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1

Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

2000-05-01

2

Worldwide radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of the entire world population to radiation resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has been evaluated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The evaluation accounted for measurement results reported from 34 countries to establish the pattern of transfer during the first year after the accident; the report used fallout measurement experience to make a projection of doses to be received from continued exposure, primarily to 137Cs. On the basis of transfer factors derived from this information and of 137Cs deposition measured or estimated in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment has been estimated. The result is 600,000 man.Sv, with 53% of this to be received in Europe and 36% in the USSR. (The two areas were measured separately.) (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

1989-10-16

3

Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

1993-01-01

4

The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

1993-01-01

5

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

2004-01-01

6

Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

2005-09-06

7

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

2001-01-01

8

Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

1989-01-01

9

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

10

Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

2006-05-15

11

Radiation exposure to the population of Europe following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the occasion of the 20. anniversary of the Chernobyl accident an attempt has been made to evaluate the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the global burden of human cancer in Europe. This required the estimation of radiation doses in each of the 40 European countries. Dose estimation was based on the analysis and compilation of data either published in the scientific literature or provided by local experts. Considerable variability has been observed in exposure levels among the European populations. The average individual doses to the thyroid from the intake of 131I for children aged 1 y were found to vary from ?0.01 mGy in Portugal up to 750 mGy in Gomel Oblast (Belarus). Thyroid doses to adults were consistently lower than the doses received by young children. The average individual effective doses from external exposure and ingestion of long-lived radiocaesium accrued in the period 1986-2005 varied from ?0 in Portugal to ?10 mSv in Gomel Oblast (Belarus) and Bryansk Oblast (Russia). The uncertainties in the dose estimates were subjectively estimated on the basis of the availability and reliability of the radiation data that were used for dose reconstruction in each country. (authors)

2007-01-01

12

Exposures and effects of the Chernobyl accident in Europe and in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl, on 26 April 1986, is the most serious to have occurred in the nuclear industry. There were 134 reported persons suffering from acute radiation sickness, 28 of whom died within four months of the accident. About 1800 cases of childhood thyroid cancer, mostly curable, occurred in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in those who were children at the time of the accident. Apart from this increase, there is currently no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure from the accident, although a trend of an increase of leukaemia is suspected only in Russian clean-up workers. Outside the former Soviet Union, there were many areas in northern and eastern Europe with cesium-137 deposition density in the range 37-200 kBq/m2. These regions represent an area of 45000 km2, about one third of the contaminated areas found in the former Soviet Union. From the radiological point of view, iodine-131 and cesium-137 are the most important radionuclides to consider. The deposition was governed primarily by precipitation occurring during the passage of the radioactive cloud, leading to a complex and variable exposure pattern. The corresponding doses are low (about 1 mSv or lower in 1986). Up to now, the epidemiological studies conducted in northern and eastern Europe revealed no excess of risk. (author)

2002-06-01

13

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

1986-05-06

14

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

1986-01-01

15

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data of the air radioactivity collected in the period 26/4-25/5, 1986 after the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the network of the sampling stations and the analysis carried out are briefly described. The meteorological situation responsible for the long-range transport of the pollutants from the place of emission to our country is also shown

1987-01-01

16

Fallout and exposure of the population in Austria after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fallout situation in Austria after the Chernobyl accident is described and compared to that in neighboring countries. The plume from the destroyed power plant caused an exposure of the population in the first year of 0.55 mSv on the average, of which about 0.1 mSv were caused by external exposure, 0.03 mSv by inhalation, and 0.42 mSv by ingestion. Despite these low exposure values several measures were adopted in Austria, the effects of which are given in this paper. Only three measures (feeding restrictions for fresh grass, a ban on marketing fresh vegetables, and selection of low-activity milk in dairies) resulted in substantial dose reduction effects of about 30% of the total exposure to be expected. The time course in activity concentration in foodstuffs relevant to countermeasures is described. Also, the differences in exposure of the population by ingestion as estimated from foodstuff and whole body measurements is discussed. The decrease in activity concentration in foodstuffs after the direct contamination phase, which is characterized by an effective half-life of about 2 years in the period up to now, is discussed. This decrease in Cs availability results at present in an exposure of approximately 0.5% of initial values, equivalent to about 5 ?Sv per annum or approximately 0.15% of the natural background radiation exposure in Austria. (orig.)

1996-11-01

17

Abnahme der Strahlenexposition nach Tschernobyl. ( Decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident).  

Science.gov (United States)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiatio...

K. Mueck

1993-01-01

18

Pathways, levels and trends of population exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper main regularities of the long-term exposure of the population of former USSR after the Chernobyl accident are described. Influence of some natural, human and social factors on the forming of external and internal dose in the rural and urban population was studied in the most contaminated regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine during 1986-1994. Radioecological processes of I, Cs and Sr nuclides migration in biosphere influencing the processes of population dose formation are considered. The model of their intake in human body was developed and validated by large-scaled measurements of the human body content. The model of external exposure of different population groups was developed and confirmed by the series of individual external dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters. General dosimetric characteristics of the population exposure are given along with some samples of accumulated external and internal effective doses in inhabitants of contaminated areas in 1986-1995. Forecast of the external and internal population effective dose is given for the period of 70 years after the accident

1996-03-18

19

Estimate of the radiation exposure of the Austrian population due to the reactor accident Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl an estimate as objective as possible of the average exposure of the Austrian population in the first year after the accident is attempted. Besides the exposure path of external radiation from the cloud and ground and the exposure due to inhalation the most important path, that caused by ingestion of radionuclides via contaminated food is described in detail. The contribution of various food stuffs to the ingestion dose is described. The effective equivalent dose estimated from the average activity concentration and the average consumption per year of the respective food stuffs amounts to 0.46 mSv for the adult and 0.40 mSv for the one year old infant in the first year. In addition to the dose due to external radiation and inhalation this results in a total dose of 0.53 mSv for the adult and 0.47 mSv for the infant. The ingestion dose estimated in this way poses possibly a substantial overestimation since the whole body activity content measured in numerous whole body counter measurements results in only one third of the dose estimated from food activity concentrations. 18 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

1987-01-01

20

Radioactivity and radiation exposure of the population after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to an extrapolation of measured data, the population in Bavaria will receive an extra effective dose equivalent of 0.5 up to 1.5 mSv during the year following the accident, varying as a function of place and habit of living. This corresponds to 30 p.c. of the 1.5 up to 4 mSv dose commitment to be expected for the coming 50 years as a result of the accident. Calculated doses vary considerably over the whole territory of the FRG. For the Karlsruhe region for example, a dose equivalent of only 0.1 mSv has been calculated for the subsequent one-year period. The Federal Ministry for Research and Technology stated the average 50-year dose commitment of the population to be 1.5 up to 2 mSv. For proper assessment, these data have to be compared with the natural radiation exposure of the population in the FRG, which is between 1.5 and 2 mSv a year on the average, which means a 50-year dose commitment of 75 to 100 mSv. So the environmental radioactivity added through the Chernobyl reactor accident is between a minimum of 25 p.c. and a maximum of 100 p.c. for the first one-year period, decreasing to 1 up to 8 p.c. over the following 50 years. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Radiation exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of environmental contamination in the Federal Republic of Germany caused by the Chernobyl reactor accident is characterized by major regional differences. The Juelich region is among those affected less severely. The data measured, in combination with meteorological parameters, allow a number of model assumptions to be verified which are of importance in designing nuclear installations. They include dry and wet deposition processes and activity enrichment in the human body. Despite difficult boundary conditions, agreement was found to be satisfactory, as a rule, while the models were discovered to be very conservative in the decisive question of radioactivity in humans. The fact that the data measured in personnel monitoring were far below those calculated is indicative of the actual contribution made by ingestion to the total dose and, hence, to the collective dose of the public, being even lower than calculated. Regional variations in concentration had less of an impact on the considerable differences in radiation exposure of the German public than the local intensities of precipitations as the cloud passed through. The depositions on the soil and on plants caused by precipitations (wash-out), gave rise to higher peak exposure levels and local fluctuations than did dry depositions. (orig.)

1987-01-01

22

Chernobyl accident management actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident Management Actions taken during the first days after the Chernobyl accident either proved ineffective or were not fulfilled as reported by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Meeting of Experts in Vienna in August 1986. Most significant to source-term analyses and estimates is that it is now believed that approximately 71% of the initial 190.3 tonne UO_2 fuel load was exposed to a high-temperature oxidizing environment because the core was neither covered with various materials thrown from helicopters to smother the fire nor was the core purged with (liquid) nitrogen. Both these actions were originally believed (on the basis of Soviet reports) to have effectively brought the crises to an end. These results seem to support earlier western far-field source term estimates that significantly more volatile radionuclides may have been released as a result of the accident than reported by the Soviets in August 1986. 46 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

1986-08-00

23

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

1986-01-01

24

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: radiation exposure and remediation strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 keuro/person-Sv). PMID:19811802

Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N; Grebenshikova, N; Isamov, N; Lazarev, N; Panov, A; Ulanovsky, A; Zhuchenko, Y; Zhurba, M

2009-12-15

25

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 k Euro /person-Sv).

Jacob, P., E-mail: Jacob@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Bogdevitch, I. [Scientific Research State Enterprise ' Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry' , Minsk (Belarus); Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Grebenshikova, N. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lazarev, N. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Panov, A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zhuchenko, Y. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Zhurba, M. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine)

2009-12-15

26

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 k Euro /person-Sv).

2009-12-15

27

Iodine-131 exposure of thyroid of Belarus population due to Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Millions of inhabitancies of Republic of Belarus were exposed with 'iodine attack' due to Chernobyl accident. The formatted thyroid doses mainly by iodine-131 led to an unprecedented increase of thyroid cancer incidence, especially among the children and adolescences. The using of the method of radioecological modeling with taking in to account the regional specific of conditions of contamination has done the wide-scale reconstruction of thyroid dose of Belarus population. The estimations of average thyroid doses were carried out for more than 9,5 millions persons at 19 age groups (for 2 403 317 children and adolescences at 0 - 18 years and 6 929 109 adults) which resided in 23 325 settlements at the time of Chernobyl accident. An ecological study of Belarus and Russian areas with relatively good dosimetry resulted in a linear dependence of the excess risk in the range 0.05 to 3 Gy of thyroid doses, therefore 1 061 390 persons under 18 at the time of Chernobyl accident have to be taken under long-term medical follow-up. (Authors)

2004-04-01

28

Iodine-129 in soils from Northern Ukraine and the retrospective dosimetry of the iodine-131 exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-eight soil profiles down to a depth of 40 cm were taken in Russia and Ukraine in 1995 and 1997, respectively, in order to investigate the feasibility of retrospective dosimetry of the 131I exposure after the Chernobyl accident via the long-lived 129I. The sampling sites covered areas almost not affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident such as Moscow/Russia and the Zhitomir district in Ukraine as well as the highly contaminated Korosten and Narodici districts in Ukraine. 129I was analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 127I was measured for some profiles by RNAA or ion chromatography (IC). The results for 127I demonstrated large differences in the capabilities of the soils to store iodine over long time spans. The depth profiles of 129I and of 137Cs showed large differences in the migration behavior between the two nuclides but also for each nuclide among the different sampling sites. Though it cannot be quantified how much 129I and 137Cs was lost out of the soil columns into deeper depths, the inventories in the columns were taken as proxies for the total inventories. For 129I, these inventories were at least three orders of magnitude higher than a pre-nuclear value of 0.084±0.017 mBq m-2 derived from a soil profile taken in 1939 in Lutovinovo/Russia. From the samples from Moscow and Zhitomir, a pre-Chernobyl 129I inventory of (44±24) mBq m-2 was determined, limiting the feasibility of 129I retrospective dosimetry to areas where the 129I inventories exceed 100 mBq m-2. Higher average 129I inventories in the Korosten and Narodici districts of 130 and 848 mBq m-2, respectively, allowed determination of the 129I fallout due to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the total 129I inventories and on literature data for the atomic ratio of 129I/131I=13.6±2.8 for the Chernobyl emissions and on aggregated dose coefficients for 131I, the thyroid exposure due to 131I after the Chernobyl accident was estimated for the inhabitants of four villages in the Korosten and of three villages in the Narodici districts. The limitations and uncertainties of the 129I retrospective dosimetry are discussed

2005-03-20

29

Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-.

Igumnov, S.; Drozdovitch, V.

2004-07-01

30

Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

2004-01-01

31

Simulation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

2011-01-01

32

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Radiation exposure and remediation strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements had in 2004 less than 10 000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data were collected for the in total 545 study settlements. Based on ReSCA calculations (a special developed software tool) an overview of the radiological situation was generated and exemplary remediation strategies were derived for 2010. (orig.)

2009-09-21

33

Measurements after the Chernobyl accident in relation to the exposure of an urban population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident in-situ gammaspectrometric measurements have been performed in Munich and in smaller towns in Southern Bavaria. At the measurement sites about two thirds of the total contamination was deposited by rain. For grassland, the attenuation of the radiation from "1"3"1I, "1"0"3Ru, "1"3"4Cs, and "1"4"0Ba due to the initial migration of the radionuclides in the ground and due to the surface roughness was found to be similar. However, large variations between the retention of the various elements on smooth surfaces have been observed. The absorbed dose-rate inside houses due to Chernobyl radionuclides was the range of one tenth to one hundredth of the absorbed dose-rate over open grassland, depending on the type of house and the location in the house, especially on the angle of view from the detector position to outside locations. The absorbed dose-rate in air due to caesium, isotopes was measured over a period of 1 month to 8 years after the accident. To facilitate a use in models on radiation doses in urban environments, the time dependence of the results were approximated by analytical functions. (author)

2000-05-01

34

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

1987-11-15

35

Asociación de carcinoma renal y la exposición a radiaciones ionizantes después del accidente de Chernobyl / Association of renal cell carcinoma and radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Después del accidente nuclear de Chernobyl, en la población de zonas contaminadas la incidencia de carcinoma renal se incrementó de 4,7 a 7,5 por 100.000 habitantes. La elevada concentración corporal de Cesium 137 (137Cs) así como su eliminación por vía renal los convierte en pacientes de alto riesg [...] o. Presentamos un caso de una paciente, residente en la zona contaminada que acudió a nuestro hospital por dolor abdominal y sensación de masa en flanco izquierdo. Realizamos una revisión de la literatura y analizamos el manejo en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english After the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, in the population of zones contaminated the malignant renal tumors was increased from 4,7 to 7,5 per 100.000 of total population. Cesium 137 (137Cs) constitutes 80- 90% of the internal exposure of these people as well as eliminated through kidneys becomes an [...] important risk factor. We present a case of a patient, residing in radiocontamined area, who consulted for abdominal pain and left flank mass. We review relevant literature and the management of these patients.

A., Blanco Espinosa; M., Leva Vallejo; F., Merlo de la Peña; P., Moreno Arcas; J.L., Carazo Carazo; M.J., Requena Tapia.

36

Chernobyl accident sequence of events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chronology of the Chernobyl accident begins with the 1 a.m. reduction to half power on Friday, April 25, and reports significant events until all fires were extinguished at 5 a.m. on Saturday. Mathematical reconstruction derived some of the times. The sequence uses data from the Soviet report

1986-09-01

37

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

1990-11-02

38

Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

1997-09-01

39

The Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

40

The Chernobyl accident - five years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Thyroid cancer risk following radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population based case-control study of thyroid cancer in young people has been curried out in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Russia (Bryansk, Kagula, Orel and Tula). the study was jointly co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (SMHF). The study population was all those living in these regions who were aged 0-14 at the time of the accident in Belarus and 0-18 in Russia. Cases were recruited over the time period 1992-1998. Two sets of controls were matched to each case-one was matched finely on age at exposure, sex and exact settlement of residence at the time of the accident, the second was matched on age and sex in the same manner but more broadly on region of residence. In all, 301 cases and 1948 controls (489 matched on settlement and 1459 on oblast) were recruited into the study. The majority of subjects are from Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects using a detailed questionnaire, completed by a clinical and ultrasound examination and analyses of blood and urine samples of subjects who consented in donating such samples. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to I-131 in childhood and adolescence and the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation induced thyroid cancer risk. These include age at exposure, iodine intake, genetic background and reproductive history. Individual radiation dose from 131I, and associated uncertainty, was estimated for each subject, as well as dose from external exposures and intake of long-lived nuclides. Each subject was also assigned an index of possible exposure to short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes. Descriptive analyses showed that risk of thyroid cancer in this study was significantly associated with a number of factor that are likely to reflect potential of exposure. Cases in Belarus tended to live more frequently in rural areas,in wooden houses, drink milk from local cows than their respective controls. Controls had more frequently taken preventive measures than cases. The differences between cases and controls in Russia were much less consistent. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. A significant dose response was seen for thyroid cancer. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates from studies of populations having received external radiation exposures during childhood. (Author)

42

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

1986-01-01

43

Dose estimates from protracted external exposure of inhabitants living in contaminated area of Russia after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With respect to the radiation risk assessment, it is important to estimate the accurate doses of inhabitants, due to protracted exposure after the Chernobyl accident as well as the high doses just after the accident. We used a model for estimation of the dose with a long-term temporal change using information of dose rate on the ground and profile of the activity depth distribution in soil. A value C{sub t} [{mu}Sv h{sup -1}/(MBq m{sup -2})], which is dose rate in air corresponding to the initial deposition of {sup 137}Cs on the ground just after the accident, was analyzed using the results of the measurements of dose rate in air and activity in soil samples in the contaminated area of Bryansk region in Russia. From the analysis, the value, C{sub 12} at 12 years after the accident can be predicted by categorizing usage of the land. The values obtained from the results of the actual measurement were 1.5 for forest, 1.0 for pasture, 0.6 for yard, and 0.45 for arable or kitchen garden. Temporal change of C{sub t} was estimated with a vertical migration model of activity in soil developed by Golikov et al. Annual dose due to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs contamination in the period from 1987 to 1999 in farmers, and forest workers were estimated by the model using above values. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by using the personal dose monitoring. The cumulative doses of the inhabitants estimated by the model range from 10 to 60 mSv. (author)

Yonehara, H.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kurotaki, K.; Uchiyama, M. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ramzaev, V.P.; Barishkov, N.; Mishin, A.; Barkovski, A. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2000-05-01

44

Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

1999-01-01

45

Reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

1990-06-30

46

The intensities of exposure doses to gamma radiation: - At the whole territory of SAP Kosovo, measured after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl nuclear accident there have been done measurements of the intensities of the exposure doses to gamma radiation through the territorial communities of SAP Kosovo and that was at the soil surface and at 1,5m. from the soil surface. The results were shown chartly and graphically for the period of May - December 1986 for every community and finally for all territory of SAP Kosovo. (author) 1 tab.; 1 fig

1987-01-01

47

Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid antibodies not associated with significant thyroid dysfunction. This finding is consistent with the short period of follow-up, but it is highly likely that these children will develop clinical thyroid autoimmune diseases in the future. Therefore, screening programmes for this at-risk population should focus, not only on the detection of thyroid nodules and cancer, but also on the development of thyroid autoimmune diseases. PMID:10626541

Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

1999-12-01

48

Radiation exposure in Lower Saxony as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive contamination of the soil in Lower Saxony due to the Chernobyl fallout has been measured and mapped in May 1986, and verified by laboratory analyses. The data reveal considerable differences in the distribution of radionuclides, which is in compliance with the intensity and distribution of fallout during the first days of May 1986. The required measuring activities are not too extensive. About 15 man-days of field work certainly cannot be too much considering the significance of the measured values for the planning activities of the Land. (orig.)

