WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Worldwide radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of the entire world population to radiation resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has been evaluated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The evaluation accounted for measurement results reported from 34 countries to establish the pattern of transfer during the first year after the accident; the report used fallout measurement experience to make a projection of doses to be received from continued exposure, primarily to 137Cs. On the basis of transfer factors derived from this information and of 137Cs deposition measured or estimated in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment has been estimated. The result is 600,000 man.Sv, with 53% of this to be received in Europe and 36% in the USSR. (The two areas were measured separately.) (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

2

Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 caused substantial amounts of radioactivity to be released into the atmosphere. Radioactivity from Chernobyl was detected in the United Kingdom about a week later on 2 May. The normal environmental monitoring programme was intensified. The data were collected by the National Radiological Protection Board and the Welsh data were published. From these and other published data, tables of individual doses from exposure and intakes during the first year after Chernobyl for North Wales and the rest of Wales are tabulated. The north was more affected by rainfall during the passage of the Chernobyl cloud and this is taken separately. A distinction is also made between the doses to infants, children and adults because of differences in the activity taken into the body and its subsequent metabolism. Estimates of the body and its subsequent metabolism. Estimates of the doses from natural radioactivity in Wales are also given. (U.K.)

3

The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

4

Regulations of radiation exposure, dose exposure of the population and medical aftereffects of the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is concerned with analysis of strategy of the regulation of radiation exposure of the population and the practical use of the levels of intervention in different phases after the Chernobyl accident. The author represents data on the levels of whole-body irradiation of the population in the areas under strict control, and dose exposure of the thyroid in children and adults. Mean individual and collective doses of whole-body irradiation over the period of 1986-1989 and predictable dose exposures were assessed. Some data on probable pathology or radiation genesis in the population in affect on 1990 were considered

5

Radionuclides emission as a result of the Chernobyl accident and problem of internal exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of chronic internal exposure for some groups of the Chernobyl accident survivors is considered. The frequency rate and clinical singularity of non-stochastic and stochastic pathology in the survivors are determined by amounts of internal exposure extra background doses and by distribution peculiarities in the body ?-, ?- and ?-radiators that are connected with the radionuclides ways of intake and organotropy

6

Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

7

Infant leukaemia in eastern Romania in relation to exposure in utero due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of children is estimated in doses being derived from the radioactive content of foodstuffs (134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 131I) for the first 3 years after the Chernobyl accident. An infant leukemia incidence (cases/106 inhabitants) among exposed children is higher than in unexposed cohort (270 vs. 263; p>0,05) in the group of 0-10 years old

8

Estimation of internal exposure of four Japanese travellers to fission products released from the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive release from the reactor accident at Chernobyl provided unexpected exposure of four Japanese travellers. The internal contamination was measured with a whole-body counter. They happened to stay at a distance of 300 km north of Chernobyl immediately after the accident. In this paper, the results of an estimation of the internal dose to the four Japanese are described. (author)

9

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG)

10

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

11

Distribution of external exposures in the Russian population after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data of the monitoring of external exposure in the population of the Chernobyl accident area in Russia during seven years are presented. The deterministic model has been developed for estimation of the average dose of external exposure for different groups of urban and rural populations. The model has been verified with the results of over 10 thousand measurements of individual doses in inhabitants by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters. The stochastic model is being developed by forming the dose of external exposure in the population of a contaminated area, which allows to predict the dose distribution in critical groups of a population for the purposes of radiation protection. (author)

12

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

13

Chernobyl accident and Danmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

14

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 power plant on April 26, 1986 was the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power anywhere in the world. It has been reviewed by a number of international bodies and several independent countries as well. The most notable reviews have been conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper reports that the accident was caused by a combination of design weaknesses, human errors, and fundamental management weaknesses. The soviet report provided to the international community downplays the contribution of the design to the accident. However, there were many weaknesses. Human errors contributed substantially to the accident. The accident occurred when the operating staff at Chernobyl was attempting an experiment to verify the ability of one of the stations's turbines to provide emergency electricity

15

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

16

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

17

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The weather situation over Europe during the first days after the Chernobyl accident is described, and an estimation of the plume rise and the transport level of the emission from the reactor is given. The main characteristics of the radioactive cloud towards Norway are shown on trajectory maps. Maps showing the precipitation pattern in Norway during the relevant time period are also presented

18

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986, there was considerable speculation in the West about the nature and cause of the disaster. This article provides a description of the plant, the operating procedures followed, operator errors and the cause of the rapid and large energy release which occurred in the reactor core

19

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

20

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Worker's and Employee's Board (Kammer fuer Arbeiter und Angestellte) organized in February 1987 a meeting on Chernobyl, especially with the topics: consequences of the incident and radiation burden: how the public was informed; how the authorities responded. The present volume is a partial proceedings of several contributions. There is the main paper by E. Heinrich 'The Chernobyl reactor accident. Limiting Values and Measuring System in Austria' and in addition a critique of the Austrian authorities' activities in the wake of the accident. In an appendix a Common Market Commission proposal for the limiting contamination values in the foodstuffs in emergency case, of June 16th 1987 is quoted and commented outrangedly - by quoting a contribution 'A teaching piece on how radioactivity is played down' in a West German newspaper. (qui)

 
 
 
 
21

Radiation exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of environmental contamination in the Federal Republic of Germany caused by the Chernobyl reactor accident is characterized by major regional differences. The Juelich region is among those affected less severely. The data measured, in combination with meteorological parameters, allow a number of model assumptions to be verified which are of importance in designing nuclear installations. They include dry and wet deposition processes and activity enrichment in the human body. Despite difficult boundary conditions, agreement was found to be satisfactory, as a rule, while the models were discovered to be very conservative in the decisive question of radioactivity in humans. The fact that the data measured in personnel monitoring were far below those calculated is indicative of the actual contribution made by ingestion to the total dose and, hence, to the collective dose of the public, being even lower than calculated. Regional variations in concentration had less of an impact on the considerable differences in radiation exposure of the German public than the local intensities of precipitations as the cloud passed through. The depositions on the soil and on plants caused by precipitations (wash-out), gave rise to higher peak exposure levels and local fluctuations than did dry depositions. (orig.)

22

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptabilitegy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 k Euro /person-Sv).

23

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

24

Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in th functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

25

Triboluminescence: a possible indicator of exposure to radiation -the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the fundamental properties of biosystems, experimental findings were obtained showing that the mechano-emissional (ME) effects of biological objects are accompanied by the phenomenon of optical emission, viz. triboluminescence (TL), resulting from deformation and contact electrical charging of biological objects. The mechanisms generating such optical emission by blood, due to its mechanical activation, are based on the effects of tribo-electrization, which initiate free radical peroxidation concurrent with tribo-charging processes in cells, colloid particles, liquids or gases. During the last five years, investigations following the Chernobyl accident suggest there is potential for determining the human condition by biological ME radiochemical changes in the human environment. (author)

26

Simulation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

27

Measurements after the Chernobyl accident in relation to the exposure of an urban population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident in-situ gammaspectrometric measurements have been performed in Munich and in smaller towns in Southern Bavaria. At the measurement sites about two thirds of the total contamination was deposited by rain. For grassland, the attenuation of the radiation from 131I, 103Ru, 134Cs, and 140Ba due to the initial migration of the radionuclides in the ground and due to the surface roughness was found to be similar. However, large variations between the retention of the various elements on smooth surfaces have been observed. The absorbed dose-rate inside houses due to Chernobyl radionuclides was the range of one tenth to one hundredth of the absorbed dose-rate over open grassland, depending on the type of house and the location in the house, especially on the angle of view from the detector position to outside locations. The absorbed dose-rate in air due to caesium, isotopes was measured over a period of 1 month to 8 years after the accident. To facilitate a use in models on radiation doses in urban environments, the time dependence of the results were approximated by analytical functions. (author)

28

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

29

Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in southern Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since April 30, 1986, comprehensive nuclide-specific measurements have been carried out in air, precipitations, soil, grass, and food in order to determine the fission product activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The increase in the gamma dose rate induced by the fission product fallout has been measured primarily in Bavaria. Some important results of the measurements so far are listed in the report. Based on these data, a preliminary assessment is made of the longterm radiation dose to the population in the region of southern Bavaria. The assessment takes into account the dose commitment emanating from external beta and gamma radiation, from intake with food, and by inhalation of fission products. (orig./HP)

30

A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1500 children who were born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Study Groups 1 and 2) were identified from lists of children undergoing mandatory surveillance in the Minsk Chernobyl Dispensary. During pregnancy mothers of these children lived in highly contaminated territories in several areas of three Belarus Regions - Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest. Children in Study Group 1 were born between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. The mothers of these children during their pregnancy period were exposed both to radiocesium and radioiodine. Children in Study Group 2 were born between February 1, 1987 and December 31, 1987. The mothers of children from Study Group 2 lived in the same areas as the mothers of children from Study Group 1, but during their pregnancy period were mainly exposed to radiocesium. The Control Group consists of children born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987, to mothers living throughout pregnancy in the uncontaminated Vitebsk Region. These children were randomly selected from medical records of family-practice clinics, and were matched to Study Groups 1 and 2 by age and sex. To assess the health effects of in utero radiation exposure among the cohort, the specific protocol for annual health examination was developed in 1988. The study protocol included collection of data on family history; history of mothers pregnancy and delivery; head circumference at birth; annual measurements of standing height and weight; examination by neurologist; clinical thyroid evaluation, and ultrasound examination of the thyroid; annual measurements of levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies in children's blood (i.e. thyrotropin (TSH), total and free thyroxin (T4), triiodthyronin (T3), thyroglobulin (TG) and TG autoantibodies, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and anti-TPO (thyroid microsomal )assay; annual blood count; analyses of the components of the immune system (T- cells, B-cells, immunoglobulins, complement, etc.); and data on general health status of children in the study and control groups. The preliminary health survey showed that in early childhood children in Study Group 1 had higher incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than the controls. Serum TG and TG autoantibodies levels at the age of three were significantly higher in children from Study Group 1 than in the control group. Noticeable polymorphism was also observed more frequently on thyroid sonograms of children in Study Group 1 than on those of the controls. One of the major goals of this study was to reconstruct thyroid and whole body doses for children from the study and control groups. As the first step of this effort, thyroid doses received in utero have been reconstructed for a sample of 179 full-term children from Study Group 1 born in Narovlya, Bragin, Vetka and Khoinyki Regions between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. These children were randomly selected from our study database. Human fetal thyroid tissue can accumulate I 131 by the 12th week of gestation and continues to accumulate iodine throughout gestation. Among 179 children for whom in utero thyroid doses from I 131 were reconstructed, 32 children were exposed before the 12th week of gestation, and 147 children were exposed after the 12th week of gestation. Our evaluation of the fetal thyroid dose, from I 131 was based on an assessment of the thyroid dose to the mother. Estimates of individual-thyroid dose for mothers were derived from a large scale campaign to monitor I 131 activity in human thyroids of the Belarus population. This campaign was carried out within a few weeks following the accident and before I 131 decayed to negligible activities. Thyroid dose estimates for mothers were based on additional data, which consisted of answers to a detailed questionnaire with requested information on residence history, dietary habits, and use of potassium iodide during pregnancy. The interviewers were specially trained on the nature of interviewer and respondent bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation

31

Asociación de carcinoma renal y la exposición a radiaciones ionizantes después del accidente de Chernobyl / Association of renal cell carcinoma and radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Después del accidente nuclear de Chernobyl, en la población de zonas contaminadas la incidencia de carcinoma renal se incrementó de 4,7 a 7,5 por 100.000 habitantes. La elevada concentración corporal de Cesium 137 (137Cs) así como su eliminación por vía renal los convierte en pacientes de alto riesg [...] o. Presentamos un caso de una paciente, residente en la zona contaminada que acudió a nuestro hospital por dolor abdominal y sensación de masa en flanco izquierdo. Realizamos una revisión de la literatura y analizamos el manejo en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english After the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, in the population of zones contaminated the malignant renal tumors was increased from 4,7 to 7,5 per 100.000 of total population. Cesium 137 (137Cs) constitutes 80- 90% of the internal exposure of these people as well as eliminated through kidneys becomes an [...] important risk factor. We present a case of a patient, residing in radiocontamined area, who consulted for abdominal pain and left flank mass. We review relevant literature and the management of these patients.

A., Blanco Espinosa; M., Leva Vallejo; F., Merlo de la Peña; P., Moreno Arcas; J.L., Carazo Carazo; M.J., Requena Tapia.

2003-02-01

32

Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

33

Long term prediction of population exposure in the areas contaminated after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to proceed to the recovery phase after an accident, it is necessary to guarantee the resumption of normal living conditions for the population in the contaminated area. As a criterion for determining such conditions, the USSR National Committee for Radiation Protection recommends a lifetime effective dose equivalent of 0.35 Sv. The evaluation of the lifetime dose includes two components: the dose for the first four years after the accident, determined from actual data, and the dose for the remaining period calculated from models. The main contributions to exposure in the recovery phase are external exposure from the soil surface and internal exposure from the intake of radionuclides with food products. The main radionuclides are 137Cs and, to some extent, 134Cs. The contribution of intake through inhalation during this period is negligible. The density of 137Cs contamination of the area and the content of 137Cs in milk in the year preceding the recovery phase, i.e. in 1989, are used as initial calculation parameters. In estimating the external exposure, the following data taken from each population centre were used: the dynamics of the change in the dose rate in open areas for a period of four years, the radionuclide composition of the fallout and direct measurements of the individual external exposure of various population groups. The internal exposure for the period of 1986-1989 was calculated on the basis of dire6-1989 was calculated on the basis of direct measurements of the caesium radionuclide body burden in various population groups. The main intake of caesium into the body (up to 90%) was through the consumption of milk and milk products. It is assumed that the reduction in milk contamination as of 1990 will proceed in such a way that it will effectively be reduced by one half over a period of 14 years; this is the average time obtained for the USSR for the global fallout of products from nuclear explosions. 1 tab

34

Chernobyl accident sequence of events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chronology of the Chernobyl accident begins with the 1 a.m. reduction to half power on Friday, April 25, and reports significant events until all fires were extinguished at 5 a.m. on Saturday. Mathematical reconstruction derived some of the times. The sequence uses data from the Soviet report

35

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

36

Standby after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

37

Radioactivity of eggs due to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl nuclear accident wash-out of radionuclides and deposition on vegetation caused a distinct increase of radioactivity of eggs. Exposure of the consumers of contaminated eggs was insignificant. (orig.)

38

Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

39

Thyroid cancer risk following radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population based case-control study of thyroid cancer in young people has been curried out in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Russia (Bryansk, Kagula, Orel and Tula). the study was jointly co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (SMHF). The study population was all those living in these regions who were aged 0-14 at the time of the accident in Belarus and 0-18 in Russia. Cases were recruited over the time period 1992-1998. Two sets of controls were matched to each case-one was matched finely on age at exposure, sex and exact settlement of residence at the time of the accident, the second was matched on age and sex in the same manner but more broadly on region of residence. In all, 301 cases and 1948 controls (489 matched on settlement and 1459 on oblast) were recruited into the study. The majority of subjects are from Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects using a detailed questionnaire, completed by a clinical and ultrasound examination and analyses of blood and urine samples of subjects who consented in donating such samples. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to I-131 in childhood and adolescence and the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation induced thyroid cancer risk. These include age at exposure, iodine intake, genetic background and reproductive history. Itic background and reproductive history. Individual radiation dose from 131I, and associated uncertainty, was estimated for each subject, as well as dose from external exposures and intake of long-lived nuclides. Each subject was also assigned an index of possible exposure to short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes. Descriptive analyses showed that risk of thyroid cancer in this study was significantly associated with a number of factor that are likely to reflect potential of exposure. Cases in Belarus tended to live more frequently in rural areas,in wooden houses, drink milk from local cows than their respective controls. Controls had more frequently taken preventive measures than cases. The differences between cases and controls in Russia were much less consistent. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. A significant dose response was seen for thyroid cancer. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates from studies of populations having received external radiation exposures during childhood. (Author)

40

Internal exposure to [gamma]-rays emitted from [sup 137]Cs with a human counter caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to estimate internal exposure dose caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, [sup 137]Cs [gamma] rays for children living in Chernobyl areas were measured with a human counter. No correlation between residential areas and internal exposure dose was found. The internal exposures for one year from only [sup 137]Cs are estimated to be 89.5 [mu]Sv y[sup -1] in maximum. The fatality probability for the [sup 137]Cs internal exposure was calculated at 5x10[sup -6] y[sup -1] based on a coefficient of the recommendation of ICRP, 1990. This probability was much smaller than that for the natural radiation exposure, 1.2x10[sup -4] y[sup -1]. (author).

