WorldWideScience
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Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures throughnuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the m

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Worldwide radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of the entire world population to radiation resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has been evaluated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The evaluation accounted for measurement results reported from 34 countries to establish the pattern of transfer during the first year after the accident; the report used fallout measurement experience to make a projection of doses to be received from continued exposure, primarily to 137Cs. On the basis of transfer factors derived from this information and of 137Cs deposition measured or estimated in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment has been estimated. The result is 600,000 man.Sv, with 53% of this to be received in Europe and 36% in the USSR. (The two areas were measured separately.) (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

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Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

4

The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

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Radiation exposure to the population of Europe following the Chernobyl accident  

OpenAIRE

On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident an attempt has been made to evaluate the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the global burden of human cancer in Europe. This required the estimation of radiation doses in each of the 40 European countries. Dose estimation was based on the analysis and compilation of data either published in the scientific literature or provided by local experts. Considerable variability has been observed in exposure levels among the European ...

Drozdovitch, V.; Bouville, A.; Chobanova, N.; Filistovic, V.; Ilus, T.; Kovacic, M.; Mala?tova?, I.; Moser, M.; Nedveckaite, T.; Vo?lkle, Hansruedi; Cardis, E.

2007-01-01

6

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

7

The radiation exposure of the public in the Karlsruhe area due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation exposure of the public in the Karlsruhe area due to the Chernobyl reactor accident was determined by the Safety Department. The results of the 'Radioecology' Department (HS/R) show a total radiation exposure of 68 ?Sv (14 ?Sv external radiation, 22 ?Sv inhalation and 32 ?Sv ingestion) for an adult for the year after the accident and of 140 ?Sv for the 2nd to the 50th year (direct radiation part about 2per mille). (orig./RB)

8

Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

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Infant leukaemia in eastern Romania in relation to exposure in utero due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of children is estimated in doses being derived from the radioactive content of foodstuffs (134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 131I) for the first 3 years after the Chernobyl accident. An infant leukemia incidence (cases/106 inhabitants) among exposed children is higher than in unexposed cohort (270 vs. 263; p>0,05) in the group of 0-10 years old

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The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG)

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Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

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Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

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Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

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Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

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Trends in infant leukaemia in West Germany in relation to in utero exposure due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A temporary increase in the incidence of infant leukaemia in Greece was reported by Petridou et al., which was attributed to in utero exposure to ionising radiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident. We performed a similar analysis based on the data of the German Childhood Cancer Registry in order to check whether the observation could be confirmed by means of independent data. Applying the same definitions as Petridou et al., we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses, regarding areas with different contamination levels and dose rate gradients over time after the accident, showed, however, no clear trend with regard to exposure. It would therefore appear less likely that the observed effect was caused by exposure to ionising radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

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Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

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Chernobyl accident and Danmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

18

Exposures and effects of the Chernobyl accident in Europe and in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl, on 26 April 1986, is the most serious to have occurred in the nuclear industry. There were 134 reported persons suffering from acute radiation sickness, 28 of whom died within four months of the accident. About 1800 cases of childhood thyroid cancer, mostly curable, occurred in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in those who were children at the time of the accident. Apart from this increase, there is currently no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure from the accident, although a trend of an increase of leukaemia is suspected only in Russian clean-up workers. Outside the former Soviet Union, there were many areas in northern and eastern Europe with cesium-137 deposition density in the range 37-200 kBq/m2. These regions represent an area of 45000 km2, about one third of the contaminated areas found in the former Soviet Union. From the radiological point of view, iodine-131 and cesium-137 are the most important radionuclides to consider. The deposition was governed primarily by precipitation occurring during the passage of the radioactive cloud, leading to a complex and variable exposure pattern. The corresponding doses are low (about 1 mSv or lower in 1986). Up to now, the epidemiological studies conducted in northern and eastern Europe revealed no excess of risk. (author)

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Estimate of the radiation exposure of the Austrian population due to the reactor accident Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl an estimate as objective as possible of the average exposure of the Austrian population in the first year after the accident is attempted. Besides the exposure path of external radiation from the cloud and ground and the exposure due to inhalation the most important path, that caused by ingestion of radionuclides via contaminated food is described in detail. The contribution of various food stuffs to the ingestion dose is described. The effective equivalent dose estimated from the average activity concentration and the average consumption per year of the respective food stuffs amounts to 0.46 mSv for the adult and 0.40 mSv for the one year old infant in the first year. In addition to the dose due to external radiation and inhalation this results in a total dose of 0.53 mSv for the adult and 0.47 mSv for the infant. The ingestion dose estimated in this way poses possibly a substantial overestimation since the whole body activity content measured in numerous whole body counter measurements results in only one third of the dose estimated from food activity concentrations. 18 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

20

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

21

Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

22

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

23

Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described.

Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

1986-01-01

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Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

25

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Karlsruhe region an effective dose equivalent is expected to be 60 ?Sv (6 mrem) for adults and 118 ?Sv (11,8 mrem) for a child, one year old, for the time between May 86 and May 87. These doses are caused by inhalation of radionuclides released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, by the ?-radiation of deposited radionuclides and by the ingestion of contaminated food. The dose caused by as the uptake of natural radioactivity by food and inhaled air, the terrestrial and cosmic radiation achieves about 2200 ?Sv/a (220 mrem/a). During the first year after the reactor accident the additional dose will be about 5% of the natural annual exposure. During the following years the dose caused by radionuclides from Chernobyl will be negligible low. (orig.)

26

Radiation exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of environmental contamination in the Federal Republic of Germany caused by the Chernobyl reactor accident is characterized by major regional differences. The Juelich region is among those affected less severely. The data measured, in combination with meteorological parameters, allow a number of model assumptions to be verified which are of importance in designing nuclear installations. They include dry and wet deposition processes and activity enrichment in the human body. Despite difficult boundary conditions, agreement was found to be satisfactory, as a rule, while the models were discovered to be very conservative in the decisive question of radioactivity in humans. The fact that the data measured in personnel monitoring were far below those calculated is indicative of the actual contribution made by ingestion to the total dose and, hence, to the collective dose of the public, being even lower than calculated. Regional variations in concentration had less of an impact on the considerable differences in radiation exposure of the German public than the local intensities of precipitations as the cloud passed through. The depositions on the soil and on plants caused by precipitations (wash-out), gave rise to higher peak exposure levels and local fluctuations than did dry depositions. (orig.)

27

Chernobyl accident management actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident Management Actions taken during the first days after the Chernobyl accident either proved ineffective or were not fulfilled as reported by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Meeting of Experts in Vienna in August 1986. Most significant to source-term analyses and estimates is that it is now believed that approximately 71% of the initial 190.3 tonne UO2 fuel load was exposed to a high-temperature oxidizing environment because the core was neither covered with various materials thrown from helicopters to smother the fire nor was the core purged with (liquid) nitrogen. Both these actions were originally believed (on the basis of Soviet reports) to have effectively brought the crises to an end. These results seem to support earlier western far-field source term estimates that significantly more volatile radionuclides may have been released as a result of the accident than reported by the Soviets in August 1986. 46 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

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Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptabilitegy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 k Euro /person-Sv).

29

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

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Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in th functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

31

Fallout and exposure of the population in Austria after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fallout situation in Austria after the Chernobyl accident is described and compared to that in neighboring countries. The plume from the destroyed power plant caused an exposure of the population in the first year of 0.55 mSv on the average, of which about 0.1 mSv were caused by external exposure, 0.03 mSv by inhalation, and 0.42 mSv by ingestion. Despite these low exposure values several measures were adopted in Austria, the effects of which are given in this paper. Only three measures (feeding restrictions for fresh grass, a ban on marketing fresh vegetables, and selection of low-activity milk in dairies) resulted in substantial dose reduction effects of about 30% of the total exposure to be expected. The time course in activity concentration in foodstuffs relevant to countermeasures is described. Also, the differences in exposure of the population by ingestion as estimated from foodstuff and whole body measurements is discussed. The decrease in activity concentration in foodstuffs after the direct contamination phase, which is characterized by an effective half-life of about 2 years in the period up to now, is discussed. This decrease in Cs availability results at present in an exposure of approximately 0.5% of initial values, equivalent to about 5 {mu}Sv per annum or approximately 0.15% of the natural background radiation exposure in Austria. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Falloutsituation in Oesterreich nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl wird beschrieben und mit der in den benachbarten Laendern verglichen. Die Wolke aus dem zerstoerten Kernkraftwerk verursachte eine Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung von durchschnittlich 0,55 mSv, von der etwa 0,1 mSv durch externe Strahlung, 0,03 mSv durch Inhalation und 0,42 mSv durch Ingestion verursacht wurden. Trotz der niedrigen Dosiswerte wurden in Oesterreich Massnahmen ergriffen, deren Effekte in diesem Bericht beschrieben werden. Nur drei Massnahmen (Fuetterungsverbot fuer frisches Gras, Verkaufsverbot fuer Frischgemuese und Auswahl von niedrig-aktiver Frischmilch fuer Konsummilch in den Molkereien) ergaben eine betraechtliche Dosisreduktion von etwa 30% der insgesamt zu erwartenden Dosis. Weiters wird der zeitliche Verlauf der Aktivitaetskonzentration in Nahrungsmitteln beschrieben. Auch die Unterschiede in der Bevoelkerungsdosis, wie sie durch den Verzehr kontaminierter Lebensmittel und durch Ganzkoerpermessungen abgeschaetzt werden, werden diskutiert. Die Abnahme der Aktivitaetskonzentration in Nahrungsmitteln nach der Direktkontaminationsphase, die durch eine effektive Halbwertszeit von 2 Jahren charakterisiert ist, wird diskutiert. Diese Abnahme in der Cs-Verfuegbarkeit resultiert in einer derzeitigen Strahlenbelastung von etwa 0,5% der urspruenglichen Werte, was einer Dosis von 0,5 mSv pro Jahr oder ungefaehr 0,15% der jaehrlichen natuerlichen Strahlenbelastung in Oesterreich entspricht. (orig.)

Mueck, K. [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria)

1996-11-01

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Measurements after the Chernobyl accident in relation to the exposure of an urban population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident in-situ gammaspectrometric measurements have been performed in Munich and in smaller towns in Southern Bavaria. At the measurement sites about two thirds of the total contamination was deposited by rain. For grassland, the attenuation of the radiation from 131I, 103Ru, 134Cs, and 140Ba due to the initial migration of the radionuclides in the ground and due to the surface roughness was found to be similar. However, large variations between the retention of the various elements on smooth surfaces have been observed. The absorbed dose-rate inside houses due to Chernobyl radionuclides was the range of one tenth to one hundredth of the absorbed dose-rate over open grassland, depending on the type of house and the location in the house, especially on the angle of view from the detector position to outside locations. The absorbed dose-rate in air due to caesium, isotopes was measured over a period of 1 month to 8 years after the accident. To facilitate a use in models on radiation doses in urban environments, the time dependence of the results were approximated by analytical functions. (author)

33

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

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Asociación de carcinoma renal y la exposición a radiaciones ionizantes después del accidente de Chernobyl / Association of renal cell carcinoma and radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Después del accidente nuclear de Chernobyl, en la población de zonas contaminadas la incidencia de carcinoma renal se incrementó de 4,7 a 7,5 por 100.000 habitantes. La elevada concentración corporal de Cesium 137 (137Cs) así como su eliminación por vía renal los convierte en pacientes de alto riesg [...] o. Presentamos un caso de una paciente, residente en la zona contaminada que acudió a nuestro hospital por dolor abdominal y sensación de masa en flanco izquierdo. Realizamos una revisión de la literatura y analizamos el manejo en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english After the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, in the population of zones contaminated the malignant renal tumors was increased from 4,7 to 7,5 per 100.000 of total population. Cesium 137 (137Cs) constitutes 80- 90% of the internal exposure of these people as well as eliminated through kidneys becomes an [...] important risk factor. We present a case of a patient, residing in radiocontamined area, who consulted for abdominal pain and left flank mass. We review relevant literature and the management of these patients.

A., Blanco Espinosa; M., Leva Vallejo; F., Merlo de la Peña; P., Moreno Arcas; J.L., Carazo Carazo; M.J., Requena Tapia.

2003-02-01

35

The reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, was the first major catastrophe in the peaceful utilizaion of nuclear energy - however, it was a regional and not a global catastrophe. Chernobyl has shown that the most alarming and genuinely catastrophic consequences of such an accident were that large areas of the affected region were uninhabitable for a long period due to the radioactive fall-out. The effects caused by this to living conditions for very many people have had significant social, psychological and economic effects. (orig.)

36

Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

37

Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

38

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

39

Long term prediction of population exposure in the areas contaminated after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to proceed to the recovery phase after an accident, it is necessary to guarantee the resumption of normal living conditions for the population in the contaminated area. As a criterion for determining such conditions, the USSR National Committee for Radiation Protection recommends a lifetime effective dose equivalent of 0.35 Sv. The evaluation of the lifetime dose includes two components: the dose for the first four years after the accident, determined from actual data, and the dose for the remaining period calculated from models. The main contributions to exposure in the recovery phase are external exposure from the soil surface and internal exposure from the intake of radionuclides with food products. The main radionuclides are 137Cs and, to some extent, 134Cs. The contribution of intake through inhalation during this period is negligible. The density of 137Cs contamination of the area and the content of 137Cs in milk in the year preceding the recovery phase, i.e. in 1989, are used as initial calculation parameters. In estimating the external exposure, the following data taken from each population centre were used: the dynamics of the change in the dose rate in open areas for a period of four years, the radionuclide composition of the fallout and direct measurements of the individual external exposure of various population groups. The internal exposure for the period of 1986-1989 was calculated on the basis of dire6-1989 was calculated on the basis of direct measurements of the caesium radionuclide body burden in various population groups. The main intake of caesium into the body (up to 90%) was through the consumption of milk and milk products. It is assumed that the reduction in milk contamination as of 1990 will proceed in such a way that it will effectively be reduced by one half over a period of 14 years; this is the average time obtained for the USSR for the global fallout of products from nuclear explosions. 1 tab

40

Thyroid cancer risk following radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population based case-control study of thyroid cancer in young people has been curried out in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Russia (Bryansk, Kagula, Orel and Tula). the study was jointly co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (SMHF). The study population was all those living in these regions who were aged 0-14 at the time of the accident in Belarus and 0-18 in Russia. Cases were recruited over the time period 1992-1998. Two sets of controls were matched to each case-one was matched finely on age at exposure, sex and exact settlement of residence at the time of the accident, the second was matched on age and sex in the same manner but more broadly on region of residence. In all, 301 cases and 1948 controls (489 matched on settlement and 1459 on oblast) were recruited into the study. The majority of subjects are from Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects using a detailed questionnaire, completed by a clinical and ultrasound examination and analyses of blood and urine samples of subjects who consented in donating such samples. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to I-131 in childhood and adolescence and the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation induced thyroid cancer risk. These include age at exposure, iodine intake, genetic background and reproductive history. Itic background and reproductive history. Individual radiation dose from 131I, and associated uncertainty, was estimated for each subject, as well as dose from external exposures and intake of long-lived nuclides. Each subject was also assigned an index of possible exposure to short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes. Descriptive analyses showed that risk of thyroid cancer in this study was significantly associated with a number of factor that are likely to reflect potential of exposure. Cases in Belarus tended to live more frequently in rural areas,in wooden houses, drink milk from local cows than their respective controls. Controls had more frequently taken preventive measures than cases. The differences between cases and controls in Russia were much less consistent. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. A significant dose response was seen for thyroid cancer. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates from studies of populations having received external radiation exposures during childhood. (Author)

41

The Chernobyl accident - five years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

42

Internal exposure to ?-rays emitted from 137Cs with a human counter caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to estimate internal exposure dose caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, 137Cs ? rays for children living in Chernobyl areas were measured with a human counter. No correlation between residential areas and internal exposure dose was found. The internal exposures for one year from only 137Cs are estimated to be 89.5 ?Sv y-1 in maximum. The fatality probability for the 137Cs internal exposure was calculated at 5x10-6 y-1 based on a coefficient of the recommendation of ICRP, 1990. This probability was much smaller than that for the natural radiation exposure, 1.2x10-4 y-1. (author)

43

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

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The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. PMID:21345660

Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

2011-05-01

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The intensities of exposure doses to gamma radiation: - At the whole territory of SAP Kosovo, measured after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl nuclear accident there have been done measurements of the intensities of the exposure doses to gamma radiation through the territorial communities of SAP Kosovo and that was at the soil surface and at 1,5m. from the soil surface. The results were shown chartly and graphically for the period of May - December 1986 for every community and finally for all territory of SAP Kosovo. (author) 1 tab.; 1 fig

46

Reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

47

Radiation exposure decreasing after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation exposure due to radionuclides deposited after the Chernobyl accident decreased at a rate much higher than that resulting from radioactive decay. The exposure decrease, both of external and internal exposures, is described for Austria as an example, and is compared to the decrease of the exposure after the nuclear weapons tests. For the ingestion dose, the decrease was seen to be much steeper. Than had been observed after the weapon tests, with an effective halflife of 1.5-2 years. This steep decrease in Cs-availability even in the years after the end of the direct contamination phase results in a reduction of the activity intake, and thus the ingestion dose, to approximately 0.1% of the maximum levels in May 1986, or 1% of the ingestion dose in the first year after the accident. The effective dose due to the reactor accident in Austria 6 years later averages 0.025 mSv/a, of which 0.005 mSv/a are due to internal, 0.020 mSv/a to external radiation. Thus the dose amounts to approx. 1% of the average annual exposure to the natural radiation background. (orig.)

