is not straightforward. The management of the consequences has revealed the complexity of the situation to deal with. The long-term contamination of the environment has affected all the dimensions of the daily life of the inhabitants living in affected territories: health, environment, social life, education, work, distribution of foodstuffs and commodities... The experience from the Chernobyl accident shows 4 key issues that may be beneficial for the populations living in territories affected by the Fukushima accident: 1) the direct involvement of the inhabitants in their own protection, 2) the radiation monitoring system and health surveillance at the local level, 3) to develop a practical radiation protection culture among the population, and 4) the setting up of economic measures to favour the local development. (A.C.)

  6. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

  7. Early measurements in urban areas after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the experience on the radioactive monitoring of the environment and population dose assessment provided in urban areas, mainly in Kiev, after the Chernobyl accident. It emphasises the need of several radiological teams, of the support from several institutions and of preparedness for a consistent database, dose assessment and criteria for decision making. Main results of measurements of gamma exposure rates, air, grass and food radioactive contamination are presented. (author)

  8. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

  9. Short-Term Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: Lessons for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article discusses the world's most serious nuclear accident to date: the Chernobyl nuclear accident of April 1986. His major focus is on the short-term medical consequences of the accident, including reduction of exposure to persons at risk, evaluation of persons potentially affected, dosimetry, and specific medical interventions.

  10. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  11. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  12. Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

  13. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  14. The Chernobyl Accident: Research Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  15. The Chernobyl Accident: Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  16. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

  17. Measured radioecological parameters after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail. The change of the different radionuclies in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The most important data obtained like deposition velocity, washout coefficient, retention factor, removal rate constant, and transfer factor food-milk, food-beef, and soil-grass are reported. (orig.)

  18. The Chernobyl Accident: Leukemia Study (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several years after a 1988 agreement between the United States and the USSR to cooperate in the area of nuclear reactor safety, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH undertook to develop a study of leukemia risk among Ukrainian men potentially exposed to external radiation during clean-up operations (e.g., liquidators) following the Chernobyl accident. Responsibility for the study resides in the Radiation Epidemiology Branch of NCI.

  19. ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

  20. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  1. Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

  2. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

  4. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  5. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ? The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ? We note the great effect of ?-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ? We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ? The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  8. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an Bq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors,

  9. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  10. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japand asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  11. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  12. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

  13. Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

  14. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (review)

  15. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  16. Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

  17. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

  19. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  20. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebeshko, V.G.

    1995-12-31

    The results of nine years of study of the 237 patients who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are reported. Thirty-eight of these patients have died, 28 in the acute period in 1986, 5 in 1987-90 and 5 in 1992-93. The reasons for death show no clear tendencies. They include: gangrene of the lung, organic disease of the brain and spinal chord, hypoplasia of haematopoeisis, coronary heart disease, sarcoma and an automobile accident. Investigations have been carried out on an annual obligatory basis of the patients` haemopoietic, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. An analysis of the data is presented. Histograms are included showing the incidence of digestive tract, nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, the frequency and degree of disablement and serum prolactin concentration. The types of skin damage sustained by 39 of the patients are listed. (6 figures, 3 tables). (UK).

  1. Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Catlin, R.J.; Goldman, M.

    1988-12-16

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident.

  2. Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident

  3. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of nine years of study of the 237 patients who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are reported. Thirty-eight of these patients have died, 28 in the acute period in 1986, 5 in 1987-90 and 5 in 1992-93. The reasons for death show no clear tendencies. They include: gangrene of the lung, organic disease of the brain and spinal chord, hypoplasia of haematopoeisis, coronary heart disease, sarcoma and an automobile accident. Investigations have been carried out on an annual obligatory basis of the patients' haemopoietic, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. An analysis of the data is presented. Histograms are included showing the incidence of digestive tract, nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, the frequency and degree of disablement and serum prolactin concentration. The types of skin damage sustained by 39 of the patients are listed. (6 figures, 3 tables). (UK)

  4. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

  5. Reviewing ecosystems affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the resulting population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project is intended to yield information on the current radiological situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout. Environmental materials of particular interest are game, mushrooms, berries, and forest stands in the most heavily affected forest ecosystem of the Bavarian forest area called Bayerischer Wald. This area has been intensively monitored in the period from 1988 until 1994, so that the development up to the current radiological situation can be analysed. Activities under the research project will encompass: Measurement of the radioactive contamination of specimens of the game population in the Bodenmais forest area of 7 500 hectares. Measurement of seasonal variations of the radiocesium activity in various indicator plants of the food chain of the game population. Soil sampling and radioactivity measurement at 2 cm depth intervals. The measuring work will be carried out in two areas which have been earmarked for monitoring over the last eight years (B1 and B2). The measured results will be compared with earlier data, and long-term space and time-dependent information on the transfer of radiocesium in the forest ecosystem under review will be derived. (orig./CB)

  6. Onsite response to the accident at Chernobyl (accident management)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summarizing the information provided in the USSR report on plant stabilization shortly after the accident at Chernobyl and on the early response measures, the following three main stages can be identified: (1) the building fire-fighting actions and measures (techniques) undertaken and their effectiveness in controlling and finally extinguishing the fire; (2) the short-term stabilization of the plant immediately following the accident; and (3) the long-term recovery, including entombment of the damaged unit and the monitoring of the evolution and long-term stability of the entombed core debris and reactor building. Clearly, the information provided in the USSR report and the additional discussions indicated the importance of accident management. The science and technology of nuclear accident management has not been neglected in the nuclear field; however, attention to this aspect of nuclear safety research has been necessarily largely theoretical. Consequently the practical and very successful experience at the Chernobyl site is of great interest and should be further analyzed and documented

  7. Cooperative research at JAERI on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. 1. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after the nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement data obtained from 1992 mainly in 30 km distant areas from the accident reactor were analyzed and evaluated. On-site study included the radiation survey studies of wide range of areas with the spherical NaI(Tl) detector carried on the car and helicopter, studies on the accumulated dose in inhabitants and dose rate distribution of their residential settlements with the glass dosimeter and portable gamma dose-rate meter, experimental studies on the shielding effect of houses by simulation and studies on the characterization of environmental ?-ray field. These studies brought about developments of the method for rapid radiation survey in wide range of contaminated areas, of the evaluation method for estimated external exposure dose in residents, of the Monte Carlo arrangement method for evaluation of ?-ray doses and of analytical method for contaminated areas. Data were provided to organizations for measures of Ukraine and Belarus and would be also useful for possible urgent matters in future. (K.H.)

  8. Estimate of radiation detriment long period after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation: Chromosomal aberrations in liquidators 6-10 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The group of 297 liquidators was cytogenetically investigated 6 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. The significantly increased level of chromosomal and chromatid types exchange aberrations was shown. For all subjects questionnaires that provide consideration of known and suspected confounding variables were filled in. The participation in recovery works at the Chernobyl nuclear power station was the only reason for dicentrics and rings rise in liquidators. An investigation of the tumor-specific markers (CEA, AFP, CA19-9, PSA, NSE) was carried out in 56 liquidators simultaneously with chromosomal analysis. The increased level of NSE was found in liquidators bearing the chromosomal aberrations of exchange type. The results of this work let us to consider the liquidators who underwent to low doses of ionizing radiation 6-10 years ago as a detrimental group that needs special scientific and medical attention. (author)

  9. Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ? Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

  10. Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (Tagg) for soil ? plant and soil ? flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. Tagg values for Soil ?e. Tagg values for Soil ? autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m2.kg-1 to 0,41 m2.kg-1. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the Tagg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example Tagg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the 137Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the 137Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg-1, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg-1. There was no significant change in the 137Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.)

  11. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  12. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ?0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ?6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ?0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  13. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

  14. Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

  15. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  16. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  17. Genomic instability in children born from the Chernobyl accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It seems in all probability that the radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of cell genome. Evidence has been presented in the previous reports of our laboratory that a chromosome instability could be found out in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and in children from the regions with a high radiation level. Data on a chromosome instability in children born from the Chernobyl victims are presented in this paper. We investigated women in 1986 within the limits of 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Children born from these women were a main subject of our studies. In some cases an examination of their fathers was also carried out. It seems to us that a genetic instability transmitted from the parents is realized as an increased sensitivity to the different environmental factors, including an enhanced radiation level, chemical mutagens et al. Latent hereditary disturbances in these children probably appear later as a result of their contact with mutagens of a different nature. (authors)

  18. A special file on Chernobyl unit-4 reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence of the accident of unit-4 at Chernobyl had been outlined. Safety systems in RBMK-1000 type reactor were summarized. Fallout measurement on Syrian Arab Republic as a result of this accident were presented. The actions of IAEA during the accident and a full Arabic translation of ''The convention on early notification of a nuclear accident'' and ''The convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency'', are also included in the article. (Author)

  19. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1996, the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant led to the release into the atmosphere of considerable quantities of radionuclides. Most contaminated regions were in the southern Belarus, northern Ukraine and Bryansk and Kaluga regions of Russia. Main population groups exposed to the radioactivity released during the accident were the personnel at the Chernobyl plant and the rescue teams present on-site during the first hours, the cleanup workers (numbering about 600000) who participated in the decontamination and cleaning operations in the 30 km zone around the site, the residents of the same zone who were evacuated (numbering about 115000) and the inhabitants of contaminated zones (?1 Ci/km2). Dose and dose rate levels as well as exposure pathways differ from one population group to another. A review of scientific articles published in the international literature till 1998 has been carried out. Apart the 28 deaths due to acute radiation sickness which occurred in the personnel of the plant and rescue teams within several days or weeks after the accident, two main public health consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been observed. First an unprecedented epidemic of thyroid cancers was detected in children first in 1992 in Belarus then in the Ukraine and to a lesser extent in Bryansk region. The spontaneous incidence of these tumours was multiplied by 100 in most contaminated regions. Although the rost contaminated regions. Although the role of the accident in this epidemic is now recognised, questions are raised regarding the respective role of radioactive agents and other environmental or genetic factors, and its evolution in the future. Regarding other kinds of solid cancers and leukemia, no excess has been clearly demonstrated in the residents of contaminated areas nor in liquidators. Second, results of available epidemiological investigations show an increased risk of psychological distress in residents of highly contaminated areas, evacuated people and liquidators but have not demonstrated severe psychiatric consequences. An increased psychological distress has also been demonstrated in other radiological accidents and disasters. It indicates a degradation of individual well-being and health and may increase health care demand and health risk behaviours. It should thus be regarded as an important consequence on public health. (authors)

  20. The radiological situation in south Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl a radioactive cloud reached Bavaria on April 30th 1986 inducing activities in the air of 52 Bq iodine 131/m3 and 10 Bq cesium 137/m3 (measured in Munich on April 30th between 10am and 2pm). Further on, significant amounts of ruthenium 103, tellurium 132, iodine 132, iodine 133 and cesium 134 were found. Especially in the southern region of Bavaria the majority of the radioactivity in the air was washed out by heavy thundershowers and deposited on the ground. The local deposition was closely linked with the local precipitation rate between April 30th and May 2nd. The deposition of cesium 137 in Bavaria varied from less than 6000 to more than 40000 Bq/m2. This radioactive contamination of the environment adds a further radioactive exposure to man. The three major exposure pathways, direct radiation, inhalation, and ingestion, will be considered in this paper

  1. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  2. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears tollow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  3. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional hae those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  4. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accideradionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

  5. Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

  6. Twenty years since the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have elapsed since the tragic accident that occurred on April 26, 1986 at Chernobyl. Then the dimensions of the explosion of the reactor no 4 horrified the people all over the globe. The event's consequences many times more severe than those of the atomic bombs used in 1945, shocked every member of the human society. Unfortunately, the excessive dramatic covering by media of these effects was and still is used by the opponents of nuclear energy when fighting to rule this technology out of the energy mix. The beginning of the third millennium has highlighted a severe want of nuclear power capacities necessary to fulfill the ever increasing needs for energy. An ever growing pollution due to release into the environment of additional amounts of greenhouse effect gases resulted in regional and global climate changes that cause disasters and calamities. Experts from the World Energy Council, USA State Department of Energy, OECD, AIE, IAEA, etc, demonstrated that there are no grounds to rule the nuclear power out of the list of industrial technologies for electricity generation. The economic and nuclear safety effects and results of the new generations of the nuclear power plants have tremendously improved and their competitiveness and performances are beyond doubt. The Chernobyl lesson has revealed that knowing and telling the whole truth is the only way to regain the population's trust, the key factor in the further development of nuclear energy in our world.evelopment of nuclear energy in our world. Considering this situation the saying 'Who does not understand the issue, is against it' needs no comment

  7. Control and interpretation of radiometric survey data for determination of personal doses of internal exposure to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident one of the most important studies caused by the necessity of radiation protection and medical care of the population was determination of personal doses to residents of the territories most intensively affected by radioactive contamination. The necessity of determining personal doses demanded that a number of specific problems of measurement and dosimetry nature should be solved. In the given paper two problems are presented: determination of iodine-131 content in the thyroid by the results of radiometry of man in the presence of evenly distributed radionuclides in the body; reconstruction of doses to the thyroid in persons who had not been measured for iodine-131 content in the body or the results of their measurement proved to be unreliable

  8. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdo to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

  9. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

  10. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  11. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  12. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

  13. Transplantation of bone marrow in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow transplants were carried out in 13 patients suffering from acute irradiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. Only blood relations of the patients were used as donors. The number of bone marrow cells transplanted must be at least 2x108 per kilogram of recipient weight. The experience of the present bone marrow transplants has shown defects in clinical methods of early diagnosis (during the first 7-10 days after exposure) of acute radiation injuries to the skin, intestine and lungs which are incompatible with survival. Another problem with bone marrow transplants for patients suffering from acute radiation sickness is to determine to what extent the depression of marrow activity is irreversible. Spontaneous regeneration of myelopoiesis was observed 22-30 days after exposure in patients who had received doses of 7-9 Gy. A lapse of this order before the onset regeneration is therefore, in principle, compatible with survival under the conditions of modern support therapy. Thus, the belief that prolonged acute radiation pancytopenia which is incompatible with survival starts already at doses of 5-6 Gy is evidently incorrect, at least for the relatively low exposure dose rates experienced by this group of victims. The results of bone marrow transplants in victims of the Chernobyl accident suggest that, in future, the following rules should be observed in transplanting human bone marrow to victims of acute radiation sickness: (1) Only HLA-identice radiation sickness: (1) Only HLA-identical transplants should be carried out; and (2) HLA-identical bone marrow transplants should be carried out only in patients who have received whole body doses of gamma radiation of 9.0 Gy or more. (author). 1 tab

  14. Radiation burden in the Netherlands after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequences to the Netherlands of the Chernobyl reactor accident (May 1986) are studied. Measurements are presented of air radioactivity, exposure rates, contamination of grass and milk, of agricultural products, of rain, surface and drinking water, as obtained from different parts of the country. The final section offers an estimation of their consequences to public health in the near future. (G.J.P.)

  15. Intervention during late phase of the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: Gained experience and future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various measures, introduced to reduce external and internal radiation doses of inhabitants of territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, are described. Average annual doses are given. It is concluded that while factors such as reduction of psychoemotional tension need to be explored, risk coefficients for chronic exposure at low doses should be specified. (author)

  16. Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the counhus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

  17. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  18. Summary report on the post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an Executive Summary which gives an overview of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, the first section of the main INSAG report presents the understanding of INSAG members of the causes of the accident, concluding that it was the result of a remarkable range of human errors and violation of operating rules, in combination with specific reactor features which compounded and amplified the effects of the errors and led to the reactivity excursion. The second section presents the problem of radionuclide release from the damaged reactor, showing that there was an initial intense release associated with the destructive events in the accident, then the release rates fell over the next few days up to 7x1016 Bq/d five days after the accident initiation, and at that point the release rates began to increase and reached about 3x1017 Bq/d nine days after the accident initiation. There was then a drop in the radionuclide release to 4x1013 Bq/d and the release rates have continued to decline since that time. The next section describes the accident management at the site, fire-fighting, cleanup of the site and the entombment of the damaged unit. In the fourth section the radiation protection aspects of the accident, the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the exposure of members of the public pointing to the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137 which entered the food-chains, the on-site and off-site emergency response, ton-site and off-site emergency response, the decontamination and the health effects including both the early non-stochastic effects and the late stochastic ones are presented. Safety issues to be pursued in order to derive whatever safety lessons can be learned from the Chernobyl accident are considered in Section V. The next two sections present INSAG's observations, conclusions and recommendations based on the lessons learned so far from the accident and ranging from reactor operation to radiation protection and international co-operation in nuclear safety. Finally the report has a technical annex providing information on the operating history of RBMK reactors and background information on the Chernobyl Unit 4 reactor necessary for understanding other parts of the report

  19. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  20. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  1. Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D L

    1992-10-01

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure. PMID:1454181

  2. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  3. Carcinoma of the stomach following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical consequences of many nuclear accidents on humans are well studied, but the results pertaining to gastric cancer patients who were exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident have not been analysed. In this study, the outcome of the surgical treatment of 68 gastric cancer patients who were exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident was compared with that of 117 consecutive gastric patients from uncontaminated areas of the Ukraine. Patients in the study group was significantly younger than that of the control group. Young age, invasive tumours with smaller number of distant metastases, frequent necessity for total gastrectomy and combined operations with adjacent organs, a higher level of postoperative morbidity and mortality and low levels of natural killer cells (CD16+) with a tendency to decrease after surgery are characteristic of patients with carcinoma of the stomach affected by the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  4. Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

  5. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  6. Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

  7. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  8. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  9. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequh, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

  10. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  11. Retrospection of Chernobyl nuclear accident for decision analysis concerning remedial actions in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is considered the efficacy of decisions concerning remedial actions when of-site radiological monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases was absent or was not informative. There are examples of such situations in the former Soviet Union where many people have been exposed: releases of radioactive materials from 'Krasnoyarsk-26' into Enisey River, releases of radioactive materials from 'Chelabinsk-65' (the Kishtim accident), nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Chernobyl nuclear accident etc. If monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases is absent the decisions concerning remedial actions are usually developed on the base of permanent monitoring. However decisions of this kind may be essentially erroneous. For these cases it is proposed to make retrospection of radiological data of the early and intermediate phases of nuclear accident and to project decisions concerning remedial actions on the base of both retrospective data and permanent monitoring data. In this Report the indicated problem is considered by the example of the Chernobyl accident for Ukraine. Their of-site radiological monitoring in the early and intermediate phases was unsatisfactory. In particular, the pasture-cow-milk monitoring had not been made. All official decisions concerning dose estimations had been made on the base of measurements of 137Cs in body (40 measurements in 135 days and 55 measurements in 229 days after the Chernobyl accidents in 229 days after the Chernobyl accident). For the retrospection of radiological data of the Chernobyl accident dynamic model has been developed. This model has structure similar to the structure of Pathway model and Farmland model. Parameters of the developed model have been identified for agricultural conditions of Russia and Ukraine. By means of this model dynamics of 20 radionuclides in pathways and dynamics of doses have been estimated for the early, intermediate and late phases of the Chernobyl accident. The main results are following: - During the first year after the Chernobyl accident 75-93% of Commitment Effective Dose had been formed; - During the first year after the Chernobyl accident 85-90% of damage from radiation exposure had been formed. During the next 50 years (the late phase of accident) only 10-15% of damage from radiation exposure will have been formed; - Remedial actions (agricultural remedial actions as most effective) in Ukraine are intended for reduction of the damage from consumption of production which is contaminated in the late phase of accident. I.e. agricultural remedial actions have been intended for minimization only 10 % of the total damage from radiation exposure; - Medical countermeasures can minimize radiation exposure damage by an order of magnitude greater than agricultural countermeasures. - Thus, retrospection of nuclear accident has essentially changed type of remedial actions and has given a chance to increase effectiveness of spending by an order of magnitude. This example illustrates that in order to optimize remedial actions it is required to use data of retrospection of nuclear accidents in all cases when monitoring in the early and (or) intermediate phases is unsatisfactory. (author)