1987-01-01

49

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

2003-05-01

50

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

2008-10-19

51

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

1988-01-01

52

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially 137Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of 137Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

2007-01-01

53

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

2007-07-01

54

Public responses to the Chernobyl accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl caught many European nations by surprise since most risk management institutions were unprepared for an accident of the magnitude and transnational character of Chernobyl. Although confusion and contradictory advice from these institutions dominated the risk management efforts in the early aftermath of the disaster, the dose savings achieved by protective actions were roughly proportional to the magnitude of the nuclear threat. The accident itself and the pol...

1990-01-01

55

Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

2008-11-15

56

Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134Cs + 137Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

57

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

1997-01-01

58

Assessment of population radiation exposure after a nuclear reactor accident. Field studies in Russia and Sweden after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since May 1986 a number of studies connecting to the Chernobyl accident have been performed in Western Sweden and in the Brjansk region in Russia. The total deposition of 137Cs in the investigated area in Sweden was 0.001 - 0.002 MBq/m2, mainly deposited as wet deposition on May 8, and in the Brjansk region 0.9 - 2.7 MBq/m2. In Sweden, studies of the transfer of 134Cs, 137Cs and 131I in soil, grass, cow's milk, cow and man are presented for 1986-1987. Whole-body measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs in 1986-1989 as well as measurements of 131I in thyroids have been made with stationary whole-body counters. External exposure of persons in villages in the Brjansk region are given for the years 1990 - 1994. The method of estimating the body burden of 137Cs from individual urine samples taken in the Brjansk region 1991-1997 has been investigated from samples and whole-body measurements performed by 'lap-geometry'. In the investigated farms in Western Sweden the transfer values of 131l and 134Cs, 137Cs from grass to cow's milk in 1986 were similar to values found in the period of deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. In 1987 the values of transfer of 134Cs and 137Cs were more similar to studies with artificially added cesium in the form of e.g. CsCI. Whole-body measurements in Goeteborg and Malmoe showed an increase of the whole-body content of 134Cs and 137Cs up to one year after the accident followed by a slow decrease. Maximum mean value of 137Cs was 400 - 450 Bq or around 6 Bq/kg in adults. The content of 131I in the thyroids showed already before the wet main deposition measurable values which decreased fast. The internal contamination of 131I was due to inhalation, but also to ingestion. The total effective dose was estimated, based on calculations and measurements, to be 37 ?Sv to 13 ?Sv year one to four after the accident. The external exposure in villages in the Brjansk region was estimated by measurements of thermoluminescence dosemeters. The mean effective dose was estimated to be between 80 and 200 ?Sv per month for adults in 1990 - 1994. The decrease was higher than expected from physical decay of 134Cs and 137Cs alone. In decontaminated villages the external exposure was only about a factor of two lower than in not decontaminated. The mean total effective dose was estimated to be between 1.6 mSv and 3.8 mSv per year in the years 1991 - 1994. Assuming a one-minute measuring time with the different used methods of estimating the whole body content of 137Cs the minimum detectable content was estimated to be between 200 Bq and 6000 Bq, highest for the urine sample method. The 'minimum detectable effective dose' at measurements of external exposure with TLD was estimated to be 30 ?Sv for one month measurements

1998-01-01

59

Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

1996-01-01

60

The Chernobyl accident: Thyroid exposure among the population due to radioiodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different aspects of internal and external exposure to thyroid of inhabitants from the contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine are discussed in the paper. In the case of consumption of contaminated foods contribution to total absorbed dose from internal radioiodine exposure was more than 90%, otherwise (in the case of only inhalation radioiodine intake), not lesser than 85%. 131I exposure to thyroid was the main contribution to internal exposure, and exposure to thyroid from short-lived radioiodines was significant only for the inhabitants who did not consume contaminated foods. Peculiarities of formation of ''measured'' doses are considered. Semiempirical model of relationships between the average internal thyroid dose received by people in the rural settlements and the ground-deposition density of radionuclides in these settlements is presented. It has been indicated the necessity of intensification of 129I measurements in soil. Practical efficiency of used countermeasures for majority people to reduce radioiodine intake is estimated as high as approximately 2 times and caused mainly by removing people from contaminated areas. 11 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

1997-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

NONE

2011-04-15

62

Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure.

Svendsen Erik

2008-05-01

63

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in order to provide a factual basis for future policy decisions. There are two main issues: What actions can be taken to limit the health effects of the accident? And: What risk is still posed by the remains of the reactor in the sarcophagus? Assessing the health effects of radiation exposure due to the accident is very difficult. The doses received as a result of the accident are not well known and the complex relation between dose received and cancer induction is still not well understood. As a result, projections of future numbers of extra cancer cases depend on a number of assumptions and are at best crude estimates. Epidemiological investigations to detect health effects in populations, as opposed to effects in individuals, are complex and extremely difficult to conduct. It is difficult to find appropriate control groups for comparative purposes and to distinguish the influence of the studies themselves on the results. In addition, there has been a general deterioration in public health in the countries of the former Soviet Union since 1987. This general trend towards poorer health has been misinterpreted and misrepresented as being due to the Chernobyl accident. It has been asserted that up to tens of thousands of peoples 'have already died', implying that they were victims of the Chernobyl accident. However, the total death rate in 1990-1992 among 'liquidators' (emergency and recovery workers) did not exceed for that for the corresponding age group in the Russian Federation as a whole. The increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has been dramatic and, if it persists in members of the age group affected as they grow older over the coming decades, it may result in up to several thousand excess cases of thyroid cancer. The number of fatalities would be much lower than this, since treatment should be 90-95% successful if the thyroid cancer is diagnosed early. The affected people should therefore continue to be closely monitored throughout their lives. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

1996-04-08

64

Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle consequence of Chernobyl accident, on the plan of the long term effects, is a very important increase of thyroid cancers frequency on children. The cause is certainly the very important thyroid contamination by radioactive iodine released in atmosphere during this accident. The excess in five years is about 500 cases for Belarus, Ukraine and Russia republics; the incidence has been multiplied by 50 in Belarus. These cancers, appeared in the great majority on children contaminated before they were five years old, are very invasive; local and regional extensions are important, metastasis are numerous. They are cured in an unperfect manner. It is impossible to tell what will be the future of this epidemic. It seems that children epidemic is going to decrease; the increase of adult epidemic is modest but it can become more serious. If stable iodine distribution had been correctly made, it is likely that the number of cases would have been lower. Iodine storages have been constituted in France, but distribution rules are not still defined. No augmentation of others cancers appeared especially for leukemia. 15 refs., 3 tabs

1995-06-01

65

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

1996-04-08

66

Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

2003-08-17

67

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

1994-01-01

68

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

1997-03-01

69

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

2008-03-01

70

Neutron kinetics of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical reactor kinetic equations with six groups of delayed neutrons are not solved analytically. Here they are solved numerically with MATLAB and applied to the Chernobyl accident. The results are presented graphically. Now, 20 years after the accident it is important for today's and tomorrow's generations of nuclear engineers to learn not to design reactors with runaway characteristics which can cause an avalanche like power excursion. The Chernobyl type of reactor has a positive void coefficient, which means that when a part of the water is replaced by steam the power will increase. At the Chernobyl experiment the steam content in the coolant channels increased suddenly causing a catastrophic power excursion. The presented analyses gives details about the importance of the magnitude of the void coefficient. Also the delayed neutrons behaviour is described. (orig.)

2006-04-01

71

Multidimensional analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity

1988-01-01

72

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

1989-01-01

73

Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

Beebe, G. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

74

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

75

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

1987-01-01

76

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

1997-03-01

77

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

1997-03-01

78

Exposure levels for persons involved in recovery operations after the Chernobyl accident. Statistical analysis based on the data of the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a detailed description of dosimetric data entered in the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR) for emergency workers (liquidators) involved in recovery operations (RO) after the Chernobyl accident. The data on the absorbed doses from external exposure are based on the documents given to liquidators by organizations that performed dosimetric monitoring in the zones of operation. Using the data on external doses currently available in the RNMDR for 119 416 liquidators (78.4% of the total number of 152 325 persons), different statistical characteristics were derived to assess the reliability of the information. The paper also discusses dose distributions according to the date of beginning work in the RO zone [up to 250 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP)], on the distance of the settlement where the liquidators were accommodated or worked from the NPP, and on the duration of their stay in the RO zone. To analyse the reliability of the dosimetric data, the notion of an effective exposure dose rate (EEDR), i.e. the ratio of the dose registered in RNMDR and the duration of stay in the RO zone, was introduced for each liquidator, and corresponding statistical characteristics for the distribution of EEDR depending on the date of entry into the RO zone and distance from the place of residence or work to the NPP were obtained. The analysis for different groups of liquidators shows that the dosimetric information of the RNMDR is, as a statistical aggregate, generally consistent with the data on the radiation situation in the RO zones. (orig.)

1997-09-01

79

Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

2011-11-01

80

Environmental radioactivity measurements after the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of the environmental radioactivity performed by the Radiation Protection Division of the CCR Ispra and by the Healt Physics Service of the CRE Saluggia ENEA on samples collected in the North-Western Italy after the Chernobyl accident are here reported. The general structure of the environmental laboratories; the choice of the samples and their collection are discussed in order to plan the actions and to make the measurements comparable

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

1986-05-09

82

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

1988-07-01

83

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m"-"2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

1997-01-01

84

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

1986-09-15

85

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

2006-04-01

86

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

1996-04-01

87

Chernobyl - uncertainty remains. Radiation exposure during pregnancy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experts are at variance about the Chernobyl accidents and its consequences. The uncertainty of measurements has caused serious concern among pregnant women and parents. Experts attempt to sort out the available data in a round-table discussion.

1986-06-06

88

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

1988-01-01

89

Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

2005-07-01

90

Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the "1"3"1I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the "1"3"1I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

1999-12-06

91

Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

1993-04-01

92

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

2001-01-01

93

Internal contamination of some families after the Chernobyl accident 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl 1986. accident random internal contamination of measurements Belgrade and Kragujevac population, using Whole Body Counter (WBC) was performed. Some selected results, as a whole family member repetitive long time measurements, are in the paper presented. The parents of the malformation children born in period after Chernobyl accident are also measured. 4 refs.; 1 figs.; 5 tabs

1996-01-01

94

Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on (1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, (2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, (3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

Yasuda, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

1997-03-01

95

Radioactivity in rainwater following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rainfall is a widely-acknowledged vehicle for the removal and deposition at ground level of atmospheric-borne materials. The events following the Chernobyl accident demonstrated once again the importance of atmospheric conditions in dispersing, transporting and depositing pollutants. Much attention has been paid to the contamination of vegetation and food products, yet the quality of the contaminated rainwater has been overlooked. This paper reports and summarises the findings from Great Britain and Scandinavia and shows that the issue is far from simple or easily understood. (author)

1987-01-01

96

Dosimetric aspects of Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of total activity released in the accident and the doses received by the various groups of persons are summarised. For the entire evacuated population, average dose to the thyroid ranged from 70 mSv to adults and up to 1 Sv for children and the collective dose to the entire evacuated population is estimated to be 1300 person-Sv. The global collective committed dose is about 2% of the collective effective dose received from all nuclear weapon tests carried out in the atmosphere and 0.5% of the annual collective effective dose received from natural background radiation. The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident on a global scale is considered to be very small. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

1996-01-01

97

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of nine years of study of the 237 patients who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are reported. Thirty-eight of these patients have died, 28 in the acute period in 1986, 5 in 1987-90 and 5 in 1992-93. The reasons for death show no clear tendencies. They include: gangrene of the lung, organic disease of the brain and spinal chord, hypoplasia of haematopoeisis, coronary heart disease, sarcoma and an automobile accident. Investigations have been carried out on an annual obligatory basis of the patients` haemopoietic, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. An analysis of the data is presented. Histograms are included showing the incidence of digestive tract, nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, the frequency and degree of disablement and serum prolactin concentration. The types of skin damage sustained by 39 of the patients are listed. (6 figures, 3 tables). (UK).

Bebeshko, V.G.

1995-12-31

98

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (review)

2006-06-01

99

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc

1988-01-01

100

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

2002-04-01

102

Exposure levels for persons involved in recovery operations following the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987 and dosimetric data verification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is considered the organization of individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) within 30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) in 1986 for different contingents of recovery workers: the CNPP personnel, Management for Construction 605 (MC-605), military recovery workers, persons assigned to 30-km zone. It is concluded that the quality of IDM had decreased in the following series: the MC-605 personnel, the CNPP personnel, the assigned persons, and military units. The method of dosimetric data verification for recovery workers in 1986 is presented. The results obtained by this method correspond to the results of the experts' estimation. Using the theory of hybrid lognormal distribution it was obtained, in our opinion, real external dose distribution for all the recovery workers. It was estimated that 7% of recovery workers received doses more than 0.25 Gy. Also, the data on values of mean and collective doses for different contingents, as well as for all persons involved in recovery operations is presented. 14 refs., 18 figs

1995-01-01

103

Cooperative research at JAERI on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. 1. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after the nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement data obtained from 1992 mainly in 30 km distant areas from the accident reactor were analyzed and evaluated. On-site study included the radiation survey studies of wide range of areas with the spherical NaI(Tl) detector carried on the car and helicopter, studies on the accumulated dose in inhabitants and dose rate distribution of their residential settlements with the glass dosimeter and portable gamma dose-rate meter, experimental studies on the shielding effect of houses by simulation and studies on the characterization of environmental ?-ray field. These studies brought about developments of the method for rapid radiation survey in wide range of contaminated areas, of the evaluation method for estimated external exposure dose in residents, of the Monte Carlo arrangement method for evaluation of ?-ray doses and of analytical method for contaminated areas. Data were provided to organizations for measures of Ukraine and Belarus and would be also useful for possible urgent matters in future. (K.H.)

2001-12-01

104

Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

1997-09-01

105

Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ?0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ?6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ?0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

2000-05-01

106

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (Tagg) for soil ? plant and soil ? flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. Tagg values for Soil ? autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m2.kg-1 to 0,41 m2.kg-1. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the Tagg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example Tagg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the 137Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the 137Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg-1, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg-1. There was no significant change in the 137Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.)

2001-07-01

107

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

1988-01-01

108

Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

1986-08-01

109

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

110

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Radiation exposure and remediation strategies; Sanierungsstrategien fuer durch den Tschernobyl-Unfall kontaminierte Gebiete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements had in 2004 less than 10 000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data were collected for the in total 545 study settlements. Based on ReSCA calculations (a special developed software tool) an overview of the radiological situation was generated and exemplary remediation strategies were derived for 2010. (orig.)

Jacob, P. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

2009-07-01

111

137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. (GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany))

1992-11-01

112

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard computational methods have been used to make a preliminary analysis of the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics of the first two phases of the Chernobyl accident (initial positive reactivity generation and first Doppler transient). The most important results are discussed. These include the fact that it is impossible to define only one value of the reactor void coefficient. In the central channels (20% of the reactor volume) the effective coefficient is three times higher than the average, while the value is practically zero in the peripheral channels (40% of the reactor volume). The difference is due not only to the statically larger neutron worth of the central zone, but also to the dynamic instability of the radial flux distribution. The void increase in the central regions induces an increase of power and of the void in these regions, thus increasing the reactivity in an unexpected way. A design error in the scram rods (too short a graphite follower) can generate an undesired positive reactivity insertion while the first 1.25 m of the rods is being inserted. This effect can introduce from 0.5 to 1.2$ reactivity. The Doppler effect is the only one introducing negative feedback during a transient. The current model for the calculation of the effective fuel temperature must be reconsidered. A more sophisticated approach in needed to assess the rate of thermal and mechanical energy delivered during the explosion. For a self-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

1988-03-21

113

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the 137Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the 137Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m-2) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The 137Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in 137Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of 137Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg-1 (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg-1 in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of 137Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the 137Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of 137Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg-1 (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg-1. Until now the effective half-life of 137Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg-1, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg-1. (orig.)