48

Radiation exposure in Lower Saxony as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive contamination of the soil in Lower Saxony due to the Chernobyl fallout has been measured and mapped in May 1986, and verified by laboratory analyses. The data reveal considerable differences in the distribution of radionuclides, which is in compliance with the intensity and distribution of fallout during the first days of May 1986. The required measuring activities are not too extensive. About 15 man-days of field work certainly cannot be too much considering the significance of the measured values for the planning activities of the Land. (orig.)

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Very high mutation rate in offspring of Chernobyl accident liquidators.  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to ionizing radiation has long been suspected to increase mutation load in humans. Nevertheless, such events as atomic bombing seem not to have yielded significant genetic defects. The Chernobyl accident created a different, long-term exposure to radiation. Clean-up teams (or 'liquidators') of the Chernobyl reactor are among those who received the highest doses, presumably in some combination of acute and chronic forms. In this study, children born to liquidator families (currently e...

Weinberg, H. S.; Korol, A. B.; Kirzhner, V. M.; Avivi, A.; Fahima, T.; Nevo, E.; Shapiro, S.; Rennert, G.; Piatak, O.; Stepanova, E. I.; Skvarskaja, E.

2001-01-01

50

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

51

Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Nordic-Soviet programme was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the external and internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of several villages in the Bryansk region of Russia. This area was one of the number of areas particularly affected by the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Measurements were carried out yearly until 1998 and after that more irregularly; in 2000, 2006 and 2008 respectively. The effective dose estimates were based on individual thermoluminescent dosemeters and on in vivo measurements of the whole body content of 137Cs (and 134Cs during the first years of the programme). The decrease in total effective dose during the almost 2 decade follow-up was due to a continuous decrease in the dominating external exposure and a less decreasing but highly variable exposure from internal irradiation. In 2008, the observed average effective dose (i.e. the sum of external and internal exposure) from Chernobyl 137Cs to the residents was estimated to be 0.3 mSv y-1. This corresponds to 8% of the estimated annual dose in 1990 and to 1% of the estimated annual dose in 1986. As a mean for the population group and for the period of the present study (2006-2008), the average yearly effective dose from Chernobyl cesium was comparable to the absorbed dose obtained annually from external exposure to cosmic radiation plus internal exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in the human body. Our datg radionuclides in the human body. Our data indicate that the effective dose from internal exposure is becoming increasingly important as the body burdens of Chernobyl 137Cs are decreasing more slowly than the external exposure. However, over the years there have been large individual variations in both the external and internal effective doses, as well as differences between the villages investigated. These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

52

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

2007-07-01

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Thyroid exposure in Belorussian and Ukrainian children after the Chernobyl accident and resulting risk of thyroid cancer. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986 - to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities - to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986-2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases - to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies - to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been accompanied by the BFS project StSch 4299 Range of applicability of epidemiological studies with aggregate data for risk factor determination. The purpose of that project is to explore by simulation calculations to which degree there is an ecologic bias in the risk ste there is an ecologic bias in the risk studies performed in the frame of the present project. The results of project StSch 4299 indicate that the ecologic bias of excess absolute risk estimates is small because: - radiation is the dominating cause of thyroid cancer among those who were children or adolescents in the highly contaminated areas at the time of the accident - there is no indication that the dose-response for thyroid cancer after exposures during childhood is non-linear in the dose range of 0.05-1.0 Gy - the variability of average doses in the age-gender groups of the considered settlements is larger than the variability of individual doses within the groups - the number of 131I activity measurements exceeds considerably the number of the age-gender groups in the different settlements (by a factor of 5) - there is no indication of a relevant correlation between dose and screening within the highly contaminated areas. (orig.)

54

Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

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Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134Cs + 137Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russs of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

56

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

57

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

58

Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

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Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure.

Svendsen Erik

2008-05-01

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Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

NONE

2011-04-15

61

Acute effects of radiation exposure following the Chernobyl accident: Immediate results of radiation sickness and outcome of treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of penetrating radiation evenly distributed over the whole body was the main cause of the development of general clinical syndromes typical for the dose range 100-1600 rads (1-16 Gy): bone marrow, intestinal and transitional forms or combinations of these syndromes. According to gamma spectrometric measurements of blood and urine samples and posthumous examination of organs and tissues, the maximum concentrations of radioactive iodine-131 in the body were 1-5 mCi (for various patients); for caesium-137 and 134 the figures were 2-2.5 mCi, and contamination by cerium-144 did not exceed 30 mCi (about 95% of cerium activity was in the lungs). Other nuclides did not exceed their MPCs. For plant personnel on site at the time of the accident, the average exposure dose to the lungs was 0.2 Gy, to the thyroid gland 2.5 Gy, and to the whole body about 0.05 Gy. A whole-body dose of 0.7 Gy may, as a general guide, be regarded as the minimum dose causing insignificant but consistent and individually significant changes in the blood picture which are characteristic of acute radiation sickness of the first degree. Variant 1 of a diagnostic programme designed to ensure a uniform approach to the diagnosis of first degree acute radiation sickness has been established. Of 21 patients with acute radiation sickness of the third degree (dose range 4-6 Gy), 14 survived. All patients with acute radiation sickness of the fourth degree died except for one. Generally, death resulted except for one. Generally, death resulted from a combination of clinical syndromes, primarily the intestinal and bone marrow syndromes with total or subtotal skin damage. Recovery of haemopoiesis was extremely active: in 84% of cases, the normal blood picture was re-established after 1 to 1 1/2 years. Indicators of fitness for work returned after 8-9 weeks in patients with first and second degree acute radiation sickness and were high one year after exposure. Some who suffered acute radiation sickness are now working at the Chernobyl plant. Their doses in 1987 did not exceed 0.6 rem. (author). 13 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

62

Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

63

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such dat to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external ? dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on fresh milk supplies and other foods; the removal of grazing cattle from pastures; instructions to wash fruit and vegetables and the issue of stable iodine. We are currently carrying out a preliminary assessment of the radiation doses to individuals and the population as a whole in the European Community from Chernobyl, the final results will be published by the Commission of the European Communities. Later we will be extending this to other European countries

64

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in order to provide a factual basis for future policy decisions. There are two main issues: What actions can be taken to limit the health effects of the accident? And: What risk is still posed by the remains of the reactor in the sarcophagus? Assessing the health effects of radiation exposure due to the accident is very difficult. The doses received as a result of the accident are not well known and the complex relation between dose received and cancer induction is still not well understood. As a result, projections of future numbers of extra cancer cases depend on a number of assumptions and are at best crude estimates. Epidemiological investigations to detect health effects in populations, as opposed to effects in individuals, are complex and extremely difficult to conduct. It is difficult to find appropriate control groups for comparative purposes and to distinguish the influence of the studies themselves on the results. In addition, there has been a general deterioration in public health in the countries of the former Soviet Union since 1987. This general trend towards poorer health has been misinterpreted and misrepresented as being due to the Chernobyl accident. It has been asserted that up to tens of thousands of peoples 'have already died', implying that they were victims of the Chernobyl accident. However, the total death rate in 1990-1992 among 'liquidators' (emergency and recovery workers) did ors' (emergency and recovery workers) did not exceed for that for the corresponding age group in the Russian Federation as a whole. The increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has been dramatic and, if it persists in members of the age group affected as they grow older over the coming decades, it may result in up to several thousand excess cases of thyroid cancer. The number of fatalities would be much lower than this, since treatment should be 90-95% successful if the thyroid cancer is diagnosed early. The affected people should therefore continue to be closely monitored throughout their lives. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

65

Response to the Chernobyl accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The worst nuclear accident in history happened at No.4 unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in USSR. Since the Chernobyl accident, a number of measures have been introduced in many countries, including the reconsideration of programs for construction and operation of nuclear power plants. In Japan, the press and television first reported the accident on April 29. The next day, all the relevant governmental agencies began to collect and analyze information in order to prepare possible countermeasures. The Nuclear Safety Commission issued a statement covering three points: 1) the radioactive substances released by the accident will have virtually no influence on the health of people in Japan, 2) a Special Committee on the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station Accident will be established, and 3) the Soviet government must provide all detailed information about the accident as soon as it is available. On April 30, the Committee on Radioactivity decided to increase radioactivity observations by the Science and Technology Agency, the Defence Agency, and the Meteorological Agency. On the same day, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry set up a survey committee for the Chernobyl accident with the responsibility of collecting and analyzing information about the accident. A review is also made in this article as to how the Japanese media reported the accident and how people reacted on reading the newspapers and watching TV on the accident. (Nogami, K.) the accident. (Nogami, K.)

66

Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

67

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

68

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

69

Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was esof the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

70

Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents. Lessons from Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (ie, infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals. PMID:3112420

Gale, R P

1987-08-01

71

Public relations and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

72

[Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

Takada, Jun

2012-03-01

73

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

74

Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

75

Chernobyl - system accident or human error?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Did human error cause the Chernobyl disaster? The standard point of view is that operator error was the root cause of the disaster. This was also the view of the Soviet Accident Commission. The paper analyses the operator errors at Chernobyl in a system context. The reactor operators committed errors that depended upon a lot of other failures that made up a complex accident scenario. The analysis is based on Charles Perrow's analysis of technological disasters. Failure possibility is an inherent property of high-risk industrial installations. The Chernobyl accident consisted of a chain of events that were both extremely improbable and difficult to predict. It is not reasonable to put the blame for the disaster on the operators. (author)

76

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given thtimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

77

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab

78

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 2. Medical-biological and genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Health variations in people subjected to irradiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident is analysed. Participants of the Chernobyl accident response and human populations (children and adults) residing at contaminated areas were under consideration. Genetic radiation effects due to the Chernobyl accident were separately considered. 24 refs.; 37 figs.; 17 tabs

79

Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

80

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

81

Multidimensional analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity

82

Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

83

The Chernobyl accident: man or machine?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident the 'inherently safe' reactor has become a major theme for discussion. To improve reactor safety without questioning the economics of nuclear energy all power reactors that currently have no containment system should be backfitted

84

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

85

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of th1-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately after the accident. (orig.)

86

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

1988-09-02

87

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

88

The impacts of the Chernobyl accident on Austria's economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the whole of Europe was affected by radioactive immissions. What was the actual magnitude of radiation exposure for the Austrians, and what are the consequences? Were the official regulations and measures that caused losses worth several thousand millions of schillings to the Austrian economy really necessary? Who bears the responsibility for this damage? This article attempts to give an answer to these questions. (Auth.)

89

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

90

Long term exposure of the population of the Russian Federation as a consequence of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventeen regions of Russia were contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. Two and a half million persons live in areas contaminated with 137Cs above 0.04 MBq/m2 (1 Cikm2). The paper describes the main consequences of the long term exposure of this population. The influence of some natural, human and social factors on the forming of the external and internal doses of rural and urban populations has been studied in Bryansk and Tula, the most contaminated regions of Russia, during 1986-1994. Radioecological process of migration of caesium and strontium nuclides in the biosphere are considered. A model of their intake into the human body has been developed and validated by large scale measurements of the human body content. Also, a model of external exposure of different population groups has been developed and confirmed by a series of individual external dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters. General dosimetric characteristics of the exposure of the population are given, together with some samples of accumulated external and internal effective doses of inhabitants of some settlements of the Bryansk and Tula regions in 1986-1994. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

91

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

92

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

93

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

94

Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

95

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

96

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author).

Girard, P. [Caen Univ., 14 (France); Dubreuil, G.H. [Mutadis Consultants, Paris (France)

1996-09-01

97

Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

98

Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

99

Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

100

Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

101

ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

102

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

103

Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

2013-04-01

104

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

105

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who ychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

106

Accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, a large accident occurred in No.4 plant of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine, USSR. This accident was an unprecedented one in the history of atomic energy development in view of any of the state of reactor damage, the number of casualties, the amount of radioactivity release and so on, and gave a large shock to the whole world. Also in Japan far away, the radioactive substance that seemed to be originated from the accident was detected though a minute amount. In the countries of Europe as well as the surroundings of the Power Station, the contamination with radioactive substances was serious, and the measures such as the limitation of intake and the limitation of distribution of foods were taken. The international conference was held for five days from August 25 at IAEA, and USSR made the report on the accident. Respective countries and international organization began the evaluation of the accident and the work to extract the lessons based on this report. However, as to the details of the accident, still many unknown points remain. The No.4 plant is RBMK-1000 type, graphite moderated, boiling light water cooled, pressure tube type of 1000 MWe output. The features of the damaged reactor, the course of the accident, and the evaluation of the accident and the lessons are described. (Kako, I.)

107

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

108

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

Hull, A.P.

1987-01-01

109

The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

110

Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

111

Determinations of cesium-134, cesium-137 and potassium-40 as a measure of intrauterine exposure to rays and contamination of human milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to gain better insights into the degree of intrauterine exposure to rays after the Chernobyl reactor accident, placental measurements of the activity levels of cesium-134 and cesium-137 were carried out in 125 expectant mothers from the Munich area using four thallium-activated sodium iodine crystal detectors. The lower limit of detection determined for this technique was 1-2 bq/kg. Parallel tests were performed on human milk samples to establish their contents of cesium-137 and potassium-40. The ultrapure germanium detector used for this purpose measured levels down to a detection threshold of 1 bq/l. In a total of 13 placentae (10 %) and 56 milk samples (57%) the activity of cesium-137 was found to be so low as to preclude detection. The highest values measured were 18.6 bq/kg for the placentae and 10.6 bq/l for the milk samples. The activity concentrations of potassium-40 were frequently seen to exceed those of cesium-137, the highest value determined here being 73.6 bq/l. The author has come to the conclusion that the alleged increases in radiation levels remain within the range of variations generally expected to occur with natural radiation. Mothers are not discouraged from breast-feeding, even though their attention must be drawn to the fact that the rates of malignant diseases and genetic damage tend to rise on a global scale. (KST)

112

Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

2005-07-01

113

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an Bq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors,

114

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

115

Radiation exposure and cancer incidence among a Finnish group residing in the city of Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation is based on a study examining the radiation exposure and cancer incidence among a cohort of Finnish construction workers and their families (n=139) residing in the city of Kiev, Ukraine, at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The aim of the study was to assess the radiation exposure of the study population by integrating all material considering the cohort and compare the cancer incidence of the cohort with the cancer incidence of the common Finnish population. The radiation exposure assessment of the cohort was based retrospectively on three different methods: the film dosimetry, the whole body counting and the chromosome analysis. Those who returned to Kiev after the accident and stayed there during years 1986 and 1987 were measured using the film dosimetry. The whole-body counting measurements were performed at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in May 1986. Both the internal effective dose and the thyroid dose were estimated basing on the measurements. The chromosome analyses were performed during years 1986 and 1987 at STUK based on the blood samples collected at Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in May 1986. The background information of the study population, for example, the present occupation, the present home municipality and the possible date of emigration or death, were collected from the Population Register Centre. All cancer cases in the cohort between April 26, 1986 and December 31, 1999 were coril 26, 1986 and December 31, 1999 were collected from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The radiation doses among the study population were minor. According to the film dosimetry the mean external dose was 3,31 mSv and according to the whole body counting measurements the mean internal dose and the mean thyroid dose were 0,5 mSv and 11 mSv, respectively. The chromosome analyses showed the mean frequency of dicentric chromosomes to be 0,0008, whereas that of total chromosome aberrations was 0,005. The total observed cancer incidence in the study population was higher than expected. However, the absolute number of the cancer cases is so small that the result is likely to be a coincidence. In addition, the observed cases represent cancer types which are not usually associated to radiation exposure. (orig.)

116

Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986.

Czakainski, M.

1986-06-01

117

Congenital malformations and infant mortality from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health impact of radiological contamination in Bavaria from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated. According to caesium 137 levels in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in a higher contaminated region (Southern Bavaria) and a lower contaminated region (Northern Bavaria). Indicators for health effects were congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality. Definition of the study periods accounted for the temporal relationship between conception as well as organogenesis and the time of highest exposure to radioactivity during the first weeks of May 1986. Statistical analysis was based on a combined spatial and temporal comparison. The results of the study do not show a significant increase in any of the outcome variables. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that radiation from Chernobyl caused a rise in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations or perinatal and infant mortality in the Bavarian population. (orig.)