  12. Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

  13. The Chernobyl nuclear plant accident and international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Soviet Union on 25-26 April 1986 revealed a number of serious gaps in the rules of international law, not merely as regards the international responsibility of a State, where such an accident occurs, to compensate neighbouring States for the damage and harm suffered as a consequence of the accident, but also so far as concerns the measures to be taken obligatorily both at the time of the accident and during its aftermath in the interests of the health and safety of persons and property

  14. The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

  15. Health effects after the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria: review of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The current analysis is designed to address concern about possible health effects in Bulgaria following the Chernobyl accident (CA). The results of descriptive studies are analyzed for the period 1981-1996 and 1981-2003 on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system and thyroid cancer (TC) respectively. Analyses of the risk of TC in consequence of CA for analytical studies are based on detailed thyroid gland's dose of exposure. Comparative investigations are based on number of patients with surgery operation. Discussed are the results of studies among children received prenatal radiation exposure at the time of the CA. Overall, in none of the studies doesn't prove a significant increase in the malignant diseases of the hemopoietic system incidence as well as in leukemia that could be attributed to the Chernobyl accident. No increase in the leukemia incidence among children was registered. The descriptive and analytical studies reviewed doesn't prove CA as a risk factor for TC incidence. The number of congenital anomalies did not show a statistically significant increase in relation to the nuclear accident. It doesn't prove any influence of CA upon development of the chosen children's groups learning abilities. Exposure of Bulgarian population after the Chernobyl accident is not a risk factor increased incidence rate in oncohematological diseases and TC in our country

  16. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  17. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginzburg, H. M.; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

  18. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  19. Cesium-137 in air late after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 in air as high as 88.1 ?Bq x m-3 was recorded in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece (40 deg 38'N, 22 deg 58'E) on June 3, 1998 very late after the Chernobyl reactor accident following a radiological incident occurred in a steel factory at Acerinox, Spain. (author)

  20. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  1. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  2. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  3. Procedure on reconstruction of external dose to evacuees at Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external dose estimation on the Chernobyl accident was carried out using sugar left in two houses at Pripyat-city from before the accident. The external dose to the people evacuated from Pripyat-city after the Chernobyl accident has been estimated using both a data from the sugar-electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter and information on the type of buildings and the exposure rates there. In this work, the procedure of the dose estimation for the evacuees in Pripyat-city be reported. Furthermore, the sugar-ESR method will be discussed. The present result good agree with one reported from USSR to IAEA. It has been certified that small crystalline sugar such as granulated sugar is one of the most useful dosimeter in the emergency for the public. (author)

  4. Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

  5. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in contamination well beyond the borders of the USSR. The author notes the gaps in international mechanisms to cope with its effects. The principles of nuclear legislation, notably harmonization, are reviewed as are international nuclear agreements, recommendations etc to prevent such accidents. Problems of compensation for damage can only be settled under public international law since the USSR is a party to neither the Paris nor the Vienna Conventions, which demonstrates the need for a wider adherence to those Conventions. Since the accident, however, two international Conventions on assistance and notification were adopted under the auspices of IAEA, emphasizing the importance of international cooperation and its usefulness. The author concludes that such cooperation contributed to creating a relatively harmonized legal regime for nuclear activities which has evolved since Chernobyl and will continue to do so. (NEA)

  6. Root causes of the Chernobyl accident: hindsight through years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the article was not to evaluate the status of nuclear safety in this country. We wished to raise another question analysing the Chernobyl accident occurred in April 1986 is not the end in itself and the analysis must not be retrospective. The objective is to draw the normal for nuclear safety nowadays and in the future in order to prevent the very possibility of another accident entailing severe radiological consequences. In our opinion, discussions on any details of physical and thermohydraulic processes occurred in April 1986 can and even must be the matter of due consideration. There are all the reasons to state that no due conclusions were drawn in Ukraine further to the analysis of the Chernobyl accident causes

  7. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  9. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

  10. [Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents. PMID:21520618

  11. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  12. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

  13. 10 years after Chernobyl, radiation exposure, health effects, safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sums up the various conferences and symposia which were prompted by the tenth anniversary of the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl. It was shown that by the accident up to now 31 casualties among the emergency and rescue personal at the site. Offsite no increased number of casualties caused by the accident was observed up to now. In the countries with the highest impact Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, however, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer is observed which is substantially higher than after the nuclear detonations over Japanese cities. Contrary to often published media reports, however, up to now no increases in leukemia or other malignant deceases were observed, neither in the population of the concerned regions nor among the liquidators. The high 137Cs activity concentration in the environment close to the power plant result in exclusion zone even today. The deposition values in Kiev, however, amount to only 30 kBq/m2, in large areas of Ukraine they are below the average values in Austria of 22 kBq/m2. For these areas as well as those outside the former Soviet Union the average doses were less than 1 mSv in the first year, a value which is less than one third of natural annual radiation exposure. Since the reactor accident the activity concentration has significally decreased resulting in an exposure as consequence of the reactor accident of less than 0,8 % of the exposure in the first year. In Austria the exposure in 1996 amounts to less than 0,3 % of natural radiation exposure. (author)

  14. The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the UK: a fisheries viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring programme undertaken by the Directorate throughout the UK following the Chernobyl reactor accident is described. The results of sampling and analysis of fish, shellfish, seaweed and other materials are discussed. Chernobyl fallout was readily detected in all sectors of the aquatic environment, particularly during May when the highest concentrations were observed. An assessment of the radiological impact of the fallout shows that freshwater fish were the most important source of individual (critical group) exposure though, based on cautious assumptions, the effective dose equivalent is around 1 mSv in a year. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from Chernobyl due to aquatic ingestion pathways, predominantly marine fish, is estimated to be 30 man Sv. (author)

  15. Chernobyl accident influence on thyroid cancer incidence in Bulgaria: studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation is one of the well-established etiologic factors for induced malignant diseases. As a result of trans-boundary transfer of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident, Bulgaria, like other European countries, was contaminated and all consequences followed. The current analysis is designed to address concern about a possible health effects in Bulgaria following the Chernobyl accident. Discussed are results from different epidemiological studies on thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1981-2003. Five epidemiological studies are descriptive of the type, concerning sex, age, histology type and periods before and after the accident. Two are an analytical 'case-control' study. Geographically correlated study estimates the relationship between thyroid cancer incidence and irradiation from the radioactive contamination of the territory by regions. Discussed are four comparative analyses presented data on annual number and clinic and morphological features of thyroid cancer also. Up to now the epidemiological studies carried out in Bulgaria doesn't prove either an increase in the thyroid cancer incidence or correlation with public exposure after the Chernobyl accident

  16. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  17. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  18. Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

  19. The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

  20. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  1. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  2. Disturbances of mnestic functioning in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with mnestic disturbances in 98 victims of Chernobyl accident. A statistically significant decrease in attention and memory (in particular of long-term verbal and visual ones) was found. The considerable asthenisation of patients and the insufficiency of active attention as well as the possible disturbances in turnover of some neurotransmitters which promote the consolidation of engrams (dophamin and norepinephrine) may underline the above disorders

  3. Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs

  4. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in ppromotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  5. Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  7. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  8. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents

  9. Setting up a specialized centre for rendering therapeutical and prophylactic aid to the Chernobyl accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of examination and observation dynamics are presented of the patients participated in the Chernobyl accident response. Data were obtained in the Tomsk Regional Center on rehabilitation and disease treatment and prevention of persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response. It was shown that the diagnosis and treatment of this category of population required the combined purposeful approach. It is recommended to create the regional special centres on rendering therapeutic-preventive service and rehabilitation of participants of the Chernobyl accident response

  10. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  11. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  12. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  13. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  14. Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl Nuclear Accidents. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure.

  15. Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

  16. Chernobyl accident: its causes, impacts and the lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, its causes, impacts and the lessons learned from it are briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of nuclear safety and radiation protection, based on the recent studies and reports worldwide and on the information taken by the author during his visit to the site. The paper includes a short description of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the process of the accident, emergency actions and protection measures, health and environmental impacts, and its causes and lessons learned. To look at matters in the safety aspect, some defects of the design, such as the positive void reactivity coefficient, the insufficient reactivity margin, the exist of an area of increasing reactivity when the absorbing rods move downwards from the top, and the lack of an effective containment, are the essential causes bringing the accident to occur and breeding up catastrophic consequences. The coincidence of some extremely improbable incidents aroused by the operators is the blasting fuse which directly touched off the accident, and the most serious problem revealed is the defects in nuclear safety management in the former Soviet Union. The author holds that strengthening safety management and raising the safety culture level are the key to improve nuclear safety

  17. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

  18. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

  19. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bio-indicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru and 110Agm were detected in F vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of 137Cs varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northernmost locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg at the south east cost. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocaesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and 99Tc the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily caesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (authors)

  20. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

  1. The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

  2. Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

  3. The Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986. (orig.)

  4. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

  5. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by {sup 137}Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

  6. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of 137Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of 137Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

  7. On the main causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main causes are described of the Chernobyl accident, the discussion of which seems to be finished. It is shown that important actual parameters of the reactor differed adversely from the project; this fact had not been taken into account in operational instructions and therefore it could not be known to the operators. Further, the general causes of the Chernobyl accident are pointed out. A major cause is the still non-existing fundamental law and, consequently, lack of definition of responsibilities (it will, above all, be necessary to set out indivisible responsibility of the plant operator for nuclear safety). At present all participants in nuclear power engineering share responsibility. Another cause of the accident can be seen in insufficient quality assurance resulting from the fact that the Soviet regulatory body has not all the necessary powers and the independence. Closely connected with this is the fact that the role of the human factor is overemphasized and operational experience is not included in design modifications. In general, insufficient safety culture as defined by INSAG can be stated. 6 figs., 4 refs

  8. The Chernobyl accident: its causes and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident occurred during the night of April 26th. Its exact causes were only known at the end of the month of August when an international conference, proposed by the Soviets, was held in Vienna. The Chernobyl reactor, which was moderated by graphite and cooled by water, had several weak points. A crew, which was carrying-out tests, cancelled six safety devices, some of which were essential. In these conditions, the reactor went out of control and this led to two explosions and a serious fire. The fire spread to the graphite and a part of the radioactivity in the reactor escaped into the atmosphere. The consequences of this accident which were well controlled by the authorities were serious in the neighbourhood of the reactor: 31 dead, 100 000 people evacuated and contaminated soil. The radioactive cloud resulting from the accident, pushed by the wind, travelled across Europe and provoked worry everywhere. In fact, the risks from such small doses of radioactivity are not significant; an evaluation of such risks is given in this article in comparison with the effects of small doses of chemical products which although they have analogous effects are considered as being inoffensive

  9. Study on the social economic estimation of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate the external economic effect for the risk of the nuclear power plants, the document research has been carried out, which mainly deals with the economic influence of the Chernobyl accident that occurred on the 26th of April 1986. As a result, the direct and indirect total economic loss between 1986 and 1995 is about $ 80 billion in Belarus, $ 115 billion in Ukraine and 1.15 trillion in Russia. This value, however, is considered as an overestimation, since the environmental contamination with radioactive material and thyroid cancer in Russia is very much the same as in Belarus and Ukraine. Also, the total economic loss is about a billion dollars in west European countries. The total economic loss for the Chernobyl accident is estimated more than about $ 300 billion. On the other hand, the chance occurrence of this kind of major accident of the nuclear power plant is very small in terms of probabilities, and the product of economic loss and frequency is smaller than the cost benefit for the measure of global warming and the energy security in Japan. This kind of problem should be treated as a social problem and study on various external economic effect is necessary. (author)

  10. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 taburanics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  12. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  13. XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

  14. International programme on medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). Belorussian state register of persons irradiated as a result of accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims and tasks of the Byelorussian State Register of persons irradiated in result of Chernobyl accident are described, as well as its organizational structure, organization of information collection, automated information processing system. 2 figs, 1 tab

  15. Determination of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident, a coarse-meshed all-over picture of the radioactive ground deposition on Norway's land area was obtained by radiometric scanning from car. The measurements were carried out by the Geological Survey of Norway in the period 5 May - 6 June, 1986. High-concentration areas in the central part of the country were in addition surveyed by aerial scanning. By combining the scanning results with in situ background measurements, it was possible to calculate the distribution of some dominant radionuclides on the ground. The measured data are presented on contamination maps

  16. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

  17. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  18. Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

  19. Ukrainian NPP instrumentation and control systems after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main factors that contributed to the development of I and C systems of Ukrainian NPPs after 1986. The period of time after the Chernobyl accident is divided into three phases: 1986-1991, when the implementation of typical WWER-1000 I and C design was continued; 1992-2000, when the regulatory system on nuclear and radiation safety was formed in Ukraine; and 2001-2010, when numerous new digital NPP I and C systems were designed by national companies and implemented at Ukrainian NPPs. The main problems related to NPP I and C systems are indicated

  20. A review of internal exposure accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of an internal exposure accident is much more difficult to establish clearly than the one concerning external overexposures. For the latter, the notion is implicitly related to resulting health damage, while in most cases any internal contamination, regardless of its level and the upcoming or no of a detriment, is qualified as accidental. Therefore, this overview is limited to (1) large scale internal exposure accidents because large groups of individuals, highly contaminated or not, were involved; (2) occupational contaminations which sometimes resulted into long-term health effects, and (3) the results of the follow-up of patients who were either explored or treated in the 30s and 50s by alpha emitting radionuclides. Among large-scale accidents, mention is made of the 1954 american nuclear test in the Pacific ocean, uncorrectly programmed and responsible for thyroid diseases, of the 1957 accident in the Mayak complex in the Urals, of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986 and of the 1987 Goiania accident due to the uncontrolled dismantling of a teletherapy source. Among occupational contaminations, several medical and epidemiological follows-up are of particular interest, such as those concerning dial painters who used radium in the years 1910 and uranium miners, although it is difficult to qualify as accidental these practices, even if the doses received at this time were widely in excess of the limits in use nowadays. Taking into account thes in use nowadays. Taking into account the previous caution, the groups of patients who received relatively large amounts of thorotrast (used as contrast material) and of radium (considered as a large spectrum therapeutic agent) are very interesting as well; these two medical practices resulted into various long-term health effects, and were used, in some degree, to quantify the risk in man of alpha emitters. (author)

  1. ILK statement on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Taking stock after twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident was the consequence of a reactor design which was not inherently safe, and of a lack of 'safety culture'. The RBMK-type reactor (a Russian graphite-moderated light water reactor design: reaktor bolshoi moshnosty kanalny=high-power channel reactor) had not been designed to a satisfactory safety level, and the operating staff were not informed on the weak spots in plant design. The combination of these factors caused the worst nuclear accident, completely destroying the reactor. The consequences may be seen as the product of two severe accidents superimposed upon each other: the explosion of the reactor, and core melt-down associated with an intense, persistent fire of the graphite moderator. The Statement contains analyses of these points: Release, Propagation and Deposition of Radioactive Materials; Protective Measures; Impact on the Environment and Agriculture; Assessment of Radiation Exposure; Health Impact; Psychological and Societal Impacts; Potential Residual Risks. (orig.)

  2. Down's syndrome clusters in Germany in close temporal relationship to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down's syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination for one month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, also, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down's syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. (author)

  3. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  4. Monitoring on influence of Soviet chernobyl accident on environment of some regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the monitoring results of some environmental samples from Gansu provinces and Qinshan aera of Zhejiang Province and the cities of Beijing, Shenyang and Baotou after the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The samples collected included air, fallout, rain water, reservoir water, plants and soil and the wipping samples of international and domestic airlines were also measured. Analyese were made by using low background Ge(Li) ? spectrometer with anti-coincident shield and by radiochemical methods for 89Sr, 90Sr and Pu contents in some samples. The results indicate that the radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl accident arrived to Beijing area on May 2, 1986. Generally speaking, the concentration of radioactive cloud in north China was greater than that in south China. Fission products were found in wipping samples taken from airplanes flying over Europe and Asia. The radioactivity level of the samples taken from European air-line was considerably higher than that from Asian airline. The main fission products found in different samples were as follows: 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 103Ru and 132Te, 132I. The ratio of 137Cs to 134Cs was about 2. The partial effective dose equivalent commitment of preliminary estimation to the public in Beijing area from the accident was 11.3 ?Sv. The contribution of the external exposure was 7.9 ?Sv. The contribution of the internal exposure was 3.4 ?Sv

  5. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author)

  7. Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritidis, P.; Papanicolaou, E. (National Centre for Scientific Research ' Democritos' , Athens (Greece)); Florou, H. (National Centre for Marine Research, Athens (Greece))

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author).