1999-07-01

114

The Chernobyl reactor accident - a non-accidential accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom and independence are reserved but for countries constantly succeeding in maintaining their energy supplies without the help of others. Due to the fact that the political decision makers of the Soviet Union, too, are aware of this truth there is more to the Chernobyl reactor accident than the mere effects of the fallout. The real consequences of the reactor accident had already been anticipated beforehand by the media of the Western world. With the voters already rattled the nuclear phaseout is constantly talked about in all political parties. Once again the law of action passes over to politicians instead of to technology and its responsible experts. Zischka proves this phenomenon in the behaviour towards Soviet reactions having been existed before and shows it to be going back to an old tradition: Already in the reign of the czar the Western neighbours were induced to react in an inadequate manner and thus excert a decisive influence on world politics. The emotional effect of Chernobyl dominates. Unless reason will gain the upper hand the dangers of this emotional effect may turn out to be uncontrollable. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

115

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

116

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminated regions are also discussed

1996-10-21

117

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

2011-10-18

118

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

1993-12-02

119

Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

1989-01-01

120

ReSCA: decision support tool for remediation planning after the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident still provide a substantial impact on the population of affected territories in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Reduction of population exposure can be achieved by performing remediation activities in these areas. Resulting from the IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects with these countries, the program ReSCA (Remediation Strategies after the Chernobyl Accident) has been developed to provide assistance to decision makers and to facilitate a selection of an optimized remediation strategy in rural settlements. The paper provides in-depth description of the program, its algorithm, and structure. PMID:21104262

Ulanovsky, A; Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

1993-01-01

122

Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

1987-01-01

123

Fuenf Jahre nach Tschernobyl. (Chernobyl accident - five years later).  

Science.gov (United States)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate ...

K. Mueck

1991-01-01

124

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

1990-01-01

125

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

126

Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

Malko, M.V. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Radiation Problems of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Sosny (Belarus)

1998-03-01

127

Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

1987-01-01

128

After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

1986-01-01

129

Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

1994-03-01

130

Resuspension in contaminated soils by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the CIEMAT contribution to the multinational project CHECIR-ECP 1 Contamination of surfaces by resuspended material. Ten research organisations participated in this study, six of them from european countries. The project is one of the sixteen projects carried out under an Agreement for International Collaboration on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, signed in June 1992 by the EC and representatives of the three affected republics, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The work is addressed to the collection of experimental data in order to make dose estimations from the resuspension pathway. The experimental activities were carried out in several contaminated areas in the surrounding of the Chernobyl reactor site, under natural conditions (wind resuspension) and simulating human activities (agricultural and traffic). The main conclusion obtained was that, at the time of the project, the doses from resuspension are small, even for potential risk groups such as agricultural workers, in comparison with the doses from other exposure pathways. (Author)

1997-01-01

131

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report information about the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the radioactivity burdening of Greece from the radioactive releases of the accident are presented. The main characteristics of the RBMK-1000 reactor and the flow pattern of the radioactive cloud towards Greece are described, results of radioactivity measurements in Greece concerning the environment and the food chain are given, and some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are made. (J.K.)

1986-01-01

132

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

1986-01-01

133

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

134

Estimation of a contribution of internal exposure to early effects of acute radiation syndrome in victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials on internal irradiation of people with accute radiation syndrome, caused by the ChNPP accident are presented. It is shown, that internal exposure is more than important as related to clynical direct accute effects under investigation. Thyroid, lungs and whole body radiation doses are presented. Severity of broncholung and hypophysical-thyroidal system damage was evaluated

1990-01-01

135

Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

1998-01-01

136

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

1991-01-28

137

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

1987-01-01

138

Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of country-wide measurements of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

1986-01-01

139

Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of "1"3"7Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium "1"3"7 in the U.K. (UK)

1987-01-01

140

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Forest fires in the territory contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident: radioactive aerosol resuspension and exposure of fire-fighters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were carried out to investigate the processes of resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides by fire in the territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In this set of experiments, the dispersed radioactive aerosol composition, the values of airborne radioactive aerosol concentrations, the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate, the deposition flux and the deposition velocity have been obtained for the different phases of a fire and at various distances from the fire. In the active phase of a fire, the airborne concentrations of radionuclides increase by several orders of magnitude relative to the background value. The resuspension factor for the active phase of a fire was assessed as 10{sup -7}-10{sup -8} m{sup -1}, while the value of the resuspension rate had a 10{sup -10} s{sup -1} order of magnitude at a deposition velocity of 1-2 cm s{sup -1}. The additional terrestrial contamination due to a forest fire can be estimated as a value in the range 10{sup -4}-10{sup -5} of its background value. As recommended by ICRP, the human respiratory tract model was applied for calculation of the Effective Equivalent Dose (EED) to firemen. The dose coefficient for radioactive aerosol inhalation was estimated at 1.5x10{sup -8} Sv (Bq m{sup -3} h){sup -1}.

Kashparov, V.A. E-mail: vak@inrad.kiev.ua; Lundin, S.M.; Kadygrib, A.M.; Protsak, V.P.; Levtchuk, S.E.; Yoschenko, V.I.; Kashpur, V.A.; Talerko, N.M

2000-12-01

142

Forest fires in the territory contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident: radioactive aerosol resuspension and exposure of fire-fighters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were carried out to investigate the processes of resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides by fire in the territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In this set of experiments, the dispersed radioactive aerosol composition, the values of airborne radioactive aerosol concentrations, the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate, the deposition flux and the deposition velocity have been obtained for the different phases of a fire and at various distances from the fire. In the active phase of a fire, the airborne concentrations of radionuclides increase by several orders of magnitude relative to the background value. The resuspension factor for the active phase of a fire was assessed as 10-7-10-8 m-1, while the value of the resuspension rate had a 10-10 s-1 order of magnitude at a deposition velocity of 1-2 cm s-1. The additional terrestrial contamination due to a forest fire can be estimated as a value in the range 10-4-10-5 of its background value. As recommended by ICRP, the human respiratory tract model was applied for calculation of the Effective Equivalent Dose (EED) to firemen. The dose coefficient for radioactive aerosol inhalation was estimated at 1.5x10-8 Sv (Bq m-3 h)-1

2000-12-01

143

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

1989-07-27

144

Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

1994-01-01

145

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

146

Economic and political energy aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of nuclear power to total electrical power is approximately 15% worldwide, 25% in the European OECD countries, nearly 40% in Switzerland and in some countries even exceeds 50%. Abandoning nuclear power completely following the Chernobyl accident would cause serious problems not only for electrical power generation but also for the economy in general. (P.G.R.)

1986-09-20

147

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author).

Othman, I. (Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syria). Dept. of Protection and Safety)

1990-06-01

148

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for ...

E. F. Konoplya I. V. Rolevich

1998-01-01

149

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

1986-01-01

150

Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Estimates of Thyroid Cancer Risk among Ukrainian Children and Adolescents Exposed from the Chernobyl Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains the most serious nuclear accident in history, and excess thyroid cancers, particularly among those exposed to releases of iodine-131 remain the best-documented sequelae. Failure to take dose-measurement error into account can lead to bias in assessments of dose-response slope. Although risks in the Ukrainian-US thyroid screening study have been previously evaluated, errors in dose assessments have not been addressed hitherto. Dose-response patterns were examined in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 13,127 persons aged <18 at the time of the accident who were resident in the most radioactively contaminated regions of Ukraine. We extended earlier analyses in this cohort by adjusting for dose error in the recently developed TD-10 dosimetry. Three methods of statistical correction, via two types of regression calibration, and Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood, were applied to the doses that can be derived from the ratio of thyroid activity to thyroid mass. The two components that make up this ratio have different types of error, Berkson error for thyroid mass and classical error for thyroid activity. The first regression-calibration method yielded estimates of excess odds ratio of 5.78 Gy?1 (95% CI 1.92, 27.04), about 7% higher than estimates unadjusted for dose error. The second regression-calibration method gave an excess odds ratio of 4.78 Gy?1 (95% CI 1.64, 19.69), about 11% lower than unadjusted analysis. The Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood method produced an excess odds ratio of 4.93 Gy?1 (95% CI 1.67, 19.90), about 8% lower than unadjusted analysis. There are borderline-significant (p?=?0.101–0.112) indications of downward curvature in the dose response, allowing for which nearly doubled the low-dose linear coefficient. In conclusion, dose-error adjustment has comparatively modest effects on regression parameters, a consequence of the relatively small errors, of a mixture of Berkson and classical form, associated with thyroid dose assessment.

Little, Mark P.; Kukush, Alexander G.; Masiuk, Sergii V.; Shklyar, Sergiy; Carroll, Raymond J.; Lubin, Jay H.; Kwon, Deukwoo; Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Hatch, Maureen; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereshchenko, Valeriy P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre C.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chepurny, Mykola I.; Kovgan, Lina N.; Simon, Steven L.; Shpak, Victor M.; Likhtarev, Ilya A.

2014-01-01

151

Impact of uncertainties in exposure assessment on estimates of thyroid cancer risk among Ukrainian children and adolescents exposed from the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains the most serious nuclear accident in history, and excess thyroid cancers, particularly among those exposed to releases of iodine-131 remain the best-documented sequelae. Failure to take dose-measurement error into account can lead to bias in assessments of dose-response slope. Although risks in the Ukrainian-US thyroid screening study have been previously evaluated, errors in dose assessments have not been addressed hitherto. Dose-response patterns were examined in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 13,127 persons aged <18 at the time of the accident who were resident in the most radioactively contaminated regions of Ukraine. We extended earlier analyses in this cohort by adjusting for dose error in the recently developed TD-10 dosimetry. Three methods of statistical correction, via two types of regression calibration, and Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood, were applied to the doses that can be derived from the ratio of thyroid activity to thyroid mass. The two components that make up this ratio have different types of error, Berkson error for thyroid mass and classical error for thyroid activity. The first regression-calibration method yielded estimates of excess odds ratio of 5.78 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.92, 27.04), about 7% higher than estimates unadjusted for dose error. The second regression-calibration method gave an excess odds ratio of 4.78 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.64, 19.69), about 11% lower than unadjusted analysis. The Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood method produced an excess odds ratio of 4.93 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.67, 19.90), about 8% lower than unadjusted analysis. There are borderline-significant (p = 0.101-0.112) indications of downward curvature in the dose response, allowing for which nearly doubled the low-dose linear coefficient. In conclusion, dose-error adjustment has comparatively modest effects on regression parameters, a consequence of the relatively small errors, of a mixture of Berkson and classical form, associated with thyroid dose assessment. PMID:24489667

Little, Mark P; Kukush, Alexander G; Masiuk, Sergii V; Shklyar, Sergiy; Carroll, Raymond J; Lubin, Jay H; Kwon, Deukwoo; Brenner, Alina V; Tronko, Mykola D; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana I; Hatch, Maureen; Zablotska, Lydia B; Tereshchenko, Valeriy P; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André C; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chepurny, Mykola I; Kovgan, Lina N; Simon, Steven L; Shpak, Victor M; Likhtarev, Ilya A

2014-01-01

152

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

1992-01-01

153

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

1997-12-31

154

Radiological effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident to the large lakes of Southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the fast year after the reactor accident is calculated

1988-01-01

155

The Chernobyl accident and nuclear safety in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature and purpose of the Watt Committee on Energy is explained. Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986, the Watt Committee appointed a working group to study civil nuclear safety in the UK. This is the interim report of that working group. The report looks at the international aspects of the Chernobyl accident, the key aspects of the RBMK reactor design, then gives a description of the accident to find out why it happened. The consequences for the USSR and the UK, and the implications for the UK and the world at large are then considered. The aims of the final Watt Committee report, the designs and operational practices used in the nuclear power industry, especially in the UK, will be considered to contribute to the maximum attainable safety of these operations. (UK)

1986-01-01

156

Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in contamination well beyond the borders of the USSR. The author notes the gaps in international mechanisms to cope with its effects. The principles of nuclear legislation, notably harmonization, are reviewed as are international nuclear agreements, recommendations etc to prevent such accidents. Problems of compensation for damage can only be settled under public international law since the USSR is a party to neither the Paris nor the Vienna Conventions, which demonstrates the need for a wider adherence to those Conventions. Since the accident, however, two international Conventions on assistance and notification were adopted under the auspices of IAEA, emphasizing the importance of international cooperation and its usefulness. The author concludes that such cooperation contributed to creating a relatively harmonized legal regime for nuclear activities which has evolved since Chernobyl and will continue to do so. (NEA)

1986-01-01

157

Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

1994-01-01

158

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

159

The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ...

1993-01-01

160

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the UK: a fisheries viewpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monitoring programme undertaken by the Directorate throughout the UK following the Chernobyl reactor accident is described. The results of sampling and analysis of fish, shellfish, seaweed and other materials are discussed. Chernobyl fallout was readily detected in all sectors of the aquatic environment, particularly during May when the highest concentrations were observed. An assessment of the radiological impact of the fallout shows that freshwater fish were the most important source of individual (critical group) exposure though, based on cautious assumptions, the effective dose equivalent is around 1 mSv in a year. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from Chernobyl due to aquatic ingestion pathways, predominantly marine fish, is estimated to be 30 man Sv. (author)

1986-01-01

162

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

2012-09-01

163

Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

2006-09-01

164

Elimination of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological consequences of reactor accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station is considered. The Chernobyl's release is compared with the estimated radioactivity having been produced by both the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapons testing programs, as well as with the TMI and the Windscale reactor accidents. The necessity of the Shelter's construction, as well as basic problems in designing the Shelter structure is discussed. At the time of the Shelter's construction, the radiation safety division was created to provide the safety of construction personnel. The organization and main tasks of this division is given in detail. The main stages of the Shelter construction is stated. Today's condition of the Shelter and nuclear fuel inside are also discussed. (author)

1992-03-18

165

Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

2009-10-02

166

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

2006-04-24

167

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

1991-01-01

168

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

1986-01-01

169

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

1992-01-01

170

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

1998-12-01

171

10 years after Chernobyl, radiation exposure, health effects, safety aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report sums up the various conferences and symposia which were prompted by the tenth anniversary of the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl. It was shown that by the accident up to now 31 casualties among the emergency and rescue personal at the site. Offsite no increased number of casualties caused by the accident was observed up to now. In the countries with the highest impact Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, however, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer is observed which is substantially higher than after the nuclear detonations over Japanese cities. Contrary to often published media reports, however, up to now no increases in leukemia or other malignant deceases were observed, neither in the population of the concerned regions nor among the liquidators. The high 137Cs activity concentration in the environment close to the power plant result in exclusion zone even today. The deposition values in Kiev, however, amount to only 30 kBq/m2, in large areas of Ukraine they are below the average values in Austria of 22 kBq/m2. For these areas as well as those outside the former Soviet Union the average doses were less than 1 mSv in the first year, a value which is less than one third of natural annual radiation exposure. Since the reactor accident the activity concentration has significally decreased resulting in an exposure as consequence of the reactor accident of less than 0,8 % of the exposure in the first year. In Austria the exposure in 1996 amounts to less than 0,3 % of natural radiation exposure. (author)

1996-01-01

172

The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH)

1986-01-01

173

Early aging predictors in liquidators: a sign of long term consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of biological aging in the persons, who took part in elimination of Chernobyl accident after effects during 1986-1987, 8-9 years after the accident wave studied. Different influence of the complex of harmful factors on the development of long-term after effects, aging rate in particular, in the liquidators of different passport age was revealed. Our study enabled us to determine the importance of the age of the person at the moment of exposure to harmful agents including small-dose ionizing radiation

1995-01-01

174

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

1986-01-01

175

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

1996-03-22

176

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

2006-01-01

177

Probability of double nuclear bursts in the Chernobyl reactivity accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discussions are made for potentially existing double nuclear bursts in a reactivity accident in reactors having positive void reactivity coefficients, with a typical example being taken from the Chernobyl accident case. A brief discussion is first made on the physics backgrounds of reactivity coefficient consisting of Doppler, void, and moderator temperature effects. Three dimensional spatial kinetic analyses are then made to study the case of the Chernobyl reactivity accident, where the emphasis is on the effect of uniform and non-uniform void generation in the core during the accident. The result with uniform void generation indicated that the reactor could have become quite unstable to induce an uncontrolled power surge. The initial local void, depending on its spatial area, would also result in an uncontrolled power surge with an initial local void expanding into the global core. In this case, some parts of the core quickly attained the fuel melting temperature, while the rest of the core remained well below it. Under such circumstances, there would be a good reasoning for the local initial core damage, leaving other part of the core uninfected and still ready for the second power surge. The speculating discussions have been tried to explain the background situations for the potential double nuclear bursts, and also for the two witnessed explosions given in the accident report(1). (author)

1987-10-01

178

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

1987-01-01

179

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

1993-01-01

180

9 years after the Chernobyl accident. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