118

Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

119

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

2006-06-15

120

Onsite response to the accident at Chernobyl (accident management)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summarizing the information provided in the USSR report on plant stabilization shortly after the accident at Chernobyl and on the early response measures, the following three main stages can be identified: (1) the building fire-fighting actions and measures (techniques) undertaken and their effectiveness in controlling and finally extinguishing the fire; (2) the short-term stabilization of the plant immediately following the accident; and (3) the long-term recovery, including entombment of the damaged unit and the monitoring of the evolution and long-term stability of the entombed core debris and reactor building. Clearly, the information provided in the USSR report and the additional discussions indicated the importance of accident management. The science and technology of nuclear accident management has not been neglected in the nuclear field; however, attention to this aspect of nuclear safety research has been necessarily largely theoretical. Consequently the practical and very successful experience at the Chernobyl site is of great interest and should be further analyzed and documented

121

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

122

Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

123

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

124

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radioactivity monitoring is done in Bavaria by a system of monitoring stations distributed over the Land, and by the reactor remote monitoring systems. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, measuring activities have been intensified, and by the end of 1986 there have been available about 35.000 measured data records on radioactivity in the air, in water, land, and food and animal feeds. The report in hand presents the data measured in tables and explains their significance with regard to environmental radiation exposure. (DG)

125

External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

126

Exposure levels for persons involved in recovery operations following the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987 and dosimetric data verification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is considered the organization of individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) within 30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) in 1986 for different contingents of recovery workers: the CNPP personnel, Management for Construction 605 (MC-605), military recovery workers, persons assigned to 30-km zone. It is concluded that the quality of IDM had decreased in the following series: the MC-605 personnel, the CNPP personnel, the assigned persons, and military units. The method of dosimetric data verification for recovery workers in 1986 is presented. The results obtained by this method correspond to the results of the experts' estimation. Using the theory of hybrid lognormal distribution it was obtained, in our opinion, real external dose distribution for all the recovery workers. It was estimated that 7% of recovery workers received doses more than 0.25 Gy. Also, the data on values of mean and collective doses for different contingents, as well as for all persons involved in recovery operations is presented. 14 refs., 18 figs

127

Radiological exposure of the population around Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1991 to 1993 German scientists carried out a measuring programme to determine the radiation exposure in the areas of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. Several German scientific institutions were involved in these investigations. The project started in May 1991 with 22 vehicles operating in the highly contaminated areas. By the end, more than 300 000 individuals, about 6000 environmental samples and 7000 personal dosemeters had been measured. The incorporated activity for 98% of all individuals investigated was low and gave no cause for concern. In 2% of all cases an activity was found which was significantly higher but never exceeded the professional annual intake limits set by ICRP. The maximum value of the 10-year effective dose since 1986 - averaged for each of the 240 settlements investigated - was assussed as 100 mSv. (orig./MG)

128

Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ?0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ?6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ?0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

129

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

130

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

131

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Radiation exposure and remediation strategies; Sanierungsstrategien fuer durch den Tschernobyl-Unfall kontaminierte Gebiete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements had in 2004 less than 10 000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data were collected for the in total 545 study settlements. Based on ReSCA calculations (a special developed software tool) an overview of the radiological situation was generated and exemplary remediation strategies were derived for 2010. (orig.)

Jacob, P. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

2009-07-01

132

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard computational methods have been used to make a preliminary analysis of the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics of the first two phases of the Chernobyl accident (initial positive reactivity generation and first Doppler transient). The most important results are discussed. These include the fact that it is impossible to define only one value of the reactor void coefficient. In the central channels (20% of the reactor volume) the effective coefficient is three times higher than the average, while the value is practically zero in the peripheral channels (40% of the reactor volume). The difference is due not only to the statically larger neutron worth of the central zone, but also to the dynamic instability of the radial flux distribution. The void increase in the central regions induces an increase of power and of the void in these regions, thus increasing the reactivity in an unexpected way. A design error in the scram rods (too short a graphite follower) can generate an undesired positive reactivity insertion while the first 1.25 m of the rods is being inserted. This effect can introduce from 0.5 to 1.2$ reactivity. The Doppler effect is the only one introducing negative feedback during a transient. The current model for the calculation of the effective fuel temperature must be reconsidered. A more sophisticated approach in needed to assess the rate of thermal and mechanical energy delivered during the explosion. For a self-consistent evaluation of the accident elf-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

133

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the 137Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the 137Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m-2) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The 137Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in 137Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of 137Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg-1 (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg-1 in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of 137Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the 137Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of 137Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg-1 (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg-1. Until now the effective half-life of 137Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg-1, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg-1. (orig.)

134

Cancer morbidity among the emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on the primary cancer morbidity in the cohort of 8745 men who worked in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1990 and were followed since exposure up to 1995. The official dosimetry data, mostly falling in the range of 0-25 cSv, are available for 75% of ameliorators. Annual cancer morbidity rates turned out to increase rapidly. However, trend analysis in the age-specific subgroups provides evidence that the observed temporal gradients are to be attributed to the ageing (regression coefficients for the age groups of 40-44; 45-49; 50-54 are 0.201; 0.793 and 1.223, correspondingly). In the five-year age groups cancer morbidity of the emergency workers (EWs) makes no statistically significant differences with that of the male populations of Russia and St-Petersburg. No evidence of an association between radiation dose and cancer morbidity was observed. The highest primary cancer morbidity is registered among those EWs, who arrived to Chernobyl region within 360 days followed the accident and had been working there during less than 30 or more than 180 days. The follow-up of the cohort is to be continued. (author)

135

Perinatal mortality in Bavaria, Germany, after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As has been shown by the authors of a paper recently published in this journal, a deviation from a long-term trend in perinatal mortality within the former Federal Republic of Germany occurred in 1987, i.e. 1 year following the Chernobyl disaster. It is the aim of this study to make a comparison between the areas of the state Bavaria, Germany, with different fallout levels as well as between the observed and expected numbers of perinatal deaths relating to these areas. The expected numbers of perinatal deaths, defined as external standard, were derived from the remainder of the former FRG. Testing an a priori formulated hypothesis revealed no differences in the temporal development of perinatal mortality between the areas with different fallout levels and subsequent exposures. Including May 1986 into the analysis revealed a significant increase during the first 3 months after the accident, which is due to an excess in May alone. Since no elevated radiation risks for the last days in utero are known, the additional Chernobyl radiation exposure is not plausible as a causative agent. Further analyses on stillbirths showed an increase in Southern Bavaria during the first 2 years following the accident. Later on, the rates were comparable to the expected values again. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs

136

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

137

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

138

Genomic instability in children born from the Chernobyl accident victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It seems in all probability that the radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of cell genome. Evidence has been presented in the previous reports of our laboratory that a chromosome instability could be found out in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and in children from the regions with a high radiation level. Data on a chromosome instability in children born from the Chernobyl victims are presented in this paper. We investigated women in 1986 within the limits of 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Children born from these women were a main subject of our studies. In some cases an examination of their fathers was also carried out. It seems to us that a genetic instability transmitted from the parents is realized as an increased sensitivity to the different environmental factors, including an enhanced radiation level, chemical mutagens et al. Latent hereditary disturbances in these children probably appear later as a result of their contact with mutagens of a different nature. (authors)

139

Chernobyl - the consequences of the maximum credible accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although regional in dimension, the MCA that happened on 26 April 1986 in the Chernobyl reactor station has gained global significance. The authors of the book are experts in radiation medicine and present their experience in the diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by ionizing radiation, referring whenever applicable to the Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences in present-day life. (orig.)

140

The reactor accident in Chernobyl 1986. 3. upd. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall 1986 in Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal. (orig./GL)

Ebermann, Lutz; Junkert, Arthur (comps.)

2011-07-01

141

Evaluation of ground dose subsequently to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present some data concerning the evolution of the ground global dose due to the ? and ? radiations of the fission products from the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

142

Chernobyl accidents, its consequences and problems of its mitigations. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems discussed were devoted to: 1. Medical and biological aspects of the accident. 2. Agricultural works at contaminated territories. 3. Monitoring of contaminated regions. 4. Decontamination and safety of Chernobyl zone objects. 5. Social, economic and general problems

143

Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

144

Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

145

The radiological situation in south Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident at Chernobyl a radioactive cloud reached Bavaria on April 30th 1986 inducing activities in the air of 52 Bq iodine 131/m3 and 10 Bq cesium 137/m3 (measured in Munich on April 30th between 10am and 2pm). Further on, significant amounts of ruthenium 103, tellurium 132, iodine 132, iodine 133 and cesium 134 were found. Especially in the southern region of Bavaria the majority of the radioactivity in the air was washed out by heavy thundershowers and deposited on the ground. The local deposition was closely linked with the local precipitation rate between April 30th and May 2nd. The deposition of cesium 137 in Bavaria varied from less than 6000 to more than 40000 Bq/m2. This radioactive contamination of the environment adds a further radioactive exposure to man. The three major exposure pathways, direct radiation, inhalation, and ingestion, will be considered in this paper

146

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional hae those already affected any additional harm and confusion

147

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears tollow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

148

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accideradionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

149

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which mayrus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminate

150

The Chernobyl accident ten years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdo to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

151

Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

2006-12-15

152

Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

153

Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

154

Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

155

Measures taken by the authorities in the Bavarian Capital Munich after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident in Chernobyl initially elevated the radiation exposure level in the Munich region. The author reports the activities of the radiation protection commissioner of the Bavarian Capital Munich, food legislation measures (at home and abroad) and disposal problems (sewage sludge, filters from air-conditioning and ventilation systems, and play grounds). (DG)

156

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

157

Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the counhus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

158

Human cytogenetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frequency of chromosome aberration was evaluated in 537 persons taken part in amelioration after the accident. The highest rate of aberration was found in covering builders and dosimetrists: 3.24±0.25 and 3.11±0.43 per 100 cells, respectively. The mean rate of aberrations among the Chernobyl NPP staff was 2.37±0.20 per 100 cells, in the other examined groups the mean yield of aberration varied from 1.31 to 1.47 per 100 cells. The found aberration rates correspond to the equivalent whole body doses in the range from 131 to 515 mGy as evaluated by the established dose-response curve. In the group of covering builders the individual aberration rates varied more markedly, and corresponded to the equivalent whole body dose up to about 1 Gy. Slides of 27 individuals were checked by an automated scoring system. The results showed a satisfactory correlation between the frequencies of dicentrics per chromosome detected by routine and computer methods. 17 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

159

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

160

Radioactive residues from nuclear accidents in Kyshtym and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive contamination of lands is one of the most dangerous forms of environmental pollution in Russia. In total up to 25% of Russia's territory has been subjected to some form of radioactive contamination, mainly owing to the large radiation accidents of Kyshtym (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). Data are presented on radioactive contamination of lands in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident and Karachai dust storm (1967) and in the European part of the Russian Federation following the Chernobyl disaster. A brief description is provided of the RADLEG information system, which collects data on radiation accidents and radiation contamination in the Russian Federation. (author)

161

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

162

Health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reviews the sequence of the accident, the radiation exposures of different population groups and various short and long term health and environmental consequences to the surroundings and to other affected areas.. Radioactivity related deaths have occurred most frequently among the rescue and cleaning up personnel. The pollution problems in Scandinavia and Norway in particular, are pointed out with emphasis on the health and environmental aspects. However, the long term consequences for the Belarus' population and the natural surroundings of Chernobyl are unknown but an increase in possibly radiation related chromosomal changes and mutations are observed and may cause various defects and species alterations as well as health problems both to human beings and the environment

163

Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl nuclear accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure. PMID:1454181

Collins, D L

1992-10-01

164

Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation. PMID:22048494

Jargin, Sergei V

2011-12-01

165

Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

166

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

167

The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2011-02-15

168

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

169

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

170

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

171

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.

Odlind, V. (Uppsala Univ. (SE)); Ericson, A. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm (SE))

1991-01-01

172

Parental response to early human capital shocks: Evidence from the Chernobyl accident  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about the response behavior of parents whose children are exposed to an early-life shock. In this paper we interpret the prenatal exposure of the Austrian 1986 cohort to radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident as a negative human capital shock and examine their parents' response behavior. To identify causal effects we can rely on exogenous variation in the exposure to radioactive fallout (over time and) between communities due to geographic differences in precipitation...

Halla, Martin; Zweimu?ller, Martina

2014-01-01

173

Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

174

Forest fires in the territory contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident: radioactive aerosol resuspension and exposure of fire-fighters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were carried out to investigate the processes of resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides by fire in the territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In this set of experiments, the dispersed radioactive aerosol composition, the values of airborne radioactive aerosol concentrations, the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate, the deposition flux and the deposition velocity have been obtained for the different phases of a fire and at various distances from the fire. In the active phase of a fire, the airborne concentrations of radionuclides increase by several orders of magnitude relative to the background value. The resuspension factor for the active phase of a fire was assessed as 10-7-10-8 m-1, while the value of the resuspension rate had a 10-10 s-1 order of magnitude at a deposition velocity of 1-2 cm s-1. The additional terrestrial contamination due to a forest fire can be estimated as a value in the range 10-4-10-5 of its background value. As recommended by ICRP, the human respiratory tract model was applied for calculation of the Effective Equivalent Dose (EED) to firemen. The dose coefficient for radioactive aerosol inhalation was estimated at 1.5x10-8 Sv (Bq m-3 h)-1

175

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequh, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

176

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed.

Baranov, A.; Gale, R.P.; Guskova, A.; Piatkin, E.; Selidovkin, G.; Muravyova, L.; Champlin, R.E.; Danilova, N.; Yevseeva, L.; Petrosyan, L. (Institute of Biophysics of the Ministry of Health and Clinical Hospital, Moscow (USSR))

1989-07-27

177

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

178

The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

179

[Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. PMID:22920877

Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

2012-01-01

180

Lessons for PHWRs learned from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada examined its criteria for licensing nuclear power plants following the accident to the Chernobyl reactor in 1986. The causes of the accident were studied to ascertain whether they revealed any deficiencies in the safety of CANDU PHWRs. A report published in 1987 contained nine recommendations, and this paper revisits these to indicate how they were dealt with by plant owners and the regulatory authority. (author)

181

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

182

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.  

OpenAIRE

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

Ginzburg, H. M.; Reis, E.

1991-01-01

183

The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in Finnish women after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. DESIGN--Geographic and temporal cohort study. SETTING--Finland divided into three zones according to amount of radioactive fallout. SUBJECTS--All children who were exposed to radiation during their fetal development. Children born before any effects of the accident could be postulated--that is, between 1 January 1984 and 30 June 1986--served as controls. I...

Joffe, M.

1989-01-01

184

Health effects after the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria: review of studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The current analysis is designed to address concern about possible health effects in Bulgaria following the Chernobyl accident (CA). The results of descriptive studies are analyzed for the period 1981-1996 and 1981-2003 on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system and thyroid cancer (TC) respectively. Analyses of the risk of TC in consequence of CA for analytical studies are based on detailed thyroid gland's dose of exposure. Comparative investigations are based on number of patients with surgery operation. Discussed are the results of studies among children received prenatal radiation exposure at the time of the CA. Overall, in none of the studies doesn't prove a significant increase in the malignant diseases of the hemopoietic system incidence as well as in leukemia that could be attributed to the Chernobyl accident. No increase in the leukemia incidence among children was registered. The descriptive and analytical studies reviewed doesn't prove CA as a risk factor for TC incidence. The number of congenital anomalies did not show a statistically significant increase in relation to the nuclear accident. It doesn't prove any influence of CA upon development of the chosen children's groups learning abilities. Exposure of Bulgarian population after the Chernobyl accident is not a risk factor increased incidence rate in oncohematological diseases and TC in our country

185

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

186

Assessing the risk from external irradiation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of the research was to establish a relationship between the density of soil contamination by 137Cs in populated localities as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and to predict the risk of malignant tumors for the population

187

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

188

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

189

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

190

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

1997-12-31

191

Radiological effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident to the large lakes of Southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the fast year after the reactor accident is calculated

192

Radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident to the large lakes of southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the first year after the reactor accident is calculated. (orig.)

193

Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

194

The Chernobyl reactor accident: First evaluation of the Soviet report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the IAEA conference of experts held in Vienna in late August the USSR presented detailed information about the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. This contribution is a first summary and evaluation of the information presented by the Soviet delegation in Vienna and covers the specific characteristics of the RBMK reactor, the planned test, the sequence of accident events, and some early countermeasures. GRS is at present preparing a comprehensive report about the reactor accident in the light of the most recent findings. (orig./HP)

195

Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

196

The Chernobyl reactor accident: Quantification and evaluation of the radiation risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper tries to evaluate the radiation risk emanating from the contamination of the environment after the Chernobyl reactor accident with a variety of radioactive substances. Main attention is given to the radioactivity taken up by the soil and vegetation as a consequence of the fall-out, and subsequently by the food, and to the radiation exposure of the population in general and fetuses in particular, as well as newborn babies and infants. (DG)

197

The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.  

OpenAIRE

In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ...