  8. Peculiarities of psychological status of liquidators of Chernobyl accident after-effects having psychosomatic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight hundred and ninety two men aged 25-55 yrs including five hundred and eighty three persons taking part in the Chernobyl accident after-effects liquidation and three hundred and nine persons having similar psychosomatic pathologies but lacking radiation 'anamnesis'. The radiation risk understanding was shown to effect negatively on the disease run and the remission period duration. The psychic process after the radiation exposure was determined to be caused by a radiation effect on the central nervous system as well. The outcomes of the clinical and psychological study evidenced that the psychosomatic pathology including the discirculating encephalopathy developed in the persons exposed to irradiation in the early age. (authors)

  9. Leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the conclusion of IPHECA Hematology pilot project (1991-1995), there was no significant increase in the incidence of malignant diseases of haemopoietic and lymphoid tissues after Chernobyl accident. Since the peak in the morbidity may occur more than 10 years after the accident, long-term studies of different forms of haemoblastoses and myelodysplastic syndromes are needed. Approaches to the studying leukemias and lymphomas induced by ionizing radiation will include some fundamental and applied aspects: investigation of epidemiology, introduction of modern methods of diagnostics (cytomorphology, immunocytochemistry, cytogenetic), the study of target cell for radiation leukemogenesis, gene mutations, mechanisms of apoptosis and G1 delay, expression of oncogenes, changes of cellular elements of bone marrow microenvironment

  10. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  11. Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

  12. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  13. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

  14. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  15. Estimate of dose reduction effects due to countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various countermeasures introduced in Austria after the Chernobyl accident are compared and their effective dose reduction effects evaluated. As expected, the greatest reductions were obtained with counter measures with regard to milk and directly contaminated food. Three of them (prohibition of sale of fresh vegetables, prohibition of feeding cows on fresh grass and selection of low activity milk in the dairies) accounted for more than 70% of the total reduction of exposure by all countermeasures. Other countermeasures contributed little to the reduction of exposure. By all countermeasures combined, the exposure to be theoretically expected was reduced by 30% for the adult and 50% for the one year old infant. The dose reduction of the one year old infant (0.58 mSv) was approximately double that of the adult (0.33 mSv) resulting basically from higher reductions of the 131I intake by the infant. (author)

  16. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  17. Radiation exposure in the Hanseatic City of Luebeck through two-year inhalation and ingestion of radioactive substances as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of two years, an average monthly spectrum of the specific activity Bq/kg found in food was determined and plotted against time. Iodine 131, cesium 137 and cesium 134 were chosen as guiding nuclides and their prevalences evaluated for certain foodstuffs defined by the ICRP as being typically consumed by a standard individual with standard eating habits. The behaviour of the effective equivalent dose (D(eff)/mSv) taken in with each of the defined foodstuffs by an average citizen of Luebeck was calculated over two years on the basis of dose factors and shown graphically. Wholebody measurements carried out simultaneously pointed to comparable values for the specific activities of cesium in the second year that were in the order of 3-5 Bq/kg and accounted for an individual equivalent dose of < 0.02 mSv/a. They were thus lower by a factor of 10 than the K-40 occurring naturally in the environment (approx. 0.2 mSv/a). It was evident from comparisons with the environmental exposure to natural radionuclides (approx. 2 mSv/a) that there is no increased exposure risk in epidemiologic or statistical terms. The D(eff)mSv/a was calculated to be (1) for children: thyroid 1.050, wholebody 0.077 in the first year; wholebody 0.008 in the second year; (2) for adults: thyroid 0.258, wholebody 0.068 in the first year; wholebody 0.030 in the second year. (orig./HP)

  18. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  19. History, consequences and evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, Soviet officials let out but few information on the accident and the radioactivity releases. Later, however, at the 'Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident', organised by the IAEA, from August 25 to 29, 1986 in Vienna/Austria, the Soviet Union gave a detailed account of events. According to the information now available, experiments with a turbogenerator of the plant have led to operating conditions of the reactor which, for lack of controlling means, ended in a runaway of the reactor, i.e. in a power excursion which finally led to the reactor top being blown off by the extreme pressure increase in the primary system. About 8 tonnes of finely dispersed, highly radioactive fuel were blown out into the atmosphere. The radioactivity release continued for 10 days. The contribution in hand briefly describes the damage to the reactor and the installation, presents a summary of events and probable causes, and concludes by discussing whether the conditions described are comparable with conditions in German design reactors. (orig./GL)

  20. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  1. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  2. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption

  4. Childhood Leukaemia Incidence in Hungary, 1973-2002. Interpolation Model for Analysing the Possible Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of childhood leukaemia in Hungary has yet to be reported, although data are available since the early 70s. The Hungarian data therefore cover the time before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary. A population-based study was carried out using data of the National Paediatric Cancer Registry of Hungary from 1973 to 2002. The total number of cases was 2204. To test the effect of the Chernobyl accident the authors applied a new approach called 'Hypothesized Impact Period Interpolation'-model, which takes into account the increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence and the hypothesized exposure and latency times. The incidence of leukaemia in the age group 0-14 varied between 33.2 and 39.4 per million person-years along the observed 30 year period, and the incidence of childhood leukaemia showed a moderate increase of 0.71% annually (p=0.0105). In the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident the incidence rate was elevated by 2.5% (95% CI: -8.1%; +14.3%), but this change was not statistically significant (p=0.663). The age standardised incidence, the age distribution, the gender ratio, and the magnitude of increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary were similar to other European countries. Applying the presented interpolation method the authors did not find a statistically significant incr not find a statistically significant increase in the leukaemia incidence in the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident

  5. The role of chemical reactions in the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanin, E. I., E-mail: egrishanin@orexovo.net [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    It is shown that chemical reactions played an essential role in the Chernobyl accident at all of its stages. It is important that the reactor before the explosion was at maximal xenon poisoning, and its reactivity, apparently, was not destroyed by the explosion. The reactivity release due to decay of Xe-235 on the second day after the explosion led to a reactor power of 80-110 MW. Owing to this power, the chemical reactions of reduction of uranium, plutonium, and other metals at a temperature of about 2000 Degree-Sign C occurred in the core. The yield of fission products thus sharply increased. Uranium and other metals flew down in the bottom water communications and rooms. After reduction of the uranium and its separation from the graphite, the chain reaction stopped, the temperature of the core decreased, and the activity yield stopped.

  6. The role of chemical reactions in the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishanin, E. I.

    2010-12-01

    It is shown that chemical reactions played an essential role in the Chernobyl accident at all of its stages. It is important that the reactor before the explosion was at maximal xenon poisoning, and its reactivity, apparently, was not destroyed by the explosion. The reactivity release due to decay of Xe-235 on the second day after the explosion led to a reactor power of 80-110 MW. Owing to this power, the chemical reactions of reduction of uranium, plutonium, and other metals at a temperature of about 2000°C occurred in the core. The yield of fission products thus sharply increased. Uranium and other metals flew down in the bottom water communications and rooms. After reduction of the uranium and its separation from the graphite, the chain reaction stopped, the temperature of the core decreased, and the activity yield stopped.

  7. The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

  8. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  9. First consequences to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article first summarizes the facts known at the time, about the causes and events at Chernobyl, and continues with a discussion of the consequences such as the long-term effects of the radioactive contamination of the area affected, radiation-induced carcinogenesis, and latency periods. The lack of reliable and safe information on the effects of low-dose irradiation, and possible radiation effects to be expected in regions far away from the reactor site are dealt with together with the question of whether there is a linear relationship between radiation dose and cancer development, and what would happen if the F.R.G. were to experience such an accident on its own territory. The author finally discusses arguments raised against his own view of the situation and points to another type of damage observable in the country, namely the psychological stress created by the upsurge of fear of the atomic energy. (MG)

  10. Lichens as biomonitors for radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-137 resulting from the Chernobyl accident was monitored in lichens in The Netherlands. Caesium-137 activity in Parmelia sulcata ranged from 550 to 6100 (average 2500) Bq kg-1 dry weight. The similarity between the lichen data (geographical 137Cs activity gradients and radioactivity values) and data of wet and dry deposition, indicate the validity of lichen monitoring of atmospheric 137Cs. The ratio between the 137Cs activity per unit lichen dry weight (kg) of Parmelia sulcata and the 137Cs activity deposited per unit surface area (m2) was approximately one. Measurements of 137Cs accumulation in Xanthoria parietina show that the activity concentration could be expressed both on a dry weight and on a contour surface area basis. The determination of the biological half-life of 137Cs in lichens was shown to be subject to sources of error such as growth and non-atmospheric/indirect 137Cs influxes. (Author)

  11. Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131I, 132Te, 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89Sr and 90Sr. Very quickly, 137Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and 90Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg-1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

  12. Leukaemia and lymphoma in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As it was known Belarus is the country mostly affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The content of incorporated Cs-137 in tissues and Sr-90 in bones of exposed people of Belarus has increased several times. Long - live bone marrow doses per person was expected as: 8.8 mSv in Belarus, 2,8 mSv in Ukraine and 1,0 mSv in Russia. That why it was believed that one of the adverse effects of the Chernobyl radiation would be the increase of leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rates among the population (first of all among the children) of Belarus. Registration of leukaemia and lymphoma has been compulsory in Belarus since 1988 by the special training team at the Research Institute of Haematology. The information includes the name and address of the patients, age, date and place of diagnosis, ICD-number of the diagnosis, and diagnostic method (biopsy, autopsy, myelogram, immunohistochemical method used ect.). It was established that before the Chernobyl accident (1979 - 1985 ) the incidence rates of the child leukaemia was 4,16+0,22; after the accident: in 1986-1992 - 4,35 = 0,08; in 1993-2001 - 3,35 = 0,18 per 100.000 children, aged 0-14 years. Among the adult population of Belarus (aged 15-90) during the periods of 1979-85, 1986 - 92, and 1993 - 1999 correspondingly: 2,8, 3,24 and 2,94%ooo (p<0,05); for Chll and Chml - 6,10; 8,12 and 8,21%ooo; for MM - 1,44; 1,86 and 2,30%ooo; for lymphomas - 2,84; 4,07; 5,22%ooo; for HL - 3,11; 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no sugges 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no suggestion an increase in risk of child leukaemia after Chernobyl. It's hardly possible to attribute child leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rate only to the level of the radionuclide contamination territory. At the same time, some preliminary our date allow to anticipate that the incidence rates correlate rather with levels of chemical pollution in the atmosphere and its compounds. Adults demonstrate a more significant increase of hemoblastoses morbidity after Chernobyl disaster in comparison with children. Adults have not demonstrate also any association between the morbidity levels and radiation factor: the level of hemoblastoses incidence rates correlate more with the level of chemical contamination of the environment that still plays a leading role in carcinogenesis. However, radionuclides do facilitate carcinogenesis development: the persons evacuated from radionuclide contaminated areas to radionuclide - free, but the severely chemically polluted ones, demonstrate 5 and more fold increase of tumour morbidity

  13. Nuclear power plant accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi. Effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidents in the title are compared from medical aspect. Chernobyl accident in April 1986 released enormous amounts of radioactive materials to cause the contamination of extensive areas around the southern east of Belarus Republic by rainfall afterward. At the contaminated areas, medical studies had been conducted on the internal exposure-induced malformation, psychomotor retardation, pediatric cancers and others in consideration of thyroid cancer by I-131, leukemia by Cs-137 and Sr-90, and lung cancer by Pu, among which an increase of pediatric thyroid cancer incidence was observed. The amount of radio-materials released by Fukushima accident (Mar. 2011) was at the level of about 11% of Chernobyl. The accumulated dose was estimated to be the maximal 508 mSv/y in Ohkuma and 224 in Namie towns, both of which were in the zone of 20 km distance from the plant, and the doses exceeded 100 mSv/y at which the probability to form cancer was 1.05. Internal exposure dose by radio-cesium in some residents of Namie exceeded 3,000 Bq. The internal dose in residents of Ukraine Republic, which was not defined to be a highly contaminated area, is still now above 50 thousands Bq, which was caused by their lives with self-sufficiency in the forest mushrooms and beasts. This indicates that food management is the most important for reduction of the internal exposure. In April 2012, Japan defined the standard limits of radioactivity in food, which, Japan Pediatric Society thinks, is which, Japan Pediatric Society thinks, is valid. However, a part of food is sometimes found above the limit, and the system to detect a small amount of radioactive substance should be hopefully established and maintained for keeping the safety. (T.T.)

  14. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest incidence of cancer before the accident coincidentally had the lowest fallout of (137)Cs. Increasing the geographical resolution of exposure from nine county averages to 612 parish averages resulted in a two to three times higher value of variance in the regression model. There was a secular trend with an increase in age-standardized incidence of cancer in both genders from 1980 to 2009, but significant only in females. This trend was stronger and statistically significant for both genders in the general Swedish population compared to the nine counties. In conclusion, using both high quality cancer registry data and high resolution exposure maps of (137)Cs deposition, it was not possible to distinguish an effect of (137)Cs on cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Sweden. PMID:24811728

  15. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  16. The analysis of morbidity by a cancer of a thyroid gland of children on the moment of an exposure I131 owing to Chernobyl accident, registered in the Uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of cohort of the observation generated by indicated criteria: number 65575 person, including in the Gomel area 25215, in Bryansk - 40360, number of the registered cases of disease 226, including 132 in the Gomel area and 94 in Bryansk area, number of person-years of observation 1021229, including in the Gomel area 391363 of observation, in Bryansk - 629866, average exposure dose of a thyroid gland by radioisotopes of 131I in cohort 0,71 Gy, in the Gomel area 1,5 Gy, in Bryansk area - 0,2 Gy. Estimated a role of radiation and various not radiation risk factors, such as a sex, age on the moment of an exposure. The analysis of not radiation risk factors is spent separately for the Gomel area, Bryansk area and joined cohort. Among the persons irradiated in children's age in the Gomel area, the risk of disease by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the boys and girls was identical (RR=1,02, 95 % CI 0,72-1,44), in too time in Bryansk area the risk of disease of the girls in 3,4 times was higher (95 % CI 2,0-5,6), than among the boys. In joined cohort the girl in 1,5 times more often were sick of a cancer of a thyroid gland (95 % CI 1,16-2,0) in comparison with the boys. The analysis dose of dependence of a case rate by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the persons irradiated in children's age, has shown presence of a linear relation dose - effect, and in joined cohort this dependence most statistically is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, Rlly is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, R2=0,99). The value of exuberant relative risk on a dose 1 Gy has made 4,54 (95 % CI 2,43-9,78). (author)

  17. Dose contribution of 90Sr to the ingestion dose after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of the Austrian population due to 90Sr after the reactor accident at Chernobyl was estimated by measurement of the 90Sr-content in 131 food samples, 9 drinking water samples and 7 other samples. The samples were taken at different times after the accident to take into account changes in the activity content with time. In order to estimate the contri-bution of the reactor accident compared to 90Sr from the atomic bomb testing, also samples of the time before the incident were evaluated. Considering the average food consumption one obtains an weighted effective dose equivalent of 0,006mSv for the adult and 0,01mSv for the one year old child. For the infant the dose in first half year of his life amounts to 0,00006mSv if fed with woman milk, respectively 0,0009mSv if fed with infant food. Approximately half of the dose of 90Sr may be attributed to the reactor accident, the other half is attributable to 90Sr of the weapon testing. The dose in the second year after the accident amounts to approximately 70% of the dose in the first year of which 70% are caused by 90Sr from the weapons testing. 20 refs., 30 tabs., 10 figs. (Author)

  18. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident made it necessary to compile a clinical morphological register of respective cancers. In 1986-1994 there were 339 cases registered in children and adolescents, of them 211 children (who were operated at the age under 15 years) and 128 adolescents (who were operated at the age of 15-18 years). Before the Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) in Ukraine 59 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents were reported: 25 cases in children and 34 cases in adolescents. This increase has been observed since 1990. In 1981-1985 the incidence rate (number of thyroid cancers per 100000 children population) ranged 0.04 - 0.06. In 1990 this estimate was 0.23 and in 1992-1994 0.36 - 0.43, thus a 7-10 fold increase exceeding the pre-Chernobyl level. In the 5 most contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Kiev, Chernigov, Zhitomir, Cherkassy, Rovno regions) and the city of Kiev the incidence rate was much higher. For example, in 1984 it was 3.8 in Chernigov region, 1.6 in Zhitomir region. The total 'contribution' of the above-mentioned regions to the incidence of thyroid cancer in children after the Chernobyl accident makes more than 60%. It has been noted that in 1990-1994 there was an increase in the number of children operated at the age under 10, it means that these children were under 6 years at the time of the accident and were most sensitive to radioiodine exposure. As for the sex ratio, there has been a shift to males: in 1981-1985 F/M = 1.8/1, in 1990-1994 F/M = 1.4/1. Morphologically, 93.4% of 196 carcinomas resected from children and adolescents at the Institute of Endocrinology from 1986 to August 1st, 1995 were papillary carcinomas. They manifested high invasive and infiltrative growth, signs of intraglandular spread. Regional lymph node metastases were found in 59% of cases, distal lung metastases observed at various periods after surgery were noted in 23.7% of cases

  19. Evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident (as of May 30, 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact presentation of information, as available on May 30, 1986, including the design of the Chernobyl reactor, the presumed course of events and causes of the accident, and radiological consequences. (HP)

  20. NGU's follow-up after the Chernobyl accident and their utilitarian value in future preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes how the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) organized and made public its fallout survey after the Chernobyl accident. NGU's view on their future share in Norwegian radiation protection preparedness and monitoring is expressed

  1. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

  2. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  3. First report of the task group on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The events surrounding the accident at the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR are examined. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor and the Soviet Union's nuclear power program. A scenario of the cause of the accident is presented. The major long-term consequence is an risk of cancer. The estimated collective dose of several hundred thousand person-sieverts could lead to several thousand deaths from cancer, spread over the next 30 or 40 years

  4. Social protection of the population having suffered from the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl NPP accident is the largest ecological catastrophe, owing to that millions people living on contaminated regions have appeared in new ecological, social and economic conditions. The bulletin is devoted to consideration of such problems, as legal and social protection of the population, salary of the population living or working on contaminated territories, a sanitation of the people having suffered from the Chernobyl accident. 1 tab

  5. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  6. Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

  7. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  8. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  9. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  10. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  11. North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

  12. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

  13. Nuclear accidents in the former Soviet Union: Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The accidents occurred over the geographic area around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Urals between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over half a million people. The first accident occurred in 1949-1951, the second on 29 September 1957, and the third in 1967, and involved the air transfer of irradiated sand particles. Although these accidents occurred between 25 and 43 years ago, the first official admission by the FSU was made in June 1989, and it was only during late November 1991 that the FSU declared a national disaster emergency concerning the affected area. The health ministries are now interested in data previously collected from these irradiated populations to examine health effects, including cancer, and genetic damage in humans. Data collected from these large populations and occupationally exposed workers offer a unique opportunity to quantify the adverse health effects of chronic exposure to fission products, reactor neutrons and environmental chemicals.