Takeoka, Seiji; Kitagawa, Kazue; Suga, Shinji; Maeda, Naoko; Kumamoto, Kasumi; Endo, Satoru; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shozo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Hoshi, Masaharu

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Chernobyl accident: Assessing the data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data presented in the official Soviet report to the IAEA on the Chernobyl reactor accident are critically assessed. Special attention is given to the derivation of release fractions from fallout measurements, a procedure which is demonstrated to involve large elements of uncertainty. Further comments relate to estimates of plume rise and deposition velocity. A comparison is made with the predictions of previously published theoretical reactor safety studies

42

Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

43

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed. (UK)

44

Use of post-Chernobyl data from Norway to validate the long-term exposure pathway models in the accident consequence code MACCS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a task performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), consisting of using post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in the NRC's program for probabilistic risk analysis, level 3, of the MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Because of unfortunate combinations of weather conditions, the levels of Chernobyl fallout in parts of Norway were quite high, with large areas contaminated to more than 100 kBq/m2 of radioactive cesium. Approximately 6% of the total amount of radioactive cesium released from Chernobyl is deposited on Norwegian territory, according to a countrywide survey performed by the Norwegian National Institute for Radiation Hygiene. Accordingly, a very large monitoring effort was carried out in Norway, and some of the results of this effort have provided important new insights into the ways in which radioactive cesium behaves in the environment. In addition to collection and evaluation of post-Chernobyl monitoring results, some experiments were also performed as part of the task. Some experiments performed pre-Chernobyl were also relevant, and some conclusions could be drawn from these. In most connections, the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is inadequate are that the MACCS approach is inadequate are, however, also pointed out in the paper

45

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

46

Thyroid exposure in Belorussian and Ukrainian children after the Chernobyl accident and resulting risk of thyroid cancer. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986 - to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities - to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986-2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases - to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies - to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been accompanied by the BFS project StSch 4299 Range of applicability of epidemiological studies with aggregate data for risk factor determination. The purpose of that project is to explore by simulation calculations to which degree there is an ecologic bias in the risk ste there is an ecologic bias in the risk studies performed in the frame of the present project. The results of project StSch 4299 indicate that the ecologic bias of excess absolute risk estimates is small because: - radiation is the dominating cause of thyroid cancer among those who were children or adolescents in the highly contaminated areas at the time of the accident - there is no indication that the dose-response for thyroid cancer after exposures during childhood is non-linear in the dose range of 0.05-1.0 Gy - the variability of average doses in the age-gender groups of the considered settlements is larger than the variability of individual doses within the groups - the number of 131I activity measurements exceeds considerably the number of the age-gender groups in the different settlements (by a factor of 5) - there is no indication of a relevant correlation between dose and screening within the highly contaminated areas. (orig.)

47

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

48

Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

49

Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure.

Svendsen Erik

2008-05-01

50

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

51

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such dat to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external ? dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on fresh milk supplies and other foods; the removal of grazing cattle from pastures; instructions to wash fruit and vegetables and the issue of stable iodine. We are currently carrying out a preliminary assessment of the radiation doses to individuals and the population as a whole in the European Community from Chernobyl, the final results will be published by the Commission of the European Communities. Later we will be extending this to other European countries

52

Source term of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a part of the results of a complete study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It deals mainly with the source term and provides the methods, assumptions and data used to derive it. The source term is evaluated by simulating quantities of the radionuclides that if released at Chernobyl and subjected to the calculated plumes behaviour, rise and trajectories, would explain the observed radiation levels and radionuclides concentration in air and on the ground as measured by the European countries and as reported by the Soviets. The simulation uses the microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). It is demonstrated that the analytical method used in PEAR can handle measurements both very close and far away from the source of the release. The source term, evaluated using measurements in Europe outside the Soviet Union, was reconfirmed when the method was applied to the Soviets' data reported in August 1986 IAEA Conference in Vienna. Besides, a comparison between the source term evaluated by the Soviets and by PEAR shows that our estimate is comparable or slightly higher than the Soviets

53

Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

54

Statistical analysis of exposure levels for persons involved in recovery operations after the Chernobyl accident based on the data of the All-Russia Medical and Dosimetric State Registry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed description of exposure levels for persons involved in recovery operations after the Chernobyl accident based on the data of the All-Russia Medical and Dosimetric State Registry is given. Various statistical characteristics enabling evaluation of the reliability degree of the obtained information were plotted on the basis of the data on exposure levels for 119416 participants of the accident consequences liquidation. The above analysis for various groups of liquidators indicated that dosimetric data as totality do not contradict in the whole the radiation situation in the Chernobyl NPP zone. 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

55

US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

1992-04-01

56

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

57

Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was esof the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

58

Realism and myths of Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is one of the scientific-publicistic book on the Chernobyl accident. It contains earlier unknown facts and cases as well as analysis of modern scientific data. The book gives an information on complex medical and social problems resulted from the accident occured in April, 26, 1996

59

Public relations and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

60

Chernobyl - system accident or human error?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Did human error cause the Chernobyl disaster? The standard point of view is that operator error was the root cause of the disaster. This was also the view of the Soviet Accident Commission. The paper analyses the operator errors at Chernobyl in a system context. The reactor operators committed errors that depended upon a lot of other failures that made up a complex accident scenario. The analysis is based on Charles Perrow's analysis of technological disasters. Failure possibility is an inherent property of high-risk industrial installations. The Chernobyl accident consisted of a chain of events that were both extremely improbable and difficult to predict. It is not reasonable to put the blame for the disaster on the operators. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

The radiation burden resulting from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dose equivalent absorbed in the body is the factor determining the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In order to assess the hazards due to the Chernobyl disaster, one has to compare the additional radiation burden and the natural radiation exposure. Assessments made by the GSF indicate that the population in the southern parts of Bavaria has to reckon with an additional dose of 0.5-1 rem over the next 30-50 years. So the radiation exposure resulting from the Chernobyl accident is within the range of individual fluctuations of the natural radiation exposure. Judging from the current knowledge of radiation-induced cancer, a linear extrapolation would calculate the additional radiation burden from Chernobyl, 0.5-1 rem, to increase the carcinosis rate by 0.01 p.c. (orig./HSCH)

62

Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Wesse the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

63

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

64

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

65

Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

66

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

67

Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

68

An accident with consequences. 25 years Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution covers questions to the institute for applied ecology in Freiburg concerning the following issues: situation in the institute following the information on the accident in Chernobyl, information for the public and German authorities, the radioactive cloud, the information chaos, the environmental consequences in Germany and the radiological impact on the population.

69

Lessons from Chernobyl post-accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has shown that the long-term management of its consequences is not straightforward. The management of the consequences has revealed the complexity of the situation to deal with. The long-term contamination of the environment has affected all the dimensions of the daily life of the inhabitants living in affected territories: health, environment, social life, education, work, distribution of foodstuffs and commodities... The experience from the Chernobyl accident shows 4 key issues that may be beneficial for the populations living in territories affected by the Fukushima accident: 1) the direct involvement of the inhabitants in their own protection, 2) the radiation monitoring system and health surveillance at the local level, 3) to develop a practical radiation protection culture among the population, and 4) the setting up of economic measures to favour the local development. (A.C.)

70

Radiation Risks for Population of Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The rational behind the decisions on radiation protection for public in case of nuclear or radiological accident is primarily based on radiation risks. Investigation of long-term medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident provides a unique opportunity to obtain a new data on these risk factors. Risk assessment of radiation induced cancers requires a period of time following the accidental exposure, during which the latent period will be finished and certain amount of excess cancer cases may be revealed. This time period now elapsed for the Chernobyl accident. During last 15 years studies of stochastic consequences of the Chernobyl accident among population of Belarus have allowed estimating risk coefficient only for radiation induced thyroid cancer. On the other hand only prognosis of possible radiation induced excess cases for solid tumours could be made. Such prognosis was indeed performed for Belarusian population using models of RERF, UNSCEAR and BEIR. Radiation risks for fatal cancers during life time and lost of life expectancy were calculated as parameters of radiation detriment. The results strongly support the necessity of aimed medical follow-up for different categories of population based on level of doses, age of exposure and gender. The paper will present results of prognosis for radiation induced cancers of different types: incidence rate of fatal cancers during lifetime (per 105 of population), excess incidence rate for differelation), excess incidence rate for different types of cancer (per 105 of population), and lost of life expectancy in case of death from radiation induced cancer. (author)

71

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

72

Infant leukemia in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petridou et al. have reported an increase in infant leukemia in Greek children born between 1/7/86 and 31/12/87 and have linked this increase to in utero radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. Subsequently, Michaelis et al. have reported a similar trend for Germany but found that it was not correlated to the levels of contamination. For Belarus, which was much more severely affected, a similar but much weaker trend is found. (orig.)

73

The impacts of the Chernobyl accident on Austria's economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the whole of Europe was affected by radioactive immissions. What was the actual magnitude of radiation exposure for the Austrians, and what are the consequences? Were the official regulations and measures that caused losses worth several thousand millions of schillings to the Austrian economy really necessary? Who bears the responsibility for this damage? This article attempts to give an answer to these questions. (Auth.)

74

Exposure levels for persons involved in recovery operations after the Chernobyl accident. Statistical analysis based on the data of the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a detailed description of dosimetric data entered in the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR) for emergency workers (liquidators) involved in recovery operations (RO) after the Chernobyl accident. The data on the absorbed doses from external exposure are based on the documents given to liquidators by organizations that performed dosimetric monitoring in the zones of operation. Using the data on external doses currently available in the RNMDR for 119 416 liquidators (78.4% of the total number of 152 325 persons), different statistical characteristics were derived to assess the reliability of the information. The paper also discusses dose distributions according to the date of beginning work in the RO zone [up to 250 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP)], on the distance of the settlement where the liquidators were accommodated or worked from the NPP, and on the duration of their stay in the RO zone. To analyse the reliability of the dosimetric data, the notion of an effective exposure dose rate (EEDR), i.e. the ratio of the dose registered in RNMDR and the duration of stay in the RO zone, was introduced for each liquidator, and corresponding statistical characteristics for the distribution of EEDR depending on the date of entry into the RO zone and distance from the place of residence or work to the NPP were obtained. The analysis for different groups of liquidators shows that the dosimetric information of the RNMDR is, as a stetric information of the RNMDR is, as a statistical aggregate, generally consistent with the data on the radiation situation in the RO zones. (orig.)

75

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

76

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

77

Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

78

The accident of Chernobyl's nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Soviet Union announced six major improvement measures for preventing another accident of the RBMK type nuclear reactor. The present study is aimed at technical evaluation of these measures. The structure, performances, nuclear-heat hydraulic power characteristics (coolant void coefficient, dynamic characteristic parameters, graphite exothermic reaction, etc.) of the Chernobyl's nuclear reactor are examined to determine the plant behaviors from 1 : 19 on April 26 until the accident and after 1 : 23 : 04. By using the FATRAC code and the EUREKA-2 code, which have been proposed previously, analysis is made of the changes in neutron flux, recirculation flow rate, steam separator pressure, water supply rate and steam separator water level for the period before the accident, and changes in thermal output, overall reactivity, void reactivity, Doppler reactivity and control reactivity for the period after the accident. Results show that the two codes can reproduce the values announced by the Soviet Union. Detaled analysis is also made for the above-mentioned parameters after the accident under various assumed conditions. Based on these analyses, some measures are proposed to effectively prevent serious damage under the same accident conditions as experienced in Chernobyl. (Nogami, K.)

79

Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

80

Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used

 
 
 
 
81

The Chernobyl reactor accident. Effects, preventive measures and conclusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summarises the sequence of events and measures adopted at the power station and in the surrounding area following the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 28 April '86. The information is abstracted from 'Summary report on the post accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident' by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group of IAEA, September 1986. (P.G.R.)

82

ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

83

Radiological sequels of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall impact of the Chernobyl-4 accident on the health condition of the population on the site of the accident and in more remote areas is assessed based on the results of measurement of increased radiation levels and of the presence of radionuclides in the environment. The physical and dosimetric data obtained are used to assess the biological, particularly stochastic effects. The evaluation is based on the current state of knowledge of the effect of radiation on living organisms. (author). 3 tabs., 25 refs

84

Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

85

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

86

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

87

Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

88

Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

2005-07-01

89

Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ? The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ? We note the great effect of ?-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ? We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ? The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

90

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

91

Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japand asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

92

Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential (1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, (2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, (3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T[sub 4] and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author).

Nagataki, Shigenobu (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1993-04-01

93

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

94

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

95

Gamma radiation dose to the Iraqi population due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The average dose equivalent rate for Iraqi individuals prior to the Chernobyl accident was 0.05 ?Sv.h-1. However, this value increased to 0.29, 0.38, 0.23, 0.22, 0.20 and 0.10 ?Sv.h-1 for Dhook, Naynava, Arbil, Al-Sulaimaniya, Al-Tamim and Salah Al-Deen governorates, respectively, due to the Chernobyl accident. The average effective dose equivalents resulting from the exposure to Chernobyl fallout debris deposited on the ground in the above mentioned governorates during 1986 were 172, 145, 158, 120, 53 and 9 ?Sv, respectively. (author)

96

Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

97

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

2006-06-15

98

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

99

Economical aspects of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technique to evaluate the economical damage resulted from the radioactive contamination of the agricultural territories was developed. The technique studies the economical damage as an integrity of losses in the cost value caused to the agricultural and national economy taken as a whole as a result of contamination of agricultural lands by radionuclides, as well as, additional costs to compensate for those losses, to eliminate the accident effects and to ensure normal activity of agroindustrial production including provision of favorable conditions for life and activity of the rural population. The economical damage resulted from the Chernobyl accident in six South-West areas of the Bryansk region during 1986-1990 was estimated according to the given technique

100

Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident

 
 
 
 
101

External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

102

Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ? Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

103

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (Tagg) for soil ? plant and soil ? flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. Tagg values for Soil ?e. Tagg values for Soil ? autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m2.kg-1 to 0,41 m2.kg-1. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the Tagg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example Tagg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the 137Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the 137Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg-1, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg-1. There was no significant change in the 137Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.)

104

Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

105

Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ?0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ?6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ?0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

106

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the 137Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the 137Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m-2) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The 137Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in 137Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of 137Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg-1 (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg-1 in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of 137Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the 137Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of 137Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg-1 (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg-1. Until now the effective half-life of 137Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg-1, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg-1. (orig.)

107

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

108

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

109

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

110

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

111

Evaluation of ground dose subsequently to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present some data concerning the evolution of the ground global dose due to the ? and ? radiations of the fission products from the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

112

Influence of the higher background of ionizing radiation upon the common birch in the Zone of the Chernobyl' NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper studies the effect of an enhanced ionizing radiation background on common birch plantations in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl accident which are located at different distances from the Chernobyl NPP. Sowing qualities of the birch seeds (crop of 1987) and their resistance to high doses of provocative exposure are investigated

113

Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

114

Radioiodine in the Tarapur environment due to Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioiodine due to Chernobyl accident fallout was first detected at Tarapur on 14th May in animal thyroids. This led to a complete study of 131I in all environmental matrices. The paper describes the levels of 131I in different environmental samples and reveals that the radiation hazard to the public due to Chernobyl accident fallout 131I activity levels are insignificant. (author)

115

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears tollow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

116

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accideradionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

117

Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

118

Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

119

Radiation burden in the Netherlands after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consequences to the Netherlands of the Chernobyl reactor accident (May 1986) are studied. Measurements are presented of air radioactivity, exposure rates, contamination of grass and milk, of agricultural products, of rain, surface and drinking water, as obtained from different parts of the country. The final section offers an estimation of their consequences to public health in the near future. (G.J.P.)

120

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

 
 
 
 
121

Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the counhus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

122

Reasons for the RBMK reactor accident at the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis of the reasons for the Chernobyl Reactor accident in 1986 places the blame firmly with the reactor operators, who, it is argued, made a number of dramatic mistakes while controlling the reactor. The report also included an additional analysis of the causes of the accident. (UK)

123

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

124

Effects in Switzerland of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

April 1996 saw the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The current article takes advantage of this occasion to present, from today's point of view, a summary appraisal of the radiological effects that this accident had in Switzerland, and to show how the warning and monitoring organisation in existence at the time coped with the event. (orig.)