9 years have elapsed after the tragic catastrophe on the Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP. One of the main problems in the situation with 'Ukrytie' shelter which was erected over the destroyed Unit, investigation of the amount and dislocation of nuclear fuel in it, transformation of 'Ukrytie' into ecologically safe system. Problems of contaminated territory around this Unit monitoring, medical and biological investigations of the influence of radiation on human health, remain urgent as well. These problems were discussed at the scientific conference which took place 20-21 April 1995 in the Institute for Nuclear Research in which staff members of this Institute, of ISTC ' Ukrytie ' and some other institutes of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine took part.Abstracts of papers reported at this conference are published in the Language in which they were presented. They are followed in alphabetical order of the first author names. The editing group is not responsible for the data which were reported by the authors

1995-04-20

 
 
 
 
181

Chernobyl accident: its causes, impacts and the lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident, its causes, impacts and the lessons learned from it are briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of nuclear safety and radiation protection, based on the recent studies and reports worldwide and on the information taken by the author during his visit to the site. The paper includes a short description of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the process of the accident, emergency actions and protection measures, health and environmental impacts, and its causes and lessons learned. To look at matters in the safety aspect, some defects of the design, such as the positive void reactivity coefficient, the insufficient reactivity margin, the exist of an area of increasing reactivity when the absorbing rods move downwards from the top, and the lack of an effective containment, are the essential causes bringing the accident to occur and breeding up catastrophic consequences. The coincidence of some extremely improbable incidents aroused by the operators is the blasting fuse which directly touched off the accident, and the most serious problem revealed is the defects in nuclear safety management in the former Soviet Union. The author holds that strengthening safety management and raising the safety culture level are the key to improve nuclear safety

1994-09-01

182

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bio-indicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru and 110Agm were detected in F vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of 137Cs varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northernmost locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg at the south east cost. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocaesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and 99Tc the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily caesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (authors)

1990-10-24

183

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

1991-01-01

184

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

1986-04-26

185

The marine impact of caesium-134 and -137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident were detected in UK shoreline seawater very quickly after activity from the accident reached this country. Concentrations were highest in areas adjacent to those where deposition over land was highest, but they declined quickly and did not reach radiologically significant levels in therms of public radiation exposure. Subsequently, the distribution in seawater was investigated further afield. Radio-caesium attributable to the Chernobyl accident was found to be widespread: it was readily distinguished from other sources by having a different 137Cs:134Cs ratio (about 2:1). Its presence was especially noticeable in northern UK waters rather than those to the south; much of the North Sea has been surveyed as well as the Norwegian Sea. Evidence of Chernobyl radiocaesium was found as far north as 700 N and in many of these areas, including the northern North Sea, it overshadowed the effect of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels plc) Sellafield discharges, previously the main source of these radionuclides. (author)

1988-01-01

186

Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered. PMID:11446123

Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Firsakova, S K; Likhtarev, I A; Schotola, C; Alexakhin, R M; Zhuchenko, Y M; Kovgan, L; Sanzharova, N I; Ageyets, V

2001-01-01

187

Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered

2001-01-01

188

The Chernobyl accident impact in Bulgaria - a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is made of the papers presented at the Scientific Session of the National Centre for Radiobiology and Radiation protection (Sofia, BG) held in October 1992. They summarize the information about all possible consequences of the Chernobyl accident affecting the health of the Bulgarian population. The following topics are included: evaluation of radiation risk based on the radiation doses specified for the Bulgarian population including prenatal irradiation and inhalation of hot particles; analysis of oncological morbidity (general, of thyroid and of hemopoietic system); analysis of congenital malformations, registered in different hospitals during the first six years after the accident; directions for future epidemiologic studies; methodological and organizational problems in case of radiation accident. (A.B.)

1992-11-26

189

The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

2006-11-01

190

Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

1997-09-01

191

Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.)

1999-11-01

192

Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The epidemiological analysis of Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis (leukemia, lymphoma) in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident during three seven-years periods (before Chernobyl - 1979-1985, after Chernobyl - 1986-1992 and after Chernobyl - 1993-1999) granting age, gender and place of residence: city/village was presented. Results were analyzed as for the whole region as for each of the six most contaminated by radiation areas. (authors)

2006-01-01

193

Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

1995-11-20

194

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

2005-09-06

195

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests gradually decreased during the 1970s, the national preparedness and analytical capacity in Norway gradually disintegrated as well. The Chernobyl accident was therefore met without any overall contingency preparedness plan. The affected governmental bodies and other institutions had to improvise their first steps, including information to the public, until necessary coordination had been established. A complicating factor was the change of government during the first days of May 1986, the reasons for this had however nothing to do with the reactor accident. A great deal of uncertainty prevailed about the accident and its consequences especially during the first days after the accident. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in May 1986 both appointed committees to report on the accident and its impacts and on a future preparedness system, although their terms of reference were not identical. A third committee was appointed in June by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to report on the information crises in connection with the accident

196

Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

2006-01-01

197

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish...

Gustaf Åhman; Birgitta Åhman; Axel Rydberg

1990-01-01

198

The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

1995-04-01

199

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, a variety of measurements were performed to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. Gamma spectroscopy was used to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels. (author) 11 refs.; 9 figs

1988-07-01

200

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

1987-04-05

 
 
 
 
201

Down's syndrome clusters in Germany in close temporal relationship to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down's syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination for one month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, also, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down's syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. (author)

1997-11-01

202

Analysis of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A follow-up calculation was made on the accident based on the literature and accident reports published by the USSR. The analysis code system used had models peculiar to a pressure tube type reactor, of which the accuracy had been verified by the experimental facilities at the O-arai Engineering Center and the tests made at the 'Fugen' Nuclear Power Plant. The analysis data were prepared based on plant specifications and its operation history obtained from those published literature and accident reports. The analysis was composed of (1) a calculation of the nuclear and thermal-hydraulic characteristics, and the graphite heating and temperature distributions which were the basic data for the follow-up calculation of the accident, (2) an analysis of the plant behavior before the test started, using these basic characteristics, and (3) a follow-up calculation of the power increase which occurred after the test started. The analytical results were found to agree well with the data published by the USSR. It was confirmed from these analyses that the main factors causing the accident were the increased enthalpy at the core entrance caused by the test made at low power level and the increased void fraction due to reduced coolant flow rate, in addition to the nuclear characteristics and performance of the control system peculiar to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

203

The German reactor safety and the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has raised the alarm of many people making them fear both nuclear energy as such and nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority, however proved to be ignorant of the totally different reactor design of the Soviet plant as well as of the extremely different safety philosphy. The philosophy, i.e. safety of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (and other Western countries) has reached a level which according to experts and common sense excludes a similar accident. In an interview Dr. Hans Frewer, member of the Kraftwerk Union management, voices his opinion on the different forms of a nuclear phaseout and points out the economic and ecological consequences. (orig./GL)

1986-01-01

204

Radioactivity and radiation load. The Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Association of Radiation and Environmental Research (GSF) on June 6, 1986 held a seminar under the heading ''The Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences''. Besides explanations regarding radioactivity and natural as well as civilization-dependent radiation load, there were approaches to the assessment of the consequences of the Chernobylsk reactor accident. For the period of 50 years to come the consecutive dose in the Munich area is put at several 100 mrem up to 1 rem per person - in addition to the natural dose of some 10000 mrem for the same period. The amount of the actual load for individual persons depends on age, way of life and alimentation habits. (orig./HSCH).

Koch, G.

1986-07-12

205

Health Hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The most recent meeting in the Federal Republic of Germany reviewed the principal long-lived radionuclides emitted from the accident and concluded that 134Cs and 137Cs had the greatest potential for contributing to the human dose because they are still present, the dose will be delivered over a long term, and because of the accumulation in some edible plants and animal products. The observed contribution of radionuclides to the collective effective dose-equivalent in the first year is about 60-80% from ingestion, 30-40% from external irradiation, and 2-20% from inhalation

1988-01-01

206

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

2006-03-01

207

Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author)

1990-01-01

208

Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author).

Kritidis, P.; Papanicolaou, E. (National Centre for Scientific Research ' Democritos' , Athens (Greece)); Florou, H. (National Centre for Marine Research, Athens (Greece))

1990-01-01

209

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

2006-11-13

210

Evidence for an increase in trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) associated with Chernobyl fallout. Maternal age-adjusted DS data and corresponding live birth data from the following seven European countries or regions were analyzed: Bavaria and West Berlin in Germany, Belarus, Hungary, the Lothian Region of Scotland, North West England, and Sweden from 1981 to 1992. To assess the underlying time trends in the DS occurrence, and to investigate whether there have been significant changes in the trend functions after Chernobyl, we applied logistic regression allowing for peaks and jumps from January 1987 onward. The majority of the trisomy 21 cases of the previously reported, highly significant January 1987 clusters in Belarus and West Berlin were conceived when the radioactive clouds with significant amounts of radionuclides with short physical half-lives, especially (131)iodine, passed over these regions. Apart from this, we also observed a significant longer lasting effect in both areas. Moreover, evidence for long-term changes in the DS prevalence in several other European regions is presented and explained by exposure, especially to (137)Cs. In many areas, (137)Cs uptake reached its maximum one year after the Chernobyl accident. Thus, the highest increase in trisomy 21 should be observed in 1987/1988, which is indeed the case. Based on the fact that maternal meiosis is an error prone process, the assumption of a causal relationship between low-dose irradiation and nondisjunction is the most likely explanation for the observed increase in DS after the Chernobyl reactor accident. PMID:22162022

Sperling, Karl; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Scherb, Hagen

2012-01-01

211

Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

1993-01-01

212

The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

2006-01-01

213

Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

1993-01-01

214

Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

1989-03-08

215

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

Gustaf Åhman

1990-09-01

216

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

1987-01-01

217

Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBq/kg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess 137Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bq/kg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. (author)

1988-01-01

218

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

1990-01-01

219

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our work with about 100 subjects resident in eastern Europe (mostly Poland) at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or traveling as tourists, /sup 131/I was readily detectable in the thyroid through mid-June, 1986, and was detectable in some subjects as late as early July, 9 to 10 weeks after the start of the accident. Among 42 subjects who were in eastern Europe on April 26, 1986, and in whom /sup 131/I was detectable, the median activity in the thyroid was 1.4 nCi at the time of measurement. When extrapolated back to April 26 using a single exponential retention function for the thyroid and an 8-day effective half-life, the median activity was 42 nCi. The frequency distribution resembled a lognormal distribution. The extrapolated activities lay between approximately 2 and 1200 nCi. The risk levels derived from these observations of internal radioactivity and my conservative dose projection assumptions are as much as 10 times less than the risk levels published in the lay press during the months following the accident. This underscores the importance of basing risk estimation for internal radioactivity on direct observations. 2 refs., 1 tab.

Schlenker, R.A.

1987-01-01

220

Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

1986-06-01

222

Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

1997-11-01

223

Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

1997-09-01

224

Statistical features of irradiation following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actual levels and projected radiation doses to people living in the most contaminated areas following the Chernobyl accident have been studied. All results are based upon the application of the information system SDACHA, which includes integrated data on each of 6000 populated centres with deposition levels of 137Cs of 50 kBq.m-2 or above. The actual external and internal doses and projected doses for the strictly controlled areas (population 270,000) were specified on the basis of the data for 1989. This paper concerns the actual data and collective dose commitments in the most contaminated areas of Gomel, Mogilev, Kiev, Zhitomir and Bryansk regions. Probable variations of the collective dose commitment were estimated in relation to the scale of population relocation and demographic circumstances. The distributions and values of the lifetime collective dose commitment to the critical group of children born in 1980-89 have also been determined. (Author)

1990-04-02

225

The role of chemical reactions in the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that chemical reactions played an essential role in the Chernobyl accident at all of its stages. It is important that the reactor before the explosion was at maximal xenon poisoning, and its reactivity, apparently, was not destroyed by the explosion. The reactivity release due to decay of Xe-235 on the second day after the explosion led to a reactor power of 80-110 MW. Owing to this power, the chemical reactions of reduction of uranium, plutonium, and other metals at a temperature of about 2000°C occurred in the core. The yield of fission products thus sharply increased. Uranium and other metals flew down in the bottom water communications and rooms. After reduction of the uranium and its separation from the graphite, the chain reaction stopped, the temperature of the core decreased, and the activity yield stopped.

Grishanin, E. I.

2010-12-01

226

Concept of seasonality in the light of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seasonality could have a strong influence on the radiological impact of environmental radioactive contamination. Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., 131I) and those that mainly enter the food chain by direct contamination (e.g. 137Cs) are especially important in this context. In particular, the contamination of cereals is influenced by seasonality. For temperate latitudes it is generally true that radioactive contamination during winter, when the fields lie fallow and the domestic animals are stabled, will result in a significantly lower radiological impact than if a similar contamination were to take place in the summer shortly before harvesting. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was strongly influenced by seasonality. (author)

1992-03-01

227

Local radiation damage in the irradiated during Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some unusual forms of skin system damage are described in cases of local radiation damage in victims of the Chernobyl disaster. One phenomenon was skin erythema occurring 6 to 8 weeks following the accident in some irradiated persons. The original scope of damage of 25 to 30% of body surface generalized in 3 weeks to affect the whole body. One hypothetical explanation may be damage due to the effect of low level radionuclides or significantly slowed-down particles. Another unusual phenomena was side and crural erythema accompanied with oedema and strong pain in some patients. The primary cause of death in one patient with such damage was brain oedema similar to that in toxic shock following extensive burns. The therapy is outlined in the management of the said and other local radiation damage cases. (L.O.). 10 refs

1987-06-01

228

Radioactive contamination in Nijmegen rainwater after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident, rainwater was collected in the Nijmegen area during the first three weeks of May 1986. The radionuclides found in the water were "1"3"1I, "1"3"2Te, "1"3"2I, "1"4"0La, "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs and "1"0"3Ru. On the first rainy day, an activity concentration of 9 kBq l"-"1 was measured, with specific activities of 2.7 kBq l"-"1 for "1"3"1I and 2.3 kBq l"-"1 for each of "1"3"2Te and "1"3"2I. The total activity precipitated per square kilometer in this period was ? 55 GBq. Fresh spinach picked in Nijmegen on 7 May had an activity of 1.5 kBq kg"-"1. (Auth.)

1987-07-01

229

DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay on children form areas affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The health effects of the Chernobyl accident and particularly the long-term effects continue to be interesting and significant for the international scientific community. The DNA damages caused by radiation exposure are considered responsible for the effects at cellular level and in the whole organism. The comet assay is one of the current tools with greatest application and sensitivity to evaluate DNA damages, particularly in chronic exposures. The preliminary results with the application of the comet assay to blood lymphocytes of 30 Ukrainian children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident are shown in our study. The children were in Cuba at the moment of the study. 137Cs internal contamination was measured in a whole body counter and correlated with DNA damages, children blood was taken by fingerprick. Factors like illnesses, medical treatments, or the external doses by surface contamination were also considered in the study. Until the present the radiological factor has not shown influence in the levels of observed DNA damages. (orig.)

2003-11-01

230

Results of experimental radiobiological studies made within ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the effect of high radioactive contamination on the animal organism (C57BL/6 mice) and Hela cell culture within the ten-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl A.P.S. accident. The total radiation dose, as calculated by ?-component, was 0.09 to 2 Gy. A long-term exposure of mice within the zone (cumulative dose of 1.18 to 2 Gy) caused a significant decrease in bone marrow stem potencies and changes in the brain vascular system; subsequent acute exposure of animals increased interferon titres in the serum to a much greater extent than a single acute exposure did. As to Hela cells, irradiation there of with doses of 0.09 to 0.4 Gy during 15-20 postirradiation generations caused a decrease in the proliferative activity, an emergence of cells with micronuclei and of giant cells

1991-01-01

231

Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. PMID:8907638

Voigt, G; Paretzke, H G

1996-02-01

232

Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. (orig.)

1996-02-01

233

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the {sup 137}Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m{sup -2}) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The {sup 137}Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in {sup 137}Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg{sup -1} (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg{sup -1} in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of {sup 137}Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the {sup 137}Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of {sup 137}Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg{sup -1} (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg{sup -1}. Until now the effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg{sup -1}, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg{sup -1}. (orig.) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht handelt von dem Verhalten von Radiocaesium in zwei, vom Tschernobyl-Fallout besonders betroffenen Waldoekosystemen. 1997 und 1998 wurden in den Waeldern um Bodenmais (Bayern) und Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Baeumen und Rehwild auf Cs-137 Aktivitaet gemessen und die Ergebnisse aus vorangegangenen Forschungsvorhaben verglichen. Die Untersuchungen zur Tiefenverteilung von Cs-137 in Bodenprofilen zeigen, dass auch 11 Jahre nach dem Tschernobyl-Fallout die spezifische Cs-137 Aktivitaet in der Humusauflage am groessten ist und nur sehr geringe Aktivitaet des Nuklids tiefer als 20 cm nachgewiesen werden kann. Der ueberwiegende Teil des Radiocaesiums befand sich in den obersten 10 cm des Bodens. In dieser Bodenschicht waren auf der Dauerprobeflaeche B1 in Bodenmais 1997 rund 78% der Cs-137 Aktivitaet, wovon 27% in der 4 cm starken Humusauflage nachgewiesen wurden. Es zeigt sich, dass die Wandergeschwindigkeit des Nuklids mit der Zeit abnimmt. Die Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Pflanzenarten des Waldbodens ergeben eine signifikante Abnahme der Cs-137 Gehalte in den Blaettern. Die errechneten effektiven Halbwertzeiten fuer Cs-137 reichen von 5 Jahren in Himbeerblaettern bis 32 Jahre in Blaettern von Adlerfarn, wobei die meisten der untersuchten Pflanzenarten effektive Halbwertzeiten von rund 10 Jahre

Fielitz, U.