Ginzburg, H. M.

1993-01-01

198

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

199

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

200

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

201

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 1. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP accident, radiation monitoring, protection measures and their efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strategy of the development of native nuclear power engineering is analysed concerning the Chernobyl accident. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP are considered. Attention is paid to the problems of radiation monitoring of personnel and human population. Radiation accident dynamics and radiation protection measures are discussed. Decontamination problem is analysed as well as its efficiency. 255 refs.; 5 figs.; 19 tabs

202

Health consequences of Chernobyl and other radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Protection Research Unit of the European Commission has been supporting collaborative research projects on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident since 1991. However, in the Fourth Framework Programme of the Commission which started in 1996, the collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union has been placed on a different footing, and the programme has been expanded to include other regions, especially in Russia and Kazakhstan, where previous nuclear incidents have led to the exposure of workers and the local populations and to widespread radioactive contamination. There are 15 projects on health-related studies in the newly started programme, and in order to improve the collaboration between the different scientists working in these projects a Cluster Contractors'' Meeting was organised in San Miniato, Italy, in June 1997 with the participation of some 50 scientists from the European Union (EU) and the Newly Independent States (NIS). This report summarizes the different topics, including molecular biology and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer, various epidemiological studies and dose reconstruction, which were discussed at the meeting and which form the major projects in the new collaborative programme. (orig.)

203

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

2012-09-01

204

Caesium-137 in Baltic Sea sediments since the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Baltic Sea was the sea most affected by the Chernobyl accident, because the first radioactive clouds from Chernobyl travelled north and caused high deposition in the Baltic Sea region. The distribution pattern of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in the catchment area of the Baltic Sea was very scattered, with the highest deposition values occurring in the areas surrounding the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland. The highest 137Cs concentrations in bottom sediments also occurred in these gulfs, but the scattered nature was further emphasized as a consequence of river discharges, sea currents and different sedimentation rates on hard and soft bottoms. The present report contains a revised estimate based on a larger quantity of sediment data than the previous estimates

205

Directions in epidemiological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The after-Chernobyl irradiation doses of the Bulgarian population cause possible health consequences in the sphere of scholastic effects only. Different mental disturbances arise under certain conditions. There are plans for epidemiologic investigations of the kind 'case-control' which are aimed to clarify the role of the radiation factor (of medical, professional and Chernobyl origin) in the appearance of some neoplasms in hemopoietic system and thyroid. A selective analysis of the congenital malformations frequency is envisaged which will overcome the shortcomings of the current registration system. Screening study of children born in the end of 1986 is also under way which will detect possible disturbances in their cognitive functions. The specifying of individual radiation doses in all studies is based on data received by survey and on information for radiation conditions in Bulgaria prior and after the Chernobyl accident. 2 refs. (A.B.)

206

10 years after Chernobyl, radiation exposure, health effects, safety aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report sums up the various conferences and symposia which were prompted by the tenth anniversary of the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl. It was shown that by the accident up to now 31 casualties among the emergency and rescue personal at the site. Offsite no increased number of casualties caused by the accident was observed up to now. In the countries with the highest impact Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, however, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer is observed which is substantially higher than after the nuclear detonations over Japanese cities. Contrary to often published media reports, however, up to now no increases in leukemia or other malignant deceases were observed, neither in the population of the concerned regions nor among the liquidators. The high 137Cs activity concentration in the environment close to the power plant result in exclusion zone even today. The deposition values in Kiev, however, amount to only 30 kBq/m2, in large areas of Ukraine they are below the average values in Austria of 22 kBq/m2. For these areas as well as those outside the former Soviet Union the average doses were less than 1 mSv in the first year, a value which is less than one third of natural annual radiation exposure. Since the reactor accident the activity concentration has significally decreased resulting in an exposure as consequence of the reactor accident of less than 0,8 % of the exposure in the first year. In Austria the exposure in 1996 amounts to less than 0,3 % of natural radiation exposure. (author)

207

Effects on the thyroid in populations exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four years after the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, an increased incidence of thyroid carcinoma (cancer) was noticed in children in Belarus and Ukraine. The increase has continued, with well over 500 cases reported from the areas around Chernobyl. Background Paper 2 considers the size of the increase, with account taken of ascertainment of the evidence that the increase is related to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, of the isotope or isotopes responsible, and of the likely future effects. External radiation is known to cause thyroid cancer, but radioactive iodine has been used for many years in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis without any increase in thyroid carcinoma. The diagnoses of thyroid cancer have been confirmed in over 90% of the cases available for study (over half of all cases are available); increased ascertainment of cases from screening has been excluded as a major contributory factor. Virtually all cases were papillary in type. The situation in the Russian Federation is less clear. In the oblasts most affected by radiation, there appears to have been an increase in childhood thyroid carcinoma, but probably to a lesser extent than in Belarus or in Ukraine. There is strong evidence that the increased incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is due to radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident, based on the geographical and temporal distribution of the cases. In both Belarus and Ukraine they are commonest in the oblasts cloaine they are commonest in the oblasts close to Chernobyl that had high levels of contamination. 27 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

208

The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH)

209

The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

210

Elimination of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological consequences of reactor accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station is considered. The Chernobyl's release is compared with the estimated radioactivity having been produced by both the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapons testing programs, as well as with the TMI and the Windscale reactor accidents. The necessity of the Shelter's construction, as well as basic problems in designing the Shelter structure is discussed. At the time of the Shelter's construction, the radiation safety division was created to provide the safety of construction personnel. The organization and main tasks of this division is given in detail. The main stages of the Shelter construction is stated. Today's condition of the Shelter and nuclear fuel inside are also discussed. (author)

211

Blood coagulation in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to examine blood coagulation status of the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. A total of 117 young men were examined who participated int he liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences mainly in 1986 and 1987. The mean dose for those who worked in 1986 was 26 rem, that for 1987 10 rem. Blood coagulation status was studied by coagulography and thromboelastography. The results were processed for groups with consideration for the predominant disease. Moderately expressed changes in coagulogram, variously directed, were detected. A clear tendency to hypercoagulation was established form the integral tromboelastogram parameters. The changes were more expressed in patients with erosive gastroduodenitis. Shifts in blood coagulation took a latent course without clinical manifestations of the DIC syndrome or local thrombosis. A tendency to hypercoagulation in the liquidators seems to be caused by chronic stress. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

212

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

213

Environmental radioactivity in Finland - 20 years since the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Symposium on the Environmental radioactivity in Finland was held on the anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, on April 25 - 26, 2006. The Symposium was organised by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry at Helsinki University (HYRL), Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the Division of Radiochemists of the Finnish Union of Experts in Science (LAL). The Chernobyl accident is the worst nuclear reactor accident ever. It contaminated severely large areas in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. Radioactive substances also spread into other parts of Europe. These substances, especially the isotope 137Cs, can still be detected in the environment of Finland. The aim of the Symposium was to draw a general view on the environmental radioactivity and ionising radiation, radiation monitoring and radiation doses in Finland and the neighbouring areas. The Symposium included invited lectures as well as oral and poster presentations. The invited lecturers were Ph.Lic. Olli Paakkola (the Director of the Surveillance Department of STUK in 1986); Dr. Gabriela Voigt (the Director of IAEA Laboratories at Seibersdorf, Austria); Professor Peter Warwick (Environmental Radiochemistry at Loughborough University, UK); and Professor Timo Jaakkola (the Emeritus Professor of Radiochemistry at Helsinki University). The first session of the Symposium concentrated on the effects of the Chernobyl accident: how the environmental radioactivity dent: how the environmental radioactivity changed in Finland, what impact this had on Finns and Finnish food stuffs and to what extent the effect of the Chernobyl fallout can still be detected in the environment. The other sessions dealt with fallout research and analytics, natural radioactivity and stable isotopes, and radiation monitoring

214

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

215

Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs

216

Disturbances of mnestic functioning in victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with mnestic disturbances in 98 victims of Chernobyl accident. A statistically significant decrease in attention and memory (in particular of long-term verbal and visual ones) was found. The considerable asthenisation of patients and the insufficiency of active attention as well as the possible disturbances in turnover of some neurotransmitters which promote the consolidation of engrams (dophamin and norepinephrine) may underline the above disorders

217

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

218

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

OpenAIRE

After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the correspond...

Rissanen, K.; Rahola, T.

1990-01-01

219

Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

220

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

221

The reactor accident of Chernobyl and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world has not changed but gained one more, however bitter, experience since the reactor accident of Chernobyl. Much has been written and published about its consequences and the damage caused by it. Its only benefit may be considered to be consisting in another international revision of the allegedly exemplary and worldwide accepted safety of our reactors and in future rigorous political efforts to be going into internationally accepted and applied safety concepts preventing another accident of that kind. National efforts alone will lead to nothing. (orig.)

222

Effects in Switzerland of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 1996 saw the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The current article takes advantage of this occasion to present, from today`s point of view, a summary appraisal of the radiological effects that this accident had in Switzerland, and to show how the warning and monitoring organisation in existence at the time coped with the event. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im April 1996 waren zehn Jahre seit dem Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl vergangen. Der folgende Artikel gibt aus diesem Anlass eine Zusammenfassung ueber die radiologischen Auswirkungen dieser Katastrophe auf die Schweiz, aus heutiger Sicht und zeigt, wie das Ereignis von der damaligen Alarm- und Messorganisation bewaeltigt wurde. (orig.)

Huber, O.; Jeschki, W. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen, Villigen (Switzerland); Pretre, S. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen, Villigen (Switzerland); Voelkle, H. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheitswesen, Fribourg (Switzerland)

1996-11-01

223

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

224

Belorussian population health state following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radioactivity peculiarities at the Belarussian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident are analysed. Main risk systems for human health and trends of potential pathology formation are determined. Growth in the disease incidence in adults and especially in children is marked. It covers thyroid cancer (due to 131I intake in the early period of the accident), chronic neoplasms in hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular and neuromental diseases. Attention is paid to the genetic radiation effects, pregnancy and delivery pathology. 2 tabs

225

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents

226

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

2014-02-01

227

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

228

On the sequence and consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A serious reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986 at Chernobyl near Kiev (Soviet Union) where, after melting of the core, there was a considerable release of radioactivity to the environment and to the atmosphere. The radioactivity release caused irradiation of the operating staff, which led to 24 deaths by June 1986. Hardly anything is known about the irradiation of the environment of the reactor plant, but the population within a radius of 30 km was evacuated. The radioactivity released into the atmosphere spread all over Europe, and Germany was affected a few days after the accident. The article gives a short description of the plant which suffered the accident, one tries to describe the course of the accident and to discuss the applicability to German plants. (orig.)

229

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

2014-02-01

230

Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident considerable efforts have been made in Sweden to reduce radiocaesium intake via food by the general population. Countermeasures have been used especially in reindeer husbandry. In this investigation intake of radiocaesium via reindeer meat was estimated, and the corresponding collective radiation dose to humans was calculated for the first 10 years following the Chernobyl fallout. The transfer of radiocaesium and the collective dose were compared with the potential transfer and corresponding human dose, that would have occurred in the absence of radioactivity limits and countermeasures. According to the estimates, the collective dose for the first year after the Chernobyl accident (May 1986 to April 1987) was reduced from 193 man Sv (potential dose) to below 3 man Sv (actual dose). The cost for this was 117 million SEK. Because of the relatively rapid reduction of radiocaesium in reindeer pasture, both the potential and the actual dose decreased with time. For the reindeer slaughter period from July 1995 to June 1996, the potential dose was estimated to 18 man Sv and the actual dose to 7 man Sv. The total expenditure on control and countermeasures for that year was 17 million SEK.

Aahman, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics

1999-07-01

231

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bio-indicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru and 110Agm were detected in F vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of 137Cs varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northernmost locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg at the south east cost. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocaesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and 99Tc the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily caesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (authors)

232

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

233

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

234

Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

235

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

236

Radioactivity in mushrooms in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide activities in common edible mushrooms, collected in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The highest levels were found in Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Cantharellus lutescens and Boletus cavipes. In addition, a large number of soil samples was collected in the same area. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, its was possible to differentiate the radiocesium contribution from pre-Chernobyl fallout in both fungi and soil. The contour maps for 137Cs and 134Cs distributions are reported. The radioactivity detected in the mushrooms is not related in a simple manner to the contamination level of the corresponding soil. Some species tend to concentrate cesium and silver nuclides, whilst others show little affinity for these and other nuclides. Explanations for the different behavioral characteristics of the species are suggested. (author)

237

Some results of liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of works dealing with liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP are generalized. Some measures realized are estimated. Suggestions directed to efficiency increase when eliminating such accident effects are formulated

238

Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

239

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

240

Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by {sup 137}Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

2014-07-01

241

Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of 137Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of 137Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

242

Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

243

Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

244

XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

245

Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

246

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

247

The animal kingdom in the Chernobyl NPP accident zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monograph has the review and analysis of data on the problem of estimation of the Chernobyl accident effect on animal world of the Republic of Belarus. Questions of ionizing irradiation influence on organisms, populations and ecosystems are considered. Features of radionuclides accumulation by the animals of various systematic groups are investigated. Characteristic of the parasitological situation in the 30-km zone is given, the effect of secondary radioecological factors stipulated by exception of economic activity in zone of alienation and moving away on forming of fauna complexes is analysed. The book is designed on zoologists, radio ecologists, experts in the field of nature protection. (authors). 326 refs., 35 tabs., 39 figs

248

Ukrainian NPP instrumentation and control systems after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the main factors that contributed to the development of I and C systems of Ukrainian NPPs after 1986. The period of time after the Chernobyl accident is divided into three phases: 1986-1991, when the implementation of typical WWER-1000 I and C design was continued; 1992-2000, when the regulatory system on nuclear and radiation safety was formed in Ukraine; and 2001-2010, when numerous new digital NPP I and C systems were designed by national companies and implemented at Ukrainian NPPs. The main problems related to NPP I and C systems are indicated

249

Contamination of fish in Austria after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since it is well known that certain fish species can accumulate radionuclides, in particular radiocesium, a surveillance program was started after the contamination of Austrian territory by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The number of samples available was rather small, but it was found that contamination of fish dependend upon the extent of local contamination, species of fish and type of lake. The results of the surveillance are discussed. Some remarks will be made on attempts to derive a single transfer factor for 'fish'. (orig.)

250

A review of internal exposure accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The definition of an internal exposure accident is much more difficult to establish clearly than the one concerning external overexposures. For the latter, the notion is implicitly related to resulting health damage, while in most cases any internal contamination, regardless of its level and the upcoming or no of a detriment, is qualified as accidental. Therefore, this overview is limited to (1) large scale internal exposure accidents because large groups of individuals, highly contaminated or not, were involved; (2) occupational contaminations which sometimes resulted into long-term health effects, and (3) the results of the follow-up of patients who were either explored or treated in the 30s and 50s by alpha emitting radionuclides. Among large-scale accidents, mention is made of the 1954 american nuclear test in the Pacific ocean, uncorrectly programmed and responsible for thyroid diseases, of the 1957 accident in the Mayak complex in the Urals, of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986 and of the 1987 Goiania accident due to the uncontrolled dismantling of a teletherapy source. Among occupational contaminations, several medical and epidemiological follows-up are of particular interest, such as those concerning dial painters who used radium in the years 1910 and uranium miners, although it is difficult to qualify as accidental these practices, even if the doses received at this time were widely in excess of the limits in use nowadays. Taking into account thes in use nowadays. Taking into account the previous caution, the groups of patients who received relatively large amounts of thorotrast (used as contrast material) and of radium (considered as a large spectrum therapeutic agent) are very interesting as well; these two medical practices resulted into various long-term health effects, and were used, in some degree, to quantify the risk in man of alpha emitters. (author)

251

Post-accident inhalation exposure and experience with plutonium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issue of inhalation exposure immediately afterward and for a long time following a nuclear accident. For the cases where either a nuclear weapon burns or explodes prior to nuclear fission, or at locations close to a nuclear reactor accident containing fission products, a major concern is the inhalation of aerosolized plutonium (Pu) particles producing alpha-radiation. We have conducted field studies of Pu- contaminated real and simulated accident sites at Bikini, Johnston Atoll, Tonopah (Nevada), Palomares (Spain), Chernobyl, and Maralinga (Australia).