  14. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documentary report tries to give an answer, beyond the current reporting during the last months - including the VDI Nachrichten - how to judge somewhat surely the reasons of the accident and its procession according to the report of the USSR and the international discussion. Subjects: Sequence of events and causes leading to the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl; dimension and consequences of the radioactive precipitations in West-Germany; foundations of nuclear fission; structure and security systems of Sovjet reactor lines and comparisons with German nuclear power plants; licensing procedure and continual control of the German plants; moral responsibility of the peaceful use of nuclear energy; nuclear phase out and its consequences, and at last data and facts about the use of renewable sources of energy. (orig./GL)

  15. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  16. Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

  17. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  18. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH)

  19. The outcome of local radiation injuries: 14 years of follow-up after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlöber, P; Steinert, M; Weiss, M; Bebeshko, V; Belyi, D; Nadejina, N; Stefani, F H; Wagemaker, G; Fliedner, T M; Peter, R U

    2001-03-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on April 26, 1986 was the largest in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Of the 237 individuals initially suspected to have been significantly exposed to radiation during or in the immediate aftermath of the accident, the diagnosis of acute radiation sickness (ARS) could be confirmed in 134 cases on the basis of clinical symptoms. Of these, 54 patients suffered from cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) to varying degrees. Among the 28 patients who died from the immediate consequences of accidental radiation exposure, acute hemopoietic syndrome due to bone marrow failure was the primary cause of death only in a minority. In 16 of these 28 deaths, the primary cause was attributed to CRS. This report describes the characteristic cutaneous sequelae as well as associated clinical symptoms and diseases of 15 survivors of the Chernobyl accident with severe localized exposure who were systematically followed up by our groups between 1991 and 2000. All patients presented with CRS of varying severity, showing xerosis, cutaneous telangiectasias and subungual splinter hemorrhages, hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, epidermal atrophy, disseminated keratoses, extensive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis with partial ulcerations, and pigmentary changes including radiation lentigo. Surprisingly, no cutaneous malignancies have been detected so far in those areas that received large radiation exposures and that developed keratoses; however, two patients first presented in 1999 with basal cell carcinomas on the nape of the neck and the right lower eyelid, areas that received lower exposures. During the follow-up period, two patients were lost due to death from myelodysplastic syndrome in 1995 and acute myelogenous leukemia in 1998, respectively. Other radiation-induced diseases such as dry eye syndrome (3/15), radiation cataract (5/15), xerostomia (4/15) and increased FSH levels (7/15) indicating impaired fertility were also documented. This study, which analyzes 14 years in the clinical course of a cohort of patients with a unique exposure pattern, corroborates the requirement for long-term, if not life-long, follow-up not only in atomic bomb survivors, but also after predominantly local radiation exposure. PMID:11182791

  20. Infant leukaemia after in utero exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been no documented increase in childhood leukaemia following the Chernobyl accident. However, different forms of childhood leukaemia may not be equally susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis. Infant leukaemia is a distinct form associated with a specific genetic abnormality. Outside the former Soviet Union, contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been highest in Greece and Austria and high also in the Scandinavian countries. All childhood leukaemia cases diagnosed throughout Greece since 1 January 1980 have been recorded. Here we report that infants exposed in utero to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident had 2.6 times the incidence of leukaemia compared to unexposed children (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.1; P ? 0.003), and those born to mothers residing in regions with high radioactive fallout were at higher risk of developing infant leukaemia. No significant difference in leukaemia incidence was found among children aged 12 to 47 months. Preconceptional irradiation had no demonstrable effect on leukaemia risk at any of the studied age groups. (author)

  1. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  2. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited. (author)

  3. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  4. Inquiries from the public about the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of April, a few calls from members of public relating to the Chernobyl accident were starting to trickle through to the Board's headquarters at Chilton. On the 1st May, the travel trade gave out the Board's telephone number to its clients who wanted information and advice about travelling abroad, and the trickle suddenly became a flood. During the bank holiday weekend, reporting of the remnants of the radioactive release reaching Britain received considerable prominence in the media. By the 6th of May, the Board's 15 telephone lines had become clogged with requests for information, advice and/or reassurance and other lines had to be installed. By then, the media, companies, scientists from other organisations, local government officials and various other community representatives were all vying with members of the public to get through to the Board. The inquiries by telephone were answered by nominated Board staff: they ranged from requests for factual information about the levels of activity in air, milk, water, and so on, to simple requests for reassurance that all was well

  5. Programmes for epidemiologic studies on consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposure resulting from the Chernobyl accident for the Bulgarian population has been found to be of an order that limits possible health consequences to the realm of stochastic effects - cancer and heritable damage - and, in certain cases of prenatal irradiation, disorders of mental development. Our predictions took into consideration ICRP conceptions (Publication 60, 1990) and the specified estimates of accidental radiation doses. However values of radiation risk coefficients are based on limited direct human data, so use had inevitably to be made of experimental evidence obtained from other mammalian species and of in vitro findings. Moreover for the low-dose-level range, one has to draw largely on observations made using high doses and dose rates. The expected increase in cancer diseases was found to remain within the range of spontaneous incidence fluctuations and would hardly be demonstrated by conventional statistical analysis of oncologic morbidity and mortality. The same holds true for heritable diseases and possible effects of prenatal irradiation. Implied here are data on spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, infant mortality and congenital malformations, including such as become manifest at later times. Though findings for the first 6-year period following the accident are in general correspondence to predictions, the analysis is to be continued. All the more that enough time has not elapsed for the latent periods of the majority of anticipated nt periods of the majority of anticipated effects. In accordance with WHO recommendations on study of health implications of the Chernobyl accident the following effects are to be studied: leukemic disorders; nodular thyroid lesions; prenatal irradiation effects; genetic effects. (author)

  6. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  7. Action level for imported food in Japan after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Apr. 1986 caused a widespread release of radionuclides to environment. As a result of food movement in international trade, it was necessary to decide action level of radionuclides for food imported in Japan. The action level was derived from the following basic principle: Dose equivalent should be less than one third of 0.5 rem/year for whole body exposure. Assuming that the composition of representative radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in imported food are equal to those of fallout in Japan and consumption of internal food products reduces total intake of radionuclides to 35 %, action level indicated by sum of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations was estimated to be 370 Bq/kg. From Nov. 1986 to Sep. 1987, it was observed that twenty samples in imported food contained radioactivity exceeding the action level. (author)

  8. An analysis of the print media in Europe following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The print media coverage of the Chernobyl accident was analysed in seven European countries. The goal was to identify common communications problems and to suggest how they might be resolved. Aside from difficulties with technical information on units of radiation exposure, contamination, and effects, the media did a reasonably good job of presenting to the public the information they were given by official sources. Some evidence of confusion was found, and it affected the credibility of communications, but the press seemed to be reflecting confusion existing within crisis management teams and the scientific community rather than creating it. Some of the more common problems are discussed and ideas for improving crisis management and the communication of information about risks are explored

  9. Some health status elements in examined tourists after the accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined the group of 49 tourists who had visited USSR or other countries at the time of the accident on the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl. The examination revealed many subjective discomforts and the fear of being irradiated, though no one was found to have radioactive iodine above the thyroid gland or in urine or any other specific change characteristic of somatic disorders induced by the exposure to ionizing radiation. Erythrocyte count was lower in 3 women, lymphocyte count decreased below 20% in 2 and increased above 45% in 3 examined subjects. At the first examination thrombocyte count was lower in four cases, with further drop in the following period, whereas it got normalized 3 months later but without any specific therapy in one case. The authors emphasize the necessity to follow up this group of people for a considerable period of time. (author)

  10. The radioiodine problem following the Chernobyl accident: ecology, dosimetry and medical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident radioisotopes of iodine constituted the main dose-forming factor among the people who stayed on in the radioactively contaminated areas, and in a number of places the effective doses to the thyroid gland were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the whole-body dose stemming from uniform internal and external irradiation. We consider the mechanisms involved in the radioiodine contribution to the doses in the human organism, depending on intake path, life style and social and ecological factors. We illustrate, by means of examples, thyroid gland dose distribution for various age groups in the population, and discuss the medical effects and predict the long-term risks for the population of exposure to radioisotopes of iodine. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity in the soil of the Republic of Korea one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Chernobyl accident a large amount of radionuclides were released into atmosphere and added to atmospheric nuclide inventory from weapons tests. In early May of 1986 in South Korea, radioactivities such as 1-131 and Cs-137 were detected in surface air and rain water. That indicated that Chernobyl debris spreaded to far Eastern Asia. In the present time, the long-lived radionuclides have been deposited on the soil of Korean peninsular resulted from Chernobyl accident as well as from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Meanwhile, it has been reported that isotopic properties in fallout differ significantly, depending on their origin. Several studies have reported that plutonium isotopic ratio, Pu-238 to Pu-239,240 in particular, in fallout originated from Chernobyl accident was quite different from the ratio in global fallout from nuclear tests and burnup of SNAP-9A satellite using Pu-238 as energy sources. As soil, in terrestrial environment, is a principal reservoir of man-made radionuclides, a study on isotopic characteristic in soil can give some information on how Chernobyl accident is effecting on Korean environment. In this study, the vertical inventory of radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and Cs-137, and their isotopic ratios in soils were investigated to estimate the contribution of Chernobyl derived-nuclides to Korean environment

  12. Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

  13. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  14. Determining economic cost of medical interventions in Belarus due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using Chernobyl's impact on Belarus as an example, the goal of this project is to determine the health-related costs of a major nuclear accident to aid in contingency planning for all nations, educate the public about the potential impact on health of man-made nuclear accidents and to provide more impetus for development of safer nuclear power generation. An assessment of these costs by an international group will support Republic of Belarus in its studies of the costs and benefits of ongoing Chernobyl-related health care activities. This study is a retrospective analysis of the costs in Chernobyl radiation exposed populations associated with medical care and illness prevention. Data selection for analysis was determined by estimated financial impact. All factors expected to influence total cost by less than 1 % were not analyzed. Medical consequences, such as reduced birth rate, which did not increase medical expenditures where also not included. Normal health expenditures where subtracted. Most expenditures are being estimated from the services provided. Data to be included has been gathered since 1986 and is lo in various sites, including budgets and reports of various ministries of the Republic of Belarus and records in the Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, the Chernobyl Committee of the Ministry of Health, and other locations. Therefore, some figures will be estimated based on best evidence and current literature. Out best evidence and current literature. Outcomes of sensitivity studies and uncertainty estimates will be performed once the data collection is completed and assessed. Data to be included in the financial estimate includes: Evacuation from restricted territories; Added medical facilities and establishment of preventive health measures; Decontamination and radiation monitoring of contaminated areas; Costs associated with research activities on related problems; General categories of medical costs, including impact of psychosocial factors; Additional medical care and services for liquidators because of radiation exposure; Special costs, such as vitamin distribution, benefits for children and pregnant women; Research activities on radiation related disease; Treatment of radiation-linked diseases; Development and maintenance of registries. Following data-gathering, the project will develop an economic impact analysis technique and analyze data. Final reports and data sheets will be prepared for the Belarus Government, WHO, IAEA, and other International organizations; and both scientific reports and general interest papers will be prepared for publication

  15. Outcome of pregnancies in some counties in Norway prior and subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of pregnancies in six counties in Norway has been studied during the 12 months prior and subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. The accident took place in a period with annual increase of births of approximately 3%. However, in the year after the accident a decrease of 0.7% was observed with particularly low numbers during February to April 1987. Concomitantly, the miscarriage fraction of all pregnancies increased by 16.3% and particularly in the period from November 1986 to January 1987. The same pattern was found when observations from a big hospital were analyzed separately. When the time of conceptions was taken into consideration, it was found that conceptions during the period from May to July 1986 ended more often as miscarriages. The authors have no explanation of the observations. The external radiation exposure seems too small to have produced these effects. The internal radiation from food may have played a role. People may also have changed their food intake, using less vegetables, due to fear of these being polluted by radioactive fallout. 13 refs

  16. Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

  17. Effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on freshwater organisms and ecosystems in the northern Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have examined the direct human health effects of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident, but little has been done to assess the effects on wild organisms, or the cycling of contaminants in the local environment. The authors sampled fish, molluscs, water and sediment from 10 ponds within and outside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Sediments contained 0.07 to 2.5 pCi/g 134Cs and 1.1 to 33 pCi/g 137Cs. Similar levels occur in lakes at nuclear production facilities in the US. Waters were soft (conductivity 45-450 ?S/cm) and low in Ca and K, conditions which favor the uptake of contaminants by biota. In addition to radionuclides, fish from the region contained up to 0.5 ppm Hg in edible muscle. Fish and molluscs are currently being evaluated for possible genetic damage due to contaminant exposure by flow cytometry, DNA strand-breakage assay, and cytogenetic techniques. The ponds surveyed are in an agricultural region, with subsistence hunting and fishing, suggesting that contaminants accumulated in freshwater systems may be entering humans via diet

  18. The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

  19. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  20. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  1. Clinically observed effects in individuals exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in an unprecedented total number of 237 individuals who were suspected of suffering from acute radiation sickness (ARS). All patients had been exposed either as personnel at the reactor or as liquidators (rescue workers) in the first days after the accident. The diagnosis was confirmed in 134 cases. Of these, 41 had mild (Grade I) ARS; one additional patient is still disputed; all survived. Fifty patients had Grade II ARS, of whom one died. Seven patients out of 22 with Grade III ARS died. Of the most severely affected 21 patients, who suffered from Grade IV ARS, all but one died despite intensive treatment. Among the Grade IV ARS patients, gastrointestinal damage and radiation skin burns were the most common complicating factors. In the last ten years, nine of the ARS patients and five of the non-confirmed cases have died. Their deaths do not relate to the original severity of ARS and are, in the majority of cases, probably not directly attributable to the radiation exposure. To improve care for the victims of such exposures, a number of issues need to be addressed, such as: The reasons for the failure of the treatment of bone marrow transplantation made available to the most severely affected patients; immediate diagnosis and alternative modes of treatment; the best strategy for the medical management of the acutely exposed radiation accident victim in the future in view of new developments; and the quality of life of the surviving pand the quality of life of the surviving patients. It was realized almost immediately that from the medical point of view the persons acutely exposed as a result of an accident on this scale are difficult to manage, since specialized centres have a capacity for only a few patients. The experience gained from these patients has provided additional information about the mechanisms of acute radiation injury. 37 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26th 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This article describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building which housed it. Some 31 people have died as a result of the accident either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of around 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over many days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects may not be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. (author)

  3. Some aspects of radioactive contamination after Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl disaster, the radioactive cloud passage over Romania beginning with the April 30th, 1986 caused fall-out of different intensities in different regions. The principal contributors to the radioactive exposure during the month of May and rest of 1986 were the short and medium half-live radionuclides: 132Te + 132I, 131I, 140Ba + 140La, 103Ru + 103Rh, 106Ru + 106Rh, 95Zr + 95Nb, 136Cs, 134Cs, 141Ce, 144Ce and 125Sb. After four-five years only 137Cs and 90Sr remained significant radioactive contaminants. During May 1986 the grass was the mostly affected component of the environment and it contaminated rapidly the majority of foods. Measurements made on the daily gathered pollen samples and eggs during May 1986 clearly indicated that these samples can be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of the atmospheric air and, respectively, for soil and grass. Regarding soil contamination, the higher 134+137Cs deposits in Romania following the northeast-southwest direction were measured, some of these being above 80 kBq/m2. This direction is the same with the cloud passage over Romania during the first week of May 1986 and it was confirmed by measurements in the former Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, and south of Italy. (author)ece, and south of Italy. (author)

  4. The main problems related with the environment contamination of radionuclides in the most contaminated areas (after Chernobyl accident) (references review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of late years the evaluation of the consequences of Chernobyl accident was very different because of lack of objective information. In this article the literature review about the ecological and medical consequences in the most radionuclides contaminated areas of Ukraine after fifteen years of Chernobyl accident was done based on material of the International Conference 'Fifteen years of Chernobyl catastrophe' occurred in 18-20 April, 2001 in Kiev. (author)

  5. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  6. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.; Catlin, R.J.; Anspaugh, L.

    1987-06-01

    An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  7. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

  8. Simulation of ¹³?Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, V; Pozzoli, L; Unal, A; Kindap, T; Karaca, M

    2014-11-15

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to (137)Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of (137)Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of (137)Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the 'Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident' and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on (137)Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2-3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m(-2) and 100 kBq m(-2). Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:25173864

  9. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 ?m with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 ?m were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 ?m. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 ?m. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

  10. Thyroid cancer in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (in the framework of the Ukraine–US Thyroid Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, millions of residents of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to large doses of radioactive iodine isotopes, mainly I-131. The purpose of the Ukraine–American (UkrAm) and Belarus–American (BelAm) projects are to quantify the risks of thyroid cancer in the framework of a classical cohort study, comprising subjects who were aged under 18 years at the time of the accident, had direct measurements of thyroid I-131 radioactivity taken within two months after the accident, and were residents of three heavily contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Zhitomir, Kiev, and Chernigov regions). Four two-year screening examination cycles were implemented from 1998 until 2007 to study the risks associated with thyroid cancer due to the iodine exposure caused during the Chernobyl accident. A standardised procedure of clinical examinations included: thyroid palpation, ultrasound examination, blood collection followed by a determination of thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine content test, and fine-needle aspiration if required. Among the 110 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed in UkrAm as the result of four screening examinations, 104 cases (94.5%) of papillary carcinomas, five cases (4.6%) of follicular carcinomas, and one case (0.9%) of medullary carcinoma were diagnosed. (note)

  11. Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

  12. Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

  13. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  14. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  15. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

  16. Electric spin resonance and instrumental neutron activation element analyses of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up worker teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentrations of macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Se, Zn, Co) in teeth of Chernobyl's NPP accident clean-up workers examined in the Centre of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P.Stradins Clinical Hospital, Medicine Academy of Latvia. The strontium concentration was high in teeth of clean-up that in control teeth. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the absorption dose. The absorbed dose reconstruction was achieved by additive dose method. The absorbed dose measured by ESR in teeth was always higher than the documented exposure doses. (author)

  17. Strategy for population protection and area rehabilitation in Russia in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the history of the development of criteria for radiation and social protection of the Russian population residing in the areas contaminated with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, in the remote time periods after the accident. The tendencies for reduction of standards with time are shown, and their causes are analysed. It is noted that the optimization principle was not applied in the explicit form for population protection. The current radiation situation in the contaminated areas of Russia is described, and the future situation is forecast. Main pathways of external and internal population exposure are described. Modern possibilities for reduction of the population exposure dose are discussed. The authors propose promising criteria and methods for population protection and rehabilitation of contaminated areas in Russia. (author)

  18. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

  19. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR

  20. Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

  1. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

  2. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  3. A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequento account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  4. Dynamics of natural rehabilitation of Cs 137 soil contamination at the late stage due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident, the greatest quantity of radionuclides has fallen on the territory of Belarus, therefore 23% of the territory have been contaminated with Cs 137 with a level exceeding 37 kBq/m2 on the total area of 46.45 thousand km2 that has led to the exclusion from an agricultural rotation 2,64 thousand km2 of farmland. Now, external gamma-radiation on the territory of Belarus is formed due to 'Chernobyl' and 'global' (caused by tests of the nuclear weapon) radioactive losses. A contribution is also done by natural radioactivity. To-date, due to natural radionuclides decay a radiation conditions in zones of Chernobyl contamination has been stabilized and main dose formation radionuclide is Cs 137. In conformity with clause 4 of the Law 'On legal regime of territories, exposed to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident' the territory of the Republic of Belarus is divided into zones depending on radioactive contamination of soil by radionuclides and sizes of a mean-annual effective dose. The estimation of a dose of external irradiation demands establishment of interrelation between the level of soil contamination with radionuclides and created by them exposure dose power (EDP). As a quantitative size of this link, a normalized on density of contamination of soil Cs 137 EDP at 1 m height is most used which is formed by all radionuclides and is called the transition coefficient 'and is called the transition coefficient 'density of contamination of soil Cs 137 - EDP'. In the given work, empirical values of factor of transition on items of supervision of a network of the radiation monitoring, registered in National System of Environment Monitoring (NSEM) Republic of Belarus have been determined. The carried out data analysis for 1993-2003 showed, that: Value of transition factor within 10 years have changed from 0,054 ?R/h/kBq·m2 to 0,041 ?R/h/kBq·m2 (with 2,0 ?R/h/Ci·km2 to 1,5 ?R/h/Ci·km2). Decrease of EDP from 'Chernobyl' radioactive precipitation at a late stage after the Chernobyl accident is defined by radioactive disintegration of Cs 137, resulting 80% EDP decrease for 1993-2003. To assess an external irradiation dose of inhabitants of settlements which are in zone of radioactive contamination, it is possible to use a value of the transition factor, obtained by results of measurements on observation sites of a network of radiating monitoring NSEM, without making EDP measurement in every radioactive contamination zone settlements. (authors)