1999-07-01

234

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of {sup 137}Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average {sup 137}Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest {sup 137}Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (T{sub agg}) for soil {yields} plant and soil {yields} flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. T{sub agg} values for Soil {yields} autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} to 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the T{sub agg} values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example T{sub agg} for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the {sup 137}Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the {sup 137}Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the {sup 137}Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg{sup -1}. There was no significant change in the {sup 137}Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.) [German] Seit 1988 wurde, im Rahmen mehrerer Forschungsvorhaben, die Cs-137 Aktivitaet in rund 7.000 Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Pilzen und Wildtieren bestimmt, um die Dynamik des Nuklids in Waldoekosystemen zu untersuchen. Die Arbeiten wurden hauptsaechlich in einem Bergfichtenwald in Bodenmais (Bayern) und einem Eichenwald in Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) durchgefuehrt, wo unguenstige Bodenparameter und Standortfaktoren relativ hohe Radiocaesium-Aufnahmeraten in Biomedien bedingen.Kennzeichnend fuer die untersuchten Waldoekosysteme ist die grosse Variabilitaet der Cs-137 Aktivitaet innerhalb einer Art und zwischen den Arten. In Bodenprofilen aus den drei Untersuchungsgebieten befanden sich im Jahr 2000, durchschnittlich noch 56% des Cs-137 Inventars in den obersten 10 cm und 93% in den obersten 20 cm. In den untersuchten Pflanzenarten nahm Cs-137 Aktivitaet von 1987 bis 1994 signifikant ab, wobei sich die Kontamination seit 1995 nur noch wenig veraenderte. Bei acht Pflanzenarten aus zwei der Untersuchungsgebiete betrug die mittlere effektive Halbwertzeit -5,3 Jahre (Minimum -3 Jahre, Maximum -24 Jahre). Pilze aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Bodenmais hatten 2000, wie ueblich, die hoechsten Cs-137 Messwerte. Die Werte der aggregierten Transferfaktoren (T{sub ag}) fuer den Uebergang von Cs-137 Boden {yields} Pflanze oder Boden {yields} Fleisch schwankten um mehrere Groessenordnungen, z.B. bei den autotrophen Pflanzenarten, von 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} bis 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. Auf den Dauerprobeflaechen B1 und F1 wurden viel hoehere Transferfakto

Fielitz, U. [Laboratorium Umweltanalysen (Germany)

2001-07-01

235

Legislative reactions of the European Community and its Member States after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives a survey on the enactment of regulations, directives and decisions of the European Communities after the Chernobyl accident as a basis for legislative measures of the EC-Member States. (orig./HP)

1989-01-01

236

Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest incidence of cancer before the accident coincidentally had the lowest fallout of (137)Cs. Increasing the geographical resolution of exposure from nine county averages to 612 parish averages resulted in a two to three times higher value of variance in the regression model. There was a secular trend with an increase in age-standardized incidence of cancer in both genders from 1980 to 2009, but significant only in females. This trend was stronger and statistically significant for both genders in the general Swedish population compared to the nine counties. In conclusion, using both high quality cancer registry data and high resolution exposure maps of (137)Cs deposition, it was not possible to distinguish an effect of (137)Cs on cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Sweden. PMID:24811728

Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

2014-08-01

237

Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident made it necessary to compile a clinical morphological register of respective cancers. In 1986-1994 there were 339 cases registered in children and adolescents, of them 211 children (who were operated at the age under 15 years) and 128 adolescents (who were operated at the age of 15-18 years). Before the Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) in Ukraine 59 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents were reported: 25 cases in children and 34 cases in adolescents. This increase has been observed since 1990. In 1981-1985 the incidence rate (number of thyroid cancers per 100000 children population) ranged 0.04 - 0.06. In 1990 this estimate was 0.23 and in 1992-1994 0.36 - 0.43, thus a 7-10 fold increase exceeding the pre-Chernobyl level. In the 5 most contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Kiev, Chernigov, Zhitomir, Cherkassy, Rovno regions) and the city of Kiev the incidence rate was much higher. For example, in 1984 it was 3.8 in Chernigov region, 1.6 in Zhitomir region. The total 'contribution' of the above-mentioned regions to the incidence of thyroid cancer in children after the Chernobyl accident makes more than 60%. It has been noted that in 1990-1994 there was an increase in the number of children operated at the age under 10, it means that these children were under 6 years at the time of the accident and were most sensitive to radioiodine exposure. As for the sex ratio, there has been a shift to males: in 1981-1985 F/M = 1.8/1, in 1990-1994 F/M = 1.4/1. Morphologically, 93.4% of 196 carcinomas resected from children and adolescents at the Institute of Endocrinology from 1986 to August 1st, 1995 were papillary carcinomas. They manifested high invasive and infiltrative growth, signs of intraglandular spread. Regional lymph node metastases were found in 59% of cases, distal lung metastases observed at various periods after surgery were noted in 23.7% of cases

1996-03-18

238

Changes of radiological situation of Polish environment in 10 years period after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of natural and artificial radioisotopes in environment in Poland before and after Chernobyl accident was analyzed. The methods used in radiation monitoring in Poland and results of these measurements in the period 1986-1996 were presented. Since the Chernobyl accident changes of contamination of soils, southern Baltic sea water, other surface waters, deposits in Baltic sea, rivers and lakes in Poland were observed. Also concentration of radioisotopes in foodstuffs: mushrooms, fruits, meat, milk, eggs was described

1996-01-01

239

Dose contribution of 90Sr to the ingestion dose after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposure of the Austrian population due to 90Sr after the reactor accident at Chernobyl was estimated by measurement of the 90Sr-content in 131 food samples, 9 drinking water samples and 7 other samples. The samples were taken at different times after the accident to take into account changes in the activity content with time. In order to estimate the contri-bution of the reactor accident compared to 90Sr from the atomic bomb testing, also samples of the time before the incident were evaluated. Considering the average food consumption one obtains an weighted effective dose equivalent of 0,006mSv for the adult and 0,01mSv for the one year old child. For the infant the dose in first half year of his life amounts to 0,00006mSv if fed with woman milk, respectively 0,0009mSv if fed with infant food. Approximately half of the dose of 90Sr may be attributed to the reactor accident, the other half is attributable to 90Sr of the weapon testing. The dose in the second year after the accident amounts to approximately 70% of the dose in the first year of which 70% are caused by 90Sr from the weapons testing. 20 refs., 30 tabs., 10 figs. (Author)

1988-01-01

240

Resuspension of radioactive Caesium from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fallout over Sweden from the Chernobyl accident was heavier than in most countries outside of the USSR. The contamination in Sweden is also very uneven. There are areas with more than 200 kBq/m2 of 137Cs while other parts of Sweden have less than 300 Bq/m2. This has given a unique possibility to study the behaviour of radioactive material released from a nuclear power accident. This paper report four years of measurements of resuspended radioactive Caesium. It appear that the manner in which the radioactive material was deposited (by wet or dry deposition) is important for how much of the material will be available for resuspension. In areas with wet deposition the resuspension factor is smaller than in areas with dry deposition. But part of this difference is probably due to activity of non-local origin. There is a yearly cycle, with a peak in the spring preceding gradually decreasing resuspension values until a minimum is reached in the fall and winter. Overall, The resuspension factor, defined as the concentration in air (Bq/m3) divided by the totally deposited activity (Bq/m2), varies between 10-8 and 10-10m-1 with the higher values for areas with dry deposition. It has also been possible to deduce the resuspension factor in 1985 for fallout Caesium from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. It was found to be ? 3x10-10m-1. (au)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

1987-01-26

242

The analysis of morbidity by a cancer of a thyroid gland of children on the moment of an exposure I131 owing to Chernobyl accident, registered in the Uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of cohort of the observation generated by indicated criteria: number 65575 person, including in the Gomel area 25215, in Bryansk - 40360, number of the registered cases of disease 226, including 132 in the Gomel area and 94 in Bryansk area, number of person-years of observation 1021229, including in the Gomel area 391363 of observation, in Bryansk - 629866, average exposure dose of a thyroid gland by radioisotopes of 131I in cohort 0,71 Gy, in the Gomel area 1,5 Gy, in Bryansk area - 0,2 Gy. Estimated a role of radiation and various not radiation risk factors, such as a sex, age on the moment of an exposure. The analysis of not radiation risk factors is spent separately for the Gomel area, Bryansk area and joined cohort. Among the persons irradiated in children's age in the Gomel area, the risk of disease by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the boys and girls was identical (RR=1,02, 95 % CI 0,72-1,44), in too time in Bryansk area the risk of disease of the girls in 3,4 times was higher (95 % CI 2,0-5,6), than among the boys. In joined cohort the girl in 1,5 times more often were sick of a cancer of a thyroid gland (95 % CI 1,16-2,0) in comparison with the boys. The analysis dose of dependence of a case rate by a cancer of a thyroid gland among the persons irradiated in children's age, has shown presence of a linear relation dose - effect, and in joined cohort this dependence most statistically is significant (y=0,002xh+0,86, R2=0,99). The value of exuberant relative risk on a dose 1 Gy has made 4,54 (95 % CI 2,43-9,78). (author)

2010-05-01

243

Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

1989-12-05

244

North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

245

Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

1998-03-01

246

Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: "1"3"1I, "1"3"2Te, "1"3"4"+"1"3"7Cs, "1"0"3"+"1"0"6Ru, "1"1"0"m Ag and, to a lesser degree, "8"9Sr and "9"0Sr. Very quickly, "1"3"7Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of "1"3"7Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of "1"3"4"+"1"3"7Cs, "1"0"3"+"1"0"6Ru, "1"1"0"m Ag and "9"0Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is "1"3"7Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their "1"3"7Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of "1"3"7Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg"-"1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, "1"3"7Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

1989-01-01

247

Selected results of cytogenetic studies related to estimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selected results of cytogenetic studies of the Chernobyl accident consequences were summarised. Chromosomal aberrations were used as a method of bio-dosimetry for dose assessment in victims during the initial period after the Chernobyl accident. Good correlation between doses calculated based on chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics) and severity of acute radiation syndrome observed in clinic was found. Bio-dosimetry based on conventional cytogenetic technique (dicentrics) has been unsuccessful for various groups (rehabilitation workers, evacuees, inhabitants of contaminated areas) sampled long time after the Chernobyl accident. Possible reasons of the failure are analysed. Original results of multi-aberrant cell yield observed in different cohorts of the Chernobyl victims are presented. Problems related to the phenomena are discussed

2000-01-01

248

DATABASE OF METEOROLOGICAL AND RADIATION MEASUREMENTS MADE IN BELARUS DURING THE FIRST THREE MONTHS FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow’s milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow’s milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voilleque, Paul; Bouville, Andre

2012-01-01

249

Effective dose estimation for the population in Kragujevac due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The doses that inhabitants of Kragujevac received after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl are given in this paper. During April and May in 1986, the radionuclide content in rain water was determined by applying gamma spectroscopic analysis, and the exposure dose rate in air was measured. The results obtained are the basis for absorbed dose, effective dose and commitment dose calculations. The effective dose, that some individuals received for the first year after the accident, due to the external exposure was estimated to be 50 ?Sv. Thus, the collective effective dose commitment due to the external exposure for population in Kragujevac town amounts to 11.5 Sv man. The effective dose from internal radiation due to 131I and 137Cs was also estimated, and amounted to 195 ?Sv in the first year. The collective effective dose commitment, due to the internal exposure (for 50 years) will be 43 Sv man. The total effective dose commitment (50 years) will be 0.32 mSv, while the total collective effective dose commitment will be 54.5 Sv man. (author)

1997-01-01

250

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1997-11-01

251

Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in EEC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are presented of an evaluation of the impact of radioactive substances escaped during the Chernobyl accident, on the population in EEC countries. The results have been processed from data provided by all member countries and relate to the most dangerous radionuclides namely 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The population was divided into three groups: one-year olds, 10 year olds and adults. Assessed were external whole-body irradiation by the radioactive cloud and material deposited on the body surface, and internal irradiation with regard to the human food chain. The irradiation of the thyroid was assessed separately. As for 131I, the most endangered group were the infants with the exception of Italy where 10 year olds were the most affected group. Values calculated for the individual countries are given of the effective dose equivalent for the first year, the dose equivalent for the thyroide, the dose commitment in the first year, the collective effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid gland. Measures taken to reduce the irradiation of the population (restrictions on distribution and consumption of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables, feeding cattle with preserved feeds, etc.) reduced the collective dose equivalent by a mere 5% and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid by 26%. (E.S.). 3 tabs

1988-01-01

252

The state of health of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Chernobyl NPP accident more than 3000 liquidators from Armenia suffered after effects. Since 1986 the Radiation Medicine Institute has conducted follow-up observations on more than 2000 of them. Pathologies of the nervous system are the most prominent. A marked number of patients presented with chronic non-specific lung disease and inflammatory conditions of the alimentary canal. Thyroid hormone analysis has shown that during the first year triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyropine levels of the liquidators have increased significantly, and continued to do so. Later, the two former declined but the thyrotropine level remained significantly high. Decrease in peripheral blood neutrophiles phagocyte activity has revealed cellular type immunodeficiency including decrease in blood serum complement activity and lowered resistance to infection. Lymphocyte chromosomal analysis revealed considerably increased levels of aberrations and there were defects in spermatogenesis. In the liquidators a clastogenic factor in serum led to aberration levels 2-5 times higher than in controls. The new antioxidant Tanakan was tested on volunteer liquidators and proved useful. The gradual transition from functional to organ pathology, in parallel with clastogenic factors, chromosomal aberrations and spermatogenesis defects requires long-term monitoring and new preventative and medicinal remedies. (Author)

1994-10-25

253

Inquiries from the public about the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of April, a few calls from members of public relating to the Chernobyl accident were starting to trickle through to the Board's headquarters at Chilton. On the 1st May, the travel trade gave out the Board's telephone number to its clients who wanted information and advice about travelling abroad, and the trickle suddenly became a flood. During the bank holiday weekend, reporting of the remnants of the radioactive release reaching Britain received considerable prominence in the media. By the 6th of May, the Board's 15 telephone lines had become clogged with requests for information, advice and/or reassurance and other lines had to be installed. By then, the media, companies, scientists from other organisations, local government officials and various other community representatives were all vying with members of the public to get through to the Board. The inquiries by telephone were answered by nominated Board staff: they ranged from requests for factual information about the levels of activity in air, milk, water, and so on, to simple requests for reassurance that all was well

1986-10-01

254

Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

1990-01-01

255

Reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant-Block 4. Effects, countermeasures and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The findings of the Summary Report on the Chernobyl accident issued by IAEA in September 1986 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG): Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 78-INSAG-1 Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sept. 1986) are updated, reviewing more recent publications providing more complete information on the events both within and outside the plant. The available information on the resulting radioactive pollution of agriculture and the food chain is discussed considering also the consequences for the future in comparison with the other sources of radioactivity in the environment. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

1988-01-01

256

Exposure from fallout from past nuclear explosions and accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of the whole environmental radioactivity has been made by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) since the establishment in 1955. The recent studies on the exposure dose in Japanese caused by the fallout of Chernobyl accident as well as the assessment of UNSCEAR are described in this report and some problems in the assessment of exposure dose were discussed. Nuclear test in the atmosphere, which was stopped since 1980 was done 520 times and a total of nuclear matter used was 217 megaton for the fission type and 328 for the fusion type test. The distribution of radioactive contamination was 12% for the respective local areas, 10% for the troposphere and 78% for the atmosphere. The collective exposure dose attributed to the previous nuclear tests in the atmosphere and underground were estimated to be 3x10"7 and 2x10"2 man-Sv, respectively. Whereas the exposure by the fallout due to the peaceful utilizations including Chernobyl accident was estimated to be about 180 man-Sv. On the other hand, the national exposure dose in Japanese resulting from the fallout of the accident was 590 man-Sv, showing 5 ?Sv for each person. Since these values were estimated on a basis of various assumptions using a number of models and parameters, it was thought important to represent the range of uncertainity as clearly as possible. (M.N.)

1995-10-01

257

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

2006-09-03

258

Radiocontamination patterns and possible health consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main hazard in the early phase after Chernobyl was radioiodine. Thyroid doses were esimated separately for (i) zones of strict control, (ii) most contaminated provinces (iii) the whole central European region of the USSR. Distinction was made between children under the age of 7 years at the time of the accident and the rest of the population. In the later phase the main concern is whole-body exposure to radiocaesium. Doses were calculated for the same areas and age groups as radioiodine. The following were considered: thyroid malignancies, leukaemia, other types of cancer, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. A stastistically significant excess over the spontaneous level is unlikely to be detectable for these effects, with the possible exception of thyroid disorders. The risk was greatly reduced by preventive measures, in particular lifetime doses have been restricted by establishment of a limit of 0.35 Sv. (author)

1990-01-01

259

An analysis of the print media in Europe following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The print media coverage of the Chernobyl accident was analysed in seven European countries. The goal was to identify common communications problems and to suggest how they might be resolved. Aside from difficulties with technical information on units of radiation exposure, contamination, and effects, the media did a reasonably good job of presenting to the public the information they were given by official sources. Some evidence of confusion was found, and it affected the credibility of communications, but the press seemed to be reflecting confusion existing within crisis management teams and the scientific community rather than creating it. Some of the more common problems are discussed and ideas for improving crisis management and the communication of information about risks are explored

1987-01-01

260

[Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama].  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 microSv, child-140 microSv, baby-130 microSv, [total body] adult-0.2 microSv, child, baby-0.4 microSv, external exposure; 7 microSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 microSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 microSv. PMID:3671790

Morita, M; Shoji, M; Honda, T; Sakanoue, M

1987-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

1997-11-01

262

Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

1996-03-18

263

Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

2000-02-13

264

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to co nsid

2008-02-01

265

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

Jacob, P.