Shinn, J

1998-06-01

252

Down's syndrome clusters in Germany in close temporal relationship to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down's syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination for one month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, also, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down's syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. (author)

253

Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

254

The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

255

Monitoring on influence of Soviet chernobyl accident on environment of some regions of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the monitoring results of some environmental samples from Gansu provinces and Qinshan aera of Zhejiang Province and the cities of Beijing, Shenyang and Baotou after the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The samples collected included air, fallout, rain water, reservoir water, plants and soil and the wipping samples of international and domestic airlines were also measured. Analyese were made by using low background Ge(Li) ? spectrometer with anti-coincident shield and by radiochemical methods for 89Sr, 90Sr and Pu contents in some samples. The results indicate that the radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl accident arrived to Beijing area on May 2, 1986. Generally speaking, the concentration of radioactive cloud in north China was greater than that in south China. Fission products were found in wipping samples taken from airplanes flying over Europe and Asia. The radioactivity level of the samples taken from European air-line was considerably higher than that from Asian airline. The main fission products found in different samples were as follows: 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 103Ru and 132Te, 132I. The ratio of 137Cs to 134Cs was about 2. The partial effective dose equivalent commitment of preliminary estimation to the public in Beijing area from the accident was 11.3 ?Sv. The contribution of the external exposure was 7.9 ?Sv. The contribution of the internal exposure was 3.4 ?Sv

256

Health Hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The most recent meeting in the Federal Republic of Germany reviewed the principal long-lived radionuclides emitted from the accident and concluded that 134Cs and 137Cs had the greatest potential for contributing to the human dose because they are still present, the dose will be delivered over a long term, and because of the accumulation in some edible plants and animal products. The observed contribution of radionuclides to the collective effective dose-equivalent in the first year is about 60-80% from ingestion, 30-40% from external irradiation, and 2-20% from inhalation

257

The German reactor safety and the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has raised the alarm of many people making them fear both nuclear energy as such and nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority, however proved to be ignorant of the totally different reactor design of the Soviet plant as well as of the extremely different safety philosphy. The philosophy, i.e. safety of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (and other Western countries) has reached a level which according to experts and common sense excludes a similar accident. In an interview Dr. Hans Frewer, member of the Kraftwerk Union management, voices his opinion on the different forms of a nuclear phaseout and points out the economic and ecological consequences. (orig./GL)

258

Peculiarities of psychological status of liquidators of Chernobyl accident after-effects having psychosomatic pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight hundred and ninety two men aged 25-55 yrs including five hundred and eighty three persons taking part in the Chernobyl accident after-effects liquidation and three hundred and nine persons having similar psychosomatic pathologies but lacking radiation 'anamnesis'. The radiation risk understanding was shown to effect negatively on the disease run and the remission period duration. The psychic process after the radiation exposure was determined to be caused by a radiation effect on the central nervous system as well. The outcomes of the clinical and psychological study evidenced that the psychosomatic pathology including the discirculating encephalopathy developed in the persons exposed to irradiation in the early age. (authors)

259

Impacts of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant reactor accident on the territory of the GDR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the reactor accident which occurred in the Soviet nuclear power plant Chernobyl on April 26, 1986 large amounts of radioactive fission products were released into the atmosphere, taken up by the air streams, and borne away. Radioactive contaminations have widely been detected on the Northern hemisphere. Contaminations particularly occurred in the European countries, among them in the GDR, too. The provisions made in the GDR to survey the radiation situation and the surveillance results are described, and an assessment of radiation exposure is given. (author)

260

Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

1999-09-01

261

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

262

Transport of radioactive particles from the chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

After the Chernobyl accident large and highly radioactive particles were found in several European countries. Particles > 20 ?m in aerodynamic diameter were transported hundreds of kilometres from the plant, and they were sufficiently active (> 100 kBq) to cause acute health hazards. Here, a particle trajectory model is used to identify the areas of large particle fallout. Effective release height of the particles and atmospheric phenomena related to their transport are investigated by comparing particle findings with locations given by trajectory calculations. The calculations showed that in the Chernobyl accident either the maximum effective release height must have been considerably higher than previously reported (> 2000 m) or convective warm air currents may have lifted radioactive material upwards during transport. Large particles have been transported to other areas than small particles and gaseous species. The particulate nature of the release plume must be taken into account in dispersion and transport analyses. Air parcel trajectories alone are not necessarily sufficient for identifying the fallout area of radioactive material.

Pöllänen, Roy; Valkama, Ilkka; Toivonen, Harri

263

Concentration variation of 134,137Cs in environmental media and dose evaluation in Suzhou city after Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The time response for the concentration variation of 134,137Cs in the environmental media and dose evaluation in Suzhou city after Chernobyl nuclear accident is presented. The results showed in 14 ? 20th of May 1986, the radioactivity concentration of 134,137Cs in the environmental media reached to maximum and gradually returned to background 3 months later. The individual effective dose equivalent for adults in that period due to external exposure of air immersion and internal exposure of inhalation and vegetable intake is 1.6 x 10-7 Sv, this value is about 55% of annual dose equivalent (2.9 x 10-7 Sv/a) of the first year after Chernobyl accident, and approximately equals to normal year value (1.5 x 10-7 Sv/a). The 90% of that was through ingestion pathway, 8.6% was through inhalation pathway and external exposure was very small

264

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on international nuclear energy law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author investigates the legal consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Although a network of legal provisions concerning the utilization of nuclear energy had been in force before the accident at Chernobyl occurred, this event proved that there were still gaps in the system. The author deals with the efforts started in the aftermath of the accident in order to cope with the new situation. International organisations, especially the IAEA, played a leading role in tackling the formation of new legal regimes. (WG)

265

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

266

Adoption of the decision on population protection in case of radiation accident: international recommendations and protective measures in the USSR and Russian Federation following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper studies the levels of intervention recommended by the International Organizations in case of severe radiation accidents and the state of play in the USSR and the CIS countries. It is shown that decisions about the protection measures followed the Chernobyl accident at the early stage were made in correspondence with a priori developed criteria (the USSR Ministry of Public Health, 1983) and later - on the basis of the development of the intervention levels in the form of temporary limits of the annual exposure doses and temporary admissible levels of radionuclide concentration in food. The period that followed the Chernobyl accident brought up the necessity to elaborate criteria of the late protection measures - eviction and control of food-more accurately. At present in Russia the revision of the active concepts is directed to make more grounded decisions with the weakening of predominant effect of social and political factors

267

Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

268

DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay on children form areas affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The health effects of the Chernobyl accident and particularly the long-term effects continue to be interesting and significant for the international scientific community. The DNA damages caused by radiation exposure are considered responsible for the effects at cellular level and in the whole organism. The comet assay is one of the current tools with greatest application and sensitivity to evaluate DNA damages, particularly in chronic exposures. The preliminary results with the application of the comet assay to blood lymphocytes of 30 Ukrainian children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident are shown in our study. The children were in Cuba at the moment of the study. 137Cs internal contamination was measured in a whole body counter and correlated with DNA damages, children blood was taken by fingerprick. Factors like illnesses, medical treatments, or the external doses by surface contamination were also considered in the study. Until the present the radiological factor has not shown influence in the levels of observed DNA damages. (orig.)

269

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of {sup 137}Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average {sup 137}Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest {sup 137}Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (T{sub agg}) for soil {yields} plant and soil {yields} flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. T{sub agg} values for Soil {yields} autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} to 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the T{sub agg} values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example T{sub agg} for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the {sup 137}Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the {sup 137}Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the {sup 137}Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg{sup -1}. There was no significant change in the {sup 137}Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.) [German] Seit 1988 wurde, im Rahmen mehrerer Forschungsvorhaben, die Cs-137 Aktivitaet in rund 7.000 Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Pilzen und Wildtieren bestimmt, um die Dynamik des Nuklids in Waldoekosystemen zu untersuchen. Die Arbeiten wurden hauptsaechlich in einem Bergfichtenwald in Bodenmais (Bayern) und einem Eichenwald in Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) durchgefuehrt, wo unguenstige Bodenparameter und Standortfaktoren relativ hohe Radiocaesium-Aufnahmeraten in Biomedien bedingen.Kennzeichnend fuer die untersuchten Waldoekosysteme ist die grosse Variabilitaet der Cs-137 Aktivitaet innerhalb einer Art und zwischen den Arten. In Bodenprofilen aus den drei Untersuchungsgebieten befanden sich im Jahr 2000, durchschnittlich noch 56% des Cs-137 Inventars in den obersten 10 cm und 93% in den obersten 20 cm. In den untersuchten Pflanzenarten nahm Cs-137 Aktivitaet von 1987 bis 1994 signifikant ab, wobei sich die Kontamination seit 1995 nur noch wenig veraenderte. Bei acht Pflanzenarten aus zwei der Untersuchungsgebiete betrug die mittlere effektive Halbwertzeit -5,3 Jahre (Minimum -3 Jahre, Maximum -24 Jahre). Pilze aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Bodenmais hatten 2000, wie ueblich, die hoechsten Cs-137 Messwerte. Die Werte der aggregierten Transferfaktoren (T{sub ag}) fuer den Uebergang von Cs-137 Boden {yields} Pflanze oder Boden {yields} Fleisch schwankten um mehrere Groessenordnungen, z.B. bei den autotrophen Pflanzenarten, von 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} bis 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. Auf den Dauerprobeflaechen B1 und F1 wurden viel hoehere Transferfakto

Fielitz, U. [Laboratorium Umweltanalysen (Germany)

2001-07-01

270

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the {sup 137}Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m{sup -2}) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The {sup 137}Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in {sup 137}Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg{sup -1} (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg{sup -1} in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of {sup 137}Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the {sup 137}Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of {sup 137}Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg{sup -1} (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg{sup -1}. Until now the effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg{sup -1}, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg{sup -1}. (orig.) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht handelt von dem Verhalten von Radiocaesium in zwei, vom Tschernobyl-Fallout besonders betroffenen Waldoekosystemen. 1997 und 1998 wurden in den Waeldern um Bodenmais (Bayern) und Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Baeumen und Rehwild auf Cs-137 Aktivitaet gemessen und die Ergebnisse aus vorangegangenen Forschungsvorhaben verglichen. Die Untersuchungen zur Tiefenverteilung von Cs-137 in Bodenprofilen zeigen, dass auch 11 Jahre nach dem Tschernobyl-Fallout die spezifische Cs-137 Aktivitaet in der Humusauflage am groessten ist und nur sehr geringe Aktivitaet des Nuklids tiefer als 20 cm nachgewiesen werden kann. Der ueberwiegende Teil des Radiocaesiums befand sich in den obersten 10 cm des Bodens. In dieser Bodenschicht waren auf der Dauerprobeflaeche B1 in Bodenmais 1997 rund 78% der Cs-137 Aktivitaet, wovon 27% in der 4 cm starken Humusauflage nachgewiesen wurden. Es zeigt sich, dass die Wandergeschwindigkeit des Nuklids mit der Zeit abnimmt. Die Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Pflanzenarten des Waldbodens ergeben eine signifikante Abnahme der Cs-137 Gehalte in den Blaettern. Die errechneten effektiven Halbwertzeiten fuer Cs-137 reichen von 5 Jahren in Himbeerblaettern bis 32 Jahre in Blaettern von Adlerfarn, wobei die meisten der untersuchten Pflanzenarten effektive Halbwertzeiten von rund 10 Jahre

Fielitz, U.

1999-07-01

271

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

272

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

273

Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBq/kg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess 137Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bq/kg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. (author)

274

Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Caesium (/sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBqkg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the /sup 137/Cs/sup 134/Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess /sup 137/Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bqkg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae.

Byrne, A.R.

1988-01-01

275

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

Gustaf Åhman

1990-09-01

276

Satellite change detection of forest damage near the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial amount of forest within a few kilometers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor station was badly contaminated with radionuclides by the April 26, 1986, explosion and ensuing fire at reactor No. 4. Radiation doses to conifers in some areas were sufficient to cause discoloration of needles within a few weeks. Other areas, receiving smaller doses, showed foliage changes beginning 6 months to a year later. Multispectral imagery available from Landsat sensors is especially suited for monitoring such changes in vegetation. A series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images was developed that span the 2 yr following the accident. Quantitative dose estimation for the exposed conifers requires an objective change detection algorithm and knowledge of the dose-time response of conifers to ionizing radiation. Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation's Hyperscout trademark algorithm is based on an advanced, sensitive technique for change detection particularly suited for multispectral images. The Hyperscout algorithm has been used to assess radiation damage to the forested areas around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

277

Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

2015-02-01

278

Childhood Leukaemia Incidence in Hungary, 1973-2002. Interpolation Model for Analysing the Possible Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of childhood leukaemia in Hungary has yet to be reported, although data are available since the early 70s. The Hungarian data therefore cover the time before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary. A population-based study was carried out using data of the National Paediatric Cancer Registry of Hungary from 1973 to 2002. The total number of cases was 2204. To test the effect of the Chernobyl accident the authors applied a new approach called 'Hypothesized Impact Period Interpolation'-model, which takes into account the increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence and the hypothesized exposure and latency times. The incidence of leukaemia in the age group 0-14 varied between 33.2 and 39.4 per million person-years along the observed 30 year period, and the incidence of childhood leukaemia showed a moderate increase of 0.71% annually (p=0.0105). In the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident the incidence rate was elevated by 2.5% (95% CI: -8.1%; +14.3%), but this change was not statistically significant (p=0.663). The age standardised incidence, the age distribution, the gender ratio, and the magnitude of increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary were similar to other European countries. Applying the presented interpolation method the authors did not find a statistically significant incr not find a statistically significant increase in the leukaemia incidence in the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident

279

Childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary, 1973-2002. Interpolation model for analysing the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of childhood leukaemia in Hungary has yet to be reported, although data are available since the early 70s. The Hungarian data therefore cover the time before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary. A population-based study was carried out using data of the National Paediatric Cancer Registry of Hungary from 1973 to 2002. The total number of cases was 2204. To test the effect of the Chernobyl accident the authors applied a new approach called 'Hypothesized Impact Period Interpolation'-model, which takes into account the increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence and the hypothesized exposure and latency times. The incidence of leukaemia in the age group 0-14 varied between 33.2 and 39.4 per million person-years along the observed 30 year period, and the incidence of childhood leukaemia showed a moderate increase of 0.71% annually (p = 0.0105). In the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident the incidence rate was elevated by 2.5% (95% CI: -8.1%; +14.3%), but this change was not statistically significant (p = 0.663). The age standardised incidence, the age distribution, the gender ratio, and the magnitude of increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary were similar to other European countries. Applying the presented interpolation method the authors did not find a statistically significant increase in the leukaemia incidence in the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident. PMID:16284867

Török, Szabolcs; Borgulya, Gábor; Lobmayer, Péter; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Schuler, Dezsö; Fekete, György

2005-01-01

280

The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

281

Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

282

Radioactive fallout measurements in India after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the levels of manmade radionuclides in air, water, leafy vegetables, milk and other environmental samples assessed at various places in India after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986. The fallout was consisting of mainly volatile radionuclides such as 103Ru, 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba- 140La etc. The levels attained their maximum during 3rd - 4th week of May, 1986. Short lived fission product 131I was also detected in tap water, grass, milk, leafy vegetables and goat's thyroid. The measured activity levels have been compared with the activity levels found during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapon testing. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

283

First consequences to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article first summarizes the facts known at the time, about the causes and events at Chernobyl, and continues with a discussion of the consequences such as the long-term effects of the radioactive contamination of the area affected, radiation-induced carcinogenesis, and latency periods. The lack of reliable and safe information on the effects of low-dose irradiation, and possible radiation effects to be expected in regions far away from the reactor site are dealt with together with the question of whether there is a linear relationship between radiation dose and cancer development, and what would happen if the F.R.G. were to experience such an accident on its own territory. The author finally discusses arguments raised against his own view of the situation and points to another type of damage observable in the country, namely the psychological stress created by the upsurge of fear of the atomic energy. (MG)

284

Computer simulation of the Chernobyl' forth unit accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculated estimates for positive reactivity created as a results of control rod insertion 125 cm deeper as compared with the initial level, which is determined according to the data registered before the Chernobyl-4 reactor accident are considered. The calculations are made in one- and two-group approximations using the DINA and CITATION programs for the reactor polycell model. It is shown that the calculated positive reactivity under these conditions does not exceed 0.6 ?, where ? is the efficient portion of delayed neutrons, ? = 5 x 10-3. The applicability of the data on neutron flux axial distributions obtained using the SKALA system standard technique for computer estimation of the positive reactivity is critically discussed. 18 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

285

Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131I, 132Te, 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89Sr and 90Sr. Very quickly, 137Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and 90Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg-1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

286

The frequency of chromosome exchanges in critical groups of Chernobyl accident victims according to conventional chromosome analysis and FISH method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional cytogenetic with group karyotyping and FISH analyses were performed in 16 Chernobyl accident liquidators diagnosed in 1986 with acute radiation sickness of different degree of severity. The data received confirmed the validity of FISH both as for evaluation of stable chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of irradiated persons as enough high sensitivity of FISH for the tentative retrospective dose evaluation in the remote period after acute irradiation and during chronic radiation exposure in doses above 0.25 Gy

287

DATABASE OF METEOROLOGICAL AND RADIATION MEASUREMENTS MADE IN BELARUS DURING THE FIRST THREE MONTHS FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT  

OpenAIRE

Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different ra...

Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voilleque?, Paul; Bouville, Andre?