125

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

126

Health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reviews the sequence of the accident, the radiation exposures of different population groups and various short and long term health and environmental consequences to the surroundings and to other affected areas.. Radioactivity related deaths have occurred most frequently among the rescue and cleaning up personnel. The pollution problems in Scandinavia and Norway in particular, are pointed out with emphasis on the health and environmental aspects. However, the long term consequences for the Belarus' population and the natural surroundings of Chernobyl are unknown but an increase in possibly radiation related chromosomal changes and mutations are observed and may cause various defects and species alterations as well as health problems both to human beings and the environment

127

Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 104 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

128

Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

129

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were 131I, /sup 134,137/Cs, and 103Ru/103Rh. The median 131I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of 134Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable 137Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10-6 for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10-6 to 4.2 x 10-5 with 95% of the risk attributable to 137Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs

130

Thyroid gland state in persons of Kiev region after Chernobyl accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Chernobyl accident, the growth of thyroid pathology, particularly the children's thyroid cancer, has been noted in Kiev Region. Reconstruction of exposure doses on thyroid gland is one of the major problems on liquidation of medical effects of the Chernobyl accident. While accessing the dose load it is necessary to take into account not only iodine-131 contribution to the radiation load, but also that of other iodine short-living radionuclides as well as radionuclides of other chemical elements inhalated or swallowed into the organism. Analysis of pathological involvement of the thyroid gland is to be performed with regard for the state of other organs and systems, i.e. on the entire organism level, thyroid gland playing the leading role in its functioning

131

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

132

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report information about the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the radioactivity burdening of Greece from the radioactive releases of the accident are presented. The main characteristics of the RBMK-1000 reactor and the flow pattern of the radioactive cloud towards Greece are described, results of radioactivity measurements in Greece concerning the environment and the food chain are given, and some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are made. (J.K.)

133

The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2011-02-15

134

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

135

Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a we issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

136

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

137

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

138

Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

139

Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

140

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequh, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

 
 
 
 
141

The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

142

Main points of further development of accident sequence model UFOMOD and first analyses of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The computer models and sets of data contained in the accident sequence model UFOMOD of DRS-B make it possible to describe the important transport processes in the environment up to human beings, the administrative and medical protection and countermeasures and the effects of exposure to radiation on human organisms. In this context, first analyses are made of processes outside the Chernobyl reactor. (DG)

143

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

144

Radioactivity of cattle fodder and milk after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivities of 90Sr, 137Cs and 134Cs were measured in soil, fodder and milk from the south-western region of Slovenia, Yugoslavia, after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Maximal concentrations of Sr isotopes in samples and the rate of their decrease in a period up to two years after the accident are given. The transfer of radionuclides from soil to grass and from fodder to milk is discussed. (author) 7 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

145

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

Ginzburg, H. M.; Reis, E.

1991-01-01

146

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

147

Biological Effects 10 years after the Chernobyl NPS accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident were analyzed. The mortality of infants in some towns in Poland was presented. The increase in the incidence of neoplasms, blood diseases and endocrine diseases infants was observed in 1986-1988. The increase in number of the Down syndrome during this time period was remarkable. Also the first notifications of neoplasms showed the trend to an increase

148

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

149

Economic and political energy aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of nuclear power to total electrical power is approximately 15% worldwide, 25% in the European OECD countries, nearly 40% in Switzerland and in some countries even exceeds 50%. Abandoning nuclear power completely following the Chernobyl accident would cause serious problems not only for electrical power generation but also for the economy in general. (P.G.R.)

150

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

151

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

152

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

1997-12-31

153

Radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident: UN scientific committee on effects of atomic radiation confirms earlier IAEA assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document informs about a new report by the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to the UN General Assembly containing an evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, and which concludes that 'there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident'. The conclusions of the UNSCEAR report are similar to those arrived at by the International Conference 'One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident', organized by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996

154

Procedure on reconstruction of external dose to evacuees at Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An external dose estimation on the Chernobyl accident was carried out using sugar left in two houses at Pripyat-city from before the accident. The external dose to the people evacuated from Pripyat-city after the Chernobyl accident has been estimated using both a data from the sugar-electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter and information on the type of buildings and the exposure rates there. In this work, the procedure of the dose estimation for the evacuees in Pripyat-city be reported. Furthermore, the sugar-ESR method will be discussed. The present result good agree with one reported from USSR to IAEA. It has been certified that small crystalline sugar such as granulated sugar is one of the most useful dosimeter in the emergency for the public. (author)

155

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident: Incidence, prognosis of progress, risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from 1990, an increasing number of persons, suffering from thyroid cancer was diagnosed in Belarus. These persons were exposed to radiation in 1986 due to the Chernobyl Accident and were children and adolescents at the time of the accident. This paper gives an overview of the total number of thyroid cancer cases observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among the persons exposed to radiation under 18 years of age. Duration of the latent period and background incidence rate are under discussion. Based on the most reliable data about thyroid doses and incidence rate among the persons exposed to radiation under 6 years of age, the estimation of risk coefficient for radiation induced thyroid cancer was carried out. For childhood exposure from I-131, the excess absolute risk per 10,0000 PYGy was 4.5 (author)

156

Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

157

The Chernobyl reactor accident: First evaluation of the Soviet report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the IAEA conference of experts held in Vienna in late August the USSR presented detailed information about the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. This contribution is a first summary and evaluation of the information presented by the Soviet delegation in Vienna and covers the specific characteristics of the RBMK reactor, the planned test, the sequence of accident events, and some early countermeasures. GRS is at present preparing a comprehensive report about the reactor accident in the light of the most recent findings. (orig./HP)

158

The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ...

Ginzburg, H. M.

1993-01-01

159

Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

160

Protective measures adopted in OECD member countries in response to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report outlines the measures for exposure prevention taken in West European countries following the Chernobyl power plant accident. In particular, the radioactivity regulation levels for foods (derived intervention levels) adopted in these countries are described in detail, citing from the reports of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health of OECD/NEA (The Radiological Impact of the Chernobyl Accident in OECD Countries) and an scientific seminar held by EC (International Scientific Seminar on Foodstuffs Intervention Levels Following a Nuclear Accident). It is pointed out that these countries rather largely vary in measures taken and the derived intervention levels adopted although the principles for radiation protection which provide the basis for emergency protection measures must be nearly the same in all of the countries. It is necessary to establish consistent standards in each country in consideration of an accident, like the one at Chernobyl, that may have global effects. The ICRP recommendations and IAEA safety guidelines so far are centered on ''near-field'' measures to be taken in areas near an accident site. Thus, studies should be made to establish measures to be taken in areas far from the site. (Nogami, K.)

 
 
 
 
161

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

162

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

163

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

164

Caesium-137 in Baltic Sea sediments since the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Baltic Sea was the sea most affected by the Chernobyl accident, because the first radioactive clouds from Chernobyl travelled north and caused high deposition in the Baltic Sea region. The distribution pattern of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in the catchment area of the Baltic Sea was very scattered, with the highest deposition values occurring in the areas surrounding the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland. The highest 137Cs concentrations in bottom sediments also occurred in these gulfs, but the scattered nature was further emphasized as a consequence of river discharges, sea currents and different sedimentation rates on hard and soft bottoms. The present report contains a revised estimate based on a larger quantity of sediment data than the previous estimates

165

Directions in epidemiological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The after-Chernobyl irradiation doses of the Bulgarian population cause possible health consequences in the sphere of scholastic effects only. Different mental disturbances arise under certain conditions. There are plans for epidemiologic investigations of the kind 'case-control' which are aimed to clarify the role of the radiation factor (of medical, professional and Chernobyl origin) in the appearance of some neoplasms in hemopoietic system and thyroid. A selective analysis of the congenital malformations frequency is envisaged which will overcome the shortcomings of the current registration system. Screening study of children born in the end of 1986 is also under way which will detect possible disturbances in their cognitive functions. The specifying of individual radiation doses in all studies is based on data received by survey and on information for radiation conditions in Bulgaria prior and after the Chernobyl accident. 2 refs. (A.B.)

166

The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

167

Elimination of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological consequences of reactor accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station is considered. The Chernobyl's release is compared with the estimated radioactivity having been produced by both the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapons testing programs, as well as with the TMI and the Windscale reactor accidents. The necessity of the Shelter's construction, as well as basic problems in designing the Shelter structure is discussed. At the time of the Shelter's construction, the radiation safety division was created to provide the safety of construction personnel. The organization and main tasks of this division is given in detail. The main stages of the Shelter construction is stated. Today's condition of the Shelter and nuclear fuel inside are also discussed. (author)

168

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

169

Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

170

Human minisatellite mutation rate after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci has been studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation was found to be twice as high in the exposed families as in the control group. Mutation rate in the Mogilev families was correlated with the level of caesium-137 surface contamination, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. (author)

171

The radiation burden in Austria from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the radioactivity levels in Austria after the Chernobyl accident, in air, grass, milk and different meats as a function of time. A table of the Austrian legal activity uptake limits, for 290Sr, 131J, 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru and 106Ru provide standards of comparison. For 1986 the integral burden for the population is estimated to be 30 mrem. (G.Q.)

172

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

173

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

1998-12-01

174

Nuclear power safety goals in light of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recently adopted Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety goals include a proposed plant performance guideline limiting the frequency of large releases of radioactive materials. Analysis indicates that the proposed plant guideline is potentially far more restrictive than the health objectives, goes well beyond previously established health objectives, and is not supported on cost-benefit grounds. The Chernobyl accident, which caused no offsite prompt fatalities, has cast doubt on the operational significance of the safety goal health objectives. The proposed guideline is responsive to concerns that the health objectives do not limit the frequency of accidents sufficiently

175

Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

176

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

177

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

178

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

179

Children from Belarus suffering from thyroid cancer - results of the project 'Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors initially present facts and figures demonstrating the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among children from Belarus as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The causal relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the increased risk of development of thyroid cancer in children is shown. The authors then explain the activities and the goals of the project ''Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'', giving case reports and details of successful therapy for the children from Belarus who were invited by various hospitals for treatment of thyroid cancer. (orig.)

180

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

 
 
 
 
181

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

182

[Radiation-induced modification of human somatic cell chromosome sensitivity to the testing mutagenic exposure of bleomycin in vitro in lung cancer patients in delayed terms following Chernobyl accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using modified "G2-bleomycin sensitivity assay" above background level of cytogenetic effect considered as a marker of hidden chromosome instability (HCI) has been investigated in 3 groups--liquidators of Chernobyl accident (occupational group 1), patients with lung cancer who denied conscious contact--with ionizing radiation (group of comparison), liquidators with lung cancer (occupational group 2). Significant interindividual variations of cytogenetic effects induced with bleomycin and the lack of positive correlation between background and above background frequencies of chromosome aberrations have been shown in all observed groups. It had been established that occupational group 2 was the most burdened group by expression of the above background cytogenetic effect and, accordingly, number of persons with HCI. The data obtained permit to suggest the existence of the association between radiation-induced increase of individual sensitivity to testing mutagenic exposure and the realization of cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. The results show acceptability of "G2-bleomycin sensitivity assay" under the cytogenetic examination of irradiated contingents for determining HCI as one of informative markers of predisposition to oncopathology. PMID:23285748

Pilinskaia, M A; Dybski?, S S; Dybskaia, E B; Shva?ko, L I

2012-01-01

183

Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

184

Consideration on accident scenario in Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the IAEA expert conference on the assessment after accident held in Wien from August 25 to 29, 1986, the course of operation resulted in the accident and the state of accident of No.4 plant in Chernobyl nuclear power station were published in detail by USSR. However, how the abnormal power rise arisen in No.4 plant developed to the graphite fire which scattered radio-activity over wide areas as well as Europe was not explained. It is considered that the data enough for the analysis were perhaps not gathered. Based on the first report of this accident made by USSR on May 14, 1986, at IAEA, the authors carried out the quantitative examination by the analysis using the dynamic characteristic analysis code EUREKA and the use of the experimental data on fuel breaking of NSSR, and made a series of the accident scenario from the abnormal power rise to the graphite fire. This accident scenario does not contradict the report in August this time, and explains the phenomena of the accident from the results of analysis without discrepancy, therefore, it was decided to publish the scenario. The outline of the accident scenario, the abnormal power rise, the rupture of pressure tubes in primary cooling system, the generation of hydrogen gas, the second explosion of hydrogen, the graphite fire, and the jumping-up of the core top shield plate are reported. (Kako, I.)

185

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This leaflet has been prepared by the Central Electricity Generating Board. Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union people are concerned about the safety of the UK's nuclear power stations. This leaflet explains that Chernobyl is unlike any nuclear station operating or planned in the UK and under the CEGB's stringent safety rules it could not have been built in the UK. The leaflet explains what happened at Chernobyl and compares the RBMK design and British reactors. The bodies concerned with reactor safety are noted. The containment of radioactivity and emergency procedures are explained. The PWR design for Sizewell-B is stated to be much safer than the RBMK Chernobyl design. (UK)

186

Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

187

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

2014-02-01

188

Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerning contamination of rural environment, the most important being: 1) dry deposition velocities; 2) washout coefficient; 3) accumulation in lakes; 4) migration in soil; 5) winter conditions; 6) filtering effects of forests

189

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

190

Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

191

The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

192

The Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986. (orig.)

193

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

194

Genital endometriosis rate dynamics before and after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident

195

Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The epidemiological analysis of Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis (leukemia, lymphoma) in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident during three seven-years periods (before Chernobyl - 1979-1985, after Chernobyl - 1986-1992 and after Chernobyl - 1993-1999) granting age, gender and place of residence: city/village was presented. Results were analyzed as for the whole region as for each of the six most contaminated by radiation areas. (authors)

196

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

197

Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by {sup 137}Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

2014-07-01

198

The Chernobyl accident: its causes and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident occurred during the night of April 26th. Its exact causes were only known at the end of the month of August when an international conference, proposed by the Soviets, was held in Vienna. The Chernobyl reactor, which was moderated by graphite and cooled by water, had several weak points. A crew, which was carrying-out tests, cancelled six safety devices, some of which were essential. In these conditions, the reactor went out of control and this led to two explosions and a serious fire. The fire spread to the graphite and a part of the radioactivity in the reactor escaped into the atmosphere. The consequences of this accident which were well controlled by the authorities were serious in the neighbourhood of the reactor: 31 dead, 100 000 people evacuated and contaminated soil. The radioactive cloud resulting from the accident, pushed by the wind, travelled across Europe and provoked worry everywhere. In fact, the risks from such small doses of radioactivity are not significant; an evaluation of such risks is given in this article in comparison with the effects of small doses of chemical products which although they have analogous effects are considered as being inoffensive

199

International collaboration on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), collaboration between laboratories in Member States of the Communities and institutes and organisations in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) has culminated in the signing of an agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community and a number of states in CIS particularly affected by the release. The aim of the agreement is to further international collaboration on research in radioecology and nuclear emergency management issues. During the first year of the agreement, a number of projects are to be implemented which extend the preliminary studies. There will be five Experimental Collaboration Projects (ECPs) and a further two Joint Study Projects (JSPs). The five ECPs involve a series of experimental studies designed to increase understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and the implications for man. The two JSPs are designed to develop strategies for emergency management after a nuclear accident building on experience gained from the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

200

Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

 
 
 
 
201

XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

202

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

203

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water ...