1996-05-01

266

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. Radiation measurements in Denmark. 3. report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In continuation of the reporting of 4 May and 11 May 1986 this report summarizes the radioactivity measurements made during the third and fourth week after the accident at Chernobyl. The data have been collated by the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations from measurements made by Risoe National Laboratory and the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. The radioactivity remaining in the air after the first two weeks shows daily variations at low levels without significant contribution to the fall out levels on the ground surfaces. The ground contamination shows a decreasing trend according to radioactive decay and for the plants also according to natural cleaning mechanisms. The radioactive data from the third and fourth week after the accident confirm the previous estimate that the total radiation impact on the Danish area from the accident, including future radiation exposures from the contamination experienced up to now, corresponds at most to approximately one month of natural background radiation. For the time to come the measuring programme and data reporting arrangements will be reorganized with a view to the future long term follow-up of the situation. Thus, this report is expected to be the last in the series of ad hoc reports for prompt dissemination of data on the Danish radioactivity measurements. (author)

1986-05-11

267

Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

1993-09-01

268

Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

2008-10-19

269

Radiological heath effects of the Chernobyl accident: estimation of radiation risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, two population groups were primarily exposed to radiation emergency workers involved in mitigation of the accident consequences (liquidators) and residents of contaminated territories. A dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among residents exposed as children has been apparent since 1992. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about the existence of radiation-related health effects in liquidators (the average dose of external radiation about 100 mGy). We studied a cohort of 71.870 Russian-resident males engaged in recovery operations within the 30-km zone between 1986-1990 for whom individual external radiation dose estimates are available (the average dose 107 mGy). A total of 58 morphologically verified leukemia cases (ICD9 204-208) were identified in this cohort between 1986 and 1998. Of these, 16 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were excluded. Even though leukemia is known to be an early consequence of acute radiation exposure, various studies indicate that CLL rates do not increase with radiation exposure. We consider the relationship between leukemia incidence rate and absorbed radiation dose in analysis based on both external and internal comparisons. Both the external (SIR=2.5<0.001) and internal comparisons (RR=2.2, P=0.03) indicate significantly elevated risks in the 150-300 mGy dose group. The areas worst affected by the Chernobyl accident include the Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol oblasts of Russia. According to the Russian Commission on Radiation Safety the thyroid doses due to exposure to incorporated ''131 I in the children population of the south-West areas of the Bryansk oblast is 200-500 mGy. The paper presents results of the radiogenic thyroid cancer risk analysis in the Bryansk region among girls of 0-17 years at the time of exposure. In this group a total of 144 cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed from 1991 to 2001, the mean thyroid dose being 80 mGy, the number of person-years in the period from 1991 to 2001 2034110. the excess relative risk per unit dose of 1 Gy (ERR{sub 1}gy) with 95% confidence interval has been estimated to be 9.1 (3.0, 23.3). The highest risk of developing thyroid cancer was established among girls of 0-4 years at the time of exposure living in the Bryansk oblast: for them the ERR{sub 1}Gy is 45.3(5.2, 9953.0). The results of epidemiological analysis obtained in the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry is of major practical significance for optimizing the health care services to the population exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. (Author) 15 refs.

Ivanov, V. K.; Tsyb, A. F.; Gorski, A. I.; Khait, S. E.; Maksiioutov, M. A.; Vlasov, O. K.

2004-07-01

270

Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 ?m with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 ?m were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 ?m. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 ?m. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

2013-12-01

271

Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children, after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the accident from Chernobyl, an important number of studies were focused on the effects of the accident but, nine years after the accident, we still don't know enough about its impact on public health and environment. A major problem after the Chernobyl accident was to asses the effects of the irradiation for different age groups, especially for children. Our group measured Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children of different ages (between 4 and 12 years), at different time intervals after the accident. From the intake data, a trend of the annually committed effective doses was deduced. The paper presents the dose values for different age groups, as well as the balance of the intake and excretion, given as the 'observed ratio'. (author)

1996-01-01

272

Irradiation of the Bulgarian population from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessments of the exposure of Bulgarian population were given by the National Centre of radiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (BG), in 1986 and the work continued till 1992. A number of analyses relating to particular risk groups are still in progress. For the first post-accident year, the effective dose equivalents were as follows: 1.03 mSv for children aged under 16 years; 0.67 mSv for adults; an average of 0.79 mSv for the population. The corresponding exposure averaged over a lifetime is 0.95 mSv. Doses to thyroid glands amount to 10.0 mSv and 3.3 mSv for children and adults, respectively. (author)

1993-12-02

273

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

1987-01-01

274

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs.

Goldman, M.; Catlin, R.J.; Anspaugh, L.

1987-06-01

275

Fifteen years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen years has passed on this year since accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant had formed on April 26, 1986. From before or after the accident, the world experienced a number of changes. On August, 1986, USSR carried out a report on the accident at an international conference on the accident at Chernobyl held at Wien. Outlines of the report are described in a report of IAEA INSAG (INSAG-1). After then, various facts hidden in the USSR report at this time have appeared. Then, INSAG revised previous INSAG-1 and published INSAG-7 re-evaluated on technical meanings of the accident on 1992, which became so-called finished issue on technical analysis and evaluation on causes and progresses of the accident. To correctly understand lessons on the accident, it must be begun from correct understanding of its real facts. It is widely recognized that its actual and fundamental reason was slight or neglect on safety found at whole of nuclear development and applications in USSR and shorts of safety culture such as emptiness of technology and regulation brought by them, relaxation of working rule, and so on, which were only the largest lesson on the Chernobyl accident. (G.K.)

2002-02-01

276

Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

1997-09-01

277

Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

1996-03-18

278

Assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl Reactor accident on the Biota of Swedeish Streams and Lakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in elevated levels of radionuclides in the air space above Sweden, which were then washed into Swedish lakes and streams. Before suspended particles stripped the water column, the concentration of /sp137/Cs in small Swedish lakes was in the order of 10-40 Bq/l. This level of radioactivity should result in a negligible increase in the external exposure rate. However, by August 1986 increased levels of radioactivity were found at all trophic levels of freshwater ecosystems from algae to top carnivore, and from the available data the levels of radioactivity are still increasing. The calculated dose rate for the aquatic biota caused by the two cesium isotopes, /sp134/Cs and /sp137/Cs, is about 25 times higher than natural levels. While acute effectrs of the Chernobyl fallout on freshwater biota are unlikely, the long term ecological effects bear watching

1986-01-01

279

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

2006-05-15

280

Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

2013-03-01

282

Chernobyl accident one year later: Genetic damage and 137Cs accumulation in wild rodents in Rome, Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has stressed the importance of studying the consequences of insertion and accumulation of radioactive substances in the environment. The radioactive fallout reaced Rome in May 1986 (ENEA/DISP), 1986) and an investigation was started aimed at studying the effects of the exposure of wild populations to low doses. In order to assess the extent of the genetic damage and ascertain the existence of a relationship between environmental radioactivity and somatic and germinal damage, mutagenic tests were used on wild rodents. The results obtained through micronucleus test have shown a statistically significant increase of MPCEs/1000 PCEs in all the animals sampled during and after the Chernobyl fallout. The maximum of MPCEs, recorded during the fallout, was the highest obtained, even compared with the wild rodents sampled in other areas and in trapping performed before the Chernobyl accident. The increased mutagenic rate observed in the investigated populations confirms the efficacy of the micronucleus test and the use of wild populations as biological indicators. 34 refs.,1 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

1989-02-01

283

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR

284

Rehabilitation of soils and surface after a nuclear accident: Some techniques tried in the Chernobyl zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident, the major part of deposited radio nuclides remains in the 3 or 4 cm of the topsoil of abandoned fields in the chernobyl zone. The Decontaminating Vegetal Network allows a layer of few centimeters of the top soil to be removed with a turf harvester. The efficiency observed at Chernobyl was 97% for cesium-137 and strontium-90. After scraping the soil with the turf harvester, the bare soil must be covered and re-grown in order to prevent wind erosion of the sandy soil. A trial spraying of polyacrylamide on the soil was carried out. This technique seems promising. Trials of bio-decontamination of the removed turf using anaerobic degradation were also carried out. This experiment provided an opportunity to measure in real conditions the transfer of radionuclides in the Chernobyl zone

1993-09-05

285

Electric spin resonance and instrumental neutron activation element analyses of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up worker teeth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentrations of macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Se, Zn, Co) in teeth of Chernobyl's NPP accident clean-up workers examined in the Centre of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P.Stradins Clinical Hospital, Medicine Academy of Latvia. The strontium concentration was high in teeth of clean-up that in control teeth. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the absorption dose. The absorbed dose reconstruction was achieved by additive dose method. The absorbed dose measured by ESR in teeth was always higher than the documented exposure doses. (author)

1997-08-24

286

Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident: solid cancer incidence in various groups of the Ukrainian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several major international studies such as those performed on the A-bomb survivors, have shown a clear linkage between the exposure to ionizing radiation and the occurrence of various cancer types including leukemia. While these studies are mostly characterized by high dose rates, studies on populations exposed after the Chernobyl accident are in most cases characterized by low dose rates which are typical for occupational radiation protection. Here, data on more than 60,000 Ukrainian workers who participated in recovery operation works in Chernobyl in 1986-1987, more than 50,000 evacuees from the city of Prypyat and the 30 km zone, and about 360,000 residents of most contaminated territories are presented, which cover a period of observation from 1980 to 2004. For all cancers combined, statistically significant higher incidence rates than the national rates were found only for the recovery workers (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 117.2%, 95% confidence interval: 114.1-120.3), while those for the other investigated groups were lower. In all groups under study a significant increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates has been registered. This increase appears to be associated, at least partly, with the fallout of radioiodine, and it was found not only in children, but also in adolescents and adults. For example, the most significant excess was found for male recovery workers corresponding to a factor of 8.0. It is important to keep in mind, however, that the contribution of confounding factors such as an intensified thyroid screening after the Chernobyl accident could not be quantified, in the present study. For female recovery workers there was also an excess of breast cancer over the national rates (SIR 190.6%; 95% confidence interval: 163.6-217.7%). An analysis of the two other groups (evacuees and residents of contaminated territories) gave controversial results: relative to the local standard there was a statistically significant excess, while comparison with the national level did not substantiate this conclusion. PMID:17279359

Prysyazhnyuk, A; Gristchenko, V; Fedorenko, Z; Gulak, L; Fuzik, M; Slipenyuk, K; Tirmarche, M

2007-03-01

287

Effect of natural ?-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 2, and >5 Ci/m2, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, ?-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture ?-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural ?-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or ?-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of ?-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans ?-carotene, ?-carotene, but not 9-cis ?-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural ?-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.)

1998-10-01

288

Strategy for population protection and area rehabilitation in Russia in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents the history of the development of criteria for radiation and social protection of the Russian population residing in the areas contaminated with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, in the remote time periods after the accident. The tendencies for reduction of standards with time are shown, and their causes are analysed. It is noted that the optimization principle was not applied in the explicit form for population protection. The current radiation situation in the contaminated areas of Russia is described, and the future situation is forecast. Main pathways of external and internal population exposure are described. Modern possibilities for reduction of the population exposure dose are discussed. The authors propose promising criteria and methodsfor population protection and rehabilitation of contaminated areas in Russia. (author)

Balonov, M.I. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Anisimova, L.I. [Ministry of the Russian Federation for Emergencies, Moscow (Russian Federation); Perminova, G.S. [Ministry of the Russian Federation for Public Health, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-09-01

289

Iarc-coordinated study of cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Making use of exposure estimates and observation on groups who have been followed up following radiation exposure, several national and international bodies have made predictions of the excess number of cancer cases which are expected to arise in Europe as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The general consensus has been that, for most European populations, the excess would be of a very small magnitude and unlikely to be detectable above background and that, consequently, implementation of special cancer studies could not be justified. Why, therefore, carriyng out this registry-based study. While wide use of cancer registries has been made in studying past trends in risk, this study probably represents the first situation where registries have undertaken to prospectively monitor future trends in relation to a specific exposure. As such, it provides a model for future co-operation among existing cancer registries in projects of this kind, and should serve to encourage the establishment of routine cancer registration where it does not yet exist

1987-01-01

290

[Results of experimental radiobiological studies made within the 10-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl AES accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was made of the effect of high radioactive contamination on the animal organism (C57BL/6 mice) and HeLa cell culture within the ten-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl A.P.S. accident. The total radiation dose, as calculated by a gamma-component, was 0.09 to 2 Gy. A long-term exposure of mice within the zone (cumulative dose of 1.8 to 2 Gy) caused a significant decrease in bone marrow stem potencies and changes in the brain vascular system; subsequent acute exposure of animals increased interferon titres in the serum to a much greater extent than a single acute exposure did. As to HeLa cells, irradiation there of with doses of 0.09 to 0.4 Gy during 15-20 postirradiation generations caused a decrease in the proliferative activity, an emergence of cells with micronuclei and of giant cells, and remote cell death. PMID:1719579

Pelevina, I I; Riabov, I N; Riabtsev, I A; Gulev, B F; Gotlib, V Ia; Afanas'ev, G G; Vasilenko, S N; Gumeniuk, M L; Kozlova, L E; Kondarov, A A

1991-01-01

291

Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works, organizations and key personnel are introduced on these institutes and centers with the major publication list. (Y. Tanaka)

Nasvit, O. [Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

1998-03-01

292

Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

1996-03-18

293

Analysis of radioecological situation and health state of Ukrainian population contingents affected due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecological situation is analysed at the Ukrainian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident on the basis of data of radioecological and dosimetric studies in 1987-1991 and medical consequences of the accident are assessed. Four categories of persons affected due to the Chernobyl accident are considered. Disease incidence in the above categories is retraced taking into account age, sex and obtained dose. 1 tab

1993-01-01

294

Chernobyl accident radiological after-effect in the USSR and measures to moderate them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new experience and major safety measures to moderate Chernobyl accident radiological after effect are considered. High efficiency of iodine prophylactic, limitations to contaminate food onsumption and special agrotechnical measures are preventive actions decreasing the internal irradiation. Possibility of a wide-scale surface decontamination is pointed out. Advisability of zoning the contaminated area near the reactor accident and radiation monitoring is verified in practice. A need for safety standards for separate kinds of food is stated

1988-01-01

295

Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

1993-01-01

296

Cancer incidence in population of the Bryansk and Belgorod regions after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Descriptive analysis of 150,000 new cancer cases registered in 1980-2000 in the Bryansk and Belgorod Regions of Russia, radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in different levels, has been carried out. Gender, age at diagnosis, demographic changes and other factors were taking into account. It was demonstrated, that the structure and dynamics of cancer incidence had similar features in two Regions after the accident. It is supposed that low dosed acted as promoters of carcinogenesis

2006-04-01

297

Soil contamination in Northern Austria as aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil contamination caused by the accident at Chernobyl was very uneven distributed in Austria. In late autumn 1986 soil samples from northern Austria were analysed in order to get to know the actual contamination in terms of figures. The extreme values for Cs-137 found were 962 and 73630 Bq/m2 respectively. 3 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

1988-01-01

298

Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

1987-01-01

299

The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

1986-10-07

300

Results of liver puncture biopsy in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident with hepatic pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper provides review of data on study of liver damage under radiation impact. Liver structure in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was studied. It is determined that in patients with hepatic pathology occurs, in the future, structural alterations from the side of the liver after being under conditions of low dose ionizing radiation impact. (author)

2005-09-06

 
 
 
 
301

Radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in the environment of Chattia, a region of the FRG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity of various radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in air, water, grass, soil, milk and other samples in Chattia is followed as function of time from the end of april to the end of june. From the decrease in activity the ecological half-life of /sup 131/I and of /sup 137/Cs in various samples is evaluated and discussed.

Hoffmann, P.; Pilz, N.; Lieser, K.H.; Ilmstaedter, V.; Griesbach

1987-01-01

302

Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

1993-01-01

303

Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the "1"3"7Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

1986-01-01

304

Time course of changes in the health of Chernobyl accident liquidators residing in the Moscow Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disease incidence, disability and mortality of persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response are analysed for Moscow Province residents. Results of medical examinations for 10 years were presented. It is shown that functional derangements are the main pathology at the first stage of prophylactic medical examination cardiovascular and oncological diseases are urgent at the second stage (after 1991) of medical examination

1997-01-01

305

Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

1986-01-01

306

An accident with consequences. 25 years Chernobyl; Ein Unfall mit Folgen. 25 Jahre Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution covers questions to the institute for applied ecology in Freiburg concerning the following issues: situation in the institute following the information on the accident in Chernobyl, information for the public and German authorities, the radioactive cloud, the information chaos, the environmental consequences in Germany and the radiological impact on the population.