2012-01-01

288

The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contamopulation safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends

289

[The assessment of remote cytogenetic effects in clean up workers of Chernobyl accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytogenetic study cohort of the liquidators of the consequences of Chernobyl accident over 4-6 years after clean-up working in the alienation zone was carried out by conventional method. For The results of study liquidators cohort of 1986-1987 years have shown decreasing the frequency of cells with unstable chromosome aberrations for 25-30% per each year of examination. The frequency of chromosomal and chromatid-type aberrations have been also decreasing. The increasing of frequency radiation markers (dicentrics and rings) was observed for liquidators who worked in Chernobyl in 1988 year. Significant distinctions on other cytogenetics parameters as well as for liquidators who worked in Chernobyl in 1989 year were not observed perhaps of small number of examined cohorts. Nevertheless level of chromosome aberrations observed in remote post radiation period was significantly higher then controls that may be caused by radiation-induced genome instability. Obtained data show the importance of cytogenetic examination of that cohort for estimation and the prognosis the risk of delayed negative consequences of exposure. PMID:19947519

Golub, E V

2009-01-01

290

Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest incidence of cancer before the accident coincidentally had the lowest fallout of (137)Cs. Increasing the geographical resolution of exposure from nine county averages to 612 parish averages resulted in a two to three times higher value of variance in the regression model. There was a secular trend with an increase in age-standardized incidence of cancer in both genders from 1980 to 2009, but significant only in females. This trend was stronger and statistically significant for both genders in the general Swedish population compared to the nine counties. In conclusion, using both high quality cancer registry data and high resolution exposure maps of (137)Cs deposition, it was not possible to distinguish an effect of (137)Cs on cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Sweden. PMID:24811728

Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

2014-08-01

291

Characteristics of thyroid hormonal homeostasis in thyroid hyperplasia in liquidators of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid hyperplasia the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident is pre disease either with preserved normal hypophyseo-thyroid interactions in a some of the patients or accompanied by hypophyseo-thyroid disbalance (disease) requiring the respective treatment

292

Evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident (as of May 30, 1986)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compact presentation of information, as available on May 30, 1986, including the design of the Chernobyl reactor, the presumed course of events and causes of the accident, and radiological consequences. (HP)

293

The analysis of morbidity by a cancer of a thyroid gland of children on the moment of an exposure I131 owing to Chernobyl accident, registered in the Uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of cohort of the observation generated by indicated criteria: number 65575 person, including in the Gomel area 25215, in Bryansk - 40360, number of the registered cases of disease 226, including 132 in the Gomel area and 94 in Bryansk area, number of person-years of observation 1021229, including in the Gomel area 391363 of observation, in Bryansk - 629866, average exposure dose of a thyroid gland by radioisotopes of 131I in cohort 0,71 Gy, in the Gomel area 1,5 Gy, in Bryansk area - 0,2 Gy. Estimated a role of radiation and various not radiation risk factors, such as a sex, age on the moment of an exposure. The analysis of not radiation risk factors is spent separately for the Gomel area, Bryansk area and joined cohort. Among the persons irradiated in children's age in the Gomel area, the risk of disease by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the boys and girls was identical (RR=1,02, 95 % CI 0,72-1,44), in too time in Bryansk area the risk of disease of the girls in 3,4 times was higher (95 % CI 2,0-5,6), than among the boys. In joined cohort the girl in 1,5 times more often were sick of a cancer of a thyroid gland (95 % CI 1,16-2,0) in comparison with the boys. The analysis dose of dependence of a case rate by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the persons irradiated in children's age, has shown presence of a linear relation dose - effect, and in joined cohort this dependence most statistically is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, Rlly is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, R2=0,99). The value of exuberant relative risk on a dose 1 Gy has made 4,54 (95 % CI 2,43-9,78). (author)

294

The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

295

Prevalence of bronchopulmonary pathology in the participants of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiologic examination of the participants of the Chernobyl accident response is performed. Fact of acute effect of the Chernobyl aerosol inhalation on respiratory organs is found. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary diseases in participants of accident response is almost 2 times higher than that in reference group. Further program of investigations includes the hospital stage and the preventive measures at prehospital stage under ambulatory conditions. Assessments of the efficiency of performed treatment - prophylactic measures and their economic benefit are made

296

Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

297

Preliminary calculation of the plume rise for the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculation of plume rise for the Chernobyl accident is made on assumption that at 1.23 a.m. on 26 April 1986 the reactor core started burning from the top in a cylindrical shape with radius at half of the core diameter and continued burning until it reached the bottom. Briggs formulae for a buoyant plume with the rise limited by ambient stability and ambient turbulence are used with the assumptions of atmospheric stability in inversion and neutral condition respectively. The results illustrate that even with very conservative assumption of the burning rate, the plume would rise beyond the inversion layer and penetrate the inversion layer to the mixed layer having turbulence domination. Therefore the plume rise calculated with the assumption of turbulence stability would give the more realistic results. If the core was burnt with the burning rate of about 7-12 cm/hr, the plume rise from the accident would be in the range of 650-1100 m

298

Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

299

North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

300

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p<0.001) differences on intelligence scale of exposed children: the full scale IQ and verbal IQ are lower in exposed versus non exposed children. Differences on performance IQ are non significant (p>0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

2006-07-01

301

Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the seath due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

302

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1997-11-01

303

Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

304

Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

305

Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

306

The outcome of local radiation injuries: 14 years of follow-up after the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on April 26, 1986 was the largest in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Of the 237 individuals initially suspected to have been significantly exposed to radiation during or in the immediate aftermath of the accident, the diagnosis of acute radiation sickness (ARS) could be confirmed in 134 cases on the basis of clinical symptoms. Of these, 54 patients suffered from cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) to varying degrees. Among the 28 patients who died from the immediate consequences of accidental radiation exposure, acute hemopoietic syndrome due to bone marrow failure was the primary cause of death only in a minority. In 16 of these 28 deaths, the primary cause was attributed to CRS. This report describes the characteristic cutaneous sequelae as well as associated clinical symptoms and diseases of 15 survivors of the Chernobyl accident with severe localized exposure who were systematically followed up by our groups between 1991 and 2000. All patients presented with CRS of varying severity, showing xerosis, cutaneous telangiectasias and subungual splinter hemorrhages, hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, epidermal atrophy, disseminated keratoses, extensive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis with partial ulcerations, and pigmentary changes including radiation lentigo. Surprisingly, no cutaneous malignancies have been detected so far in those areas that received large radiation exposures and that developed keratoses; however, two patients first presented in 1999 with basal cell carcinomas on the nape of the neck and the right lower eyelid, areas that received lower exposures. During the follow-up period, two patients were lost due to death from myelodysplastic syndrome in 1995 and acute myelogenous leukemia in 1998, respectively. Other radiation-induced diseases such as dry eye syndrome (3/15), radiation cataract (5/15), xerostomia (4/15) and increased FSH levels (7/15) indicating impaired fertility were also documented. This study, which analyzes 14 years in the clinical course of a cohort of patients with a unique exposure pattern, corroborates the requirement for long-term, if not life-long, follow-up not only in atomic bomb survivors, but also after predominantly local radiation exposure. PMID:11182791

Gottlöber, P; Steinert, M; Weiss, M; Bebeshko, V; Belyi, D; Nadejina, N; Stefani, F H; Wagemaker, G; Fliedner, T M; Peter, R U

2001-03-01

307

Accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early morning of April 26, 1986, as the culmination of an almost incredible series of errors that began 24 hours earlier, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear complex, a so-called RBMK-1000 reactor, suffered the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. There was an uncontrolled nuclear excursion, release of a large amount of energy, possibly comparable to hundreds of pounds of TNT, blowing the top off the reactor. There was no containment, in the traditional American sense, so the roof of the building was blown out, an unprecedented amount of radioactivity was released to the biosphere, and a graphite fire was ignited, which burned for days. The radiation that was released spread through Eastern Europe (the world first learned of it through Swedish observations), bringing with it both official and unofficial protests that the Soviet Union had made no announcement of the radiation release until they were, in effect, caught. In fact, after a few days, the Soviets seemed to recognize that nuclear safety is a matter of international concern, and became quite open in their search for cooperation. They invited officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to visit the area and to fly over the plant, and agreed, in the end, to make a complete disclosure of the details of the accident at a special meeting of IAEA in Vienna, August 25 to 29, 1986. In preparation for that meeting they distributed a lengthy (400 pages) report on the event. This phy (400 pages) report on the event. This paper reviews this report

308

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited. (author)

309

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

K. Rissanen

1990-09-01

310

Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive hot particles were observed in the fallout in Northern Europe after Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986. During the first few days the core debris matter was transported to Northwest over the cold Baltic Sea towards Finland, Sweden and Norway. Hot particles were first seen in the surface air when the main plume stayed still high airborne. Later these particles were found in ventilation filters, needles, lichen etc. especially in southwestern parts of Finland. The fallout was carefully surveyed and its radioactivity level did not give reason to any serious alarm. For the present study hot particles were isolated from Scots pine needles collected on 28 and 29 of april 1986 near the town Uusikaupunki in southwestern Finland by the sea. These particles represent the first dry deposition period. Hot particles on the needles were isolated by autoradiographic technique, and the radioactivity in the particles was determined by gamma spectroscopy. This report present the results from 21 isolated hot particles from this area: composition, size, shape, content and radioactivity level

311

Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

312

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH)

313

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

314

Characteristic of thyroid diseases in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study involved 309 liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant (192 patients were investigated in 1990-1991 and 117 in 1992-1994). Nodular goiter and autoimmune thyroiditis (diffuse and nodular forms) against the background of thyroid hyperplasia occupy the leading place among the thyroid diseases in these patients. Thyroid cancer developed mainly in those liquidators who stayed in the zone of the accident during 'iodine' period. The incidence of thyroid pathology (mainly that autoimmune character and thyroid cancer) have increased in the participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up recently

315

An analysis of the print media in Europe following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The print media coverage of the Chernobyl accident was analysed in seven European countries. The goal was to identify common communications problems and to suggest how they might be resolved. Aside from difficulties with technical information on units of radiation exposure, contamination, and effects, the media did a reasonably good job of presenting to the public the information they were given by official sources. Some evidence of confusion was found, and it affected the credibility of communications, but the press seemed to be reflecting confusion existing within crisis management teams and the scientific community rather than creating it. Some of the more common problems are discussed and ideas for improving crisis management and the communication of information about risks are explored

316

Environmental radioactivity in the soil of the Republic of Korea one decade after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During Chernobyl accident a large amount of radionuclides were released into atmosphere and added to atmospheric nuclide inventory from weapons tests. In early May of 1986 in South Korea, radioactivities such as 1-131 and Cs-137 were detected in surface air and rain water. That indicated that Chernobyl debris spreaded to far Eastern Asia. In the present time, the long-lived radionuclides have been deposited on the soil of Korean peninsular resulted from Chernobyl accident as well as from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Meanwhile, it has been reported that isotopic properties in fallout differ significantly, depending on their origin. Several studies have reported that plutonium isotopic ratio, Pu-238 to Pu-239,240 in particular, in fallout originated from Chernobyl accident was quite different from the ratio in global fallout from nuclear tests and burnup of SNAP-9A satellite using Pu-238 as energy sources. As soil, in terrestrial environment, is a principal reservoir of man-made radionuclides, a study on isotopic characteristic in soil can give some information on how Chernobyl accident is effecting on Korean environment. In this study, the vertical inventory of radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and Cs-137, and their isotopic ratios in soils were investigated to estimate the contribution of Chernobyl derived-nuclides to Korean environment

317

Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

318

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

319

A 25 year retrospective review of the psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl Forum Report from the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster concluded that mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident. This paper provides an updated review of research on the psychological impact of the accident during the 25 year period since the catastrophe began. First responders and clean-up workers had the greatest exposure to radiation. Recent studies show that their rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder remain elevated two decades later. Very young children and those in utero who lived near the plant when it exploded or in severely contaminated areas have been the subject of considerable research, but the findings are inconsistent. Recent studies of prenatally exposed children conducted in Kiev, Norway and Finland point to specific neuropsychological and psychological impairments associated with radiation exposure, whereas other studies found no significant cognitive or mental health effects in exposed children grown up. General population studies report increased rates of poor self-rated health as well as clinical and subclinical depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mothers of young children exposed to the disaster remain a high-risk group for these conditions, primarily due to lingering worries about the adverse health effects on their families. Thus, long-term mental health consequences continue to be a concern. The unmet need for mental health care in affected regions remains an important public health challenge 25 years later. Future research is needed that combines physical and mental health outcome measures to complete the clinical picture. PMID:21330117

Bromet, E J; Havenaar, J M; Guey, L T

2011-05-01

320

Determining economic cost of medical interventions in Belarus due to Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Using Chernobyl's impact on Belarus as an example, the goal of this project is to determine the health-related costs of a major nuclear accident to aid in contingency planning for all nations, educate the public about the potential impact on health of man-made nuclear accidents and to provide more impetus for development of safer nuclear power generation. An assessment of these costs by an international group will support Republic of Belarus in its studies of the costs and benefits of ongoing Chernobyl-related health care activities. This study is a retrospective analysis of the costs in Chernobyl radiation exposed populations associated with medical care and illness prevention. Data selection for analysis was determined by estimated financial impact. All factors expected to influence total cost by less than 1 % were not analyzed. Medical consequences, such as reduced birth rate, which did not increase medical expenditures where also not included. Normal health expenditures where subtracted. Most expenditures are being estimated from the services provided. Data to be included has been gathered since 1986 and is lo in various sites, including budgets and reports of various ministries of the Republic of Belarus and records in the Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, the Chernobyl Committee of the Ministry of Health, and other locations. Therefore, some figures will be estimated based on best evidence and current literature. Out best evidence and current literature. Outcomes of sensitivity studies and uncertainty estimates will be performed once the data collection is completed and assessed. Data to be included in the financial estimate includes: Evacuation from restricted territories; Added medical facilities and establishment of preventive health measures; Decontamination and radiation monitoring of contaminated areas; Costs associated with research activities on related problems; General categories of medical costs, including impact of psychosocial factors; Additional medical care and services for liquidators because of radiation exposure; Special costs, such as vitamin distribution, benefits for children and pregnant women; Research activities on radiation related disease; Treatment of radiation-linked diseases; Development and maintenance of registries. Following data-gathering, the project will develop an economic impact analysis technique and analyze data. Final reports and data sheets will be prepared for the Belarus Government, WHO, IAEA, and other International organizations; and both scientific reports and general interest papers will be prepared for publication

321

The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

322

Outcome of pregnancies in some counties in Norway prior and subsequent to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in six counties in Norway has been studied during the 12 months prior and subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. The accident took place in a period with annual increase of births of approximately 3%. However, in the year after the accident a decrease of 0.7% was observed with particularly low numbers during February to April 1987. Concomitantly, the miscarriage fraction of all pregnancies increased by 16.3% and particularly in the period from November 1986 to January 1987. The same pattern was found when observations from a big hospital were analyzed separately. When the time of conceptions was taken into consideration, it was found that conceptions during the period from May to July 1986 ended more often as miscarriages. The authors have no explanation of the observations. The external radiation exposure seems too small to have produced these effects. The internal radiation from food may have played a role. People may also have changed their food intake, using less vegetables, due to fear of these being polluted by radioactive fallout. 13 refs

323

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on the gametes of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The genetic effects of exposure to radiation following the Chernobyl accident are assessed in Scots pine populations in a range of contamination levels from 5 to 500 Ci/km2. Estimates are performed of the number of cells with chromosomal aberrations in the first mitosis of the embryonal root and of the mutations altering the effect of loci coding for the synthesis of isoenzymes in the megasporophytes of seeds which developed from megaspores exposed to an acute dose of radiation during the first few days following the accident. The results of the analyses point to significant genetic effects induced in the pine gametes by the doses received shortly after the accident. The frequency of gene mutations revealed by electrophoresis with 37,070 genes screened exceeds the spontaneous level of mutation by a factor of 4-17, while the number of cells with chromosomal aberrations surpasses the control 1.5-7 times, depending on the level of contamination of the area on which the populations occur

324

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

Jacob, P.