Gustaf Åhman; Birgitta Åhman (editor in chief); Axel Rydberg

1990-01-01

204

Ukrainian NPP instrumentation and control systems after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the main factors that contributed to the development of I and C systems of Ukrainian NPPs after 1986. The period of time after the Chernobyl accident is divided into three phases: 1986-1991, when the implementation of typical WWER-1000 I and C design was continued; 1992-2000, when the regulatory system on nuclear and radiation safety was formed in Ukraine; and 2001-2010, when numerous new digital NPP I and C systems were designed by national companies and implemented at Ukrainian NPPs. The main problems related to NPP I and C systems are indicated

205

Early measurements in Scandinavia following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first cloud from the Chernobyl accident arrived over Scandinavia during the first days following the release. This gave a unique opportunity to study wet and dry deposition of different isotopes on various rural and urban surfaces, to model the wash-off, run-off and weathering processes from the early phase and to investigate the relationship between outdoor and indoor aerosol concentration. The information derived has had great importance for development of computer models to estimate the consequences of such accidental releases. Some of the data collected in the early period is compared to data obtained through recent experiments. A good agreement has been found between these sets of data. (author)

206

A review of internal exposure accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The definition of an internal exposure accident is much more difficult to establish clearly than the one concerning external overexposures. For the latter, the notion is implicitly related to resulting health damage, while in most cases any internal contamination, regardless of its level and the upcoming or no of a detriment, is qualified as accidental. Therefore, this overview is limited to (1) large scale internal exposure accidents because large groups of individuals, highly contaminated or not, were involved; (2) occupational contaminations which sometimes resulted into long-term health effects, and (3) the results of the follow-up of patients who were either explored or treated in the 30s and 50s by alpha emitting radionuclides. Among large-scale accidents, mention is made of the 1954 american nuclear test in the Pacific ocean, uncorrectly programmed and responsible for thyroid diseases, of the 1957 accident in the Mayak complex in the Urals, of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986 and of the 1987 Goiania accident due to the uncontrolled dismantling of a teletherapy source. Among occupational contaminations, several medical and epidemiological follows-up are of particular interest, such as those concerning dial painters who used radium in the years 1910 and uranium miners, although it is difficult to qualify as accidental these practices, even if the doses received at this time were widely in excess of the limits in use nowadays. Taking into account thes in use nowadays. Taking into account the previous caution, the groups of patients who received relatively large amounts of thorotrast (used as contrast material) and of radium (considered as a large spectrum therapeutic agent) are very interesting as well; these two medical practices resulted into various long-term health effects, and were used, in some degree, to quantify the risk in man of alpha emitters. (author)

207

A radioecological model for thyroid dose reconstruction of the Belarus population following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

A radioecological model was developed to estimate thyroid exposures of the Belarus population following the Chernobyl accident. The input of the model includes an extensive data set of the (137)Cs activity per unit area deposited during the Chernobyl accident, the rainfall data for different regions of Belarus, the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio in the deposit and the start of the grazing period in Belarus in April/May 1986. The output of the model is the age-dependent thyroid exposure due to the intake of (131)I with fresh milk. Age-dependent average thyroid doses were assessed for selected regions of Belarus. The maximum thyroid doses were estimated for the inhabitants of Gomel oblast where the highest deposition was observed among the regions considered here. The lowest doses were estimated for Vitebsk oblast with the lowest level of depositions. The mean exposures for the oblasts of Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev and Brest were very similar. The results were compared with estimations of thyroid exposure that were based on (131)I measurements in human thyroids, and they are in good agreement. The model may be used for the assessment of thyroid doses in Belarus for areas where no (131)I measurements are available. PMID:15221314

Kruk, J E; Pröhl, G; Kenigsberg, J I

2004-07-01

208

Down's syndrome clusters in Germany in close temporal relationship to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down's syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination for one month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, also, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down's syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. (author)

209

Radioecological and radiobiological consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During all post-accident years, the Institute of Radiobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus carried out the complex investigations of radioactive pollution of soil, water, air, flora, fauna, inclusion of radionuclides into trophic chains, accumulation of them in organs and tissues of living organisms; biological effects were assessed and measures to decrease them were developed. As a result of fulfilled research, it was established the distribution of radionuclides by horizons of soils of different types, determined the dynamics of physical and chemical forms of radionuclides and factors influencing these processes, calculated the coefficients of radionuclide transfer within 'soil-plant' system etc. In spite of gradual cleaning of air environment, surface waters of river and lake systems, simultaneously take place the processes making more complicated the radiation situation: increase of share of biologically accessible forms of cesium, strontium and plutonium, increase of volume of highly toxic mobile Americium-241 (Plutonium-241 decay product) with long half-life and others. This and other problems will be discussed in the report. New data about the influence of radioecological situation on state of the most important systems of organism were obtained. Are worth of special attention the data about the injuring action of low radiation doses on the organism and about the significant danger of prenatal irradiation that leads to the disturbance of proceion that leads to the disturbance of processes of proliferation, differentiation and clone formation in the progeny. The endocrine organs - thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas - are very sensitive to irradiation. This is the cause of formation and development of endocrine pathology and alteration of sensitivity to other injuring factors (author)

210

Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

211

The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

212

Analysis of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A follow-up calculation was made on the accident based on the literature and accident reports published by the USSR. The analysis code system used had models peculiar to a pressure tube type reactor, of which the accuracy had been verified by the experimental facilities at the O-arai Engineering Center and the tests made at the 'Fugen' Nuclear Power Plant. The analysis data were prepared based on plant specifications and its operation history obtained from those published literature and accident reports. The analysis was composed of (1) a calculation of the nuclear and thermal-hydraulic characteristics, and the graphite heating and temperature distributions which were the basic data for the follow-up calculation of the accident, (2) an analysis of the plant behavior before the test started, using these basic characteristics, and (3) a follow-up calculation of the power increase which occurred after the test started. The analytical results were found to agree well with the data published by the USSR. It was confirmed from these analyses that the main factors causing the accident were the increased enthalpy at the core entrance caused by the test made at low power level and the increased void fraction due to reduced coolant flow rate, in addition to the nuclear characteristics and performance of the control system peculiar to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. (orig./HP)

213

Second summarizing progress report of radioactivity measurements after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains continued measurements of the environmental impact in the Netherlands of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, April 26 1986. The monitoring was carried out on behalf of the Dutch government. Transport and precipitation of the radioactivity emitted in the USSR are considered. Measurements are presented of the radioactivity in the Dutch environment, in the food chain and in products. Radiation exposure of man is also discussed. This report covers the measuring results during the period May 13 - June 20 1986. (G.J.P.)

214

Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45–54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing ...

Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

2014-01-01

215

Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

1999-09-01

216

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

217

Radiation accidents with uneven exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: radiation accidents analysis in which there has been an uneven exposure of a human body. Material and Methods. The Burnazyan FMBC Radiation Accidents Register information and published data in other countries are investigated. Results. The Radiation Accidents Register of State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnasyan consist the full information of radiation accidents in the former USSR (1949-1991 and the Russian Federation (1992-2012 territory. There is an evidence of 39 radiation accidents with 190 victims with a diagnosis of acute radiation syndrome and uneven exposure (incl. 4 episodes after 1991 in Russia, 62 people of which (incl. one in 1997 in Russia died in the acute phase. Conclusion^ Experience in the treatment of such victims, which are available from the State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnazyan staff, is comparable with the total experiences in other developed countries.

Soloviev V.Yu.

2013-12-01

218

Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

219

Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia 8 years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia after the Chernobyl accident: evaluation of the situation in the district of Chetchersk in Bielorussia. This article presents an analysis of the social and economic aspects of radiological protection in the territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. It is based on the results of two surveys performed in 1994 on the living conditions of the inhabitants of a territorial community located in Bielorussia, 180 km north of Chernobyl. The first part presents the radiological post-accident situation of the district, together with an analysis of this situation's demographic impact since 1986. The second part presents a description of the modes of exposure of the inhabitants of the contaminated territories and an assessment of he various countermeasures programmes initiated by the authorities in the legislative framework of 1991. The last part addresses the economic aspects of the Chetchersk district and an evaluation of the consequences of the radiological situation on the economic, and above all agricultural, activities of the district.The conclusion highlights the difficulties that face the Byelorussian authorities today. The now definitive presence of inhabitants in a durably contaminated environment poses a new category of problems. The objectives of radiological protection have to be reshaped within a set of constraints of different types, notably social and economic. The development of radiological economic. The development of radiological safety cannot be dissociated from a return to quality living in these territories. This necessarily entails re-establishing a climate of social confidence. The initial legislative plan for post-accident management must be adapted to give greater autonomy to local participants in the reconstruction of satisfactory living conditions. (authors)

220

Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of aties of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

 
 
 
 
221

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in coop the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider the approved reports... as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three most affected countries, regarding the environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system.' This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning the environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering the health effects of the Chernobyl accident is being published by the WHO

222

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

223

Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

224

The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

225

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of {sup 137}Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average {sup 137}Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest {sup 137}Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (T{sub agg}) for soil {yields} plant and soil {yields} flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. T{sub agg} values for Soil {yields} autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} to 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the T{sub agg} values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example T{sub agg} for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the {sup 137}Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the {sup 137}Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the {sup 137}Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg{sup -1}. There was no significant change in the {sup 137}Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.) [German] Seit 1988 wurde, im Rahmen mehrerer Forschungsvorhaben, die Cs-137 Aktivitaet in rund 7.000 Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Pilzen und Wildtieren bestimmt, um die Dynamik des Nuklids in Waldoekosystemen zu untersuchen. Die Arbeiten wurden hauptsaechlich in einem Bergfichtenwald in Bodenmais (Bayern) und einem Eichenwald in Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) durchgefuehrt, wo unguenstige Bodenparameter und Standortfaktoren relativ hohe Radiocaesium-Aufnahmeraten in Biomedien bedingen.Kennzeichnend fuer die untersuchten Waldoekosysteme ist die grosse Variabilitaet der Cs-137 Aktivitaet innerhalb einer Art und zwischen den Arten. In Bodenprofilen aus den drei Untersuchungsgebieten befanden sich im Jahr 2000, durchschnittlich noch 56% des Cs-137 Inventars in den obersten 10 cm und 93% in den obersten 20 cm. In den untersuchten Pflanzenarten nahm Cs-137 Aktivitaet von 1987 bis 1994 signifikant ab, wobei sich die Kontamination seit 1995 nur noch wenig veraenderte. Bei acht Pflanzenarten aus zwei der Untersuchungsgebiete betrug die mittlere effektive Halbwertzeit -5,3 Jahre (Minimum -3 Jahre, Maximum -24 Jahre). Pilze aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Bodenmais hatten 2000, wie ueblich, die hoechsten Cs-137 Messwerte. Die Werte der aggregierten Transferfaktoren (T{sub ag}) fuer den Uebergang von Cs-137 Boden {yields} Pflanze oder Boden {yields} Fleisch schwankten um mehrere Groessenordnungen, z.B. bei den autotrophen Pflanzenarten, von 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} bis 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. Auf den Dauerprobeflaechen B1 und F1 wurden viel hoehere Transferfakto

Fielitz, U. [Laboratorium Umweltanalysen (Germany)

2001-07-01

226

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the {sup 137}Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m{sup -2}) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The {sup 137}Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in {sup 137}Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg{sup -1} (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg{sup -1} in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of {sup 137}Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the {sup 137}Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of {sup 137}Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg{sup -1} (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg{sup -1}. Until now the effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg{sup -1}, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg{sup -1}. (orig.) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht handelt von dem Verhalten von Radiocaesium in zwei, vom Tschernobyl-Fallout besonders betroffenen Waldoekosystemen. 1997 und 1998 wurden in den Waeldern um Bodenmais (Bayern) und Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Baeumen und Rehwild auf Cs-137 Aktivitaet gemessen und die Ergebnisse aus vorangegangenen Forschungsvorhaben verglichen. Die Untersuchungen zur Tiefenverteilung von Cs-137 in Bodenprofilen zeigen, dass auch 11 Jahre nach dem Tschernobyl-Fallout die spezifische Cs-137 Aktivitaet in der Humusauflage am groessten ist und nur sehr geringe Aktivitaet des Nuklids tiefer als 20 cm nachgewiesen werden kann. Der ueberwiegende Teil des Radiocaesiums befand sich in den obersten 10 cm des Bodens. In dieser Bodenschicht waren auf der Dauerprobeflaeche B1 in Bodenmais 1997 rund 78% der Cs-137 Aktivitaet, wovon 27% in der 4 cm starken Humusauflage nachgewiesen wurden. Es zeigt sich, dass die Wandergeschwindigkeit des Nuklids mit der Zeit abnimmt. Die Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Pflanzenarten des Waldbodens ergeben eine signifikante Abnahme der Cs-137 Gehalte in den Blaettern. Die errechneten effektiven Halbwertzeiten fuer Cs-137 reichen von 5 Jahren in Himbeerblaettern bis 32 Jahre in Blaettern von Adlerfarn, wobei die meisten der untersuchten Pflanzenarten effektive Halbwertzeiten von rund 10 Jahre

Fielitz, U.

1999-07-01

227

Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

228

DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay on children form areas affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The health effects of the Chernobyl accident and particularly the long-term effects continue to be interesting and significant for the international scientific community. The DNA damages caused by radiation exposure are considered responsible for the effects at cellular level and in the whole organism. The comet assay is one of the current tools with greatest application and sensitivity to evaluate DNA damages, particularly in chronic exposures. The preliminary results with the application of the comet assay to blood lymphocytes of 30 Ukrainian children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident are shown in our study. The children were in Cuba at the moment of the study. 137Cs internal contamination was measured in a whole body counter and correlated with DNA damages, children blood was taken by fingerprick. Factors like illnesses, medical treatments, or the external doses by surface contamination were also considered in the study. Until the present the radiological factor has not shown influence in the levels of observed DNA damages. (orig.)

229

Radiation exposure in the Hanseatic City of Luebeck through two-year inhalation and ingestion of radioactive substances as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over a period of two years, an average monthly spectrum of the specific activity Bq/kg found in food was determined and plotted against time. Iodine 131, cesium 137 and cesium 134 were chosen as guiding nuclides and their prevalences evaluated for certain foodstuffs defined by the ICRP as being typically consumed by a standard individual with standard eating habits. The behaviour of the effective equivalent dose (D(eff)/mSv) taken in with each of the defined foodstuffs by an average citizen of Luebeck was calculated over two years on the basis of dose factors and shown graphically. Wholebody measurements carried out simultaneously pointed to comparable values for the specific activities of cesium in the second year that were in the order of 3-5 Bq/kg and accounted for an individual equivalent dose of < 0.02 mSv/a. They were thus lower by a factor of 10 than the K-40 occurring naturally in the environment (approx. 0.2 mSv/a). It was evident from comparisons with the environmental exposure to natural radionuclides (approx. 2 mSv/a) that there is no increased exposure risk in epidemiologic or statistical terms. The D(eff)mSv/a was calculated to be (1) for children: thyroid 1.050, wholebody 0.077 in the first year; wholebody 0.008 in the second year; (2) for adults: thyroid 0.258, wholebody 0.068 in the first year; wholebody 0.030 in the second year. (orig./HP)

230

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our work with about 100 subjects resident in eastern Europe (mostly Poland) at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or traveling as tourists, 131I was readily detectable in the thyroid through mid-June, 1986, and was detectable in some subjects as late as early July, 9 to 10 weeks after the start of the accident. Among 42 subjects who were in eastern Europe on April 26, 1986, and in whom 131I was detectable, the median activity in the thyroid was 1.4 nCi at the time of measurement. When extrapolated back to April 26 using a single exponential retention function for the thyroid and an 8-day effective half-life, the median activity was 42 nCi. The frequency distribution resembled a lognormal distribution. The extrapolated activities lay between approximately 2 and 1200 nCi. The risk levels derived from these observations of internal radioactivity and my conservative dose projection assumptions are as much as 10 times less than the risk levels published in the lay press during the months following the accident. This underscores the importance of basing risk estimation for internal radioactivity on direct observations. 2 refs., 1 tab

231

Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

232

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

233

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

234

Satellite change detection of forest damage near the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial amount of forest within a few kilometers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor station was badly contaminated with radionuclides by the April 26, 1986, explosion and ensuing fire at reactor No. 4. Radiation doses to conifers in some areas were sufficient to cause discoloration of needles within a few weeks. Other areas, receiving smaller doses, showed foliage changes beginning 6 months to a year later. Multispectral imagery available from Landsat sensors is especially suited for monitoring such changes in vegetation. A series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images was developed that span the 2 yr following the accident. Quantitative dose estimation for the exposed conifers requires an objective change detection algorithm and knowledge of the dose-time response of conifers to ionizing radiation. Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation's Hyperscout trademark algorithm is based on an advanced, sensitive technique for change detection particularly suited for multispectral images. The Hyperscout algorithm has been used to assess radiation damage to the forested areas around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

235

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

Gustaf Åhman

1990-09-01

236

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption

237

Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the Tokyo electric power company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerned. While the linear no-threshold (LNT) model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, it is a model based upon the concept, in which ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. Since the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among the children suffered from the Chernobyl accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25483826

Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

2014-12-01

238

Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. (orig.)