  5. Measurement of environmental radioactivity around Mainz (FRG) after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurements on aerosols and in rain have been done soon after the Chernobyl accident, and analyzed with regard to the content of radionuclides. The percentages are similar in general, but the content of iodine in rain is higher, the content of barium and cesium lower than in aerosols. Comparing the composition of radionuclides in the fallout with that of the Chernobyl reactor it is seen that elements and their oxides and halogenides of high volatility prevail in the fallout. The content in soils of 90Sr, 239Pu and 226Ra which accumulate in the human body on one hand, and of 137Cs and 40K as from Chernobyl is given and compared with the natural level and nuclear weapon tests contribution. The largest contribution from Chernobyl is with 137Cs. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs. (qui)

  6. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of 137Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and 'dingoes tending the sheep'. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet 'system' performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors)

  7. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  8. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Chernobyl - ten years after. The reactor accident and the safety of RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication presents a comprehensive but concise documentation of the reactor accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. All relevant aspects are addressed in a manner and language that can be understood by the general reader with some background in scientific literature reading. The topics are: causes of the accident; safety of RBMK-type nuclear power plants (core design, shutdown systems, engineered safety systems, reactor containment, accident analysis and management system, operational control); safety of the reactor units 1,2 and 3 of the Chernobyl reactor; safety of the sarcophagus; radioactive conramination levels and radioactive wastes on site; the radiobiological situation in the affected areas; health effects of the accident; continued operation of RBMK-type nuclear power plants. Conclusions are drawn with respect to nuclear power plant operation and nuclear safety and radiological safety in Germany. (HP)

  10. Internal contamination equivalent dose rate of Yugoslavian citizen contaminated in April and May 1986. in Chernobyl environment after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquisition, human body decontamination, total body (Whole Body Counter-WBC) internal contamination measurements of Yugoslavia citizens contaminated after Chernobyl accident in Chernobyl region, are in the paper described. As the body measurement are made before contamination of Yugoslavian territory, it is assumed that the human equivalent dose rate measured, are originated from Chernobyl environment only. Some statistical selection of measured values are made and those for public relation restricted, in paper are as well presented. Some unexpected spontaneous non contaminated person crossed the contaminated Chernobyl area are described, assuming that they could be a useful practice in case of any fission accident. 7 refs

  11. Spatially heterogeneous exposure estimation in modeling Chernobyl cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the implications of adding spatial and hydrodynamic complexity in estimating the exposure of aquatic organisms to radionuclides in the Chernobyl cooling pond. Previous approaches to risk estimation have emphasized completely mixed conditions and constant exposure concentrations. In this study, the combined dose resulting from direct external exposure and internal exposure through food web accumulation of 137Cs was estimated for the pond biota using models of increasing spatial-temporal complexity. Dose rates were calculated first assuming completely mixed, homogeneous conditions. These rates were re-calculated using a 2-dimensional, hydrodynamic model that simulated spatial-temporal variabilities in 137Cs concentrations and that included spatial distributions of potentially exposed organisms. The models were used first to calculate 137Cs concentrations in water and sediments. These concentrations were then used to estimate external and internal exposures and risk to pond biota. The preliminary results suggest no imminent ecological risk to the Chernobyl cooling pond biota according to accepted standards. However, the results also demonstrate the need for additional, more detailed estimates

  12. Mastered horror. Life in the Ukraine ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book, written in a journalistic style, reports on the visit of the author on her visit to the Ukraine 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. It is based on interviews with the affected population, with scientists (doctors, veterinarians, biologists, psychologists, ecologists), parliamentarians and representatives of the state administration. figs., refs

  13. State of reproductive system glands in males participated in the Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State of reproductive system glands in males participated in the Chernobyl accident response and exposed to external irradiation at the dose up to 25 cGy was studied. 164 men at the age of 22-50 y.o. were examinated. Percentages of the various reproductive disorders were presented

  14. Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

  15. Thyroid cancer in children of the Belarus Republic after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of thyroid cancer cases in children under the age of 16 in the Belarus Republic. During the 20 years preceding the Chernobyl accident, only 21 cases of thyroid cancer were recorded in Belarus. Following the Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) through September 1992, 147 cases were recorded. A cursory analysis of the dependence of thyroid cancer incidence rate in these children on (1) 131I surface contamination levels and (2) average dose to individuals residing in the contaminated regions appears to indicate a correlation between morbidity and both factors. However, factors not directly related to ionizing radiation doses may also have contributed to the observed increases; these include increased ascertainment of thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident, physiological stresses, and inadequate nourishment as a result of interruptions in the normal food supply. These factors may have been correlated to surface contamination levels or average dose in the region; thus, without further analysis, it is impossible to determine whether any or all of the thyroid cancers observed after the Chernobyl accident are attributable to the radiation doses received by the population. 3 refs

  16. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  17. The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

  18. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

  19. Pathology of the reproductive system and thyroid of women liquidators of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of the annual health follow up of the 100 women-liquidators of the Chernobyl accident performed by Republic centre of medical rehabilitation and balneotherapy have been analyzed. The high frequency of thyroid disease as well as the reproductive system pathology revealed: they were detected in 96% and 87% patients correspondingly. Oncological diseases were detected in 25% of studied cohort. (authors)

  20. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  1. Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

  2. The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

  3. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  4. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer calves exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations were analysed in 1222 peripheral blood lymphocytes from 24 reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L., calves from central Norway, where considerable fallout from Chernobyl accident had occurred, and in 1532 lymphocytes from 26 calves from three different districts in Northern Norway which were not affected by fallout from the accident. Three dicentrics, two rings, and three translocations were detected in calves from the exposed area, while no dicentrics, nor rings and only one translocation were detected in the control calves. The frequency of chromatid-type aberrations and chromosome deletions did not significantly differ between the two groups. Although the present study is based on a limited number of observations, the radioactive burden in the exposed reindeer, and the differing character of the chromosome aberrations in the two groups, might indicate that certain genetic effects have occurred as a result of the Chernobyl accident in Norwegian reindeer in the most contaminated areas

  5. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. 137Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FAL) and weight (FAW) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency of 18-81%, partially disturbed by necrosis - 17-59%, heavy disturbed by necrosis - 0.2-29%. Portion of healthy needle reduced significantly with radioactive contamination in 2011 (r=-0.86; pW index valued between 0.040 and 0.054. Significant effect of radiation exposure on FAW index was not revealed. Fluctuating asymmetry of needle length placed between 0,005 and 0,012. The FAL value at the most contaminated sites significantly differed (p<0,01) from the reference sites, and this index increased with estimated dose absorbed both in 2011 (r=0,97, p<0,01) and 2013 (r=0,75, p=0,08). Also, triple needles were found in chronically exposed populations, but not in reference ones. Maximum radiation levels in this study were about 130 mGy/year. In some works, chronic dose rate of 100 mGy/year is proposed as a level of chronic exposure safe for biota at population level, which usually means an absence of negative effects on reproduction and survival. We found that morphometric indices in pine needles were not sensitive to such exposures, while developmental instability and necrotic processes activation can be registered at doses of about 90-130 mGy/year. (authors)

  6. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency of 18-81%, partially disturbed by necrosis - 17-59%, heavy disturbed by necrosis - 0.2-29%. Portion of healthy needle reduced significantly with radioactive contamination in 2011 (r=-0.86; p<0.05). FA{sub W} index valued between 0.040 and 0.054. Significant effect of radiation exposure on FA{sub W} index was not revealed. Fluctuating asymmetry of needle length placed between 0,005 and 0,012. The FA{sub L} value at the most contaminated sites significantly differed (p<0,01) from the reference sites, and this index increased with estimated dose absorbed both in 2011 (r=0,97, p<0,01) and 2013 (r=0,75, p=0,08). Also, triple needles were found in chronically exposed populations, but not in reference ones. Maximum radiation levels in this study were about 130 mGy/year. In some works, chronic dose rate of 100 mGy/year is proposed as a level of chronic exposure safe for biota at population level, which usually means an absence of negative effects on reproduction and survival. We found that morphometric indices in pine needles were not sensitive to such exposures, while developmental instability and necrotic processes activation can be registered at doses of about 90-130 mGy/year. (authors)

  7. Status of the organs of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the status of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident. Morphological and functional changes suffered by the digestive organs on exposure to ionizing radiation in doses leading to the development of acute radiation sickness are described. The effect of small doses ionizing radiation on the human body is indicated too. (O.L.). 15 refs., 1 tab

  8. Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

  9. Dose assessment and reconstruction in the areas of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the methodology of dose assessment and reconstruction based on the observations of radioactive contamination in the areas of Russia following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention is given to the early stage after the accident - the period of ''iodine hazard''. The combined internal doses for thyroid gland through the food pathway and from inhalation of iodine-131 were estimated for various population groups in the regions of Russia impacted by the accident. The specific features of accidental contamination of the environment with iodine-131 are analyzed for the local area - Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region, for which detailed radioecological data are available. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used in a prognosis approach during Fukushima accident. • Operational use of ADM tools by emergency decision makers still raises concerns

  11. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet union and measures taken to mitigate their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population

  12. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

  13. Radioactive compounds in Norwegian nutrition after the Chernobyl accident; Radioaktive stoffer i norske matvarer etter Tsjernobyl ulykken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The newsletter presents results from studies of various nutrients produced in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. The focus is on caesium in milk, cattle, sheep, goats, reindeer and fresh water fish. Some agricultural aspects are mentioned.

  14. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation

  15. Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper satellite images. Eight images acquired between April 22, 1986 and May 15, 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to derive dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM spectral band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The earliest date showing detectable injury 1 km west of the reactor unit was June 16, 1986. Subsequent dates revealed continued expansion of the affected areas to the west, north, and south. The greatest aerial expansion of this area occurred by October 15, 1986, with vegetation changes evident up to 5 km west, 2 km south, and 2 km north of the damaged Reactor Unit 4. By May 11, 1987, further scene changes were due principally to removal and mitigation efforts by the Soviet authorities. Areas showing spectral evidence of vegetation damage during the previous growing season do not show evidence of recovery and reflectance in the TM Bands 4 and 3 remain higher than surrounding vegetation, which infers that the trees are dead. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and the timing of these effects enabled developing an integrated radiation dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed, involving the combining of remote sensing analyses and estimates of the radionuclide mix with the known radiation effects on conifers, represents a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to severe reactor accidents. (author)

  16. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  17. Realization of hidden chromosome instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the help of the modified 'G2-bleomycin sensitivity assay', the hidden chromosome instability (HCI) in patients with lung cancer occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation under the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident has been evaluated. The essential interindividual variability in the addition to the background frequency of chromosome aberrations (above spontaneous cytogenetic effect), as well as the absence of positive correlation between background and induced frequencies of chromosome damages due to different individual sensitivities to the testing mutagenic exposure, has been established. The existence of the association between the radiation-induced increase of a genetically determined individual susceptibility to the bleomycin exposure and the realization of cancer pathology in irradiated individuals has been suggested.

  18. A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 ?Sv, 1 year old child - 500 ?Sv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

  19. Some characteristics of the external exposure in territories around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a four months period the dosimetric control of 3600 persons in Russia and Bjelorussia has been carried out. A lot of localities of different characters and contamination levels, (from contamination free ones to the contamination of 4.07 MBq/m2) at different distances (30-300km) from Chernobyl were chosen. The urban character of the settlements is in general a restriction factor of the radiation level. A really strong correlation between the contamination level and the external exposure of the people is characteristic only in small settlements (occupation in agriculture and low degree of urbanization). The specific dose rate is much higher for outdoor than for indoor groups, for people living in wooden houses than for those living in brick or concrete buildings. There exists an unambiguous age-dependence of the external exposure, as well

  20. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  1. Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

  2. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

  3. Case-control analysis of leukaemia among Chernobyl accident emergency workers residing in the Russian Federation, 1986-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of data of the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry on the incidence of leukaemia among 155,680 male Chernobyl accident emergency workers (EWs) who were resident in the Russian Federation (RF) for the period from 1986 to the end of 1993. The system of collection and verification of data on leukaemia is described. 48 cases of leukaemia among EWs were identified in 1986-1993. The principal analysis includes 34 leukaemia cases occurring more than two years after first exposure. The analysis was carried out for all leukaemia and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), separately. Distributions of leukaemia cases by age, time of diagnosis since entry into the Chernobyl zone, radiation dose, date of entry in to the Chernobyl zone, duration of stay in the region of Chernobyl were calculated. To evaluate leukaemia risks associated with various factors the case-control methodology was used. Radiation dose, date of entry into the zone, duration of stay in the zone were used as risk factors. No significant associations between leukaemia risks and the investigated factors were found. Calculation of the standardised registration ratios (SRR) revealed a significant increase in the registration of leukaemia among all EWs (SRR = 205, 95% confidence interval (CI) 136-297) and the EWs arriving in the zone during 1986-1987 (SRR = 200, 95% CI: 127-300) compared with the general male population of the RF in 1991-1993. However, rulation of the RF in 1991-1993. However, raised SRRs may be accounted for by the differences in medical screening in the compared populations, particularly the efforts made to identify leukaemia cases among the EWs. The absence of dose-related trend for leukaemia indicates that this explanation is likely to be correct. (author)

  4. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base

  5. Analysis of medicostatistical data to assess the genetic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the official medicodemographic statistical data (provided by the Ukrainian Ministry of Health) revealed variations in the mean rates of congenital developmental defects (CDD) before 1987 (1985-1986) and in the period of 1987-1989 in all the areas irrespective of a degree of contamination with radionuclides (i.e. variations are determined by the time factor rather than by the irradiation factor). According to the medical statistical data, the rates of CDD and spontaneous abortions varied within a wide range, making it difficult to assess probable mutagenic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident. Medicostatistical data on spontaneous abortions understated the actual rates 2-3-fold, therefore they were not recommended for assessment of mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl accident

  6. Modelling transport and deposition of caesium and iodine from the Chernobyl accident using the DREAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model, has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the deposition of 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations. The performance, compared to measurements, of different combinations of parameterizations of wet and dry deposition schemes has been evaluated, using different statistical tests.

  7. Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lichens Hypogymnia physodles and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use af biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hypogymnia physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with depostion figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous depostion pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hylocomium splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (au) (21 refs.)

  8. Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lichens Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use as biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hyl. splendens and C. stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hyp. physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with deposition figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous deposition pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hyl. splendens and C. stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hyl. splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (Author)

  9. Caesium 137 in northern Swedish moose: The first year after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 137 caesium were monitored in northern Sweden during the first year after the Chernobyl accident (April 1986). Samples were collected from 3661 moose in an area where the deposited 137 caesium ranged from two to 60 kilo-becquerel per m2. Concentrations of caesium in moose muscle correlated positively with the ground deposition of caesium. On average, the caesium levels found in moose after Chernobyl were about 470 Bq per kg fresh mass for calves and close to 300 for older animals. The average level in moose before the accident was 33 Bq per kg. Among moose older than one year, higher concentrations were found in females than in the males. There was a pronounced seasonal variation in the 137 caesium concentration found in moose. Within the investigation area the presence of caesium in moose resulted in a minor proportion of the hunters discarding the animals shot and/or terminating the hunt before the end of the season. (authors)

  10. 137Caesium in northern Swedish moose: the first year after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 137caesium were monitored in northern Sweden during the first year after the Chernobyl accident (April 1986). Samples were collected from 3661 moose in an area where the deposited 137caesium ranged from two to 60 kilo-becquerel per m2. Concentrations of caesium in moose muscle correlated positively with the ground deposition of caesium. On average, the caesium levels found in moose after Chernobyl were about 470 Bq per kg fresh mass for calves and close to 300 for older animals. The average level in moose before the accident was 33 Bq per kg. Among moose older than one year, higher concentrations were found in females than in the males. There was a pronounced seasonal variation in the 137caesium concentration found in moose. Within the investigation area the presence of caesium in moose resulted in a minor proportion of the hunters discarding the animals shot and/or terminating the hunt before the end of the season

  11. Latent cancer of the thyroid and the Chernobyl accident: are they related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the incidence in latent thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident and determine the contribution of radioactive contamination to its development the histologic examination of the thyroid samples obtained at autopsies and forensic medical autopsies of 107 subjects (87 men and 20 women) dead for various causes at the age off 9 to 76 years was carried ut. Twenty of these were residents of contaminated and 87 of noncontaminated regions of the Kaluga district of Russia. No differences in the structure of the thyroid and in the incidence of latent tumors and nontumor formations of the thyroid were revealed in subjects living in contaminated and noncontaminated regions. The tumors were classified as papillary microcarcinomas of papillary, mixed, and follicular structure. Comparative analysis of the incidence of latent thyroid cancer in contaminated and noncontaminated regions in remote periods after the Chernobyl accident may help precisely assess the contribution of the radiation factor to its development. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Clinical effects of chronic low doses irradiation (11 years after Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of clinical effects of influence low doses of irradiation as the result of the Chernobyl accident on the human organism is presented in this report. The results of the investigations are concerning to changings in different organs and systems of inhabitants of the contamination territories and among clean-up workers. Increasing of morbidity of digestive and nervous systems is notified. Increase of thyroid cancer, chronic thyroidities and hypothyreouses is resisted in clean-up workers in dynamic observation. Highly morbidity of bronchopulmonal system and blood circulation system is revealed. High level of compensative and adaptive reactions of immune and hemopoietic systems is notified. Excesses of leukemias and lymphomas in inhabitants of the contamination territories is not demonstrated but tendency for increasing quantity cases of oncohematological diseases (leukemias, lymphomas, MDS) among clean-up workers IV-VII 1986 are absent. A dynamic of health state of children injured as a result of Chernobyl accident is characterized with continues negative tendencies. (author)

  13. 'Chernobyl' reaches Norway: the accident, science, and the threat to cultural knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is interested in the transitions that 'Chernobyl' underwent in Norway. It 'arrived' as a ghastly accident: important cultural routines were disturbed, apprehension ran high, and the country waited for scientists to 'repair' the accident. The scourge of radiation, however, still covered much of the countryside of central Norway. Reindeer pastures were heavily polluted, and among Saami (Lapp) groups there arose a cognitive sense of disruption to a way of life. Ambivalent relations - at times cooperative, more often adversarial - developed among the Saami in respect to the outside experts who strove to bring the radiation problem under control. The report (with anthropological fieldwork) strives to show how much of the problem of 'Chernobyl', in this later phase, has to do with the different nature of the claims of two kinds of knowledge: the outside scientists' and the Saami pastoralists. (author)