1996-05-01

325

Effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on freshwater organisms and ecosystems in the northern Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of studies have examined the direct human health effects of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident, but little has been done to assess the effects on wild organisms, or the cycling of contaminants in the local environment. The authors sampled fish, molluscs, water and sediment from 10 ponds within and outside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Sediments contained 0.07 to 2.5 pCi/g 134Cs and 1.1 to 33 pCi/g 137Cs. Similar levels occur in lakes at nuclear production facilities in the US. Waters were soft (conductivity 45-450 ?S/cm) and low in Ca and K, conditions which favor the uptake of contaminants by biota. In addition to radionuclides, fish from the region contained up to 0.5 ppm Hg in edible muscle. Fish and molluscs are currently being evaluated for possible genetic damage due to contaminant exposure by flow cytometry, DNA strand-breakage assay, and cytogenetic techniques. The ponds surveyed are in an agricultural region, with subsistence hunting and fishing, suggesting that contaminants accumulated in freshwater systems may be entering humans via diet

326

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

327

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Feder000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This mee

328

Clinically observed effects in individuals exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident resulted in an unprecedented total number of 237 individuals who were suspected of suffering from acute radiation sickness (ARS). All patients had been exposed either as personnel at the reactor or as liquidators (rescue workers) in the first days after the accident. The diagnosis was confirmed in 134 cases. Of these, 41 had mild (Grade I) ARS; one additional patient is still disputed; all survived. Fifty patients had Grade II ARS, of whom one died. Seven patients out of 22 with Grade III ARS died. Of the most severely affected 21 patients, who suffered from Grade IV ARS, all but one died despite intensive treatment. Among the Grade IV ARS patients, gastrointestinal damage and radiation skin burns were the most common complicating factors. In the last ten years, nine of the ARS patients and five of the non-confirmed cases have died. Their deaths do not relate to the original severity of ARS and are, in the majority of cases, probably not directly attributable to the radiation exposure. To improve care for the victims of such exposures, a number of issues need to be addressed, such as: The reasons for the failure of the treatment of bone marrow transplantation made available to the most severely affected patients; immediate diagnosis and alternative modes of treatment; the best strategy for the medical management of the acutely exposed radiation accident victim in the future in view of new developments; and the quality of life of the surviving pand the quality of life of the surviving patients. It was realized almost immediately that from the medical point of view the persons acutely exposed as a result of an accident on this scale are difficult to manage, since specialized centres have a capacity for only a few patients. The experience gained from these patients has provided additional information about the mechanisms of acute radiation injury. 37 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

329

Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that thee less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

330

Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscaperibution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

331

Environmental radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in 1986-1988 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are reviewed. Airborne radioactivity, radionuclides in deposits, in situ measurements of external gamma radiation, and radionuclides in foodstuffs and water are discussed. Of the over thirty nuclides initially identified from air samples, only 137Cs and 134Cs can presently be detected. The concentration of 137Cs has decreased slowly, currently being about ten times higher than it was before the Chernobyl accident. In deposition the ratio of 137Cs to 90Sr varied at different sampling stations from 10 to 110, from 3 to 70 and from 5 to 60 in 1986, 1987 and 1988, respectively. On 1 October 1987 the mean value of 137Cs surface activity for the 461 municipalities was 10.9 kBq/m2, the population weighted mean environmental dose rate being 0.037 ?Sv/h. The distribution pattern of 137Cs fallout also represents the distribution of other volatile nuclides in Finland. The pattern of non-volatile nuclides is related to the distribution of hot particles. In almost all terrestrial foodstuffs the maximum radiocaesium contents were found in 1986. Since then the annual decrease in agricultural products has been substantial. Efficient uptake from the soil mostly explains the radiocaesium contents of wild berries and mushrooms. In predatory fish maximum values of oms. In predatory fish maximum values of 137Cs were reached in 1988 at the latest. Milk and beef made the dominant contribution to dietary intakes in the first fallout year. In the second year, the contribution of natural products to intakes almost equalled and in the third year exceeded that of agricultural produce. (author). 15 refs, 14 figs

332

Beta-ray exposure by the reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Explained are cases of beta-ray (BR) exposure by reactor accidents, involving Fukushima Nuclear Plant Accident where measures taken by authors are also described for estimation of BR dose at the reactor and of personal exposed BR dose. The reactor accidents make a mixed radiation field of gamma-ray (GR) and BR from the fission product. At the Accident SL-1 (Stationary Low-power Reactor No. 1) in US (1961), it is reported that BR dose was 4-5 times as high as GR, and BR exposure was a limiting factor for working. BR exposure was also problematic at Three Mile Island Accident (1979) and thoroughgoing protection of BR was actually conducted. At Chernobyl Accident (1986), the BR exposure was most greatly noticed important as it had been serious and protective devices, insufficient for personnel. Acute illness was seen in reactor operators and firemen, many of whose skin BR doses equivalent to the marrow were estimated to be 10-30 times higher than gamma, 400-500 Gy. The exposed regions were their face and limb. At Fukushima Accident (2011), authors measured dose rates of BR and GR of the soil collected at a place 500-1000 m afar from the reactor with an ionization chamber AE-133B (Applied Engineering Corp.). Major nuclides were found to be 131I, 132Te-132I, 134Cs, 137Cs-137mBa, etc. Ratio BR/GR was 2-7. Based on this, doses were calculated with Monte Carlo transport code using those radionuclide sources to find that results were agreeable with daily changes of radiation dose after the Accident, that ratios of 70 mc-m equivalent BR doses at 50 (foot) and 160 (face) cm height above the ground/GR dose at 130 cm were 10 and 2, respectively, and that at GR dose assumed to be 100 mSv, the naked skin dose was 1 Sv to knee and 200 mSv to face, conceivably higher than the actual dose as the protection had been conducted. BR dose to the lens was estimated to be 4-6 mSv. Thus the BR doses were apparently much smaller than those at Chernobyl Accident. (T.T.)

333

The internal exposure after Chernobyl - what is left over in 1998?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident in Chernobyl the opinion was often heard that the exposure by 137Cs due to its long half-life of 30 years would last over decades. But also experts used half-lives as observed after the nuclear weapons test in their calculations, resulting in much higher long-term exposure predictions than later actually observed. As shown before, the 137Cs activity concentration in all relevant foodstuffs decreased much more rapidly than observed previously after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective half-lives of 137Cs in foodstuffs were about 1.5-2 instead of 4 years as observed after weapons tests. This results in almost unmeasurable activity concentrations in foodstuffs in 1998. By specific sampling, special sample preparation and long-term measurements efforts were undertaken to determine the presently remaining activity concentrations. From these an ingestion dose of 3.9 ?Sv for the adult and 1.7 ?Sv for the 5 years infant is derived in Austria 12 years after the fallout. This is equivalent to 1% of the exposure in the first year after the reactor accident in Chernobyl or 0.1% of the natural annual exposure, respectively. (orig.)

334

Some aspects of radioactive contamination after Chernobyl accident in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl disaster, the radioactive cloud passage over Romania beginning with the April 30th, 1986 caused fall-out of different intensities in different regions. The principal contributors to the radioactive exposure during the month of May and rest of 1986 were the short and medium half-live radionuclides: 132Te + 132I, 131I, 140Ba + 140La, 103Ru + 103Rh, 106Ru + 106Rh, 95Zr + 95Nb, 136Cs, 134Cs, 141Ce, 144Ce and 125Sb. After four-five years only 137Cs and 90Sr remained significant radioactive contaminants. During May 1986 the grass was the mostly affected component of the environment and it contaminated rapidly the majority of foods. Measurements made on the daily gathered pollen samples and eggs during May 1986 clearly indicated that these samples can be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of the atmospheric air and, respectively, for soil and grass. Regarding soil contamination, the higher 134+137Cs deposits in Romania following the northeast-southwest direction were measured, some of these being above 80 kBq/m2. This direction is the same with the cloud passage over Romania during the first week of May 1986 and it was confirmed by measurements in the former Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, and south of Italy. (author)ece, and south of Italy. (author)

335

Simulation of ¹³?Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian peninsula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to (137)Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of (137)Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of (137)Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the 'Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident' and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on (137)Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2-3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m(-2) and 100 kBq m(-2). Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:25173864

Simsek, V; Pozzoli, L; Unal, A; Kindap, T; Karaca, M

2014-11-15

336

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

337

Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

338

Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

339

Management of medical assistance provided to participants of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently in the Republic of Moldova there are 2675 people who had suffered from sequelae of Chernobyl accident. In the paper the morbidity (incidence and prevalence), disability and mortality among participants in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences for the period of 2007-2010 were studied. The analysis of morbidity among 'liquidators' during 2007-2010 in the Republic of Moldova reveals the decline of incidence and prevalence due to better monitoring, opportune diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. Cancer and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for 'liquidators'.

340

Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

341

Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form 137Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from 137Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

342

Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)] [and others

1996-12-01

343

The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested.New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. PMID:23295495

Balonov, Mikhail

2013-03-01

344

Experience in studying mortality and death causes of the population of 5 Russian regions affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the investigation results of the mortality causes in the Bryansk, Kaluga, Ryazan, Smolensk and Tula regions affected by the Chernobyl accident during 1991. The defects characteristic for the official statistic of the mortality preventing the accurate estimation of the effect chronic exposure of the population on a person pathology, were detected. It is shown that it is possible to estimate the risk of irradiation only for groups of persons included in the Russian medical-and-dosimetry list, but it covers only separate groups of the population instead of all the population of the contaminated territories

345

Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

346

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

347

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes anum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 {+-} 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses recd by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 {mu}Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

Franic, Z.; Marovic, G. [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia)

2006-07-01

348

Reconstruction of irradiation doses for the liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the research was to study the external doses to the liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The method of dose reconstruction was based on the questionnaire which was developed and practically tested. Semi-empirical method of the retrospective estimation of the dose based on Cs 137 contamination data was applied to calculate the external dose. The given method links the dose with the average density of surface contamination. All contaminated territories were subdivided in three zones with respect to the contribution to the dose from the cloud and the composition of short-life radionuclides of the fall-out and the dose burden to the liquidators at the initial and intermediate phases after the accident. The given study determines the procedure of calculation and the requirements to the initial data to reconstruct the external dose, i.e. the date of the examination; average density of contamination for a certain settlement, where the liquidator worked; the dwelling type where he lived in the contaminated area; occupation; the dates of the arrival and the departure from the contaminated zone. Effective internal dose is calculated as multiplication of the integral of Cs body content for a certain period of time and the coefficient of the dose rate. The amount of the radionuclides absorbed by the body during the stay at the contaminated area and the exposure during the period of their extraction from the organism after the return to permanent place of residence contribute to the dose. The reconstructed dose to a liquidator of the accident is determined as a sum of the internal and the external doses. The analysis of this method application demonstrated that in a number of cases the calculated doses could be compared with those from the register. In other cases the differences were observed which can be explained by the drawbacks of the method, uncertainties of the questionnaire data and the mistakes in calculation of the doses in 1986-1987. The application of the method of dose reconstruction enables to determine the doses to the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and to analyse their link with the morbidity

349

Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the Collective thyroid dose for the Belarusian population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, a widespread radioactive contamination occurred over the territory of the Republic of Belarus. During the first few weeks after the accident, the intake of 131I, due essentially to the consumption of contaminated milk, resulted in substantial thyroid exposures for many Belarusians. The sharp increase of thyroid cancer cases among children that has been observed since the early 1990s has triggered many studies on the comparison between the levels of thyroid exposure among children and the number of cancer cases. In 1996, we estimated the collective thyroid dose to the Belarusian population to be about 510,000 person Gy (including 130,000 person Gy for the children up to 7 years old at the time of the accident). Since 1996, we have improved the dose assessment model used for 7.3 million residents (73%) of Belarus. Two models will be to assess thyroid doses for rural inhabitants: the first one is based on relationship between mean adult-thyroid dose and the deposition density of 131I or 137Cs in the settlements where lived a sufficient number of residents whose thyroids were measured in vivo in May through beginning of June 1986; the second one is an environmental transfer model making use of the available measurements of 131I in fallout, grass, and milk. For the other 2.7 million residents we will estimate the collective dose based on doses obtained by residents of corresponding settbtained by residents of corresponding settlements or areas, whose thyroids were measured in 1986. The associated uncertainties will be discussed. The magnitude of the collective dose will be compared to the number of observed thyroid cancer cases among children, Oblast by Oblast. The variations observed in various Oblasts of Belarus will be analyzed. (author)

350

Iarc-coordinated study of cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Making use of exposure estimates and observation on groups who have been followed up following radiation exposure, several national and international bodies have made predictions of the excess number of cancer cases which are expected to arise in Europe as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The general consensus has been that, for most European populations, the excess would be of a very small magnitude and unlikely to be detectable above background and that, consequently, implementation of special cancer studies could not be justified. Why, therefore, carriyng out this registry-based study. While wide use of cancer registries has been made in studying past trends in risk, this study probably represents the first situation where registries have undertaken to prospectively monitor future trends in relation to a specific exposure. As such, it provides a model for future co-operation among existing cancer registries in projects of this kind, and should serve to encourage the establishment of routine cancer registration where it does not yet exist

351

Effect of natural ?-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 2, and >5 Ci/m2, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, ?-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture ?-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural ?-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or ?-tocopherol. Other common blood bior ?-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of ?-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans ?-carotene, ?-carotene, but not 9-cis ?-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural ?-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.)

352

Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

2014-11-01

353

Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident; Lehren aus dem Tschernobyl-Reaktorunfall fuer Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG) [Deutsch] Aus dem Tschernobyl-Reaktorunfall werden Konsequenzen in Deutschland umgesetzt. Sie umfassen die Schaffung gesetzlicher und administrativer Voraussetzungen fuer eine einheitliche Beurteilung von Belastungssituationen und abgestimmten Verhaltensempfehlungen bei der Strahlenschutzvorsorge und fuer den nuklearen Katastrophenschutz. Die Messungen zur Bestimmung der ereignis- und dosisrelevanten Nukliden in den Umweltmedien werden ausgeweitet. Kommunikationseinrichtungen zur Echtzeitinformation der Bevoelkerung sollen geschaffen und internationale Vereinbarungen ueber die gegenseitige Information bei Stoerfaellen in Kernkraftwerken getroffen werden. (DG)

Vogl, J. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Landesentwicklung und Umweltfragen, Muenchen (Germany)

1996-07-01

354

Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

355

Dynamics of natural rehabilitation of Cs 137 soil contamination at the late stage due to the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident, the greatest quantity of radionuclides has fallen on the territory of Belarus, therefore 23% of the territory have been contaminated with Cs 137 with a level exceeding 37 kBq/m2 on the total area of 46.45 thousand km2 that has led to the exclusion from an agricultural rotation 2,64 thousand km2 of farmland. Now, external gamma-radiation on the territory of Belarus is formed due to 'Chernobyl' and 'global' (caused by tests of the nuclear weapon) radioactive losses. A contribution is also done by natural radioactivity. To-date, due to natural radionuclides decay a radiation conditions in zones of Chernobyl contamination has been stabilized and main dose formation radionuclide is Cs 137. In conformity with clause 4 of the Law 'On legal regime of territories, exposed to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident' the territory of the Republic of Belarus is divided into zones depending on radioactive contamination of soil by radionuclides and sizes of a mean-annual effective dose. The estimation of a dose of external irradiation demands establishment of interrelation between the level of soil contamination with radionuclides and created by them exposure dose power (EDP). As a quantitative size of this link, a normalized on density of contamination of soil Cs 137 EDP at 1 m height is most used which is formed by all radionuclides and is called the transition coefficient 'and is called the transition coefficient 'density of contamination of soil Cs 137 - EDP'. In the given work, empirical values of factor of transition on items of supervision of a network of the radiation monitoring, registered in National System of Environment Monitoring (NSEM) Republic of Belarus have been determined. The carried out data analysis for 1993-2003 showed, that: Value of transition factor within 10 years have changed from 0,054 ?R/h/kBq·m2 to 0,041 ?R/h/kBq·m2 (with 2,0 ?R/h/Ci·km2 to 1,5 ?R/h/Ci·km2). Decrease of EDP from 'Chernobyl' radioactive precipitation at a late stage after the Chernobyl accident is defined by radioactive disintegration of Cs 137, resulting 80% EDP decrease for 1993-2003. To assess an external irradiation dose of inhabitants of settlements which are in zone of radioactive contamination, it is possible to use a value of the transition factor, obtained by results of measurements on observation sites of a network of radiating monitoring NSEM, without making EDP measurement in every radioactive contamination zone settlements. (authors)

356

Chernobyl - ten years after. The reactor accident and the safety of RBMK reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication presents a comprehensive but concise documentation of the reactor accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. All relevant aspects are addressed in a manner and language that can be understood by the general reader with some background in scientific literature reading. The topics are: causes of the accident; safety of RBMK-type nuclear power plants (core design, shutdown systems, engineered safety systems, reactor containment, accident analysis and management system, operational control); safety of the reactor units 1,2 and 3 of the Chernobyl reactor; safety of the sarcophagus; radioactive conramination levels and radioactive wastes on site; the radiobiological situation in the affected areas; health effects of the accident; continued operation of RBMK-type nuclear power plants. Conclusions are drawn with respect to nuclear power plant operation and nuclear safety and radiological safety in Germany. (HP)

357

One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

358

Distributions of radiation exposure in areas contaminated through the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are computer programs available for accident-related radionuclide discharges into the terrestrial environment which generate recommendations for countermeasures and which are designed to make an as realistic a determination of radiation exposure as possible. When such programs were used after the Chernobyl disaster it was found that they were unable to reliably predict internal doses because they lacked a means of modelling food transport. A case in point were parts of Bavaria with high contamination levels were doses determined by whole-body measurements were lower than those found by estimation based on the contamination of local food products. Calculation models that are used for examining planning-basis situations mostly overestimate realistically possible dose levels. This poses the question whether it might not be possible to develop calculation programs for planning-basis situations that give a realistic picture of potential radiation exposure. The present study summarises the results of published data for the purpose of making statements on radiation exposure in areas of Russia, White Russia and Ukraine several years after their contamination by the Chernobyl disaster. It presents results on dose distributions which can contribute to the discussion on the realistic modelling of radiation exposure and the definition of critical groups. The study is divided into sections on internal and external radiation exposure