239

Childhood Leukaemia Incidence in Hungary, 1973-2002. Interpolation Model for Analysing the Possible Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of childhood leukaemia in Hungary has yet to be reported, although data are available since the early 70s. The Hungarian data therefore cover the time before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary. A population-based study was carried out using data of the National Paediatric Cancer Registry of Hungary from 1973 to 2002. The total number of cases was 2204. To test the effect of the Chernobyl accident the authors applied a new approach called 'Hypothesized Impact Period Interpolation'-model, which takes into account the increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence and the hypothesized exposure and latency times. The incidence of leukaemia in the age group 0-14 varied between 33.2 and 39.4 per million person-years along the observed 30 year period, and the incidence of childhood leukaemia showed a moderate increase of 0.71% annually (p=0.0105). In the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident the incidence rate was elevated by 2.5% (95% CI: -8.1%; +14.3%), but this change was not statistically significant (p=0.663). The age standardised incidence, the age distribution, the gender ratio, and the magnitude of increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary were similar to other European countries. Applying the presented interpolation method the authors did not find a statistically significant incr not find a statistically significant increase in the leukaemia incidence in the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident

240

Lichens as biomonitors for radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium-137 resulting from the Chernobyl accident was monitored in lichens in The Netherlands. Caesium-137 activity in Parmelia sulcata ranged from 550 to 6100 (average 2500) Bq kg-1 dry weight. The similarity between the lichen data (geographical 137Cs activity gradients and radioactivity values) and data of wet and dry deposition, indicate the validity of lichen monitoring of atmospheric 137Cs. The ratio between the 137Cs activity per unit lichen dry weight (kg) of Parmelia sulcata and the 137Cs activity deposited per unit surface area (m2) was approximately one. Measurements of 137Cs accumulation in Xanthoria parietina show that the activity concentration could be expressed both on a dry weight and on a contour surface area basis. The determination of the biological half-life of 137Cs in lichens was shown to be subject to sources of error such as growth and non-atmospheric/indirect 137Cs influxes. (Author)

 
 
 
 
241

The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

242

Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

243

Radioactive contamination in Nijmegen rainwater after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident, rainwater was collected in the Nijmegen area during the first three weeks of May 1986. The radionuclides found in the water were 131I, 132Te, 132I, 140La, 134Cs, 137Cs and 103Ru. On the first rainy day, an activity concentration of 9 kBq l-1 was measured, with specific activities of 2.7 kBq l-1 for 131I and 2.3 kBq l-1 for each of 132Te and 132I. The total activity precipitated per square kilometer in this period was ? 55 GBq. Fresh spinach picked in Nijmegen on 7 May had an activity of 1.5 kBq kg-1. (Auth.)

244

Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

245

The contamination of farming areas by air-borne radioactivity due to the accident in the Chernobyl power plant, USSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming as an area-intensive branch of national economy was affected most by the reactor accident in Chernobyl. Although the I 131 contamination of milk was a short-lived transitory result of air-borne radioactivity, the contamination of the soil with the long-lived radionuclides Cs 137, Cs 134 and Sr 90 requires careful observation of the soil-plant-food exposure pathway. The author describes the measures and precautions taken by the Bavarian State Institute. (DG)

246

Summarizing progress report of radioactivity measurements after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl during May 1-12, 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains measurements of the environmental impact in the Netherlands of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, April 26, 1986. The monitoring was carried out on behalf of the Dutch government. Transport and precipitation of the radioactivity emitted in the USSR, are considered. Measurements are presented of the radioactivity in the Dutch environment, in the food chain and in products. Radiation exposure of man is also discussed. (G.J.P.)

247

Radionuclide concentration from peat burning after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the radionuclide concentrations in byproducts and releases from a 30 MW peat-burning power plant in central Sweden. The plant is located in an area that received high levels of radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl accident. After the accident at Chernobyl, the plant carried out a test run before the beginning of the normal running season. Samples of peat and ash were collected during a 2 month period and were studied in order to ascertain whether radiation protection was necessary for workers handling the peat and byproducts. In spite of the high ground contamination of radionuclides (20-80 kBq/M2) of the peat, the radionuclide concentration in the peat was only about 1 kBq/kg (and half of this one year later). This is due to the process in which the top 50 cm layer of peat is continously mixed and turned over. Samples of fly ash from different parts of the plant, analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy, were found to have activity concentrations of 10-50 kBq/kg Cs-137, while the activity concentrations of bottom ash was 4-10 kBq/kg. During the winter of 1984-85 the average level of Cs-137 in the flyash was 340 Bq/kg. Condensed water from the chimney did not contain any measurable amounts of Cs-137. Emission measurements of the gases in the chimney gave rather high activity concentrations of Cs-137. The maximum value of 70 kBq/kg was probably due to the ease with which caesium escapes during heating. No special radiation steps were found to. No special radiation steps were found to be necessary

248

National cancer registry to assess trends after the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Cancer Registry has been operational in the Republic of Belarus since 1973: information on all new cases of malignant tumours is registered. The data are kept in a computer database and used for assessing the oncological status of the population, and for epidemiological studies. We compared findings before the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986 (Chernobyl) and findings between 1990 and 2000. The overall comparison on the changes in the incidence of cancer morbidity in Belarus is presented. The increase is statistically significant for all regions, but significantly greater in the most chronically radiation-contaminated region: the Gomel oblast. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the incidence of cancer morbidity in the population of two regions of Belarus, selected for the greatest difference in their radioactive contamination following Chernobyl. The highest contamination occurred in the Gomel region and is mainly due to high levels of radiocaesium (137Cs) in the soil and in the alimentary chain, especially in rural areas. A relatively low radioactive fallout was noticed in the Vitebsk region, considered here as the "control" area. We compare the situation before and after Chernobyl in the two regions. The overall cancer morbidity rate in all organs including colon, urinary bladder and thyroid, was significantly higher in the Gomel region than in Vitebsk. In populations living in two areas with high 137Cs contamination (oblast of Gomel and Mogilev), the peak incidence rates of breast cancer were already reached between the ages of 45-49 years, 15 years earlier than in the Vitebsk region. Belarussian "liquidators" who were mobilised to clean up the most contaminated territory and build the sarcophagus around the destroyed atomic plant, received the highest radiation doses. They had a significant excess of incidence of cancers of colon, urinary bladder, and thyroid gland, when compared with a corresponding adult population of the Vitebsk region. The Relative Risk (RR) of lung cancer among "liquidators" in 1997-2000 significantly exceeded 1, while in the control population it remained stable. PMID:15609208

Okeanov, A E; Sosnovskaya, E Y; Priatkina, O P

2004-10-30

249

Comparison of radiation doses to the population of the Russian Federation from atmospheric nuclear testing at the test sites of the former USSR and from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A considerable body of evidence on radiation conditions has been integrated and potential radiation doses to the population in the area affected by the nuclear tests have been estimated. Exposures from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear tests have been compared. The comparison shows that the collective doses for the population due to the nuclear tests differ significantly from those due Chernobyl accident. The difference is primarily associated with the size of population of the contaminated area: in the former case the exposed residents total above 50 million while in the latter case their number is not more than about 2 million. The analysis indicates that the Chernobyl accident the list with regard to public exposures which might cause health effects

250

The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

251

Nuclear power plant accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi. Effects on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accidents in the title are compared from medical aspect. Chernobyl accident in April 1986 released enormous amounts of radioactive materials to cause the contamination of extensive areas around the southern east of Belarus Republic by rainfall afterward. At the contaminated areas, medical studies had been conducted on the internal exposure-induced malformation, psychomotor retardation, pediatric cancers and others in consideration of thyroid cancer by I-131, leukemia by Cs-137 and Sr-90, and lung cancer by Pu, among which an increase of pediatric thyroid cancer incidence was observed. The amount of radio-materials released by Fukushima accident (Mar. 2011) was at the level of about 11% of Chernobyl. The accumulated dose was estimated to be the maximal 508 mSv/y in Ohkuma and 224 in Namie towns, both of which were in the zone of 20 km distance from the plant, and the doses exceeded 100 mSv/y at which the probability to form cancer was 1.05. Internal exposure dose by radio-cesium in some residents of Namie exceeded 3,000 Bq. The internal dose in residents of Ukraine Republic, which was not defined to be a highly contaminated area, is still now above 50 thousands Bq, which was caused by their lives with self-sufficiency in the forest mushrooms and beasts. This indicates that food management is the most important for reduction of the internal exposure. In April 2012, Japan defined the standard limits of radioactivity in food, which, Japan Pediatric Society thinks, is which, Japan Pediatric Society thinks, is valid. However, a part of food is sometimes found above the limit, and the system to detect a small amount of radioactive substance should be hopefully established and maintained for keeping the safety. (T.T.)

252

Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest incidence of cancer before the accident coincidentally had the lowest fallout of (137)Cs. Increasing the geographical resolution of exposure from nine county averages to 612 parish averages resulted in a two to three times higher value of variance in the regression model. There was a secular trend with an increase in age-standardized incidence of cancer in both genders from 1980 to 2009, but significant only in females. This trend was stronger and statistically significant for both genders in the general Swedish population compared to the nine counties. In conclusion, using both high quality cancer registry data and high resolution exposure maps of (137)Cs deposition, it was not possible to distinguish an effect of (137)Cs on cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Sweden. PMID:24811728

Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

2014-08-01

253

Dose contribution of 90Sr to the ingestion dose after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposure of the Austrian population due to 90Sr after the reactor accident at Chernobyl was estimated by measurement of the 90Sr-content in 131 food samples, 9 drinking water samples and 7 other samples. The samples were taken at different times after the accident to take into account changes in the activity content with time. In order to estimate the contri-bution of the reactor accident compared to 90Sr from the atomic bomb testing, also samples of the time before the incident were evaluated. Considering the average food consumption one obtains an weighted effective dose equivalent of 0,006mSv for the adult and 0,01mSv for the one year old child. For the infant the dose in first half year of his life amounts to 0,00006mSv if fed with woman milk, respectively 0,0009mSv if fed with infant food. Approximately half of the dose of 90Sr may be attributed to the reactor accident, the other half is attributable to 90Sr of the weapon testing. The dose in the second year after the accident amounts to approximately 70% of the dose in the first year of which 70% are caused by 90Sr from the weapons testing. 20 refs., 30 tabs., 10 figs. (Author)

254

The analysis of morbidity by a cancer of a thyroid gland of children on the moment of an exposure I131 owing to Chernobyl accident, registered in the Uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of cohort of the observation generated by indicated criteria: number 65575 person, including in the Gomel area 25215, in Bryansk - 40360, number of the registered cases of disease 226, including 132 in the Gomel area and 94 in Bryansk area, number of person-years of observation 1021229, including in the Gomel area 391363 of observation, in Bryansk - 629866, average exposure dose of a thyroid gland by radioisotopes of 131I in cohort 0,71 Gy, in the Gomel area 1,5 Gy, in Bryansk area - 0,2 Gy. Estimated a role of radiation and various not radiation risk factors, such as a sex, age on the moment of an exposure. The analysis of not radiation risk factors is spent separately for the Gomel area, Bryansk area and joined cohort. Among the persons irradiated in children's age in the Gomel area, the risk of disease by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the boys and girls was identical (RR=1,02, 95 % CI 0,72-1,44), in too time in Bryansk area the risk of disease of the girls in 3,4 times was higher (95 % CI 2,0-5,6), than among the boys. In joined cohort the girl in 1,5 times more often were sick of a cancer of a thyroid gland (95 % CI 1,16-2,0) in comparison with the boys. The analysis dose of dependence of a case rate by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the persons irradiated in children's age, has shown presence of a linear relation dose - effect, and in joined cohort this dependence most statistically is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, Rlly is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, R2=0,99). The value of exuberant relative risk on a dose 1 Gy has made 4,54 (95 % CI 2,43-9,78). (author)

255

Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident made it necessary to compile a clinical morphological register of respective cancers. In 1986-1994 there were 339 cases registered in children and adolescents, of them 211 children (who were operated at the age under 15 years) and 128 adolescents (who were operated at the age of 15-18 years). Before the Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) in Ukraine 59 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents were reported: 25 cases in children and 34 cases in adolescents. This increase has been observed since 1990. In 1981-1985 the incidence rate (number of thyroid cancers per 100000 children population) ranged 0.04 - 0.06. In 1990 this estimate was 0.23 and in 1992-1994 0.36 - 0.43, thus a 7-10 fold increase exceeding the pre-Chernobyl level. In the 5 most contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Kiev, Chernigov, Zhitomir, Cherkassy, Rovno regions) and the city of Kiev the incidence rate was much higher. For example, in 1984 it was 3.8 in Chernigov region, 1.6 in Zhitomir region. The total 'contribution' of the above-mentioned regions to the incidence of thyroid cancer in children after the Chernobyl accident makes more than 60%. It has been noted that in 1990-1994 there was an increase in the number of children operated at the age under 10, it means that these children were under 6 years at the time of the accident and were most sensitive to radioiodine exposure. As for the sex ratio, there has been a shift to males: in 1981-1985 F/M = 1.8/1, in 1990-1994 F/M = 1.4/1. Morphologically, 93.4% of 196 carcinomas resected from children and adolescents at the Institute of Endocrinology from 1986 to August 1st, 1995 were papillary carcinomas. They manifested high invasive and infiltrative growth, signs of intraglandular spread. Regional lymph node metastases were found in 59% of cases, distal lung metastases observed at various periods after surgery were noted in 23.7% of cases

256

A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

257

First report of the task group on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The events surrounding the accident at the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR are examined. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor and the Soviet Union's nuclear power program. A scenario of the cause of the accident is presented. The major long-term consequence is an risk of cancer. The estimated collective dose of several hundred thousand person-sieverts could lead to several thousand deaths from cancer, spread over the next 30 or 40 years

258

Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of 137Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1–2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...

Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

2014-01-01

259

The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

260

Measures taken as a result of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report first the reasons for and the aims of the legal measures are discussed which were taken in the Netherlands and in coordination with the EC when the radioactive follow up of the Chernobyl accident became manifest. Next a detailed schematical survey of all up to now in the Netherlands proclaimed disposals, conclusions and regulations with reference to the Chernobyl accident is given. Copies of these regulations are also presented

 
 
 
 
261

Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

262

Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

263

Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

264

Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

265

Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

266

Breast cancer trends in two oblasts of Belarus and the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1986 Chernobyl accident contaminated 23% of Belarus with radioactive iodine and long half-life radionuclides. Radiation causes breast cancer. Population-based breast cancer incidence data from the Belarus National Cancer Registry were used to study secular trends and urban-rural differences, and determine whether an effect of Chernobyl radiation exposure was discernable. Trends in age-standardized incidences in Gomel and Vitebsk oblasts maximally and minimally exposed to Chernobyl radiation, respectively, were compared for 1978-2003 among all women, and women aged 30-49, separately for urban and rural areas. Incidences were higher and increasing more rapidly in urban than rural areas of both oblasts, annually increasing 0.150 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.098 +/- 0.007 new cases per 10,000 persons, p Vitebsk, and slightly higher in rural Vitebsk than rural Gomel. For ages 30-49 trends in urban and rural Gomel and rural Vitebsk were similar to the all-ages rural trend: common urban/rural Gomel slope 0.098 +/- 0.015, rural Vitebsk slope 0.091 +/- 0.022. In urban Vitebsk, significant but erratic nonlinearity suggested stabilizing incidence since the mid-nineties after a sharp rise. However, recent declines in slopes, greater in Vitebsk, are nonsignificant. Secular breast cancer increases in Gomel have been generally consistent for 26 years. Secular increases in Vitebsk have been similar, but could be slowing. However, these data provide no convincing evidence for Chernobyl-induced breast cancer in Belarus. PMID:17168231

Dardynskaia, Irina; Imrey, Peter B; Okeanov, Alexei; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

2006-01-01

267

Tolerance to physical load in victims of Chernobyl accident with hypertension disease (the data 15 year after the accident)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study involved 210 participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up. Fifteen years after the accident, threshold power (Wt) and total volume of the work (TVW) reached the proper values for the given age and body mass in 70% of cases. More significant limitation of TPL was observed in stage II hypertension

268

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p<0.001) differences on intelligence scale of exposed children: the full scale IQ and verbal IQ are lower in exposed versus non exposed children. Differences on performance IQ are non significant (p>0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

2006-07-01

269

Contamination characteristics of podzols affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of ECP1 project, the soils from 6 experimental sites contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident have been studied in order to characterize source terms for resuspension effects in rural or agricultural areas. Except for one sand deposit located within a few km from the nuclear plant, the selected sites were podzols which had undergone important contamination during cloud transfer above districts of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The soils have been sampled during 5 field campaigns carried out in 1992 to 1994. Radionuclides of major importance for dose delivery, i.e. 137Cs, 90Sr, isotopes of Pu and 241Am were measured by organisations involved. The specific activity distributions in the first 30 cm of top soil and the surface contamination densities representative of each site were determined for the radionuclides above. Complementary experiments and studies such as size specific activity distribution in soil fractions, fuel hot particles numbering and selective extraction, were carried out in order to identify contamination mechanisms and try to predict their evolution. Finally, nuclide ratios were estimated for each site and compared to those representative of fuel composition at the time of accident. Interpretations of the results obtained are given in present paper. It appears that despite the fact that weak retention properties are expected from investigated podzols, the migration of studied nuclides has been rather slow during the past 9 years, allowing 70 to 90% of initially deposited activity to remain within the first 5 cm of soil in almost all cases. Nevertheless, there are some evidence of differences in the nature of deposited radionuclides (condensed forms or fuel particles), increasing with the remoteness of studied sites from accident location. Some attempts have also been made to simulate the evolution of the distribution trends. Results from these attempts are given in present paper

270

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1997-11-01

271

Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

272

Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

273

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH)

274

Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

275

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

K. Rissanen

1990-09-01

276

Lichens as biomonitors for radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Caesium-137 resulting from the Chernobyl accident was monitored in lichens in The Netherlands. Caesium-137 activity in Parmelia sulcata ranged from 550 to 6100 (average 2500) Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight. The similarity between the lichen data (geographical {sup 137}Cs activity gradients and radioactivity values) and data of wet and dry deposition, indicate the validity of lichen monitoring of atmospheric {sup 137}Cs. The ratio between the {sup 137}Cs activity per unit lichen dry weight (kg) of Parmelia sulcata and the {sup 137}Cs activity deposited per unit surface area (m{sup 2}) was approximately one. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs accumulation in Xanthoria parietina show that the activity concentration could be expressed both on a dry weight and on a contour surface area basis. The determination of the biological half-life of {sup 137}Cs in lichens was shown to be subject to sources of error such as growth and non-atmospheric/indirect {sup 137}Cs influxes. (Author).