NONE

2011-07-01

307

Mastered horror. Life in the Ukraine ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book, written in a journalistic style, reports on the visit of the author on her visit to the Ukraine 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. It is based on interviews with the affected population, with scientists (doctors, veterinarians, biologists, psychologists, ecologists), parliamentarians and representatives of the state administration. figs., refs

1996-01-01

308

Antioxidant therapy of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' organ of sight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant complex including flakumin, glutamic acid and sodium thiosulfate, has been used for treating pathologic changes in the organs of sight of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators. Its positive effect on a number of hormonal and immunology indices of blood and the visual acuity stabilization has been shown

1998-04-01

309

Distributions of radiation exposure in areas contaminated through the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are computer programs available for accident-related radionuclide discharges into the terrestrial environment which generate recommendations for countermeasures and which are designed to make an as realistic a determination of radiation exposure as possible. When such programs were used after the Chernobyl disaster it was found that they were unable to reliably predict internal doses because they lacked a means of modelling food transport. A case in point were parts of Bavaria with high contamination levels were doses determined by whole-body measurements were lower than those found by estimation based on the contamination of local food products. Calculation models that are used for examining planning-basis situations mostly overestimate realistically possible dose levels. This poses the question whether it might not be possible to develop calculation programs for planning-basis situations that give a realistic picture of potential radiation exposure. The present study summarises the results of published data for the purpose of making statements on radiation exposure in areas of Russia, White Russia and Ukraine several years after their contamination by the Chernobyl disaster. It presents results on dose distributions which can contribute to the discussion on the realistic modelling of radiation exposure and the definition of critical groups. The study is divided into sections on internal and external radiation exposure

2003-11-25

310

Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

1997-09-01

311

The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

1995-01-01

312

Spatially heterogeneous exposure estimation in modeling Chernobyl cooling pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the implications of adding spatial and hydrodynamic complexity in estimating the exposure of aquatic organisms to radionuclides in the Chernobyl cooling pond. Previous approaches to risk estimation have emphasized completely mixed conditions and constant exposure concentrations. In this study, the combined dose resulting from direct external exposure and internal exposure through food web accumulation of 137Cs was estimated for the pond biota using models of increasing spatial-temporal complexity. Dose rates were calculated first assuming completely mixed, homogeneous conditions. These rates were re-calculated using a 2-dimensional, hydrodynamic model that simulated spatial-temporal variabilities in 137Cs concentrations and that included spatial distributions of potentially exposed organisms. The models were used first to calculate 137Cs concentrations in water and sediments. These concentrations were then used to estimate external and internal exposures and risk to pond biota. The preliminary results suggest no imminent ecological risk to the Chernobyl cooling pond biota according to accepted standards. However, the results also demonstrate the need for additional, more detailed estimates

1994-11-03

313

The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

2002-04-01

314

Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

1994-09-01

315

Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

2009-11-02

316

Characteristics of primary and secondary caesium-radionuclide contamination of the countryside following the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP was the second serious accident involving a nuclear reactor (the first being at Windscale) and led to a wide area being contaminated with a large number of different radionuclides, including some elements with a high melting point. From May 1986 onwards a team of researchers from the Soviet Goskomgidromet and the Soviet Mingeo carried out extensive studies around the Chernobyl NPP using aerial gamma and aerial gamma-spectrometric survey methods: these covered a 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP (78.5 km2), a 60-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP (11 500 km2) and five administrative regions bordering the accident zone (over 350 X 103 km2). It was possible - via integration - to determine from these studies the absolute and relative contributions received by each zone from the total caesium-137 release into the atmosphere from the reactor. Comparison of a map plotting actual contamination of the countryside with estimates based on various mathematical models allows us to evaluate any shortcomings in the individual components of the models. In order to obtain a quantitative assessment of possible redistribution of the original radioactive deposition, a recording network (with a radius of 60 km) was set up covering an area of 11 500 km2 (geometrically centred on the fourth unit at the Chernobyl NPP). The network consists of over 400 recording points located at distances ranging from 1 to 60 km (36 radii, up to 19 points per radius). From 1987 to 1989 five series of soil samples were taken at nodal points in the network and analysed to establish their caesium-137 content. On two occasions (spring and autumn 1989) gauze screens were set up a various points throughout the network; after one month's exposure these screens were analysed for caesium-137 content. Comparing the degree of caesium-137 primary contamination with the degree of resuspension for this radionuclide we were able to make quantitative assessments and predict windborne migration of primary contamination. The paper sets out the differences in regional contamination at micro-, meso- and macro-scale levels. (author)

1990-10-01

317

Chernobyl accident: soils contamination, sanitary impacts and contaminated territories management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the radioactive releases of Chernobyl between the 26 April and the 10 May 1986, the radiologic situation of the contaminated areas of USSR, Ukraine and Belarus is now invested, and if this does not allow to reconstruct the received doses of the population during the first weeks, it makes possible to calculate the received doses afterwards, and to estimate the potential expositions. (A.B.). 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

1986-05-10

318

Third annual Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: retrospective analysis of impacts of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the >600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. An exception is a cohort of several hundred emergency workers who received high radiation doses and of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed to radioiodine at a young age and some increase of leukemia in the most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation. There was, however, an increase in psychological problems among the affected population, compounded by the social disruption that followed the break-up of the Soviet Union. Despite the unprecedented scale of the Chernobyl accident, its consequences on the health of people are far less severe than those of the atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Studying the consequences of the Chernobyl accident has made an invaluable scientific contribution to the development of nuclear safety, radioecology, radiation medicine and protection, and also the social sciences. The Chernobyl accident initiated the global nuclear and radiation safety regime. PMID:18049216

Balonov, Mikhail

2007-11-01

319

Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

1993-01-01

320

The Chernobyl accident: current vision of its causes and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses actual data on the chronology of the accident sequences and the power unit parameters starting from 01:00 April 25, 1986, as well as results of the accident processes computing, obtained from the three models. The authors note that in addition to general conclusions on the causes of the accident process development there are significant differences in the results of its detailed scenario analysis and point out the necessity of further research

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used in a prognosis approach during Fukushima accident. • Operational use of ADM tools by emergency decision makers still raises concerns

2013-12-01

322

Status of the organs of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the status of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident. Morphological and functional changes suffered by the digestive organs on exposure to ionizing radiation in doses leading to the development of acute radiation sickness are described. The effect of small doses ionizing radiation on the human body is indicated too. (O.L.). 15 refs., 1 tab

1995-01-01

323

131I and 137Cs in the environment following the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measured 131I and 137Cs radioactivity in air, on the ground, and in milk at different places throughout the world were compared. It was found that the measured radioactivity could be explained assuming that the radioactive material released during the Chernobyl accident was transported primarily in two segments. The first part was transported at low altitudes, contaminated areas around Chernobyl and extended up to 2000-3000 km. The second part was injected into the troposphere. The time integrated radioactivity concentrations in near-ground air particulates, the integral ground deposition densities and milk concentrations can be described by an exponential decrease as a function of the distance from Chernobyl. The intercept (values near the damaged reactor) and the slopes (describing dispersion conditions) were calculated. The deposition velocities for 131I and 137Cs transported with the two altitude air masses are given. (author) 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tabs

1988-07-01

324

Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

1997-09-01

325

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet union and measures taken to mitigate their impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population

326

Analysis of the Chernobyl accident from 1:19:00 to the first power excursion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many researchers have reported that the root cause of the Chernobyl accident has not been clarified still now. Since many of them discussed the accident without a precise thermal-hydraulic investigation, thermal-hydraulic calculations coupled with neutronic calculations have been done on the basis of the recorded result at the Chernobyl Unit-4. Plant configurations and operational conditions were given to the code on the basis of reported result and published papers. Calculation could trace plant parameters from 1:19:00 to the first power excursion without any discrepancies measured at the Chernobyl Unit-4. Reactivity slightly smaller than 1{beta} by the positive scram is concluded as a possible direct cause of the accident, which acts as a trigger to increase the reactor power. Other possibilities as a trigger of the accident such as cavitation in pumps and pump coast-down were investigated. The importance of the calculation from the stable condition is also described in this paper in order not to bring unnecessary assumptions into the calculation.

Mochizuki, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1 Shiraki, Tsuruga, Fukui 919-1279 (Japan)]. E-mail: mochizuki.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp

2007-02-15

327

Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are ...

Eikelmann, I. M. H.; Bye, K.; Sletten, H. D.

1990-01-01

328

Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

1991-01-28

329

Environmental distribution and transport of radionuclides in West Cumbria following the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are summarized for the pattern of deposition of Cs-137 and I-131 in West Cumbria, UK, following the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents and on the apparent environmental behaviour in terms of retention on plants, transfer from soil to plant, and transfer to milk and meat. For the 1957 accident, peak deposits of Cs-137 several kilometres south of Windscale are estimated to be in the range ? 16000-40000 Bq/m2. Peak recorded concentration of Cs-137 in milk in October 1957 was 592 Bq/l, two weeks after the accident. The ratio of concentration in milk (Bq/l) to content in herbage (Bq/m2) was ? 0.4 to 0.6 m2/l for Cs-137 and ? 0.06 to 0.1 m2/l for I-131. Peak recorded concentration of Cs-137 in milk in May 1986 was 356 Bq/l and the corresponding ratios of concentration in milk to content in herbage were 0.37 m2/l for Cs-137 and 0.31 m2/l for I-131. The reason for the higher value for I-131 recorded after Chernobyl compared to that for Windscale is not clear. Whereas the initial decline in Cs-137 and I-131 content in herbage after the Windscale accident occurred with a biological half-life of ? 16 d, initial loss after the Chernobyl accident was much more rapid, reflecting both the effects of rainfall and the different times of year of the two inputs. No data appear to exist for radiocaesium concentrations in meat after the Windscale accident. After Chernobyl, radiocaesium concentration ratios for soil-to-plant transfer in upland ecosystems ranged from 1 to 10. Radiocaesium concentrations in sheep at some locations did not show any substantial decline from 1986 to 1989. Experience on soil-plant-animal transfer after the Chernobyl accident, coupled with measurements on contents of radiocaesium in soil from the 1950s and 1970s, indicates that Cs-137 concentrations in individual lambs from a few locations in 1958 and the middle 1960s may have been similar to concentrations measured in individual animals in summer 1986. (author)

1990-10-01

330

Thyroid Dose Estimates for a Cohort of Belarusian Children Exposed to Radiation from the Chernobyl Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with the Belarusian Ministry of Health, is conducting a study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in a cohort of about 12,000 persons who were exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The study subjects were 18 years old or younger at the time of exposure and resided in Belarus in the most contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts, as well as in the city of Minsk. All cohort members had at least one direct thyroid measurement made in April–June 1986. Individual data on residential history, consumption of milk, milk products and leafy vegetables as well as administration of stable iodine were collected for all cohort members by means of personal interviews conducted between 1996 and 2007. Based on the estimated 131I activities in the thyroids, which were derived from the direct thyroid measurements, and on the responses to the questionnaires, individual thyroid doses from intakes of 131I were reconstructed for all cohort members. In addition, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for the following minor exposure pathways: (a) intake of short-lived 132I, 133I and 132Te by inhalation and ingestion; (b) external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (c) ingestion intake of 134Cs and 137Cs. Intake of 131I was the major pathway for thyroid exposure; its mean contribution to the thyroid dose was 92%. The thyroid doses from 131I intakes varied from 0.5 mGy to almost 33 Gy; the mean was estimated to be 0.58 Gy, while the median was 0.23 Gy. The reconstructed doses are being used to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in the cohort.

Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Leshcheva, Svetlana; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Kutsen, Semion; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tretyakevich, Sergey; Trofimik, Sergey; Voilleque, Paul; Bouville, Andre

2013-01-01

331

Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of satellite images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper satellite images. Eight images acquired between April 22, 1986 and May 15, 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to derive dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM spectral band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The earliest date showing detectable injury 1 km west of the reactor unit was June 16, 1986. Subsequent dates revealed continued expansion of the affected areas to the west, north, and south. The greatest aerial expansion of this area occurred by October 15, 1986, with vegetation changes evident up to 5 km west, 2 km south, and 2 km north of the damaged Reactor Unit 4. By May 11, 1987, further scene changes were due principally to removal and mitigation efforts by the Soviet authorities. Areas showing spectral evidence of vegetation damage during the previous growing season do not show evidence of recovery and reflectance in the TM Bands 4 and 3 remain higher than surrounding vegetation, which infers that the trees are dead. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and the timing of these effects enabled developing an integrated radiation dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed, involving the combining of remote sensing analyses and estimates of the radionuclide mix with the known radiation effects on conifers, represents a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to severe reactor accidents. (author)

1987-01-01

332

Screening for 137Cs body burden due to the Chernobyl accident in Korosten city, Zhitomir, Ukraine. 1996-2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident on 26 April 1986, large amounts of radionuclides were released and spread to vast areas. Inhabitants residing around CNPP have been exposed to external and internal irradiation due to the long half-life of 137Cs (30 years). In this study, we screened for internal whole-body 137Cs concentration using a whole-body counter in the Zhitomir state of Ukraine. The total number of participants was 144,972 (96,149 females and 48,823 males). The median body burden of 137Cs per body weight decreased from 1996 to 2008. In particular, after 2003, more than half of subjects had internal exposure doses below the detectable level. A weak seasonal effect was found in measurement data from 1997 to 1999, but no such effects were observed in later years. We also calculated annual dose for each year and confirmed that doses have been decreasing gradually. In particular, after 2003, the annual effective dose decreased to 0.1 mSv y-1 for 95% of the participants. Only two persons were found to have received more than 5 mSv y-1 since 2007. Although the health effects of 137Cs body burden due to the Chernobyl accident remain uncertain, further screening is needed to monitor the health status and to allay the anxiety of inhabitants in the contaminated areas around CNPP. (author)

2011-09-01

333

Case-control analysis of leukaemia among Chernobyl accident emergency workers residing in the Russian Federation, 1986-1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an analysis of data of the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry on the incidence of leukaemia among 155,680 male Chernobyl accident emergency workers (EWs) who were resident in the Russian Federation (RF) for the period from 1986 to the end of 1993. The system of collection and verification of data on leukaemia is described. 48 cases of leukaemia among EWs were identified in 1986-1993. The principal analysis includes 34 leukaemia cases occurring more than two years after first exposure. The analysis was carried out for all leukaemia and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), separately. Distributions of leukaemia cases by age, time of diagnosis since entry into the Chernobyl zone, radiation dose, date of entry in to the Chernobyl zone, duration of stay in the region of Chernobyl were calculated. To evaluate leukaemia risks associated with various factors the case-control methodology was used. Radiation dose, date of entry into the zone, duration of stay in the zone were used as risk factors. No significant associations between leukaemia risks and the investigated factors were found. Calculation of the standardised registration ratios (SRR) revealed a significant increase in the registration of leukaemia among all EWs (SRR = 205, 95% confidence interval (CI) 136-297) and the EWs arriving in the zone during 1986-1987 (SRR = 200, 95% CI: 127-300) compared with the general male population of the RF in 1991-1993. However, raised SRRs may be accounted for by the differences in medical screening in the compared populations, particularly the efforts made to identify leukaemia cases among the EWs. The absence of dose-related trend for leukaemia indicates that this explanation is likely to be correct. (author)

1997-09-01

334

Case-control analysis of leukaemia among Chernobyl accident emergency workers residing in the Russian Federation, 1986-1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an analysis of data of the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry on the incidence of leukaemia among 155,680 male Chernobyl accident emergency workers (EWs) who were resident in the Russian Federation (RF) for the period from 1986 to the end of 1993. The system of collection and verification of data on leukaemia is described. 48 cases of leukaemia among EWs were identified in 1986-1993. The principal analysis includes 34 leukaemia cases occurring more than two years after first exposure. The analysis was carried out for all leukaemia and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), separately. Distributions of leukaemia cases by age, time of diagnosis since entry into the Chernobyl zone, radiation dose, date of entry in to the Chernobyl zone, duration of stay in the region of Chernobyl were calculated. To evaluate leukaemia risks associated with various factors the case-control methodology was used. Radiation dose, date of entry into the zone, duration of stay in the zone were used as risk factors. No significant associations between leukaemia risks and the investigated factors were found. Calculation of the standardised registration ratios (SRR) revealed a significant increase in the registration of leukaemia among all EWs (SRR = 205, 95% confidence interval (CI) 136-297) and the EWs arriving in the zone during 1986-1987 (SRR = 200, 95% CI: 127-300) compared with the general male population of the RF in 1991-1993. However, raised SRRs may be accounted for by the differences in medical screening in the compared populations, particularly the efforts made to identify leukaemia cases among the EWs. The absence of dose-related trend for leukaemia indicates that this explanation is likely to be correct. (author).

Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.; Konogorov, A.P.; Rastopchin, E.M.; Khait, S.E. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Medical Radiological Research Centre

1997-09-01

335

Soil to plant transfer of radiocesium: application to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocesium contamination of different annual crops, due to the Chernobyl accident, was systematically studied in two experimental agricultural farms in North Greece for the years 1987, 1988 and 1989. For the first three years after the Chernobyl accident it was generally observed that radiocesium contamination of almost all the annual crops appears to be time independent, the differences lying within the experimental error. Transfer Factors, relating radiocesium deposition to contamination of crops were found to be for cereals about 0.01, one order of magnitude smaller than those deduced from field experiments in Northern European Countries, mainly due to different soil characteristics. The results are also discussed in the framework of the UNSCEAR's empirical model and the corresponding parameters are deduced. (author)

1989-09-11

336

Clinical effects of chronic low doses irradiation (11 years after Chernobyl accident)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation of clinical effects of influence low doses of irradiation as the result of the Chernobyl accident on the human organism is presented in this report. The results of the investigations are concerning to changings in different organs and systems of inhabitants of the contamination territories and among clean-up workers. Increasing of morbidity of digestive and nervous systems is notified. Increase of thyroid cancer, chronic thyroidities and hypothyreouses is resisted in clean-up workers in dynamic observation. Highly morbidity of bronchopulmonal system and blood circulation system is revealed. High level of compensative and adaptive reactions of immune and hemopoietic systems is notified. Excesses of leukemias and lymphomas in inhabitants of the contamination territories is not demonstrated but tendency for increasing quantity cases of oncohematological diseases (leukemias, lymphomas, MDS) among clean-up workers IV-VII 1986 are absent. A dynamic of health state of children injured as a result of Chernobyl accident is characterized with continues negative tendencies. (author)

1997-11-01

337

Analysis of medicostatistical data to assess the genetic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the official medicodemographic statistical data (provided by the Ukrainian Ministry of Health) revealed variations in the mean rates of congenital developmental defects (CDD) before 1987 (1985-1986) and in the period of 1987-1989 in all the areas irrespective of a degree of contamination with radionuclides (i.e. variations are determined by the time factor rather than by the irradiation factor). According to the medical statistical data, the rates of CDD and spontaneous abortions varied within a wide range, making it difficult to assess probable mutagenic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident. Medicostatistical data on spontaneous abortions understated the actual rates 2-3-fold, therefore they were not recommended for assessment of mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl accident

1992-01-01

338

The effects on the thyroid of exposed populations following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of radio-iodine during the nuclear accident at Chernobyl appears to have caused a rise in thyroid anomalies, including cancer, in the exposed population. Uncertainty about the extent of this increase is causing the population some anxiety. A WHO symposium of Soviet and other scientists met to see whether a more precise assessment could be made of the effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid disorders. They established that a long-term, large-scale epidemiological study should be initiated: the required dosimetric data already exist, and the collection of the relevant health data should begin. To ensure the comparability of all these data, the affected Soviet republics should collaborate closely. More training for Soviet researchers and health care workers, as well as greater collaboration with foreign scientists, should maximize their capacity to launch a successful study and set up the most appropriate health care programmes

1990-12-03

339

Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lichens Hypogymnia physodles and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use af biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hypogymnia physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with depostion figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous depostion pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hylocomium splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (au) (21 refs.)

1992-06-14

340

Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lichens Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use as biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hyl. splendens and C. stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hyp. physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with deposition figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous deposition pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hyl. splendens and C. stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hyl. splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (Author)

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 ?Sv, 1 year old child - 500 ?Sv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

1986-01-01

342

Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta}-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 tabs., 34 refs.

Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-10-01

343

Cytogenetic study in children from zones affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in lymphocytes with blockade of the cytokines were established in 58 children from three Ukrainian localities that suffered to different extent the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations have been established up to this moment in 2779 cells of 28 children from Ovruch, in 11 475 cells of 28 children from Pripiat and in 994 cells of 10 children from Kiev

1993-01-01

344

Whole body measurements of subjects who have ingested radioactive materials from the accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 in the thyroid was the most significant nuclide that was detected in subjects monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory who might have been exposed by the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The estimated intake of I-131 by subjects ranged from 0.4 to 12 kBq, with a weighted committed dose equivalent (thyroid) of between 0.006 and 0.17 mSv. Whole-body monitoring data is presented for all subjects

1987-01-01

345

Change of biological availability of 137Cs in meadow ecosystems after Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mathematical model, describing basic processes, effecting the dynamics of changes in the 137Cs biological availability is developed for forecasting the 137Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system in the areas with different fall-out composition after the Chernobyl accident. The change in biological availability depends on the fall-out properties, turf characteristics and soil peculiarities. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

1996-04-01

346

International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

1990-01-01

347

On the sequence of core-melt accidents: Fission product release, source terms and Chernobyl release  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a sketch of our ideas on the course of a core melt-out accident in a PWR. There is then a survey of the most important results on fission product release, which were obtained by experiments on the SASCHA melt-out plant. The 3rd part considers questions which are important for determining source terms for the environment and the last part contains some considerations on radioactivity release from the Chernobyl reactor. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

348

Resuspension factors of 137Cs in Hannover after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the Chernobyl accident, resuspension factors for 137Cs were determined in Hannover, Germany. In the first few weeks after deposition, a clear dependence of airborne 137Cs concentration (which ranged between 0.5 and 10 mBq m-3) on wind speed was observed. Best fit to the data was obtained for a power exponent close to unity. After a few months, even during strong wind periods with appreciable dust resuspension, radioactivity concentrations were below the detection limit. (author)

1994-01-01

349

The Chernobyl accident: Can lichens be used to characterize a radiocesium contaminated range?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many of the lichen species that are important in the lichen dominated plant communities in the Norwegian mountains are important reindeer winter forage. They are also organisms that collect fall-out from the atmosphere. The Chernobyl accident brought, among other, radioactive Cesium, and from lichens this follow the food chain to reindeer and finally man. From region to region this fall-out was unevenly distributed and methods are needed to compare winter ranges and to monitor the de...

Eldar Gaare

1987-01-01

350

Disadaptation mechanisms of vascular pathology formation in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was established that in the participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up, changes in hypophyseal-thyroid-adrenal system were observed, i.e. its adaptation functions decreased with the increase of the pathology. In the system of free-radicals lipid oxidation, the processes of lipo peroxidation increased, compensatory strain of antioxidant protection was observed, its activity decreased considerably at combined organic pathology

2000-01-01

351

Partial pine sterility in 1986 and 1987 within the zone of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reproductive potency of Pinus silvestris was studied in 1986 and 1987 within the zone of Chernobyl accident by the estimates of the survival rate of seed-buds during the gametophyte and embryonal development. At the radiation level of 4 Gy a partial female pine sterility was manifested by the decreased gametophyte survival rate of seedbuds, pollinated in 1986, and by the diminished embryonal survival rate of seed-buds pollinated in 1985

1990-01-01

352

Gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles emitted during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ge(Li) gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles prepared from air filtered dust of Budapest air after the Chernobyl accident is presented. The method of separating hot particles is described and their concentration in the air is determined. The radioactive isotope composition of hot particles is discussed and compared with that of dust samples. Finally, the inhalation probability and radiation burden of hot particles are evaluated. (author)

1987-01-01

353

Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc

1996-03-18

354

Sixteen years after Chernobyl accident. From the viewpoint of radioactive aerosols  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive substances emitted at Chernobyl accident are thought to have spread as gaseous and granular substances similarly to those produced by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Here, we discussed Chernobyl accident from an aspect of radioactive aerosols. The data for the amounts of radioactive substances emitted from Chernobyl accident were repeatedly revised In the most recent report in 2000 by UNSCER, the amount was increased by 6.8 times for {sup 131}I incorporated to the thyroid gland and 3.8 times for {sup 133}Xe, an inert gas because the initial data were estimated with only the sediments on the land surface in USSR, but radioactive substances spread in other countries of USSR have been taken into consideration in recent years. Radioactive aerosol was widely spread. A high radioactivity was found in a certain region of Sweden, ca. 1000 km apart from Chernobyl. This means that the aerosol incorporated into air current, called as radioactive plume would have been deposited at various ground surface through the transfer by air current. When the amount of rainfall at the arrival of plume was higher, the radioactivities became greater. At present, 16 years after the accident, a forest fire during dry season has been paid attention in Europe because it is an origin of widely spread radioactive aerosol. Whereas in Japan, the radioactive aerosol was detected for the first on May 3, one week after the accident and lasted for about one month until early in June in Tokai Village in Ibaraki Prefecture. The effects of granular size on spreading were investigated using Undersen's sampler. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) for {sup 131}I was in a range of 0.6-1.2 {mu}m and a study group in Switzerland reported that the granules of less than 0.47 {mu}m were more. The mean deposit of {sup 134+137}Cs probably derived from Chernobyl accident was 0.13 kBq/m{sup 2} in Japan, which was about 10 times lower than that in Europe. The deposit due to radioactive plume was higher in Japan Sea side area than Pacific Ocean area. Whereas for radioactive iodine, gaseous component was more frequent and granular one was found mainly on small granules, which were probably transferred by adsorbing on atmospheric dusts. (M.N.)

Ohata, Tsutomu [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

2002-07-01

355

Sixteen years after Chernobyl accident. From the viewpoint of radioactive aerosols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive substances emitted at Chernobyl accident are thought to have spread as gaseous and granular substances similarly to those produced by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Here, we discussed Chernobyl accident from an aspect of radioactive aerosols. The data for the amounts of radioactive substances emitted from Chernobyl accident were repeatedly revised In the most recent report in 2000 by UNSCER, the amount was increased by 6.8 times for 131I incorporated to the thyroid gland and 3.8 times for 133Xe, an inert gas because the initial data were estimated with only the sediments on the land surface in USSR, but radioactive substances spread in other countries of USSR have been taken into consideration in recent years. Radioactive aerosol was widely spread. A high radioactivity was found in a certain region of Sweden, ca. 1000 km apart from Chernobyl. This means that the aerosol incorporated into air current, called as radioactive plume would have been deposited at various ground surface through the transfer by air current. When the amount of rainfall at the arrival of plume was higher, the radioactivities became greater. At present, 16 years after the accident, a forest fire during dry season has been paid attention in Europe because it is an origin of widely spread radioactive aerosol. Whereas in Japan, the radioactive aerosol was detected for the first on May 3, one week after the accident and lasted for about one month until early in June in Tokai Village in Ibaraki Prefecture. The effects of granular size on spreading were investigated using Undersen's sampler. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) for 131I was in a range of 0.6-1.2 ?m and a study group in Switzerland reported that the granules of less than 0.47 ?m were more. The mean deposit of 134+137Cs probably derived from Chernobyl accident was 0.13 kBq/m2 in Japan, which was about 10 times lower than that in Europe. The deposit due to radioactive plume was higher in Japan Sea side area than Pacific Ocean area. Whereas for radioactive iodine, gaseous component was more frequent and granular one was found mainly on small granules, which were probably transferred by adsorbing on atmospheric dusts. (M.N.)

2002-07-01

356

Epidemiological studies in Russia about the consequences of the Chernobyl APS accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The final purpose of all efforts to study and mitigate the consequences of the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS) is protection of health of the people who were more or less exposed to radiation action. This situation has not analogs in terms of scale and character. Certain experience was accumulated earlier through the studies of biological and medical effects of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other radiation catastrophes, diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation, and the control of health state of professionals in atomic industries. However, these experiences can be used just partially in the assessment and the forecast of possible negative after-effects of the Chernobyl accident for the present and future generations. The long-term irradiation of a lage number of population at low doses is to be considered the principal peculiarity of the Chernobyl accident. The medical activities are complicated significantly by the absence of verifiable individual dosimetric information, natural or forced migration of the population, insufficient development of radiation epidemiology, complicated social-economic situation in the country, and other factors which are inevitable at large-scaled catastrophes. Besides, many fundamental questions related to biological effects of action of low doses of ionizing radiation are still being studied. (J.P.N.)

Ryabzev, I.A. [Institute of Problem of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-03-01

357

The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m2 (? 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m2 (? 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*1016 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

1996-03-18

358

The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal

2001-07-01

359

Lichens and mosses: biological monitors of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the radioactivity in lichens and mosses has been studied. 137Cs concentrations ranged from about 1070 to 14560 Bq kg-1 in lichens and from 270 to 4750 Bq kg-1 in mosses. Besides the cesium isotopes, some other relatively long-lived fission nuclides, such as 106Ru, 144Ce, 125Sb, and the 110mAg produced by neutron activation were detected and measured. The present data set supports the view that these nonvascular plants can be useful biological monitors of radioactive fallout from not only nuclear weapon tests but also accidents at any nuclear facilities. (author)

1989-01-01

360

Social, economic, institutional and political impact in Romania of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Romanian society, on a whole had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident. This fact has been mainly owed to: the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania, these exceeded the local radioactive background considerably; the inherent proximity to the place of accident; some elliptical and over-estimated official statements spread about through radio and TV. There have been strong and various pressures, from the highest state dignitaries to profiteers of the new raised emergency. They claimed for preferential actions concerning protective measures at theirs particular residences or demanding prophylactic substances in unjustified quantities or imperiously asked for being internally monitored at the whole-body counter facilities

1997-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Dose-dependent zoning of estranged territory after the Chernobyl power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alienation zone was forming in May-September 1986 when the population was evacuated from the areas nearest to the Chernobyl power pilant. The presnet-day contour of the zone is a result of combination of a geographic criterion, a circular with a 30 km radius, and of radiation criteria developed at the earliest stages after the accident. The authors discuss dose-dependent regioning of the alienation zone at the latest stages of the accident and analyze radiation and hygienic aspects of possible reevacuation of the population

1994-01-01

362

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

1996-04-08

363

Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (7)Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for (7)Be were 0.43 and 0.41 ?m with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (7)Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to (131)I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides ((140)Ba, (140)La (141)Ce, (144)Ce, (95)Zr and (95)Nb) and volatile radionuclides ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, (131)I, and (132)Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 ?m were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. PMID:23974074

Malá, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Be?ková, Vera; Mihalík, Ján; Slezáková, Miriam

2013-12-01

364

On research activities of the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen years has passed since Chernobyl NPP accident on April 26, 1986. Numerous scientific research investigations have been done, but much remains still unexplored. Supported by research fund of Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, we carried out investigation into present status of research activities about the accident in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. As Part I of this effort, we visited selected laboratories in the three countries three times in 2000 and twice in 2001 and requested pertinent 20 researchers to prepare special 22 reports on the progress and problems of the investigation of the accident, its origin and explosion process, and the environmental effects. Part II of the research includes analysis of the published reports, Japanese translation of the documents, and information propagation. The amounts of emitted radionuclide at the accident are given as 40-50 MCi of 131I, 2-4 MCi of 137Cs, and 0.3 MCi of 90Sr. Results of an inserted video camera investigation into 4th unit of Chernobyl plant after the accident and the distribution of the missing fuel which amounted to 190 tons originally installed are discussed. (S. Ohno)

2003-01-01

365

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

1986-08-25

366

Reflections on liability and radiological or nuclear accidents: the accidents at Goiania, Forbach, three mile Island and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the lessons learned today from, amongst others, the radiological accidents of Goiania in 1987 and Forbach in 1991, as well as the nuclear accident at Three Miles Island (T.M.I.) in 1979, this article tries to make a distinction between problems of liability linked, on the one hand, to the sanctioning of the absence of prevention implied by the occurrence of non-stochastic effects and, on the other hand, to the judicial sanctioning of the failure of precautionary measures taken, as regard stochastic effects. Lastly, over and above the type of damage compensated, liability also gives rise to some thoughts, in light of the experience of Chernobyl, about the impact of modes of compensation on the management of post-accident situations in areas affected over the long term by persisting contamination and the radiological risk associated with it. (N.C.)

1997-06-01

367

Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of up to four thousand people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of the accident but others who died as late as 2004. The new numbers are presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

2005-09-05

368

MESORAD dose assessment of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An accident involving Unit 4 of the Chernobylskaya Atomic Energy Station resulted in the release of a large amount of radioactive material to the atmosphere. This report describes the results of an assessment of the doses near the site (within 80 km) made at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using the MESORAD Dose Assessment model. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Hubbe, J.M.; Athey, G.F.; Davis, W.E.

1989-12-01

369

Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of 137Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion. The L.A.D.A.S. were applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. The calculated concentration distributions were compared with the results of the other models of A.T.M.E.S. using statistical methods. The calculated results of L.A.D.A.S. showed a better agreement compared with the measured concentrations during the accident. The developed Lagrangian particle model for a long-range atmospheric dispersion will be provided as a basic tool to evaluate the atmospheric diffusion and the radiological dose assessment in the national emergency preparedness system in Korea. (N.C.)

2006-05-15

370

Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of {sup 137}Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion. The L.A.D.A.S. were applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. The calculated concentration distributions were compared with the results of the other models of A.T.M.E.S. using statistical methods. The calculated results of L.A.D.A.S. showed a better agreement compared with the measured concentrations during the accident. The developed Lagrangian particle model for a long-range atmospheric dispersion will be provided as a basic tool to evaluate the atmospheric diffusion and the radiological dose assessment in the national emergency preparedness system in Korea. (N.C.)

Suh, K.S.; Jeong, H.J.; Kim, E.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Han, M.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Nuclear Environmental Research Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

371

Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 105) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well

2005-01-01

372

Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

Birgitta Åhman

1998-03-01

373

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

1996-01-01

374

Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of 137Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

2006-07-17

375

Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au)

1998-01-01

376

Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au) 24 tabs., 75 ills., 33 refs.

Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Barkovsky, A.N.; Fogh, C.L.; Mishine, A.S.; Olsen, S.K.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Prip, H.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Vorobiev, B.F

1998-08-01

377

Radiation damage to the thyroid and metabolic changes in cattle in the initial and remote period after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial period after the Chernobyl accident was the most dangerous for animals kept in the zone of radioactive contamination. Dose burdens from I-isotopes on the thyroid gland of cattle in the initial period after the accident contributed significantly into the alteration of the hormonal status, physiological state and productive, qualities of cattle on farms of the Gomel area of Belarus

1997-09-01

378

Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

1987-01-01

379

'Hot particles' in the lungs of people from the Chernobyl accident who died of acute radiation sickness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the 'Hot Particles' ( 'HP') problem is known since the middle of the 1950s there is no common opinion concerning its threat to human health up to date. There exist extreme points of view - from absolute denial of the possibility, as well as any significance of 'HP' intake into the lung to obvious exaggeration of 'HP' danger (e.g. pulmonary tissue injury, carcinogenic effect). Lungs of 27 persons who were irradiated with a high dose-rate of uniform whole body gamma- and beta-irradiation (its range varied from 3.7 to 13.7 Gy) and died of acute radiation sickness within two first months after Chernobyl accident were investigated. Intakes of radionuclides, including 'hot particles', by inhalation did not add a significant fraction to the total dose because of short-term exposure, as well as did not influence clinical picture and outcome in these 27 cases. (author)

1996-01-01

380