  14. The effects on the thyroid of exposed populations following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radio-iodine during the nuclear accident at Chernobyl appears to have caused a rise in thyroid anomalies, including cancer, in the exposed population. Uncertainty about the extent of this increase is causing the population some anxiety. A WHO symposium of Soviet and other scientists met to see whether a more precise assessment could be made of the effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid disorders. They established that a long-term, large-scale epidemiological study should be initiated: the required dosimetric data already exist, and the collection of the relevant health data should begin. To ensure the comparability of all these data, the affected Soviet republics should collaborate closely. More training for Soviet researchers and health care workers, as well as greater collaboration with foreign scientists, should maximize their capacity to launch a successful study and set up the most appropriate health care programmes

  15. Cytological and ultrastructural characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage in participants of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response at delayed times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of observation during 18 years of a patient suffered with infection-depending bronchial asthma of light current and exposed to 24 R dose when taking part in the Chernobyl accident response is described. Alveolar macrophages are found to have the important role in radioactive particles elimination processes. Cytological and ultrastructural studies of bronchoalveolar lavage of participants of the Chernobyl accident response at delayed times are performed. Efficiency of the developed treatment program directed mainly to eliminating Chernobyl dust particles from respiratory organs is shown

  16. Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

  17. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  18. Whole body measurements of subjects who have ingested radioactive materials from the accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 in the thyroid was the most significant nuclide that was detected in subjects monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory who might have been exposed by the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The estimated intake of I-131 by subjects ranged from 0.4 to 12 kBq, with a weighted committed dose equivalent (thyroid) of between 0.006 and 0.17 mSv. Whole-body monitoring data is presented for all subjects

  19. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of malignant diseases - situation after 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident that occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, released large quantities of radionuclides - among them radioiodine - into the atmosphere, thereby raising public concerns about its influence on thyroid structure and function, especially the development of malignancy. There were even reports about 700 deaths due to thyroid carcinoma in Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, resulting from the accident. In this review we discussed the incidence of thyroid cancer in different parts of the world, especially in heavily contaminated countries, as Ukraine and Belarus, and the possible link between radioisotope activity in the thyroid and the development of malignancy. The study carried out in Minsk showed 40-fold increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer in the years 1986 - 1994, in comparison to the period 1977- 1985. An increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer has generally been observed in many countries after the Chernobyl accident. We focused on the factors that may have an influence on this phenomenon, especially diagnostic tests, health care, social and environmental factors, like iodine level in water and soil. The results of molecular biology studies, e.g. RET translocation in carcinoma type RET/PTC1 in elderly and RET/PTC3 in children, and expression Ax1 and Gas6 in children were reviewed as well. We also mentioned other thyroid diseases, like nodular goitre, cysts, the disturbance of thyroid function and autoimmunity, possibly linke function and autoimmunity, possibly linked to the radiation after Chernobyl accident. Data obtained from the regions near Chernobyl showed no increased risk of other types of malignancy (leukaemia, Hodgkin's and non Hodgkin's lymphoma) in 1986 - 1996. In this article the epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Poland was also reviewed

  20. International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

  1. Evaluation of the population dose received in the NW of Yugoslavia during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conservative assessment of effective dose equivalent in 1986 in Slovenia (YU) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was done for two population groups; adults and children (10y). The external dose and committed effective dose equivalent for inhalation and ingestion were treated separate. The values of total dose of 0.75 mSv and 1.1 mSv in 1986 were obtained for adults and children respectively with the main contribution due to ingestion

  2. Cesium-137 urinary excretion by northeastern (Pordenone) Italian people following the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, E; Drigo, A; Menin, A

    1989-07-01

    To estimate the radiological consequences in humans due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (5 May 1986), we have determined both the 137Cs concentration in food and the 137Cs daily urinary excretion on 198 residents of the Pordenone area. The resulting experimental data have been compared with those estimated from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 10A model (ICRP 1971) using a suitable dietary intake, and they were found to be in reasonable agreement. PMID:2745102

  3. Hydrological aspects of radionuclide migration in water bodies following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variety of secondary effects determining migration processes stands out as the main specific feature of the radioactive contamination of water bodies following the Chernobyl accident. Of these the paper highlights the transformation processes of the various physico-chemical forms of radioactive fallout products as observed in catchment areas and water bodies, such processes taking place in different geochemical and hydrological conditions depending on the landscape. The following are considered: dynamics of physico-chemical forms of radioactive fallout, changes in the contamination pattern of soils and water-body bed sediments following the accident and - as a result of runoff formation in these areas - the radioactive contamination regime of the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers between 1986 and 1990. The paper presents experimental data for evaluating retention factors for waterborne migration of Chernobyl radionuclides in surface washout, via seepage waters in soils, in silt solutions of bed sediments and via transport of suspensions in rivers and reservoirs. It also considers the different approaches to evaluating these parameters and the field research methods. We consider the methods used in field studies of washout mechanisms and mass transfer parameters for water-soluble, exchangeable forms of radionuclides and contaminated particles of soil and bed sediments in runoff and floodplain flows, and provide data on the kinetics of these processes. We also analyse the s of these processes. We also analyse the observed processes of flow purification through sedimentation, and the role of catchment-area and river-channel load in the transport and deposition of radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr and total Pu. The paper provides transport and accumulation balances for Chernobyl radionuclides in the large reservoirs of the Dnieper Cascade. It also takes a close look at the specifics of 90Sr migration in Dnieper river water systems following the Chernobyl accident, comparing them with the specifics of 90Sr dispersion in the river network and lakes following the Kyshtym accident. (author)

  4. Gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles emitted during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge(Li) gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles prepared from air filtered dust of Budapest air after the Chernobyl accident is presented. The method of separating hot particles is described and their concentration in the air is determined. The radioactive isotope composition of hot particles is discussed and compared with that of dust samples. Finally, the inhalation probability and radiation burden of hot particles are evaluated. (author)

  5. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  6. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  7. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  8. Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc

  9. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km2), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' 137Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m2 (? 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m2 (? 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*1016 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

  11. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident: fears, rumours and the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati

    2003-02-01

    The impact of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986 is reviewed within a framework of a triad of fear, rumour and truth. The scope of the accident, Soviet secrecy about it, and the lack of general awareness of, or disregard for, the effects of radiation created a fertile ground for persistent fears and rumours attributing any health problem to Chernobyl. Scientifically correct answers to health issues have been the means to combat disinformation, and to replace interconnected fears, misconceptions and rumours. To date, according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, based on a review of epidemiological and radiobiological studies, the main radiation-related effect of the Chernobyl accident is an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer. In addition, the accident has had serious non-radiation-related psychological consequences on the residents of the contaminated territories, resettled populations and clean-up workers. Researchers in search of the truth through epidemiological reasoning are facing serious challenges which are reviewed within this article. PMID:12565980

  12. Radiological evaluation of an agricultural field in the Chernobyl accident area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, where happened the most serious nuclear accident seen by mankind a decade ago, renders the opportunity to carry out concrete scientific researches about post conditions of a nuclear accident. To evaluate the radiological situation of a field formally used for agriculture, inside the Exclusion Zone (30 Km zone around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant) a field exercise was organized by the Ukrainian Radiation Training Centre. To develop a radiological evaluation of a field it is necessary taking into consideration the nature of the sampling site and what are the tasks to be worked out to accomplish the aims of the evaluation. In a case of evaluation of external dose, measurements of dose rate, gamma flux and beta surface contamination are the principal surveys. The present radioactive contamination in the Exclusion Zone is mostly determined by 137Cs, 90Sr and transuranium radionuclides. It should be noted that on the contaminated area, ten years passing after Chernobyl accident, the dose-rate is formed by 137Cs contamination and beta flux is due to 137Cs + 90Sr. in this report the techniques of measurement dose rate, beta flux and density of contamination of 137Cs have been discussed

  13. Doses from external and internal radiation in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the estimation of monthly doses from external radiation from internal radiation due to ingestion of contaminated food is reported. The monthly doses is estimated for each municipality in Norway for the first 13 months after the Chernobyl accident (from May 1986 to June 1987). The estimation which has been elaborated from an extensive data material, shows that the dose rates from external radiation due to the Chernobyl fallout were for the country as a whole three times higher in the first month after the accident (May 1986) compared with the twelfth month (April 1987). The doses received from intake of radiocesium through food were small in the first three months, but reached almost the double of the doses from the external radiation the 9th month. The reduction in the dose from external radiation was primarily due to the physical half life of radiocesium and washout. The increase in the doses from radiocesium through intake of food was due to the time required for radiocesium to enter the food chain and the biokinetics of radiocesium in humans. There is no significant correlation between the ground activity levels and the activity levels observed in the food which is consumed in the same area. The average internal dose in the first year after the Chernobyl accident was estimated to 0.110 ± 0.006 mSv and the external dose to 0.070 ± 0.007 mSv as an average for the whole country. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Social, economic, institutional and political impact in Romania of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Romanian society, on a whole had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident. This fact has been mainly owed to: the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania, these exceeded the local radioactive background considerably; the inherent proximity to the place of accident; some elliptical and over-estimated official statements spread about through radio and TV. There have been strong and various pressures, from the highest state dignitaries to profiteers of the new raised emergency. They claimed for preferential actions concerning protective measures at theirs particular residences or demanding prophylactic substances in unjustified quantities or imperiously asked for being internally monitored at the whole-body counter facilities

  15. Dose-dependent zoning of estranged territory after the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alienation zone was forming in May-September 1986 when the population was evacuated from the areas nearest to the Chernobyl power pilant. The presnet-day contour of the zone is a result of combination of a geographic criterion, a circular with a 30 km radius, and of radiation criteria developed at the earliest stages after the accident. The authors discuss dose-dependent regioning of the alienation zone at the latest stages of the accident and analyze radiation and hygienic aspects of possible reevacuation of the population

  16. The role of the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspects domestic and imported meat and poultry food products to assure the public that they are safe, wholesome, not economically adulterated and properly labeled. The Service also monitors the activities of meat and poultry plants and related activities in allied industries, and establishes standards and approves labels for meat and poultry products. As part of its responsibility, shortly after the Chernobyl accident occurred, FSIS developed a plan to assess this accident's impact on domestically produced and imported meat and poultry

  17. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  18. Dispersion of radioactive releases following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An already-published report on the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident (Interim report on fallout situation in Finland from April 26 to May 4 1986. STUK-B-VALO-44, May 1986) also contains a meteorological survey carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. This report contains a new survey of the earliest phase, made with the help of facts about the accident and the best available weather observational material. The investigation has been extended to cover the period following the end of that in the previous report. The meteorological survey presented here covers the whole period from April 26 to May 18 1986

  19. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 105) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well

  20. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  1. Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of up to four thousand people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of the accident but others who died as late as 2004. The new numbers are presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

  2. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal

  3. On research activities of the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen years has passed since Chernobyl NPP accident on April 26, 1986. Numerous scientific research investigations have been done, but much remains still unexplored. Supported by research fund of Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, we carried out investigation into present status of research activities about the accident in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. As Part I of this effort, we visited selected laboratories in the three countries three times in 2000 and twice in 2001 and requested pertinent 20 researchers to prepare special 22 reports on the progress and problems of the investigation of the accident, its origin and explosion process, and the environmental effects. Part II of the research includes analysis of the published reports, Japanese translation of the documents, and information propagation. The amounts of emitted radionuclide at the accident are given as 40-50 MCi of 131I, 2-4 MCi of 137Cs, and 0.3 MCi of 90Sr. Results of an inserted video camera investigation into 4th unit of Chernobyl plant after the accident and the distribution of the missing fuel which amounted to 190 tons originally installed are discussed. (S. Ohno)

  4. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  6. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

  7. Protection from Potential Exposure for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed developing the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an analysis was performed to determine the degree of protection to be provided during the construction and 100-year operation period for expected upsets and lower-probability events that would occur from errors, procedures, other human factors, and equipment failures, i.e., ''potential exposures'' other than normal operations. The analysis was based on results of the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. The potential exposure analysis was performed in accordance with existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures in place at the Shelter Object. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium), a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium, performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that potential exposures, outside of those expected during normal operations, would be acceptable and that design criteria and features, and preventative and mitigative measures currently in place at the Shelter would be sufficient to meet operating exposure limits

  8. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  9. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident: lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sizeable sector of public opinion remains hesitant were opposed to the increase use of nuclear power. With various groups calling for a role for nuclear power, there is need openly and objectively to discuss the concerns that limit its acceptance: the perceived health effects and consequences of severe accidents. Where appropriate comparisons are made with other energy generation sources. (author)

  10. Assessment of dose contribution to population exposure from the radiation sources in the alienated Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main dose load of Ukrainian population is caused by radionuclide-contamination of country territories, located outside the alienated zone, following Chernobyl accident. Besides, much attention could be devoted to the contribution of dose load on population, received from the radioactivity sources that were transferred out from the zone after accident. Present research and analysis of the available documents reflecting the transfer of radioactivity from the alienated zone, provided the estimates of dose load on population, resulting from transfer of the radioactivity sources via following channels: (1) direct surface flow; (2) underground waters; (3) wind-powdered route; (4) transfer with hydrobionts; (5) transfer during irrigation; (6) biogenic route; (7) transport routes and (8) route during wood transportation. Dynamics of radiation transfer through each channel was also studied for the post-accident period. Specific gravity of radioactivity transfer is determined in relation to dose load on Ukrainian population in different regions, in particular, in Dnipro river basin. The perspectives of radioactivity transfer via each of studied channels and its role in dose load on population were also analyzed. On the basis of present results the recommendations on possible arrangements are working out that aimed to reduce the dose contribution in population exposure by radioactivity source transfer from the alienated zone via channels that stipulate the largest dose loads and collective doses

  11. Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of 137Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion. The L.A.D.A.S. were applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. The calculated concentration distributions were compared with the results of the other models of A.T.M.E.S. using statistical methods. The calculated results of L.A.D.A.S. showed a better agreement compared with the measured concentrations during the accident. The developed Lagrangian particle model for a long-range atmospheric dispersion will be provided as a basic tool to evaluate the atmospheric diffusion and the radiological dose assessment in the national emergency preparedness system in Korea. (N.C.)

  12. Role of the United States food safety and inspection service after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture inspects domestic and imported meat and poultry food products to assure the public that these foods are safe, wholesome, properly labelled and not adulterated. After the Chernobyl accident, the FSIS implemented a monitoring programme to assess the accident's impact on imported meat and poultry. By using the information on the nature of the accident as it became available, the FSIS decided to monitor only five nuclides: 134Cs, 137Cs, 89Sr, 90Sr and 131I. On 16 May 1986, the FSIS established intervention levels of 2775 Bq/kg for total caesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) and 56 Bq/kg for 131I. By October of 1986, 815 samples from 14 European countries had been analysed, with approximately 45 per cent of the caesium results exceeding background levels. Meat samples from five countries had levels of total caesium greater than 37 Bq/kg. When the monitoring programme ended in October 1988, 3702 samples out of 6195 exceeded the background. Nine countries had meat samples with levels above 37 Bq/kg. Iodine and strontium results were practically not distinguishable from background radiation levels. The initial intervention level of 2775 Bq/kg for total caesium was reduced to 370 Bq/kg for total caesium to agree with the US regulatory response levels for all food items. After the Chernobyl accident, the FSIS t. After the Chernobyl accident, the FSIS took the following actions: (1) set a realistic standard using US proposed protective action guidelines; (2) calculated the intervention levels by using both the maximum intake of radionuclide activity allowed and food consumption data; (3) monitored, sampled and tested imported meat and poultry products for five nuclides; (4) periodically assessed and revised the intervention levels based on good public health practices; (5) continued to evaluate and assess the ongoing regulatory activities. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  14. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

  15. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 1, part 2. Radioecology of plants. Radioecology of terrestrial animals. Radioecology of hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects in regions of Urkaine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  16. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 1, part 1. Radioecology of plants. Radioecology of terrestrial animals. Radioecology of hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl NPP accident effects in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Rissua, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl NPP is given

  17. Post-processing activities after Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and lesson learned to the response Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident of Chernobyl NPP no.4 1986, various activities including the construction of the shelter, prevention of the release of radioactive dust and liquid from the shelter, monitoring the condition of the damaged core, and disposal of radioactive waste have been implemented in the Chernobyl site for mitigating the nuclear and radioactive risks of damaged nuclear facilities, and the reducing radiation dose of working personnel. The construction of new shelter started for the decommissioning of the damaged unit no.4. facility. For reducing the radiation dose to the inhabitants from the contaminated land and feedstuff, the countermeasures including the set of the exclusive zone and permissible level of radionuclide in the foodstuff have been conducted for the countrywide. These activities include many valuable information about how to recover the condition of the site and maintain the social activities after the severe accident of NPP, and it would be important to learn the above activities in conducting the post-processing activities on the Fukushima-Daiichi accident successfully. (author)

  18. Thyroid cancer among Ukrainians and Belarusians who were children or adolescents at the time of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Bogdanova, T I [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (Ukraine); Buglova, E [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute, Kyiv (Ukraine); Demidchik, Y [Belarus State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus (Belarus); Gavrilin, Y [State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kenigsberg, J [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Kruk, J [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Schotola, C [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Shinkarev, S [State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tronko, M D [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (Ukraine); Vavilov, S [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to assess the regional and temporal dependences of the baseline cases contributing to thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood or during adolescence in Belarus and Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Data are analysed for Kyiv and Sevastopol City and the 25 oblasts (regions) in Ukraine, and for Minsk and Gomel City and the 6 oblasts in Belarus. Average thyroid doses due to the Chernobyl accident were assessed for every birth year in the period from 1968 to 1985. Case data pertain to people who underwent surgical removal of thyroid cancers during the period 1986 to 2001 and who were allocated to their place of residence at the time of the accident. The 35 oblasts/cities were subdivided into an upper, middle and lower group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. Poisson regressions were performed to estimate age, time and gender dependences of the baseline incidence rates in the three groups. The majority of oblasts/cities with high average doses and the majority of Belarusian oblasts/cities belong to the upper group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. The baseline in the upper group is estimated to be larger than in the middle group by a factor of 2.3, and by a factor of 4.0 when compared to the lower group. The baseline incidence increases with age and with time since exposure. Estimated baseline incidence rates were found to increase from 1988 to 1999 by factors of three and two for the upper and the two lower groups respectively. The estimated thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus and Ukraine, and their dependences on gender and age, are consistent with observed rates found in the larger cancer registries of other countries. In conclusion, the baseline cases are found to contribute about 70% to the thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine, and about 40% to the incidence in Belarus.