Sloof, J.E.; Wolterbeek, B.Th. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.)

1992-01-01

277

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited. (author)

278

Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

279

Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 ?Sv, child-140 ?Sv, baby-130 ?Sv, [total body] adult-0.2 ?Sv, child, baby-0.4 ?Sv, external exposure; 7 ?Sv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 ?Sv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 ?Sv. (author)

280

Retrospective cytogenetic biodosimetry using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique in persons exposed to radiation due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cytogenetic biodosimetry of past and chronic radiation exposure to low doses using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in persons exposed due to the Chernobyl accident was carried out. Biological dosimetry based on sable chromosome exchange yield provided the dose estimations of 300 mGy in evacuees and 390 mGy in liquidators, that were in a good agreement with dose assessments obtained in these groups soon after irradiation with conventional analysis (360 and 460 mGy, respectively). The FISH survey of young adult inhabitants of contaminated areas allowed detecting the chronic exposure at average dose of 150 mGy

 
 
 
 
281

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

282

Action level for imported food in Japan after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Apr. 1986 caused a widespread release of radionuclides to environment. As a result of food movement in international trade, it was necessary to decide action level of radionuclides for food imported in Japan. The action level was derived from the following basic principle: Dose equivalent should be less than one third of 0.5 rem/year for whole body exposure. Assuming that the composition of representative radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in imported food are equal to those of fallout in Japan and consumption of internal food products reduces total intake of radionuclides to 35 %, action level indicated by sum of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations was estimated to be 370 Bq/kg. From Nov. 1986 to Sep. 1987, it was observed that twenty samples in imported food contained radioactivity exceeding the action level. (author)

283

An analysis of the print media in Europe following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The print media coverage of the Chernobyl accident was analysed in seven European countries. The goal was to identify common communications problems and to suggest how they might be resolved. Aside from difficulties with technical information on units of radiation exposure, contamination, and effects, the media did a reasonably good job of presenting to the public the information they were given by official sources. Some evidence of confusion was found, and it affected the credibility of communications, but the press seemed to be reflecting confusion existing within crisis management teams and the scientific community rather than creating it. Some of the more common problems are discussed and ideas for improving crisis management and the communication of information about risks are explored

284

Summary of significant dates and timing relevant to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are three sections in this summary. The first lists selected events prior to the Chernobyl-4 accident. These start with the first man-made self-sustaining chain reaction in December 1942. Reactor accidents in particular are noted. The second section lists the sequence for the Chernobyl-4 accident in April 1986 starting with the preparation for the tests which required the power to be reduced slowly to 50% and ending with the explosions and fires which occured just over 24 hours later on April 26. The third section covers selected events and actions following the accident from the arrival of the firemen and ambulances to the time in November 1987 when Chernobyl-3 came back into operation following extensive decontamination and refitting. (U.K.)

285

Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant stress injury, as a result of exposure to radiation and lead. PMID:19526314

Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

2009-06-01

286

Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

287

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

288

Estimation of explosion energy yield at Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: About the physical nature of Chernobyl NPP accident hitherto does not exist the generally accepted version. The main version is that this explosion has chemical nature - blast of the hydrogen formed in reactor under high temperature as a result of reactions of water with zirconium and other elements. The alternative version is based on admission of nuclear mechanism of large instant energy yield. The arguments in favor of nucleic nature of the explosion for the first time were received by specialists of the Khlopin Radium Institute on the base of atmospheric xenon activity measurement and isomeric 133Xe / 133mXe ratio definition. These data were received during the period since April 22 to 6 May of 1986 by means of ?-spectrometric analysis of xenon samples, prepared from the industrial krypton-xenon mix, produced at the Cherepovets Metallurgical Plant. Arrival of the air masses polluted by the accidental release of Ch. NPP in Cherepovetc region was observed during the period since April 28 to 2 May. Received values of 133Xe and 133mXe isomeric relations are enough homogeneous to allow the determination of its average value (22.4 ± 3.4) recalculated to the date of accident and to use it for estimation of explosive energy yield value. For this purpose the special computer program evaluating the values of these rations taking into account the reactor power change before damage and different contribution of explosive and different contribution of explosive energy yield. It should be emphasize that carried out estimations do not allow the receiving of the absolute value of energy yield. This approach allows only the estimation of its relative value normalized by mean value of reactor power in period before the accident. Obtained estimation of explosive energy yield gives value of about 105 -106 Joule/Watt. If formally refer this result to nominal power of the reactor (before its reductions) that brings value of absolute explosive energy yield about 3 1014 - 3 1015 Joule (70 - 700 kt) that not comparable with actual scale of NPP destruction. This result allows to suppose the extremely unhomogeneous distribution of the neutron flux in active zone at the moment of the explosion and to estimate the part of fuel involved in explosive process as 0.01-0.1 % of the total fuel. (author)

289

The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

290

Mortality studies in children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the district of Gomel, Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, the district of Gomel in Belarus has become the most contaminated area within the former USSR. A comparative pilot study conducted by the authros to establish the mortality in that district during the 1984-1992 period has not yet revealed any elevated mortality among children aged 0 to <15 years for the period after the accident. Diseases of the respiratory system and congential anomalies were found to be the principal causes of death in this age group (ICD9: classes VIII and XIV). Owing to the low number of children born during the study period and the concomitant small number of deaths from neoplasms, a clear analysis of changes in the structure of mortality from neoplasma (ICD9: class II) has not yet been possible. The birth rate in the Gomel district where the highest radiation exposure was experienced has dropped: There was an obvious decrease suring 1987, i.e. during the year which immediately followed that of the accident, to rise again in 1992 to levels comparable to those of other study areas. (orig.)

291

Radioactivity in persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were 131I, sup 134,137/Cs, and 103Ru/103Rh. The median 131I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of 134Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable 137Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10-6 for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10-6 to 4.2 x 10-5 with 95% of the risk attributable to 137Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs

292

Effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on freshwater organisms and ecosystems in the northern Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of studies have examined the direct human health effects of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident, but little has been done to assess the effects on wild organisms, or the cycling of contaminants in the local environment. The authors sampled fish, molluscs, water and sediment from 10 ponds within and outside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Sediments contained 0.07 to 2.5 pCi/g 134Cs and 1.1 to 33 pCi/g 137Cs. Similar levels occur in lakes at nuclear production facilities in the US. Waters were soft (conductivity 45-450 ?S/cm) and low in Ca and K, conditions which favor the uptake of contaminants by biota. In addition to radionuclides, fish from the region contained up to 0.5 ppm Hg in edible muscle. Fish and molluscs are currently being evaluated for possible genetic damage due to contaminant exposure by flow cytometry, DNA strand-breakage assay, and cytogenetic techniques. The ponds surveyed are in an agricultural region, with subsistence hunting and fishing, suggesting that contaminants accumulated in freshwater systems may be entering humans via diet

293

Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

294

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Feder000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This mee

295

Overview of doses to the Soviet population from the Chernobyl accident and the protective actions applied  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of the radioactive contamination deposited on the territory of the former Soviet Union as a result of the Chernobyl accident are presented. The persons exposed to the contamination are categorized and the characteristics of the radiation to which they were exposed are described. The radiation monitoring program, the applied standards and the countermeasures used to decrease the doses to the population and to the Chernobyl workers are presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

296

Air radioactivity at selected stations in Norway after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities of 103Ru, 131I and 137Cs in air and in precipitation samples at some Norwegian stations after the Chernobyl reactor accident are reported. Two periods of increased radioactivity occured. In the first period the total airborne radioactivity increased up to three orders of magnitude over the normal background. As expected 131I was the predominant radionuclide in the plume from Chernobyl. The measurements show that a few stations with contionuous monitoring of radioactivity in air would have been sufficient to detect the transport into Norway of radioactive material from the accidental release at Chernobyl

297

Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that thee less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

298

Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

299

Simulation of ¹³?Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian peninsula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to (137)Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of (137)Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of (137)Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the 'Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident' and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on (137)Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2-3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m(-2) and 100 kBq m(-2). Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:25173864

Simsek, V; Pozzoli, L; Unal, A; Kindap, T; Karaca, M

2014-11-15

300

Health examination of residents and its task after the Chernobyl Nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described is the outline of health effects after the Chernobyl Accident (CA, Apr. 26, 1986) and of health examination/its future task, for learning to make use of means for the recent Fukushima Accident (FA). Total released radioactivity of the Level 7 CA is estimated to amount to 5.20 million TBq, 6-10 times as high as the same level of FA. Different from the Fukushima, no rapid means were taken by old Soviet Union to restrict the distribution and ingestion of contaminated foods, which was the major cause of internal radioiodine exposure. Afterward, in 1990s, WHO, European and other countries began to investigate CA, and markedly increased incidence of thyroid cancer was shown by health examination of 160 thousands children by a project of Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation. In 2006, WHO and IAEA evaluated published literatures to summarize health effects related directly or possibly unrelated to CA: as for thyroid cancer, its prevalence tended to move in adolescence or older, and surgery and therapy for metastasis with radioiodine were significantly effective to improve their prognosis; however, their long term follow-up and treatment are continuously needed. Not observed was the increased incidence of leukemia, which is different from A-bomb survivors, and other cancers as well as benign diseases, but resident's concern about their health and effects on the next generation is increasing. Currently, systems of self-monitoring of foods are being established by residng of foods are being established by residents around Chernobyl. Instructions and means learned from CA and A-bomb experiences are applied to this FA, but assurance of health of all these concerned people should be a future task against its fading with time. (T.T.)

 
 
 
 
301

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

302

Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 ?m with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 ?m were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 ?m. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 ?m. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

303

Tracing of the radioactive cloud in Krakow after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of radioactivity measurements in Cracow after the Chernobyl accident are reported. Methods of sampling air particulates and aerosols, gases (Kr, Xe, CO2) and results of total beta activity measurements by liquid scintillation counting are presented. Drinking water and dairy milk were also controlled. Several samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry for identification of radionuclides. An attempt to determine alpha emitters did not provide positive results. The influence of Chernobyl accident on the levels of natural tritium in precipitation and atmospheric radiocarbon is also shown. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

304

Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

305

Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

306

Thyroid cancer in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (in the framework of the Ukraine–US Thyroid Project)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, millions of residents of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to large doses of radioactive iodine isotopes, mainly I-131. The purpose of the Ukraine–American (UkrAm) and Belarus–American (BelAm) projects are to quantify the risks of thyroid cancer in the framework of a classical cohort study, comprising subjects who were aged under 18 years at the time of the accident, had direct measurements of thyroid I-131 radioactivity taken within two months after the accident, and were residents of three heavily contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Zhitomir, Kiev, and Chernigov regions). Four two-year screening examination cycles were implemented from 1998 until 2007 to study the risks associated with thyroid cancer due to the iodine exposure caused during the Chernobyl accident. A standardised procedure of clinical examinations included: thyroid palpation, ultrasound examination, blood collection followed by a determination of thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine content test, and fine-needle aspiration if required. Among the 110 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed in UkrAm as the result of four screening examinations, 104 cases (94.5%) of papillary carcinomas, five cases (4.6%) of follicular carcinomas, and one case (0.9%) of medullary carcinoma were diagnosed. (note)

307

The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

308

Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

309

[Results of a follow-up of participants in the liquidation of the effects of the Chernobyl AES accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is concerned with the results of analysis of a clinico-laboratory study of persons (residents of Armenia) who took part in the elimination of the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Investigation of general morbidity revealed no correlation with exposure to ionizing radiation. The symptom complex of pathological changes included CNS functional disorders, a transition from the hypokinetic type of a heart response to exercise to the normokinetic one, lowered immune status and tissue peripheral blood flow, unmarked hematological and biochemical shifts, suggesting suppression of the body antioxidant system. PMID:1943550

Oganesian, N M; Ogandzhanian, E A; Melikian, I E; Malikoian, S A; Tiroian, G M; Asrian, K V; Abramian, A K; Batikian, I G

1991-01-01

310

Electric spin resonance and instrumental neutron activation element analyses of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up worker teeth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentrations of macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Se, Zn, Co) in teeth of Chernobyl's NPP accident clean-up workers examined in the Centre of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P.Stradins Clinical Hospital, Medicine Academy of Latvia. The strontium concentration was high in teeth of clean-up that in control teeth. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the absorption dose. The absorbed dose reconstruction was achieved by additive dose method. The absorbed dose measured by ESR in teeth was always higher than the documented exposure doses. (author)

311

Strategy for population protection and area rehabilitation in Russia in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the history of the development of criteria for radiation and social protection of the Russian population residing in the areas contaminated with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, in the remote time periods after the accident. The tendencies for reduction of standards with time are shown, and their causes are analysed. It is noted that the optimization principle was not applied in the explicit form for population protection. The current radiation situation in the contaminated areas of Russia is described, and the future situation is forecast. Main pathways of external and internal population exposure are described. Modern possibilities for reduction of the population exposure dose are discussed. The authors propose promising criteria and methods for population protection and rehabilitation of contaminated areas in Russia. (author)

312

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

313

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes anum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 {+-} 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses recd by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 {mu}Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

Franic, Z.; Marovic, G. [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia)

2006-07-01

314

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR

315

Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

316

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: 20 years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl Forum was organized by the United Nations to examine the health and environmental effects of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Unit Number 4. This paper is concerned with the environmental effects, including human exposure, as determined by the Expert Group on Environment. The accident on 26 April 1986 resulted in the release of a large amount of radioactive materials over a period of ten days. These materials were deposited throughout Europe (and to a minor extent throughout the remainder of the northern hemisphere) with the three more affected countries being Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The more important radionuclides from a human dosimetric standpoint were 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, with half-lives of 8 d, 2 a and 30 a, respectively. More than five million persons lived on territories in these three countries judged to be contaminated at >37 kBq/m2. Many countermeasures were employed to mitigate the effects of the accident, with the main focus being on urban and agricultural areas. The collective effective dose to the residents of the contaminated territories is estimated to be about 55 000 man Sv; the collective thyroid dose is estimated to be 1.6 x 106 man Gy. Effects on non-human biota were observed that ranged from minor to lethal; a notable effect was the killing of a pine forest near the accident site. The current increase in the number and diversity of species in the mo number and diversity of species in the most contaminated area is due to the absence of human pressure. The current shelter over the damaged reactor was constructed under time pressure, and it has significant leakage or airborne radionuclides and inflow of rainwater. The immediate waste management practices were chaotic and remediation is needed. It is planned to build an NSC structure over the top of the existing structure and to eventually dismantle the damaged reactor. This will put additional pressure on waste management, including the need for a new site for geologic disposal of transuranic waste. (author)

317

Health effects of Chernobyl accident. A WHO·IPHECA pilot project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IPHECA (International Programme on Health Effects of Chernobyl Accident) made in 1991 includes the projects for thyroid, hematology, fetal exposure, registration for epidemiological examination and oral hygiene in Belarus. Following conclusions have been obtained by the Programme. One of serious health effects was the increase of registered diseases independent on radiation. This was mainly derived from socio-psychological effects, which were conceivably independent on direct radiation exposure. Rapid increase of thyroid cancer of children was observed in the contaminated areas, especially in Belarus. The total number of the patients in 3 countries was 565 by 1994. No significant increase of leukemia and other hematological diseases was seen. There were some data suggesting that fetal exposure resulted in mental or behavior abnormalities of newborns, which could not be fully understood because of lack of the radiological data. No difference was observed in oral diseases in Belarus and other regions. These findings can help to make the guidelines for planning and developing the future investigations and examinations. (H.O.)