359

Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two decreated in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works, organizations and key personnel are introduced on these institutes and centers with the major publication list. (Y. Tanaka)

360

Internal contamination equivalent dose rate of Yugoslavian citizen contaminated in April and May 1986. in Chernobyl environment after accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acquisition, human body decontamination, total body (Whole Body Counter-WBC) internal contamination measurements of Yugoslavia citizens contaminated after Chernobyl accident in Chernobyl region, are in the paper described. As the body measurement are made before contamination of Yugoslavian territory, it is assumed that the human equivalent dose rate measured, are originated from Chernobyl environment only. Some statistical selection of measured values are made and those for public relation restricted, in paper are as well presented. Some unexpected spontaneous non contaminated person crossed the contaminated Chernobyl area are described, assuming that they could be a useful practice in case of any fission accident. 7 refs

361

Cancer incidence in population of the Bryansk and Belgorod regions after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Descriptive analysis of 150,000 new cancer cases registered in 1980-2000 in the Bryansk and Belgorod Regions of Russia, radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in different levels, has been carried out. Gender, age at diagnosis, demographic changes and other factors were taking into account. It was demonstrated, that the structure and dynamics of cancer incidence had similar features in two Regions after the accident. It is supposed that low dosed acted as promoters of carcinogenesis

362

The accident in the Sovjet nuclear power plant Chernobyl-4: Second report and supplementary information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sovjet information concerning the Chernobyl-4 accident is reviewed and compared with the information given by the IAEA. Three possible causes are considered: sudden release of Wigner energy stored in the graphite, lack of after-heat removal, nuclear excursion. The fact that RBMK reactors do not have a containment comparable with that of western reactors is emphasized

363

The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

364

The short life radionuclides in meat after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of identification and short life radionuclides (I-131, Te (I)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141, 144, Ru-103, 106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Nb-95, Mo-99, Sb-125) mass activities evaluation in meat (lamb, rabbit, game) after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl in 1986. (author)

365

The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its radiation-biological consequences for our country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author gives an overview, with many measured values in tables and graphs, on the radiation to which air, water and soil as well as the human population - mostly that of Schleswig-Holstein - were exposed after the reactor accident at Chernobyl. In a final risk assessment, the possible somatic and genetic defects are discussed. (MG)

366

Radiation consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the meteorological and weather situation in Hungary in the time following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the contamination of the atmosphere, of soil, and of surface waters are presented. The contamination of food and the incorporation of radioactive iodine and cesium in human organism were measured. The radiation burden of population was estimated. (R.P.)

367

Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

368

Radioactive cesium from the Chernobyl accident in the Greenland Ice Sheet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in Greenland snow together with models of long-range transport have been used to assess radionuclide deposition in the Arctic after the Chernobyl accident. The results suggest that a well-defined layer of radioactive cesium is now present in polar glaciers, providing a new reference for estimating snow accumulation rates and dating ice core samples.

Davidson, C.I.; Harrington, J.R.; Stephenson, M.J.; Monaghan, M.C.; Pudykiewicz, J.; Schell, W.R.

1987-08-07

369

Radioactive cesium from the Chernobyl accident in the Greenland Ice Sheet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in Greenland snow together with models of long-range transport have been used to assess radionuclide deposition in the Arctic after the Chernobyl accident. The results suggest that a well-defined layer of radioactive cesium is now present in polar glaciers, providing a new reference for estimating snow accumulation rates and dating ice core samples

370

Reflexions of Chernobyl accident in works published in different countries during 1986-1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data of INIS system were used to obtain a general picture of investigations connected with Chernobyl accident in the world. Analysis of these data permitted to find the main directions of these works and to define the most important investigated radionuclides, as well as methods and processes used. A quantitative evaluation of each value is given

371

[The study of aberrant methylation in blood leukocytes of liquidators of the Chernobyl accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of genes (P16/CDKN2A, P14/ARF, RASSF1A, GSTP1) in blood leukocytes of liquidators of the Chernobyl accident (n = 83, 38-76 years of age) and control subjects of two groups (n = 48, age ? 35 and n = 65, age > 35) was carried out using methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease analysis followed by PCR. The total number of AciI sites in the analyzed fragments ranged from 2 to 7 for different genes. Only 1 subject (2.1%) from the control group (healthy young individuals, age ? 35) has methylation of the studied CpG--dinucleotides of RASSF1A gene. Promoter methylation of at least one of the genes analyzed was observed in 28.92% liquidators and significantly exceeded (p = 0.016) such rate in a one-age (> 35 years of age) control group (12.31%). A significantly elevated frequency (p = 0.023) of individuals with abnormal methylation of GSTP1 gene in the group of liquidators as compared to the control group was revealed. The occurrence of promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene significantly correlated with aging both in the control group (r = 0.214; p = 0.023) and in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident (r = 0.230; p = 0.036). No similar trend was found for other genes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the growth in the number of methylated loci of a set of genes p16, p14 and GSTP1 is exclusively due to the fact of exposure (OR = 7.32, 95% CI = 2.49-25.83, p-value = 2.7 x 10(-5)). The results obtained demonstrate for the first time the reality of the radiation-induced aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoters of genes involved in the basic protective, functions of cells in the human body in remote periods after radiation exposure. PMID:25764814

2014-01-01

372

Molecular-genetic characterization of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in persons irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elucidate the mechanism of radiation induced leukemia we studied the bcr rearrangements in 19 CML patients irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl accident and 30 CML patients without exposure to ionizing radiation. 48 patients, irrespective of radiation exposure, had M-bcr mRNA, 1 - m-bcr. Clinical-hematological data and analysis of breakpoints (ratio of b2a2 and b3a2 transcripts) demonstrated prevalence of b3a2 among the exposed persons.Regardless of exposure to ionizing radiation the high platelet count cases were more frequent among patients carrying b3a2 transcripts. This study suggests, that formation of chimeric BCR/ABL gene and its genetic products may play an important role in the development of leukemia in either radiation-induced or de novo CML

373

A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be 200 ?Sv for an adult, and 500 ?Sv for a 1 year old child. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. The dose to the adult is received over a lifetime of 50 years and to the child over 70 years. The doses thus do not exceed 0.4% of the background radiation dose received over this time and are well below the total lifetime dose which the ICRP considers permissible for members of the public. It is concluded that fallout from the Chernobyl accident resulted in a very small enhanced dose to members of the public in the environs of Berkeley. (author)

374

Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

375

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer calves exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome aberrations were analysed in 1222 peripheral blood lymphocytes from 24 reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L., calves from central Norway, where considerable fallout from Chernobyl accident had occurred, and in 1532 lymphocytes from 26 calves from three different districts in Northern Norway which were not affected by fallout from the accident. Three dicentrics, two rings, and three translocations were detected in calves from the exposed area, while no dicentrics, nor rings and only one translocation were detected in the control calves. The frequency of chromatid-type aberrations and chromosome deletions did not significantly differ between the two groups. Although the present study is based on a limited number of observations, the radioactive burden in the exposed reindeer, and the differing character of the chromosome aberrations in the two groups, might indicate that certain genetic effects have occurred as a result of the Chernobyl accident in Norwegian reindeer in the most contaminated areas

376

The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

377

Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

378

Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

379

Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

380

Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency of 18-81%, partially disturbed by necrosis - 17-59%, heavy disturbed by necrosis - 0.2-29%. Portion of healthy needle reduced significantly with radioactive contamination in 2011 (r=-0.86; p<0.05). FA{sub W} index valued between 0.040 and 0.054. Significant effect of radiation exposure on FA{sub W} index was not revealed. Fluctuating asymmetry of needle length placed between 0,005 and 0,012. The FA{sub L} value at the most contaminated sites significantly differed (p<0,01) from the reference sites, and this index increased with estimated dose absorbed both in 2011 (r=0,97, p<0,01) and 2013 (r=0,75, p=0,08). Also, triple needles were found in chronically exposed populations, but not in reference ones. Maximum radiation levels in this study were about 130 mGy/year. In some works, chronic dose rate of 100 mGy/year is proposed as a level of chronic exposure safe for biota at population level, which usually means an absence of negative effects on reproduction and survival. We found that morphometric indices in pine needles were not sensitive to such exposures, while developmental instability and necrotic processes activation can be registered at doses of about 90-130 mGy/year. (authors)

Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

2014-07-01

381

Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. 137Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FAL) and weight (FAW) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency of 18-81%, partially disturbed by necrosis - 17-59%, heavy disturbed by necrosis - 0.2-29%. Portion of healthy needle reduced significantly with radioactive contamination in 2011 (r=-0.86; pW index valued between 0.040 and 0.054. Significant effect of radiation exposure on FAW index was not revealed. Fluctuating asymmetry of needle length placed between 0,005 and 0,012. The FAL value at the most contaminated sites significantly differed (p<0,01) from the reference sites, and this index increased with estimated dose absorbed both in 2011 (r=0,97, p<0,01) and 2013 (r=0,75, p=0,08). Also, triple needles were found in chronically exposed populations, but not in reference ones. Maximum radiation levels in this study were about 130 mGy/year. In some works, chronic dose rate of 100 mGy/year is proposed as a level of chronic exposure safe for biota at population level, which usually means an absence of negative effects on reproduction and survival. We found that morphometric indices in pine needles were not sensitive to such exposures, while developmental instability and necrotic processes activation can be registered at doses of about 90-130 mGy/year. (authors)

382

Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

383

The Chernobyl accident: current vision of its causes and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses actual data on the chronology of the accident sequences and the power unit parameters starting from 01:00 April 25, 1986, as well as results of the accident processes computing, obtained from the three models. The authors note that in addition to general conclusions on the causes of the accident process development there are significant differences in the results of its detailed scenario analysis and point out the necessity of further research

384

Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used in a prognosis approach during Fukushima accident. • Operational use of ADM tools by emergency decision makers still raises concerns

385

Assesment of radioactive pollution of environment 10 years after Chernobyl accident. Pt. 1. Pollution in Belarus, Ukraine and in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors review the reasons of Chernobyl accident and means undertaken by Soviet authorities immediately after it happened. Data reported by WHO concerning late affects of radioactive pollution are summarized. Authors conclude that the Chernobyl plant is still major environmental risk. They point to possibility of radioactive contamination of Prypec river

386

Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

387

17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

388

Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of residents of areas contaminated by radioactive discharges from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 5 years after the Chernobyl accident, blood samples were collected and analysed for unstable chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes from persons who have lived continuously in contaminated areas of Belarus and Russia. Including controls, 1855 persons were studied. The majority of subjects comprised 10 cohorts of children including one control group and one group who were initially exposed at a high dose rate prior to their evacuation to a lightly contaminated area. One control and two exposed cohorts of adults were also examined. The mean yields of chromosomal aberrations in the exposed subjects were generally above those of the controls, although statistical significance was observed in only the evacuee children and in children and adults permanently resident in one community where the average environmental contamination with 137Cs was approximately 1000 kBq.m-2. The average dose in excess of background to subjects in this community, received over 5 years, was tentatively estimated from the chromosomal damage and the radionuclide contamination to be approximately 100 mGy. One cohort of children was especially selected to include a number of subjects who have received in utero exposure. There was no significant difference found in the level of induced aberrations in these children's lymphocytes compared with those exposed only post-natally. (author)

389

Biological dosimetry, diagnosis, and treatment of bone-marrow syndrome in victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During our medical investigation and treatment of victims of the Chernobyl accident, we obtained extensive clinical and laboratory data. The injuries to these victims were caused primarily by high external gamma and beta radiation doses. In some cases, these doses were accompanied by skin contamination by beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides and by an intake of radionuclides, although the latter exposure mode was, for the most part, insignificant. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocyte cultures of peripheral blood and bone marrow provided early estimations of radiation doses based on frequency of dicentrics. These dose estimates were well correlated with dose estimates derived from analysis of neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood. Early isolation of patients with acute radiation sickness (ARS), selective decontamination of the intestine, and application of a wide range of antibiotics and antifungal and antiviral medications helped avoid the development of fatal infections in many patients. Autological cryopreserved thrombocyte mass treatment was successfully used for victims in the second and third degree of ARS. Transplantation of allogenic bone marrow (13 cases) was ineffective and frequently caused fatal secondary sickness. As a whole, complications from widespread skin contamination by beta-emitting radionuclides, interstitial radiation pneumonia complicated by infection, and gastrointestinal syndrome were the leading factors in thanatogenesis. 21 refs., 10 figs.,ors in thanatogenesis. 21 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

390

Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

391

Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

392

A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 ?Sv, 1 year old child - 500 ?Sv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

393

Genetic aberrations in Chernobyl-related thyroid cancers: implications for possible future nuclear accidents or nuclear attacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cases of thyroid cancer among children in Belarus represent a unique model system in which the cause of the cancer is known--radiation. Although other sources of radiation-induced cancers are diminishing (survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and individuals exposed to diagnostic or therapeutic radiation) fears of radiation exposure from accidents and terrorism are increasing. Our analysis of current data reveals that Chernobyl-related cancer cases might have a specific pattern of genetic aberrations. These data strongly confirm the hypothesis that radiation-induced cancers might arise as a result of specific gene aberrations that are distinct from those in sporadic cancers, suggesting that methods of prevention and treatment of radiation-induced cancers might require a different approach. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Chernobyl-related papillary thyroid carcinomas will help to identify mechanisms by which radiation causes aberrations and oncogenic cell transformation. Thus, in turn, it will be important in the development of new treatments or technologies to minimize the effects of radiation damage from nuclear accidents or nuclear attacks. PMID:14768999

Ermak, Gennady; Figge, James J; Kartel, Nikolai A; Davies, Kelvin J A

2003-12-01

394

Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

395

Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

396

Environmental distribution and transport of radionuclides in West Cumbria following the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are summarized for the pattern of deposition of Cs-137 and I-131 in West Cumbria, UK, following the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents and on the apparent environmental behaviour in terms of retention on plants, transfer from soil to plant, and transfer to milk and meat. For the 1957 accident, peak deposits of Cs-137 several kilometres south of Windscale are estimated to be in the range ? 16000-40000 Bq/m2. Peak recorded concentration of Cs-137 in milk in October 1957 was 592 Bq/l, two weeks after the accident. The ratio of concentration in milk (Bq/l) to content in herbage (Bq/m2) was ? 0.4 to 0.6 m2/l for Cs-137 and ? 0.06 to 0.1 m2/l for I-131. Peak recorded concentration of Cs-137 in milk in May 1986 was 356 Bq/l and the corresponding ratios of concentration in milk to content in herbage were 0.37 m2/l for Cs-137 and 0.31 m2/l for I-131. The reason for the higher value for I-131 recorded after Chernobyl compared to that for Windscale is not clear. Whereas the initial decline in Cs-137 and I-131 content in herbage after the Windscale accident occurred with a biological half-life of ? 16 d, initial loss after the Chernobyl accident was much more rapid, reflecting both the effects of rainfall and the different times of year of the two inputs. No data appear to exist for radiocaesium concentrations in meat after the Windscale accident. After Chernobyl, radiocaesium concentration ratios for scaesium concentration ratios for soil-to-plant transfer in upland ecosystems ranged from 1 to 10. Radiocaesium concentrations in sheep at some locations did not show any substantial decline from 1986 to 1989. Experience on soil-plant-animal transfer after the Chernobyl accident, coupled with measurements on contents of radiocaesium in soil from the 1950s and 1970s, indicates that Cs-137 concentrations in individual lambs from a few locations in 1958 and the middle 1960s may have been similar to concentrations measured in individual animals in summer 1986. (author)

397

Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of satellite images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper satellite images. Eight images acquired between April 22, 1986 and May 15, 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to derive dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM spectral band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The earliest date showing detectable injury 1 km west of the reactor unit was June 16, 1986. Subsequent dates revealed continued expansion of the affected areas to the west, north, and south. The greatest aerial expansion of this area occurred by October 15, 1986, with vegetation changes evident up to 5 km west, 2 km south, and 2 km north of the damaged Reactor Unit 4. By May 11, 1987, further scene changes were due principally to removal and mitigation efforts by the Soviet authorities. Areas showing spectral evidence of vegetation damage during the previous growing season do not show evidence of recovery and reflectance in the TM Bands 4 and 3 remain higher than surrounding vegetation, which infers that the trees are dead. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and the timing of these effects enabled developing an integrated radiation dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed, involving the combining of remote sensing analyses and estimates of the radionuclide mix with the known radiation effects on conifers, represents a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to severe reactor accidents. (author)

398

Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta}-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 tabs., 34 refs.

Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-10-01

399

Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chern