  19. Thyroid cancer among Ukrainians and Belarusians who were children or adolescents at the time of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective is to assess the regional and temporal dependences of the baseline cases contributing to thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood or during adolescence in Belarus and Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Data are analysed for Kyiv and Sevastopol City and the 25 oblasts (regions) in Ukraine, and for Minsk and Gomel City and the 6 oblasts in Belarus. Average thyroid doses due to the Chernobyl accident were assessed for every birth year in the period from 1968 to 1985. Case data pertain to people who underwent surgical removal of thyroid cancers during the period 1986 to 2001 and who were allocated to their place of residence at the time of the accident. The 35 oblasts/cities were subdivided into an upper, middle and lower group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. Poisson regressions were performed to estimate age, time and gender dependences of the baseline incidence rates in the three groups. The majority of oblasts/cities with high average doses and the majority of Belarusian oblasts/cities belong to the upper group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. The baseline in the upper group is estimated to be larger than in the middle group by a factor of 2.3, and by a factor of 4.0 when compared to the lower group. The baseline incidence increases with age and with time since exposure. Estimated baseline incidence rates were found to increase from 1988 to 1999 by factors of three and two for the upper and the two lower groups respectively.per and the two lower groups respectively. The estimated thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus and Ukraine, and their dependences on gender and age, are consistent with observed rates found in the larger cancer registries of other countries. In conclusion, the baseline cases are found to contribute about 70% to the thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine, and about 40% to the incidence in Belarus

  20. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  1. Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5. The three-day interval between the incident and its discovery outside the USSR caused great apprehension. This chain of events indicates the very important role for the nuclear medicine physician, the medical physicist and their colleagues. It is likely that this medical specialty area is staffed by personnel who are best qualified to interpret these findings and to determine the necessary course of action both for patients and the general public. The nuclear medicine specialist can provide valuable input in estimating the radiation dose impact resulting from such an incident. This estimate may be accomplished either by combining measured activity levels with the physiological and physical factors involved; or by actual in vivo counting and quantitation of radioactivity in individuals exposed to radionuclides. From the measured activities in air, water and food, and assumed intakes for various age groups, doses can be estimated both for inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides. In vivo measurements of radionuclides can be performed with conventional instrumentation used routinely in nuclear medicine laboratories

  2. Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Barkovsky, A.N.; Fogh, C.L.; Mishine, A.S.; Olsen, S.K.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Prip, H.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Vorobiev, B.F

    1998-08-01

    Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au) 24 tabs., 75 ills., 33 refs.

  3. Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au)

  4. Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

  5. Fallout in the New York metropolitan area following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the metropolitan New York area, maximum concentrations in air of radioactive aerosol and gaseous debris from the Chernobyl accident of April 1986 were much lower than those measured in Europe. The data suggest that little gas-to-particle transformation of iodine occurred during transport of the radioactive cloud from the Ukraine to New York. The ratios of 103Ru and other refractories to 137Cs were low in the first debris sampled, debris which probably was emitted from Chernobyl in late April during the early stages of the accident. In subsequent samples these ratios were higher, presumably because debris from the later, hotter stages of the fire had reached our sampling sites. A significant fraction of the deposition of 131I and 137Cs into our samplers and on grass was by dry deposition. The total deposition of Chernobyl 137Cs in the area was 131I measured in fresh milk was about 1.5 Bq liter-1, <0.1% of the US action level. The dose to the thyroid of a six-month-old infant who had fresh milk as a sole food source would be about 70 ?Gy (7 mrad). (author)

  6. Has fallout from the Chernobyl accident caused childhood leukaemia in Europe? An update on epidemiologic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: According to radiation risk estimates uniformly adopted by various official organizations, exposure to Chernobyl fallout is unlikely to have caused any measurable health risk in central Europe. Methods and Results: A reevaluation of ECLIS (European Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma Incidence Study), a large IARC-coordinated project revealed a slightly higher leukaemia incidence in the most contaminated European regions, and an increasing trend with estimated cumulative excess radiation dose. The excess corresponds to 20 cases of childhood leukaemia in the study area until 1991. Recent evidence from Greece and Germany indicate significantly higher risks in the cohort of children in utero at the time of the initial fallout. In Greece, a positive trend was observed over three regions of increasing average fallout contamination (p=0.005). Conclusion: Chernobyl fallout could well have caused a small, but significant excess of childhood leukaemia cases in Europe. The etiologic mechanism might include an induction of chromosome aberrations in early pregnancy. Increased risks in the birth cohort exposed in utero correspond to 11 excess cases in Greece and another 11.4 excess cases in Germany alone. Exposure misclassification and underascertainment of incident cases render post-Chernobyl risk estimates probably too low. If indeed Chernobyl fallout has caused childhood leukaemia cases in Europe, we would also expect an increased incidence for other childhood cancers sed incidence for other childhood cancers and excess malignancies in adults as well as non-malignant diseases of all ages. Neither of these endpoints have as yet been systematically studied. (orig.)

  7. Radioecological investigations in the ecosystem of the Black Sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs measured in the Black Sea before and after the Chernobyl accident were compared. The majority of the radionuclides after the accident was brought to the Black Sea with precipitations in late April and in May 1986. The radioactivity of surface waters decreased appreciably from the North to the South and was rather nonuniform. In the years following the accident, radiostrontium in the northwestern part of the Black Sea was contributed to appreciably by water from the Dnieper river. The migration of the two radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Black Sea and the effect of wastes on the processes of radionuclide redistribution in the shelf zone of the sea were studied. (B.S.). 19 figs., 12 refs

  8. Observations on the behaviour of radiocesium in permanent pastures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of radiocesium was studied in five different permanent pastures which had been exposed to fall-out from the Chernobyl accident. The selected pastures were characterized by soils of various properties with pH ranging from 8.0 to 5.1. The radiocesium was tracked in soil and pasture vegetation during a period extending from the Spring of 1987 (one year after the accident) to the Autumn of 1988 (two years and a half after the accident). The primary objectives of the study were to determine the downward movement of radiocesium through the soil and the evolution of its transfer from the soil-root compartment to the edible grass compartment. The cesium which was initially concentrated in the 5 cm-top layer, was observed to move down gradually at a rate larger than expected, independently of soil properties and probably in relation to the mixing action of earthworms. (author)

  9. Diagnostics of nervous-mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the data of studying mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination during the first catastrophe period (2-10 days after the accident) nonpathological neurotic effects were revealed for 69% of persons examined and neuroses were observed for 4% of them. Preclinical neurotic effects were met in 41% of cases 47% of the persons had neuroses and 0.7% of those examined had psychoses in the second period (several months later after the evacuation). Decrease in preclinical effects up to 30% because of these disorder transformations into neuroses was shown in the third period (delayed effects). The presence of border nervouse-mental and psychosomatic disorders for persons engaged in accident effect elimination, as well as the predicted growth in these disorders required realization of medical-correcting rehabilitation measures for the given contingent of persons under surveillance

  10. Modeling the early-phase redistribution of radiocesium fallouts in an evergreen coniferous forest after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmon, P; Gonze, M-A; Mourlon, Ch

    2015-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the scientific community gained numerous data on the transfer of radiocesium in European forest ecosystems, including information regarding the short-term redistribution of atmospheric fallout onto forest canopies. In the course of international programs, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) developed a forest model, named TREE4 (Transfer of Radionuclides and External Exposure in FORest systems), 15years ago. Recently published papers on a Japanese evergreen coniferous forest contaminated by Fukushima radiocesium fallout provide interesting and quantitative data on radioactive mass fluxes measured within the forest in the months following the accident. The present study determined whether the approach adopted in the TREE4 model provides satisfactory results for Japanese forests or whether it requires adjustments. This study focused on the interception of airborne radiocesium by forest canopy, and the subsequent transfer to the forest floor through processes such as litterfall, throughfall, and stemflow, in the months following the accident. We demonstrated that TREE4 quite satisfactorily predicted the interception fraction (20%) and the canopy-to-soil transfer (70% of the total deposit in 5months) in the Tochigi forest. This dynamics was similar to that observed in the Höglwald spruce forest. However, the unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall (31% in 5months) in the Tochigi forest could not be reproduced in our simulations (2.5%). Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed; and sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in deposition conditions was analyzed. PMID:26005747

  11. Information systems in Chernobyl accident after-effect elimination: On the way from youth to maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10-years period of Information Systems in the Chernobyl Accident after-effects elimination (these systems we name Chernobyl Information Systems (ChIS) for simplicity of reference) creation is analyzed. It is claimed that ChIS are introducing into the maturity phase now. The paper consists of Introduction, four paragraphs and Conclusion. Short history of ChIS creation on the example of radioecological component is described in Introduction. Two phases: youth and maturity, are identified. The youth phase is divided on three periods: 1986-1988, 1988-1992, 1993-1995. The maturity phase has started in 1994 with accepting of new Conception of ChIS implementation. Main characteristics of each phase and period are described

  12. Review of nuclear power plant advanced concepts: Implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant design studies have been under way since 1980 on four general types of reactors: these are (1) Pressurized water reactors; (2) Boiling water reactors; (3) High temperature gas reactors; and (4) Liquid metal reactors. The large majority of the effort is now on light water reactors since these represent the bulk of the world's experience in design, construction, and operation. (Heavy water reactors continue to be considered in Canada and graphite moderated reactors continue under construction in the Soviet Union.) The current advanced light water reactor design project has focused on resolving the design and functional criteria so that a plant could be completely designed and licensed before commitment to construction. The Chernobyl reactor had many fundamental differences in design criteria and in design elements from light water reactors. However, the Chernobyl accident will focus still further attention on the reliability of backup water supplies, cooling and power systems, and on the desirability of having automatic (and where possible, passive) safety features

  13. Radioactivity monitoring of import/export food items following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine radioactivity monitoring of food items has become a world order since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. While food items like dairy products, farm products, meat products are imported into India, some items like spices, tea, food grains, animal feed etc. are being exported from India. Both of these are being analysed for radioactive contamination on request basis. All the samples of foodstuffs except one showed 137Cs + 134Cs activity levels less than the permissible limit of 330 Bq/kg in milk powder and 40 Bq/kg in other food items set up up by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board for these radionuclides. All the samples of Indian products were free from Chernobyl released radioactivity. Some of the samples of food items were also analysed for natural radioactivity. The activity levels of primordial radionuclides in these imported food items were similar to the levels observed earlier in such items produced in India. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Radioactivity measurements in the Lake of Constance after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of measured values reported, the experts interpret the situation in this important water reservoir from the perspective of water protection, and with a view to the long-term, future effects of the radioisotopes from the Chernobyl fallout on the entire ecosystem in that region. Main items discussed are: radioactivity uptake by the lake water in the months April and May 1986, radioactivity distribution and deposition in the lake (water, sediments, suspended matter, plankton, fish), and the effects on the latter, particularly the sediments. The final chapter discusses the experience and knowledge gained with other waters in the F.R.G. that have taken up radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. (DG)

  15. Statistical evaluation of internal contamination data in the man following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main implications of the general interest derived from the statistical analysis of the internal human contamination data obtained by ENEA-PAS with Whole Body Counter mesurements performed in Bologna in consequence of the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the trend with time of the individual body activity of members of a homogeneous group, the variability of individual contamination in ralation to the mean contamination, the statistical distribution of the data, the significance of mean values concerning small, homogeneous groups of subjects, the difference between subjects of different sex and its trend with time, are examined. Finally, the substantial independence of the individual committed dose equivalent evaluation due to the Chernobyl contamination on the Whole from the hypothesized values of the metabolic parameters is pointed out when the evaluation is performed on the basis of direct measurements with a Whole Body Counter

  16. Estimation of health effects of long-term chronic exposure of the low level radiation among children exposed in consequence of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low level dose effects have been studied for a long time within a framework of biological effects of radiation exposure. The estimation of the dose level of Ukrainian people who have been exposed in consequence of the Chernobyl accident allowed to consider that one of the critical populations which had been exposed to the low level radiation were children residing on the areas contaminated with radionuclides. The purpose of this work is - to reveal a regularity in morbidity and mortality of the critical populations having been exposed to long-term chronic exposure of the low level doses of radiation in consequences of the Chernobyl accident

  17. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for people and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recalls the accident scenario, discusses the dispersion of the radioactive plume, comments the contamination at the vicinity of the power station, discusses and comments data related to radioactive deposits in Europe and in France, comments available information regarding radioactive fallouts in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia (models have been used to assess radioactive deposits). It addresses the issue of food product contamination in these three countries (impact on farm products, on water streams and on forests), but also in France. It comments the health impacts, more particularly on the people who intervened on the site, but also on people who received medium doses. Thyroid cancer data are discussed for the three mainly concerned countries. Other pathologies and non-cancerous effects are also discussed. The mortality induced by the accident is commented. Effects in France are evoked as well as social and economic consequences in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The document provides several links to other documents for further and more detailed information

  18. Reconstruction of dose loads on population in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident and estimation of thyroid cancer risk in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident caused significant long-term consequences to the environment, public health, and economic status of Belarus. The contamination from short-lived radionuclides, in particular iodine 131, was so high that the subsequent exposure of millions of people has been termed 'iodine shock'. During the first days of the accident, the majority of the dose of radiation received by the residents of Belarus was to the thyroid gland. This will affect the health of the population for a long time to come. The resulting epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer is the first indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid cancer morbidity among children increased more than 10 fold in the post-Chernobyl period. Maps of cesium 137, which has a half life of 37 years, have been published, but it is evident, that the distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity differs from the known distribution of cesium 137 in soil. Territorial distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity is often compared to distribution of cesium 137 in the soil. This practice is inaccurate but often utilized since no maps of iodine 131 contamination exist, due to its short half life of 8.04 days. Reconstruction of the spatial distribution of short-lived isotopes in the first days after the accident, could clarify the impact of radiation on human health and allow for a spatial and temporal prognosis of the development of the cancer epidemic, particularly, thyroid cancer. Due to the unfortunate fact that the measuring equipment was inadequate to properly monitor the scale of radiation exposure during the early period of the accident, detailed direct information on the deposition of the short-lived radionuclides and the doses to the population has been irretrievably lost. Now the only way to reconstruct the dynamics of the radioecological situation of the initial period of the Chernobyl accident is to make a retrospective assessment of radiation exposures related to the short-lived radionuclides. This can be done by means of processing extensive empirical information on radiology, meteorology and epidemiology and inter comparison and validation of the data. (author)

  19. A preliminary assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the population of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 ?Sv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 ?Sv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary

  20. Evaluation of the effect of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on health of the population of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic findings on the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation are summarized. The concepts of threshold (non-stochastic) and non-threshold (stochastic) health damage following irradiation are defined. Based on the data on the contamination of the environment including food in 1986 and 1987 in Slovakia, the main routes of irradiation of individuals and the population as a whole (external and internal irradiation) were quantified by using a model procedure. The obtained median of additional irradiation one year after the Chernobyl accident was 0.36 mSv (0.23-0.63) for the population under 14 years of age, and 0.23 mSv (0.15-0.37) for the population over 14 years of age. Consumption of milk contaminated with 131I contributed most to the increased exposure, viz., by 0.23 and 0.08 mSv for the population under and over 14 years of age, respectively. The weighted average estimate for the total dose across this period is 1343 manSv. While the risk of above-threshold irradiation was virtually nil for non-stochastic damage, the estimate of possible additional deaths from tumorous diseases varies within the range of 1 to 22 cases. Prognoses for additional irradiation in the second year after the accident lie at the 0.03 mSv level. The principal source of this irradiation is food contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs. (author). 9 tabs., 9 refs

  1. Radiation environment in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the full texts of all scientific contributions read on the conference. All these reports have been inputted to INIS. The topics covered include radioactive contamination of the environment, food products, Bulgarian population, safety standards, health hazards, genetic radiation effects, risk estimation, the necessity of iodine prophilaxis and some problems of occupational exposure of the personnel of the Kozloduj NPP

  2. Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children populahat 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

  3. Information support for analysing the radiological impact of areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organisation and management of data banks generated using data from monitoring the radiological situation after the Chernobyl accident is of key importance to health care and rehabilitation in the contaminated areas. Measures following the accident were based on large scale studies involving analysis and prediction of radioactive contamination. These studies included measurements of radioactivity in air, soil and water, modelling and prediction of radionuclides transport and transformation. This required the development of a computer system RECASS (RadioEcological Analysis Support System) which is currently being developed in SPA ''Typhoon''. The main tasks of RECASS are to integrate data on existing characteristics of the environment, and data on air, soil, water and biota-contamination with numerical models that account for radionuclide behaviour in all environmental media, and with radiation dose formations that are based on geographic information system (GIS) principles. The data bank of the system includes the following data bases: a data base with measurement of radioactive contamination levels in environmental media (soil, air, water); a meteorological data base; and a data base with administrative and demographic data. A set of models for radionuclide transfer in various environments incorporated in the chain permits short or long-term predictions to be made. The results of implementing RECASS to reconstruct the time and space picture of contamination in tme and space picture of contamination in the first days after the Chernobyl accident are presented. (Author)

  4. Informatics support for analysing the radiological impact of areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organisation and management of data banks generated using data from monitoring the radiological situation after the Chernobyl accident is of key importance to health care and rehabilitation in the contaminated areas. Measures following the accident were based on large scale studies involving analysis and prediction of radioactive contamination. These studies included measurements of radioactivity in air, soil and water, modelling and prediction of radionuclides transport and transformation. This required the development of a computer system RECASS (RadioEcological Analysis Support System) which is currently being developed in SPA ''Typhoon''. The main tasks of RECASS are to integrate data on existing characteristics of the environment, and data on air, soil, water and biota-contamination with numerical models that account for radionuclide behaviour in all environmental media and with radiation dose formations that are based on geographic information system (GIS) principles. The data bank of the system includes the following databases: a data base with measurement of radioactive contamination levels in environmental media (soil, air, water); a meteorological data base; and a data base with administrative and demographic data. A set of models for radionuclide transfer in various environments incorporated in the chain permits short or long-term predictions to be made. The results of implementing RECASS to reconstruct the time and space picture of contamination in the and space picture of contamination in the first days after the Chernobyl accident are presented. (Author)

  5. The general public's attitude towards nuclear power after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of three public opinion polls made within two years after the Chernobyl reactor accident revealed a deep feeling of insecurity in the population which did not disappear or diminish in the time from the first to the third survey, but instead was stirred up again by the affairs in the nuclear industry. Other than former accidents in a nuclear facility, as the one at Harrisburg for example, the Chernobyl reactor accident - from the subjective point of view of many citizens - had effects of a dimension exceeding the political level, and reaching into the normal sphere of life of anybody. Torn between two contravening feelings, namely the wish to get rid of the nuclear energy risk as soon as possible, and the fear that this might mean farewell also to the amenities of a life as a free consumer, the population gave into the strategy of suppression, so that there is verbal protest against the hazards of nuclear energy, but no will to really give up the advantages of a comfortable life created by modern technologies. (orig./HP)

  6. Risk factors influencing disease incidence in subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzer the relationship between disease incidence in the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident aftereffects and the factors influencing this disease incidence. Three factors influencing the incidence of metal and neural diseases are considered. These factors are the duration of the presence at the site of the accident, time of coming to the site of accident (time elapsed since the accident to the liquidators first coming to the zone), and external irradiation dose. The basic risk factors of these diseases are the time of arrival in the accident zone and the duration of work in the zone, the irradiation dose effect being negligible here

  7. Calculation of accident dose loads for tooth enamel in liquidators of the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences by the method of EPR-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formula for calculation of accident dose loads at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been deduced, the dose loads being determined using the method of electronic paramagnetic resonance of tooth enamel. Principle of calculating accident doses is given for the Chernobyl catastrophe liquidators who had been living in Minsk and Minsk region before and returned to these areas after the Chernobyl clean-up activities. (Authors)