318

Medical and sanitary measures taken to deal with the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work was carried out on two fronts: emergency qualified medical aid was organized for those suffering from thermal burns and radiation injuries, and wide-scale prophylactic measures were taken to prevent exposure to radiation and its consequences. More than 600,000 people (including 215,300 children) underwent extensive medical examinations. For prophylactic purposes and in order to diagnose more accurately various diseases which had been identified during the medical surveys, 37,500 people (including 12,600 children) were examined in hospital. (This figure also includes people who made personal requests for such examinations). No abnormalities associated with exposure to radiation were found. At the suggestion of the USSR Ministry of Health, more than 350,000 children and pregnant women were sent to sanatoriums, rest homes and pioneer camps in 1986-87. The exposure dose to the population as a result of the Chernobyl accident during the next 50-70 years will not exceed more than 20-30% of the dose from natural radiation. (author). 1 fig., 4 tabs

319

Effect of natural ?-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 2, and >5 Ci/m2, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, ?-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture ?-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural ?-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or ?-tocopherol. Other common blood bior ?-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of ?-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans ?-carotene, ?-carotene, but not 9-cis ?-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural ?-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.)

320

Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

322

Dynamics of natural rehabilitation of Cs 137 soil contamination at the late stage due to the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident, the greatest quantity of radionuclides has fallen on the territory of Belarus, therefore 23% of the territory have been contaminated with Cs 137 with a level exceeding 37 kBq/m2 on the total area of 46.45 thousand km2 that has led to the exclusion from an agricultural rotation 2,64 thousand km2 of farmland. Now, external gamma-radiation on the territory of Belarus is formed due to 'Chernobyl' and 'global' (caused by tests of the nuclear weapon) radioactive losses. A contribution is also done by natural radioactivity. To-date, due to natural radionuclides decay a radiation conditions in zones of Chernobyl contamination has been stabilized and main dose formation radionuclide is Cs 137. In conformity with clause 4 of the Law 'On legal regime of territories, exposed to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident' the territory of the Republic of Belarus is divided into zones depending on radioactive contamination of soil by radionuclides and sizes of a mean-annual effective dose. The estimation of a dose of external irradiation demands establishment of interrelation between the level of soil contamination with radionuclides and created by them exposure dose power (EDP). As a quantitative size of this link, a normalized on density of contamination of soil Cs 137 EDP at 1 m height is most used which is formed by all radionuclides and is called the transition coefficient 'and is called the transition coefficient 'density of contamination of soil Cs 137 - EDP'. In the given work, empirical values of factor of transition on items of supervision of a network of the radiation monitoring, registered in National System of Environment Monitoring (NSEM) Republic of Belarus have been determined. The carried out data analysis for 1993-2003 showed, that: Value of transition factor within 10 years have changed from 0,054 ?R/h/kBq·m2 to 0,041 ?R/h/kBq·m2 (with 2,0 ?R/h/Ci·km2 to 1,5 ?R/h/Ci·km2). Decrease of EDP from 'Chernobyl' radioactive precipitation at a late stage after the Chernobyl accident is defined by radioactive disintegration of Cs 137, resulting 80% EDP decrease for 1993-2003. To assess an external irradiation dose of inhabitants of settlements which are in zone of radioactive contamination, it is possible to use a value of the transition factor, obtained by results of measurements on observation sites of a network of radiating monitoring NSEM, without making EDP measurement in every radioactive contamination zone settlements. (authors)

323

Rehabilitation of soils and surface after a nuclear accident: Some techniques tried in the Chernobyl zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident, the major part of deposited radio nuclides remains in the 3 or 4 cm of the topsoil of abandoned fields in the chernobyl zone. The Decontaminating Vegetal Network allows a layer of few centimeters of the top soil to be removed with a turf harvester. The efficiency observed at Chernobyl was 97% for cesium-137 and strontium-90. After scraping the soil with the turf harvester, the bare soil must be covered and re-grown in order to prevent wind erosion of the sandy soil. A trial spraying of polyacrylamide on the soil was carried out. This technique seems promising. Trials of bio-decontamination of the removed turf using anaerobic degradation were also carried out. This experiment provided an opportunity to measure in real conditions the transfer of radionuclides in the Chernobyl zone

324

One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

325

Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two decreated in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works, organizations and key personnel are introduced on these institutes and centers with the major publication list. (Y. Tanaka)

326

Analysis of radioecological situation and health state of Ukrainian population contingents affected due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecological situation is analysed at the Ukrainian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident on the basis of data of radioecological and dosimetric studies in 1987-1991 and medical consequences of the accident are assessed. Four categories of persons affected due to the Chernobyl accident are considered. Disease incidence in the above categories is retraced taking into account age, sex and obtained dose. 1 tab

327

The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ionizing radiation resulting from the accident. The study, using structured interviews and IAEA laboratory equipment, collected data on more than 1,350 residents of 13 villages. IAEA clinical staff members concluded that they could not identify any health disorders in either the contaminated or nearby (uncontaminated) control villages that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. The clinical staff, however, did note that the levels of anxiety and stress of the villagers appeared to be disproportionate to the biological significance of the levels of IAEA-measured radio-active contamination. Almost half the adults in all the villages were unsure if they had a radiation-related illness. More than 70 percent of persons in the contaminated villages wanted to move away, and approximately 83 percent believed that the government should relocate them. The IAEA effort indicates that the villagers need to be educated about their actual risks, and they need to understand what types of illnesses are, and are not, associated with exposure to radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, the villagers' needs may exceed the available resources of their local and central governments. PMID:8464974

Ginzburg, H M

1993-01-01

328

Spatially heterogeneous exposure estimation in modeling Chernobyl cooling pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the implications of adding spatial and hydrodynamic complexity in estimating the exposure of aquatic organisms to radionuclides in the Chernobyl cooling pond. Previous approaches to risk estimation have emphasized completely mixed conditions and constant exposure concentrations. In this study, the combined dose resulting from direct external exposure and internal exposure through food web accumulation of 137Cs was estimated for the pond biota using models of increasing spatial-temporal complexity. Dose rates were calculated first assuming completely mixed, homogeneous conditions. These rates were re-calculated using a 2-dimensional, hydrodynamic model that simulated spatial-temporal variabilities in 137Cs concentrations and that included spatial distributions of potentially exposed organisms. The models were used first to calculate 137Cs concentrations in water and sediments. These concentrations were then used to estimate external and internal exposures and risk to pond biota. The preliminary results suggest no imminent ecological risk to the Chernobyl cooling pond biota according to accepted standards. However, the results also demonstrate the need for additional, more detailed estimates

329

Measurement by ultra low level liquid scintillation counting following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation in Austria following the 'Chernobyl accident' is described shortly as well as applications of measurements with the ultra low level liquid scintillation counter 'Quantulus' concerning milk, precipitation, surface water and drinking water. Data on the measurement of tritium are presented. (author) 4 refs.; 15 figs

330

Agricultural industry following the Chernobyl accident and results of contrameasures on reduction of contaminated agricultural products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on agricultural land contamination in Belarus due to the Chernobyl accident are given. Problem of agricultural industry at contaminated territories providing safe products is discussed. Contrameasures promoting the reduction of agricultural product radioactivity are considered. Measures applied at the soil-plant stage are voted as the most efficient ones. Organizational, agrotechnical and agrochemical procedures are described

331

The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

332

Investigations into the health effects of the Chernobyl reactor accidents within the Gomel administrative district (Oblast)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the general population. The increased incidence of various diseases is discussed in detail. They conclude by underscoring the important role of diagnostic and therapeutic measures for the maintenance of public health. (MG)

333

Mastered horror. Life in the Ukraine ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book, written in a journalistic style, reports on the visit of the author on her visit to the Ukraine 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. It is based on interviews with the affected population, with scientists (doctors, veterinarians, biologists, psychologists, ecologists), parliamentarians and representatives of the state administration. figs., refs

334

Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

335

Morphometric characteristics of alveolar macrophages in participants of the Chernobyl NPP accident response at delayed time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Morphological and densitometric characteristics of cytoplasmic inclusions of alveolar macrophages of bronchoalveolar lavage in participants of the Chernobyl accident response suffered with chronic asthmatic bronchitis are investigated. Revealed quantitative indices of the state of alveolar macrophages cytoplasm permit to compare them with dynamic clinical and functional changes and to determine diagnostic sings of radiation-induced lungs injuries

336

Radiation consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the meteorological and weather situation in Hungary in the time following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the contamination of the atmosphere, of soil, and of surface waters are presented. The contamination of food and the incorporation of radioactive iodine and cesium in human organism were measured. The radiation burden of population was estimated. (R.P.)

337

Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

338

Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

339

Dosimetric support of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) pilot project: main results and problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of post-Chernobyl dosimetry is unique in its complexity in the history of radiation medicine and radiation protection. This is because medicine and radiation protection. This is because the early experience of mass exposure of people (bombine of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Windscale and South-Ural accidents, exposure of inhabitants of Nevada in the United States of America, the Semipalatinsk area in the former USSR, the Marshall Islands, and the Goiania accident in Brazil, and others) differed both in the much simpler structure of the irradiation source and in the number and characteristics of exposed persons. It is obvious that post-Chernobyl dosimetry, both as an independent problem, and as a tool for epidemiological studies, requires significant expertise and economic and technical expenditures. Extensive and deep research has been carried out in Ukraine for the past 10 years. This article reviews the main results of these studies. 14 refs, 10 fig., 3 tabs

340

The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

342

Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

343

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer calves exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome aberrations were analysed in 1222 peripheral blood lymphocytes from 24 reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L., calves from central Norway, where considerable fallout from Chernobyl accident had occurred, and in 1532 lymphocytes from 26 calves from three different districts in Northern Norway which were not affected by fallout from the accident. Three dicentrics, two rings, and three translocations were detected in calves from the exposed area, while no dicentrics, nor rings and only one translocation were detected in the control calves. The frequency of chromatid-type aberrations and chromosome deletions did not significantly differ between the two groups. Although the present study is based on a limited number of observations, the radioactive burden in the exposed reindeer, and the differing character of the chromosome aberrations in the two groups, might indicate that certain genetic effects have occurred as a result of the Chernobyl accident in Norwegian reindeer in the most contaminated areas

344

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactivity of the River Danube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some results of the joint Yugoslav-Hungarian investigations of the radioactivity of the Danube on the border profile in the period 1978-1988 are presented. From the results of gross ?, 90Sr, 3H activity and ?-spectroscopy measurements on the water, fish, sediment and algae samples obtained before and after the Chernobyl accident, the long term impact of that accident on the river ecosystem is determined. From the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the annual mean elimination rate of 106Ru, 137Cs and 134Cs from all media is 40% per year. The values of the annual equivalent doses from long-lived man-made nuclides in water and fish are estimated showing an increase by a factor of 5 in the ?Sv range due to the Chernobyl accident. (author)

345

Assessment of radiation risks as a result of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: the Government of the former USSR had made decision on establishing common registry of exposed persons in several months after the Chernobyl accident. The registry had served in Medical Radiological Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk City till 1992 (the time of dissolution of the USSR). Individual medical and dosimetric information on 659292 persons, including 284907 emergency accident workers (liquidators) had been collected for the period between 1986 and 1991. As of 01.01.1998, National Chernobyl Registry of the Russian Federation has kept individual data on 508236 persons including 167726 liquidators. As it is known, long-term epidemiological study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors resulted in statistically significant assessments of radiation risks for induction of cancer at the dose level above 0.5 Gy. Radiation doses after the Chernobyl accident do not exceed 0.3-0.5 Gy. That is why assessment of radiation risks at low radiation doses is a problem of great importance. As a result of the epidemiological studies performed on the basis of the Russian Chernobyl registry we pioneered the assessment of statistically significant radiation risks for induction of cancer at low radiation dose. (author)

346

Dose assessment and reconstruction in the areas of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper focuses on the methodology of dose assessment and reconstruction based on the observations of radioactive contamination in the areas of Russia following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention is given to the early stage after the accident - the period of ''iodine hazard''. The combined internal doses for thyroid gland through the food pathway and from inhalation of iodine-131 were estimated for various population groups in the regions of Russia impacted by the accident. The specific features of accidental contamination of the environment with iodine-131 are analyzed for the local area - Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region, for which detailed radioecological data are available. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

347

Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

348

Fall-out pattern in Norway after the Chernobyl accident estimated from soil samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. Preliminary estimates of the Chernobyl fall-out of some other ? emitters are also given. The results clearly demonstrate that certain areas in Norway have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fall-out of 137Cs and 134Cs in Norway is estimated to be 2300 +- 200 TBq and 1200 +- 100 TBq respectively. This is approximately 6% of the caesium activity released from the reactor. (author)

349

Chernobyl accident: soils contamination, sanitary impacts and contaminated territories management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the radioactive releases of Chernobyl between the 26 April and the 10 May 1986, the radiologic situation of the contaminated areas of USSR, Ukraine and Belarus is now invested, and if this does not allow to reconstruct the received doses of the population during the first weeks, it makes possible to calculate the received doses afterwards, and to estimate the potential expositions. (A.B.). 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

350

Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used in a prognosis approach during Fukushima accident. • Operational use of ADM tools by emergency decision makers still raises concerns

351

Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on the contamination levels within the 30 km area and in the adjacent area after the Chernobyl'-4 reactor accident is presented. There are some data on reper isotope ratio which add some knowledge about the processes taking place in the reactor core after the reactor accident. The time-dependent background radiation variations for the first two years after the accident are demonstrated

352

Validation of the long-term exposure pathway models in the NRC's accident consequence code MACCS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The task described in this paper was performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) were compared to post-Chernobyl data from various sources, though mainly from Norway, for verification or identification of areas for possible improvement. The reason for choosing data from Norway for this purpose is partly that Chernobyl fallout levels in Norway are higher than in any other country in western Europe and partly that Norway has been deeply involved in many different types of experiments examining the behavior of radioactive materials in the environment since the early 1960s

353

Results of study and analysis of accident processes in reactor at unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent data lead to the conclusion that previous model representations about the character of accident development processes at Chernobyl reactor are inadequate with the results of later studies and need a serious correction

354

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet union and measures taken to mitigate their impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population

355

17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

356

Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation

357

Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of satellite images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper satellite images. Eight images acquired between April 22, 1986 and May 15, 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to derive dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM spectral band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The earliest date showing detectable injury 1 km west of the reactor unit was June 16, 1986. Subsequent dates revealed continued expansion of the affected areas to the west, north, and south. The greatest aerial expansion of this area occurred by October 15, 1986, with vegetation changes evident up to 5 km west, 2 km south, and 2 km north of the damaged Reactor Unit 4. By May 11, 1987, further scene changes were due principally to removal and mitigation efforts by the Soviet authorities. Areas showing spectral evidence of vegetation damage during the previous growing season do not show evidence of recovery and reflectance in the TM Bands 4 and 3 remain higher than surrounding vegetation, which infers that the trees are dead. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and the timing of these effects enabled developing an integrated radiation dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed, involving the combining of remote sensing analyses and estimates of the radionuclide mix with the known radiation effects on conifers, represents a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to severe reactor accidents. (author)

358

On the occasion of the 20-th anniversary of the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: medical consequences in Armenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indices of the health state and the morbidity structure of the inhabitants of Armenia who took part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences are considered. The epidemiological analysis shows that nervous system diseases and cardiovascular diseases lead among of sickness of armenian liquidators of the Chernobyl accident. The role of other factors (smoking, alcohol and social-economic situation) influencing on the health Indies of examined persons is discussed

359

Indoor gamma radiation in Norwegian dwellings during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the first month after the Chernobyl accident measurements of external radiation in about 900 randomly selected houses in Norway were carried out. The survey was originally planned to be a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Norwegian dwellings, and the first series of measurements were, by coincidence, started a few days before the accident. Follow-up measurements in selected houses in the third month after the accident, together with preliminary results of measurements on earth samples, were used to assess population doses, effective dose equivalents on the municipality level and the overall collective dose equivalent to the Norwegian population, from fall-out gamma radiation during the first three months after the accident. Follow-up measurements in the 900 houses are planned in order to assess shielding factors for houses and to improve the calculations of the indoor doses and dose equivalents for the first period after the accident. (author)

360

The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

 
 
 
 
361

A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 ?Sv, 1 year old child - 500 ?Sv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

362

Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

1986-10-01

363

Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base

364

Hot particle factor in radiation dose formation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The necessity to apply original data about the size and the activity distributions of hot particles has been arising at many post-Chernobyl research. Such researches include first of all studying of migration processes at soil-water complex, retrospective inhalation dose reconstruction for the population, and validation different scenarios of the Chernobyl accident deployment. Results of this research show that the fuel matrix in soil can be considered as constant with accuracy 20-30 % for transuranic nuclides and major of long-living fission products. Temporal stability of hot particles at the natural environment gives a unique possibility to use the hot particle size distribution data and the soil contamination data for retrospective restoring of doses even 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. In present research the value of the integral of hot particle activity deposited into the lung was calculated using a standard inhalation model which takes into account the hot particle size distribution. This value normalized on the fallout density is equal to 0.6 Bq/(Bqm2) for areas nearby the Chernobyl NPP

365

On some problems of introducing into practice the concept of the rehabilitation of population and territory having suffered from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 3d clause of the law of the Republic of Belarus 'On Social Protection of Citizens Having Suffered from the Consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident' has determined the level of annual effective dose to be 0,1 mSv as a threshold. When achieving the threshold, the territory and the population are considered to be fully rehabilitated. While taking a corresponding decision, it is recommended to take into account the pre-accident land caesium-137 contamination background and the exposure doses of this radionuclide of global origin for the population. (Authors)

366

Effect of natural beta-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 5 Ci/m2, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture beta-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural beta-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or alpha-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of beta-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, but not 9-cis beta-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural beta-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. PMID:9840488

Ben-Amotz, A; Yatziv, S; Sela, M; Greenberg, S; Rachmilevich, B; Shwarzman, M; Weshler, Z

1998-10-01

367

Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta}-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 tabs., 34 refs.

Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-10-01

368

Cytological and ultrastructural characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage in participants of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response at delayed times  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The case of observation during 18 years of a patient suffered with infection-depending bronchial asthma of light current and exposed to 24 R dose when taking part in the Chernobyl accident response is described. Alveolar macrophages are found to have the important role in radioactive particles elimination processes. Cytological and ultrastructural studies of bronchoalveolar lavage of participants of the Chernobyl accident response at delayed times are performed. Efficiency of the developed treatment program directed mainly to eliminating Chernobyl dust particles from respiratory organs is shown

369

Latent cancer of the thyroid and the Chernobyl accident: are they related  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the incidence in latent thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident and determine the contribution of radioactive contamination to its development the histologic examination of the thyroid samples obtained at autopsies and forensic medical autopsies of 107 subjects (87 men and 20 women) dead for various causes at the age off 9 to 76 years was carried ut. Twenty of these were residents of contaminated and 87 of noncontaminated regions of the Kaluga district of Russia. No differences in the structure of the thyroid and in the incidence of latent tumors and nontumor formations of the thyroid were revealed in subjects living in contaminated and noncontaminated regions. The tumors were classified as papillary microcarcinomas of papillary, mixed, and follicular structure. Comparative analysis of the incidence of latent thyroid cancer in contaminated and noncontaminated regions in remote periods after the Chernobyl accident may help precisely assess the contribution of the radiation factor to its development. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

370

Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lichens Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use as biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hyl. splendens and C. stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hyp. physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with deposition figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous deposition pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hyl. splendens and C. stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hyl. splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (Author)

371

Clinical effects of chronic low doses irradiation (11 years after Chernobyl accident)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation of clinical effects of influence low doses of irradiation as the result of the Chernobyl accident on the human organism is presented in this report. The results of the investigations are concerning to changings in different organs and systems of inhabitants of the contamination territories and among clean-up workers. Increasing of morbidity of digestive and nervous systems is notified. Increase of thyroid cancer, chronic thyroidities and hypothyreouses is resisted in clean-up workers in dynamic observation. Highly morbidity of bronchopulmonal system and blood circulation system is revealed. High level of compensative and adaptive reactions of immune and hemopoietic systems is notified. Excesses of leukemias and lymphomas in inhabitants of the contamination territories is not demonstrated but tendency for increasing quantity cases of oncohematological diseases (leukemias, lymphomas, MDS) among clean-up workers IV-VII 1986 are absent. A dynamic of health state of children injured as a result of Chernobyl accident is characterized with continues negative tendencies. (author)

372

The level of 137Cs concentration in Greek soils one decade after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the greatest radioactive contamination of the biosphere including the soil cover. It is well known that a soil analysis is a principal systematic method to estimate the radioactivity level in the particular area since deposition pattern is determined by measuring activity in grass and soil. The aim of the present work is first to identify the level of the existing 137Cs contamination over Greece ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Secondly, a comparison between the 1986 137Cs - distribution and the present measured one in more - less the same areas of Greece, has been attempted. The 40k (0.0118% of natural K) concentration in soils as ratio 137Cs/ 40k has been, examined, even this ratio is not as constant in biological systems as the ratio Sr/Ca

373

Analysis of medicostatistical data to assess the genetic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the official medicodemographic statistical data (provided by the Ukrainian Ministry of Health) revealed variations in the mean rates of congenital developmental defects (CDD) before 1987 (1985-1986) and in the period of 1987-1989 in all the areas irrespective of a degree of contamination with radionuclides (i.e. variations are determined by the time factor rather than by the irradiation factor). According to the medical statistical data, the rates of CDD and spontaneous abortions varied within a wide range, making it difficult to assess probable mutagenic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident. Medicostatistical data on spontaneous abortions understated the actual rates 2-3-fold, therefore they were not recommended for assessment of mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl accident

374

Modelling transport and deposition of caesium and iodine from the Chernobyl accident using the DREAM model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model, has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the deposition of 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations. The performance, compared to measurements, of different combinations of parameterizations of wet and dry deposition schemes has been evaluated, using different statistical tests.

J. Brandt

2002-06-01

375

The effects on the thyroid of exposed populations following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of radio-iodine during the nuclear accident at Chernobyl appears to have caused a rise in thyroid anomalies, including cancer, in the exposed population. Uncertainty about the extent of this increase is causing the population some anxiety. A WHO symposium of Soviet and other scientists met to see whether a more precise assessment could be made of the effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid disorders. They established that a long-term, large-scale epidemiological study should be initiated: the required dosimetric data already exist, and the collection of the relevant health data should begin. To ensure the comparability of all these data, the affected Soviet republics should collaborate closely. More training for Soviet researchers and health care workers, as well as greater collaboration with foreign scientists, should maximize their capacity to launch a successful study and set up the most appropriate health care programmes

376

Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

377

Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

378

Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

379

Fission products in the environment after the nuclear plant accident at Chernobyl 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the years investigations on migration and distribution of fission radionuclides in food and the environment due to the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 are presented. The distribution of Cs-137 in uncultivated soils of a mountain region and the content of Cs-137 within the phases of a 'soil-plant-honey' system is specially considered. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

380

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Italian population: A reassessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1987 a preliminary evaluation of the radiological impact of Chernobyl accident on Italian population was performed. This evaluation took into account both the first year activity levels measured in various matrices and models for the time behavior of radioactive contamination. It comes out that the dose assessment which was then performed is in good agreement with the present evaluation, with some differences that should be noticed. 12 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

 
 
 
 
381

Land use optimization is the key task of reducing consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers the task to optimize land use of the Ukrainian territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The following 4 areas characterized by the specific peculiarities of the land-use are named: 1) right-of-way area; 2) obligatory eviction area; 3) area of the guaranteed voluntary eviction; 4) area with radionuclide increased concentration in soils. In correspondence with the given zoning the main trends for optimization of the contaminated land use are put forward

382

Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

383

Cesium-137 in sediments from the Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl fallout in April 1986 hit the Swedish Bothnian sea coast to a relatively large extent. Extended sampling program to follow uptake and mobilization of Cs-137 at different trophic levels in the aquatic environment started immediately after the accident. This report presents the results from the sediment analyses during 1986 and 1987. The Cs-137 concentration has increased. Related to measurements carried out 1982, the concentration is about 4 times higher in some regions. (K.A.E.)

384

Influence of antihypertensive therapy on psychological status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT) on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH), with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic.Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men) were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG) and control group (CG). P...

Manoshkina, E. M.; Razdobreeva, I. I.; Kukushkin, S. K.

2006-01-01

385

Cytogenetic study in children from zones affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in lymphocytes with blockade of the cytokines were established in 58 children from three Ukrainian localities that suffered to different extent the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations have been established up to this moment in 2779 cells of 28 children from Ovruch, in 11 475 cells of 28 children from Pripiat and in 994 cells of 10 children from Kiev

386

Statistical characteristics of spatial distribution of radioactive contamination caused by Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Role of statistical processes in formation of spatial distribution of radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident is studied. More accurate determination of the effects of local (tens of meters) and intermediate (hundreds of meters) heterogeneities of radioactive contamination distribution is achieved by selection and subsequent spectrometric analysis of samples from polygons located in the Gomel and Bryansk regions. Method of statistical analysis of the available data is developed

387

The Chernobyl accident: Can lichens be used to characterize a radiocesium contaminated range?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many of the lichen species that are important in the lichen dominated plant communities in the Norwegian mountains are important reindeer winter forage. They are also organisms that collect fall-out from the atmosphere. The Chernobyl accident brought, among other, radioactive Cesium, and from lichens this follow the food chain to reindeer and finally man. From region to region this fall-out was unevenly distributed and methods are needed to compare winter ranges and to monitor the de...

Eldar Gaare

1987-01-01

388

Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis was investigated. Patients had more tension elements of immune system at increased level of obstruction. Adaptive reaction in the liquidators was formed on lower level of organism reaction and imbalance in immune competence subsystems developed. This phenomenon is a negative prognostic sign of more serious disease and can cause invalidation of the patients

389

Organism natural resistance in the liquidators 10 years after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study involved 95 liquidators (residents of Kyiv and Kyiv region) 10 years after Chernobyl accident clean-up. Leukocyte count was estimated using a generally accepted technique, the amount of large granule-containing lymphocytes (LGL) was determined in the blood smears, natural killer activity was evaluated with radiometric technique. Complex treatment with intravascular laser irradiation and Enterosgel enterosorbent administration increases LGL amount, which provides antitumor and anti-infection protection of the organism

390

Whole body measurements of subjects who have ingested radioactive materials from the accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 in the thyroid was the most significant nuclide that was detected in subjects monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory who might have been exposed by the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The estimated intake of I-131 by subjects ranged from 0.4 to 12 kBq, with a weighted committed dose equivalent (thyroid) of between 0.006 and 0.17 mSv. Whole-body monitoring data is presented for all subjects

391

Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

392

Migration and distribution of radionuclides in soils after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident, vertical distribution of radionuclides taking Cs-137 as example in the soil has been studied at different sites in the Greater Hanover area. A translocation of radionuclides into greater depth has been detected in arable and grassland soils. In forest soils, radioactive fallout is almost completely bound in the leaf-litter. The by far highest specific activity was found in the colluvial sediments of a drainage ditch. (orig./HP)

393

Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc

394

Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

2014-07-01

395

Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km2), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' 137Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

396

Doses from external and internal radiation in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article the estimation of monthly doses from external radiation from internal radiation due to ingestion of contaminated food is reported. The monthly doses is estimated for each municipality in Norway for the first 13 months after the Chernobyl accident (from May 1986 to June 1987). The estimation which has been elaborated from an extensive data material, shows that the dose rates from external radiation due to the Chernobyl fallout were for the country as a whole three times higher in the first month after the accident (May 1986) compared with the twelfth month (April 1987). The doses received from intake of radiocesium through food were small in the first three months, but reached almost the double of the doses from the external radiation the 9th month. The reduction in the dose from external radiation was primarily due to the physical half life of radiocesium and washout. The increase in the doses from radiocesium through intake of food was due to the time required for radiocesium to enter the food chain and the biokinetics of radiocesium in humans. There is no significant correlation between the ground activity levels and the activity levels observed in the food which is consumed in the same area. The average internal dose in the first year after the Chernobyl accident was estimated to 0.110 ± 0.006 mSv and the external dose to 0.070 ± 0.007 mSv as an average for the whole country. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

397

Radiological evaluation of an agricultural field in the Chernobyl accident area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, where happened the most serious nuclear accident seen by mankind a decade ago, renders the opportunity to carry out concrete scientific researches about post conditions of a nuclear accident. To evaluate the radiological situation of a field formally used for agriculture, inside the Exclusion Zone (30 Km zone around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant) a field exercise was organized by the Ukrainian Radiation Training Centre. To develop a radiological evaluation of a field it is necessary taking into consideration the nature of the sampling site and what are the tasks to be worked out to accomplish the aims of the evaluation. In a case of evaluation of external dose, measurements of dose rate, gamma flux and beta surface contamination are the principal surveys. The present radioactive contamination in the Exclusion Zone is mostly determined by 137Cs, 90Sr and transuranium radionuclides. It should be noted that on the contaminated area, ten years passing after Chernobyl accident, the dose-rate is formed by 137Cs contamination and beta flux is due to 137Cs + 90Sr. in this report the techniques of measurement dose rate, beta flux and density of contamination of 137Cs have been discussed

398

The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m2 (? 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m2 (? 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*1016 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

399

Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

1997-03-01

400

Uptake of dry-deposited radionuclides in Fucus - a field study after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dry deposition of various radionuclides emanating from the plume from the Chernobyl reactor accident was measured at two locations in southern Sweden at the beginning of May, 1986. Samples of Fucus, taken at or near these locations, were also analysed. No precipitation had fallen during the time between the accident and the time of sampling. The ratios between activity concentrations in Fucus and dry depositions on the water surface have been calculated. For any specific radionuclide, this ratio was found to be the same at the two locations, after differences in salinity and in uptake between F. vesiculosus and F. serratus had been taken into account. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

Uptake of dry-deposited radionuclides in Fucus - a field study after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dry deposition of various radionuclides emanating from the plume from the Chernobyl reactor accident was measured at two locations in southern Sweden at the beginning of May, 1986. Samples of Fucus, taken at or near these locations, were also analysed. No precipitation had fallen during the time between the accident and the time of sampling. The ratios between activity concentrations in Fucus and dry depositions on the water surface have been calculated. For any specific radionuclide, this ratio was found to be the same at the two locations, after differences in salinity and in uptake between F. vesiculosus and F. serratus had been taken into account.

Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

1988-01-01

402

Experience in therapy of persons affected at the Chernobyl accident and direct outcomes of disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is concerned with the results of therapy of 115 patients with acute radiation syndrome after the Chernobyl accident. The chief methods of the effective therapy of bone marrow syndrome are antimicrobial drugs and fresh donor platelet mass transfusions. Homopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogenetic bone marrow or embryonic hepatocytes) is indicated and effective in a very limited number of patients in accident irradiation. Severe ?-burns of the skin remain an unsolved problem as a result of their spreading. Organizational principles of therapy of a great number of patients with acute radiation syndrome in a specialized hospital were described

403

Lichens and mosses: biological monitors of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the radioactivity in lichens and mosses has been studied. 137Cs concentrations ranged from about 1070 to 14560 Bq kg-1 in lichens and from 270 to 4750 Bq kg-1 in mosses. Besides the cesium isotopes, some other relatively long-lived fission nuclides, such as 106Ru, 144Ce, 125Sb, and the 110mAg produced by neutron activation were detected and measured. The present data set supports the view that these nonvascular plants can be useful biological monitors of radioactive fallout from not only nuclear weapon tests but also accidents at any nuclear facilities. (author)

404

Dispersion of radioactive releases following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An already-published report on the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident (Interim report on fallout situation in Finland from April 26 to May 4 1986. STUK-B-VALO-44, May 1986) also contains a meteorological survey carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. This report contains a new survey of the earliest phase, made with the help of facts about the accident and the best available weather observational material. The investigation has been extended to cover the period following the end of that in the previous report. The meteorological survey presented here covers the whole period from April 26 to May 18 1986

405

Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

406

Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of up to four thousand people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of the accident but others who died as late as 2004. The new numbers are presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unpreced