  8. Information on the Chernobyl NPP accident and its consequencies prepared for IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information on the accident at the 4th power unit of the Chernobyl NPP and its consequences prepared for IAEA on the basis of the conclusions made by the Government commission constituted for investigating the accident causes and implementing the necessary emergency and reconstruction measures is given. The accident with reactor core disruption and partial destruction of the building Lappened on 26.04.86 at 1 hour and 23 minutes. The accident occurred before reactor shut-down for planned repairs during the testing of one of turbogenerators. The design features of the RBMK-1000 reactor plant, its main physical characteristics and parameters of the NPP safety system are considered. The chronology of the accident development and the results of analysis carried out using a mathematical model are given. The causes of the accident are analyzed. The measures for preventing the accident development and lessening its consequences as well as those for the environment radioactive contamination control and sanitary provisions are described in detail. The conclusion is made that the original cause of the accident is highly improbable combination of disorder and errors in operational conditions made by the personnel of the power unit. It is emphasized that development of the world nuclear engineering, besides advantages in the field of power supply and natural resources conservation, incurs also damages of international character. Among these are transboundary radioactivity tra these are transboundary radioactivity transport, in particular, during serious radiation accidents and the danger of international terrorism and specific radiation hazard of nuclear objects under war conditions. All this defines the key necessity of deep international cooperation in the field of nuclear power engineering and its safeguarding

  9. Study on the health and social consequences based on assessment of the irradiation of the Bulgarian population as a result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation is one of the well-established etiologic factors for induced malignant diseases. As a result of trans-boundary transfer of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident, Bulgaria, like other European countries, was contaminated and all consequences followed. Based on data for radiation background in Bulgaria in the first two months after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, assessment of thyroid gland exposure of different population groups was made. The thyroid gland exposure was determined by direct measurement of thyroid gland activity and indirect (computing) methods as well. Both methods show that children under school age are the group at highest dose burden. The average doses equal 10 mGy and vary from 7.5 to 20 mGy for direct measurement and indirect methods respectively, and the maximum doses range from 100 mGy to 96.5 mGy. The doses for other age groups are: average 3.2±1.5 mGy and maximum 25±10 mGy. The primary source of exposure is Iodine-131 and the other Iodine and Tellurium radionuclides have an insignificant impact. The main share in thyroid gland exposure has the consumption of milk, esp. sheep's milk, and green foliar vegetables. The contribution of inhaled Iodine and both internal and external exposure from other sources is up to 10-15%. An epidemiological case-control study was carried out according to thyroid gland doses received in regions of highest radioactive contamination. The thyroid cancer cases contamination. The thyroid cancer cases diagnosed in these regions were compared with cases in regions of lowest contamination for the period 1990-2003. The analysis was based on place of residence and diet (type and source of consumed milk and milk products) of cases during May-June 1986. The standardized incidence of thyroid cancer by sex and age in these regions was compared also. The difference in thyroid gland doses estimated by region are not related with thyroid cancer incidence Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Discussed are results from different descriptive epidemiological studies on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system (especially lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia) and thyroid cancer incidence after the Chernobyl accident. The descriptive and analytical studies carried out since now provide evidence that there is no public health impact of the Chernobyl accident in the field of leukaemia and thyroid cancer in Bulgaria

  10. Isotopic composition of high-activity particles released in the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S.; Dabrowska, M.; Jaracz, P.; Kaczanowski, J.; Le Van Kho; Mirowski, S.; Piasecki, E.; Szeflinska, G.; Szeflinski, Z.; Tropilo, J.; (Warsaw Univ. (Poland))

    1989-11-01

    Gamma spectra were measured and activities of the detected isotopes were analyzed for 206 high-activity particles (hot particles, HPs) found in northeastern Poland after the Chernobyl accident. The isotopic composition of HPs observed in gamma-activity is compared with that of the general fallout and core inventory calculations. Particle formation and a process of depletion in Ru and Cs isotopes are discussed. On the basis of a search performed a year later, some comments on the behavior of HPs in the soil are made.

  11. Transuranium elements intake during works connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials of studies realized in 1989, 1990, 1991 and dealing with internal irradiation control caused by intake of transuranium elements (TUE) for the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and persons engaged in the accident effect elimination are generalized. the leading part of TUE inhalation intake in formation of internal irradiation doses is revealed. Evaluation of TUE inhalation intake hazards is made according to the results of measuring TUE activity in urine samples for the personnel examined (271 persons). The results of surveillance shows the effect of organism internal irradiation connected with TUE intake through respiratory organs. 23 refs.; 1 tab

  12. Soil-milk transfer of 137Cs in an area of Byelorussia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocaesium activity concentrations in soil and cows' milk were measured in an area of Byelorussia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Measurement data were used to calculate the soil-milk transfer factor (TF) for 137Cs. An analysis of the relationship between the TF and soil contamination shows a decreasing trend in the TF values with increasing soil contamination levels. The function derived to described the dependence of the TF on soil contamination predicts the largest decrease in transfer factor at low contamination levels and approximately constant behaviour at higher levels

  13. Environmental monitoring around Tokai-Works after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radionuclides originating from the reactor accident at Chernobyl were detected around the TokaiWorks, PNC, since 3 - 4 May 1986. But 239,240Pu, 241Am and 3H were not significantly distinguished because their amounts were very small. On the other hand, 110mAg was detected only in marine products such as cephalopoda and shellfish. Based on the monitoring data at one dairy farm, we derived an equation to model the transport of 131I from pasture grass to milk; the actual data of 131I in milk fits this equation. (author)

  14. Teratological evaluation of pregnancy outcomes in Hungary after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly distribution of pregnancy outcomes such as induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, newborns with birth weight under 2500 g, isolated congenital anomalies, identified multiple congenital anomaly syndromes including fetal radiation syndrome, and unidentified multiple congenital anomalies was evaluated in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident until Apr 1987. Only a somewhat higher rate of newborns with birth weight under 2500 g in May and June, 1986 was detected. It may have been due to premature labour caused by anxiety. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. After-effect of the Chernobyl accident in the waters of the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of 137Cs, 90Sr and 144Ce volume activity on the surface waters of the Baltic sea in 1985-1990 are presented. The volume activity of these radionuclides is measured at different points of the Baltic sea and coastal waters in Juodkrante. The vertical distribution of the radionuclide volume activity was measured in the sea water in 1989. Significant increase of 137Cs volume activity after Chernobyl accident was observed. According to the experimental results the radionuclide volume activity distribution in the surface waters of the Baltic sea was computed by optimum interpolation method. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Estimation of stochastic effects risk in children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation risk estimation of stochastic effect was evaluated in a group of children assisted in the Cuba Republic as part of the program for medical attention with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident . Doses, received from different sources, were estimated for risk evaluation. The study shows total detrimental effects between 0,02 - 0,01% for different groups; values lower than expected for developed country (17-20%). Fatal thyroid cancer increased up to 0,07% in one of the studied groups. (authors). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to the animal kingdom. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total regularities of ionizing irradiation effect on the living systems, as well as molecular, cell and tissues radiation effects, radiation effects on organism, population and ecosystem are shown. The results of monitoring of zoo plankton systems, state of populations of mass species of benthos invertebrates and fishes in water reservoirs in the Chernobyl accident zone are given. Disorders in hemolymph and changes in complexes of soil invertebrates, as well as changes of population structures of amphibians and reptiles living in radioactive contaminated zone are described. The state of model groups and forming of population structure of insects, birds and mammals were investigated. 19 tabs., 16 figs

  18. Aerosol, milk and wheat flour radioactivity in Albania caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of aerosols, milk and wheat flour with ?-nuclides, caused by the Chernobyl accident is discussed. Aerosol samples were taken in Tirana area, milk samples from all the country. The variations of 137Cs, 134Cs, 106Ru and 125Sb radioactivity in the aerosol from May 2 to 19, 1986 and of 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs and 137Cs in cow, sheep and goat milks are presented. The activity of 137Cs in wheat flour is discussed, too. (author) 8 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Radionuclide monitoring in Northern Ireland of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, B. J.; Cranley, K.

    1987-01-01

    Northern Ireland received higher radiation doses due to the radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident than did the south of England. Levels of radioactive iodine (131I) and caesium (137Cs) in cows' milk in Northern Ireland increased to 166 and 120 Bq/l respectively in May 1986, but had decreased by factors of one million, and of twenty-five, respectively, by 1 September 1986. The resultant radiation doses represent less than one per cent of those received by a Nor...

  20. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident that began in April 1986 has been analyzed to provide estimates of possible future health effects in exposed populations. Appropriate environmental transport models were used to integrate data from affected countries in order to estimate present and future distributions of radiation doses to pertinent population groups. Based on the most recent risk projection methodology, estimates of possible increases in cancer mortality, in teratogenic effects, and in genetic effects have been derived from those dose projections for population groups in the USSR, the United States, and other regions in the Northern Hemisphere. Significant findings are briefly reported in this paper

  1. Study of the thyroid cancer risk in relation with the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of available data in the cancer registers has been underlining an increase of thyroid cancer incidence in the French population for twenty years. Even if the increase began before 1986, an inquiry has been made. After results, it appears that the risk calculation notice that the thyroid cancer increase cannot be attributable to the Chernobyl accident. From another source, it is concluded that an epidemiological study could hardly underline the excess of risk calculated in this study. On the other hand, it would be advisable to study the conditions in which the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France could be intensified. (N.C.)

  2. Incidence of cancer among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident aftermath engaged in atomic industry of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease incidence and prevalence of cancer and mortality from cancer in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident aftermath engaged in atomic industry of Russia are assessed. Relative risk of cancer for subjects exposed to different doses of external radiation is estimated. The analyzed parameters constantly increased over the period of 1988-1995; the increment in the cohort of liquidators was greater than in the male urban population of Russia. Increase of the relative risk of cancer with increase of the dose can be explained by other factors associated with the dose

  3. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Final report on Risoe measuring program in connection with Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report deals with the measurements of Chernobyl debris carried out in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland in the perioed May-Sept. 1986. The results are presented in details in appendix II, but summarized in tables and figures in the main report, which is in Danish. Appendix I is the samples programme, also in Danish. It is concluded that the dose equivalent commitment to an adult Dane from consumption of foodstuffs in the first year after the accident (May 1986-April 1987) is 17 ? Sv, corresponding to approximately 1% of a years background radiation. (author)

  5. Problems of demographic development of the Homel region following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the problems of demographic development of the Gomel region linked with the Chernobyl accident and the results of the social polling of the Gomel region population, as well as, of physicians-experts. It is shown that in the Gomel region during the recent years one can observe unprecedented under peace-time conditions reduction of population resulted from the migration of people and from the reduction of the natural increment of population. The results of the opinion polls demonstrated that migration flows of the population are essentially oriented to the out flow. Recently the refugees from the areas of the national conflict come to the Gomel region. 2 tabs

  6. Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the Azov Sea after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents data on dynamics of contamination of the Azov seawater with strontium-90 and cesium-137 isotopes after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986-2000. The atmospheric fallouts are shown to be the basic source of the mentioned isotopes from May up to December 1986. Starting from 1987 the Don and the Kuban rivers dominate in contamination of the Azov seawater with 90Sr isotope, while 137Cs isotope comes through the Kerch Strait. In 1986-2000 period content of 90Sr and 137Cs isotopes in the Azov seawater reduced exponentially by 2 times, respectively, in 5 years and in 3 years

  7. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrane, Y; Wybo, J-L; Armand, P

    2013-12-01

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. PMID:24077309

  8. Response of the European Communities to environmental contamination following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident the Council of Ministers and the Commission of the European Communities had to act urgently to set foodstuff intervention levels to avoid major trade conflicts between Member States. By 12 May 1986, imports into the European Community (EC) of a range of agricultural products originating in certain east European countries had been suspended until the end of that month. Subsequently maximum permitted total caesium level applicable to food imported into the EC were adopted: 370 Bq/kg for milk and infant food and 600 Bq/kg for other foodstuffs. These values are still valid. Moreover, to cope with future nuclear accidents the EC has adopted maximum permitted levels for four categories of radionuclides in baby food, dairy produce, liquid foodstuffs and other major foodstuffs. Also a list of minor foodstuffs has been established for which the levels applied will be 10 times those for other major foodstuffs. For animal feedingstuffs maximum permissible contamination levels have still to be adopted. However the necessary scientific data have already been collected. Other measures taken at the EC level are: (1) arrangements for the early exchange of information among Member States in the event of a radiological emergency; these complement the International Atomic Energy Agency Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident; (2) prohibition of the export of contaminated foodstuffs exceeding the EC maximum permitted levels; (3) revision oC maximum permitted levels; (3) revision of the 1985-1989 radiation protection research programme to include areas of further research for which the Chernobyl accident indicated a need; (4) proposal to the Council of Ministers of a regulation concerning the information to be given to the public regarding nuclear accidents. (author). 17 refs, 11 tabs

  9. Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brought online in 1978, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was considered a model plant throughout the USSR. Eight years later, that same plant experienced an explosion and meltdown that had disastrous consequences for local residents. This terrible incident caused serious damage to the global cause of establishing nuclear power as a viable alternative source of energy. This very thorough and well-designed site serves as an excellent gateway to information about the events surrounding that date, and more importantly, about the long-term effects of the event and the organizations that are intimately concerned with these affairs. The â??Factsâ? section is a good place to start, as it contains an overview of the incidents of 20 years ago, along with information about the consequences for the health of local residents and the environment. Another useful section is in the right-hand corner of the homepage provides news updates about projects, events, and meetings related to the events at Chernobyl. One of the most powerful areas of the site contains first-hand recollections about the events at Chernobyl, and it should not be missed. It is also worth noting that the site is available in Russian, German, and English.

  10. Community response against the nuclear accident. Confusion in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear accident and its features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred in April 1986, became popular in Sweden after two days, and Sweden was hit by a big mess immediately after that. This paper introduces various actions taken in Sweden at that time. The authors analyzed the situation based on the following materials to tell the situation at that time: (1) materials summarized by researchers upon request of the administrative organs of the country, (2) two diaries that were written by Sven Aner, who was a former reporter of a major daily newspaper published after the accident and an activist of antinuclear groups, and Sven Lofvegerg, who handled the accident as a technical officer at Radiation Protection Agency, and (3) newspaper articles at that time. The situations that was revealed after the accident were summarized from the following viewpoints: (1) governmental remarks toward safety standards and effects on residents, and the anxiety of residents, (2) grazing ban on livestock as an important industry and its lifting, (3) correspondence of antinuclear activists, (4) anxiety against the effects of radiation on humans, and counseling on the safety addressed to the Headquarters for Disaster Control, (5) roles of regional radio stations, (6) defects of bureaucracy, (7) criticism against the actions of the Headquarters for Disaster Control, and (8) influence of extreme experts. (A.O.)

  11. Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

  12. Radioactivity in Fucus vesiculosus L. from the Baltic Sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986 and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru and 110mAg were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of 137Cs varied from 600 Bq/kg at the northernmost locality to 20 to 25 Bq/kg at the southeast coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocaesium had increased by a factor of 2 to 3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast. We did not observe any increase of transuranic radionuclides or 99Tc in the algae. The subsequent extent of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily caesium, from Chernobyl was studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988, indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (author)

  13. General situation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on April 26, 1986, epidemiological analyses of data point to impressive deterioration of the health of the people affected by radionuclide contamination in the environment. This deterioration of population health embraces a broad spectrum of diseases. Epidemiological prediction of the rate of thyroid cancer in children near Chernobyl seems strikingly compatible with a real increase. But there is a tendency to consider the morbidity augmentation as a result having been associated with the factors of non-radioactive origin (chemical compounds, heavy metals and mainly social-psychological syndrome development). The Chernobyl catastrophe has implied a heavy burden for Ukraine: pollution of air, water, soils and vegetation in all ecosystems, late radiological effects in the health of people, losses of arable land and forest, necessity of mass-evacuation from thousands of settlements in the contaminated regions, severe psychological shock for millions of people, and painful suffering of unexpected life tragedies. Eleven years after, this tragic event with its causes and consequence brings one to very important conclusions concerning moral aspects of human relations within the nuclear society, as well as interactions between the society and the environment. (J.P.N.)

  14. Chernobyl: a year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  15. Atmospheric releases from severe nuclear accidents: Environmental transport and pathways to man: Modelling of radiation doses to man from Chernobyl releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Goldman, M.; Catlin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released a large amount of highly fractionated radioactive debris, including approximately 89 PBq of /sup 137/Cs. We calculated the resulting collective dose commitment to the Northern Hemisphere via the pathways of external exposure and ingestion of radionuclides withd food. We developed a rural/urban model of external dose and we used the PATHWAY model for ingestion. The results are a collective dose commitment of 630,000 person-Gy over the first year and 1,200,000 person-Gy over 50 years. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Atmospheric releases from severe nuclear accidents: Environmental transport and pathways to man: Modelling of radiation doses to man from Chernobyl releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident released a large amount of highly fractionated radioactive debris, including approximately 89 PBq of 137Cs. We calculated the resulting collective dose commitment to the Northern Hemisphere via the pathways of external exposure and ingestion of radionuclides withd food. We developed a rural/urban model of external dose and we used the PATHWAY model for ingestion. The results are a collective dose commitment of 630,000 person-Gy over the first year and 1,200,000 person-Gy over 50 years. 13 refs., 1 tab

  17. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  18. Radiological consequences of a hypothetical ''roof breakdown'' accident of the Chernobyl sarcophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety GRS performed investigations with the aim to improve the safety of the Chernobyl Unit 4 shelter in close connection with the Ministry for Environment and Nuclear Safety of the Ukraina from 1992 to 1995. One of the tasks of the working programme was concerned with the analysis of hypothetical accidents of the present shelter, which comprises the newly built Sarcophagus and the remaining ruins of Unit 4. In close collaboration with Ukrainian and Russian experts the maximum hypothetical accident was defined to be the breakdown of the roof of the Sarcophagus and subsequent release of the radioactive dust which is mainly located in the destroyed reactor hall and the neighboring rooms

  19. Risks and benefits of the interventions aimed at minimizing nuclear damage in the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damages that the absorption of ionizing radiation (i.r.) can cause to humans may be classified as 1) nonstochastic (somatic or deterministic) or 2) stochastic (probabilistic) , which result, for example, from high doses of i.r. absorbed after a serious nuclear accident. Though the Chernobyl case involved both kinds of damage, this paper deals only with stochastic damage risk, and confine our considerations to individuals who were directly Affected and received high i.r. doses. The purpose of this paper is to provide elements on which to base future decisions on the evacuation and return of populations affected by serious nuclear accidents. Unlike the abundant literature on the subject, and as a necessary complement thereto within the bounds of a strict synthesis, to identify the most significant parameters applicable to single individuals rather than to the population at large, and referring solely to risks of stochastic damage

  20. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs