Sample records for channel flows prospects

  1. Interfacial wave behavior in oil-water channel flows: Prospects for a general understanding

    McCready, M.J.; Uphold, D.D.; Gifford, K.A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)


    Oil-water pressure driven channel flow is examined as a model for general two-layer flows where interfacial disturbances are important. The goal is to develop sufficient understanding of this system so that the utility and limitations of linear and nonlinear theories can be known a priori. Experiments show that sometimes linear stability is useful at predicting the steady or dominant evolving waves. However in other situations there is no agreement between the linearly fastest growing wave and the spectral peak. An interesting preliminary result is that the bifurcation to interfacial waves is supercritical for all conditions that were studied for an oil-water channel flow, gas-liquid channel flow and two-liquid Couette flow. However, three different mechanisms are dominant for each of these three situations.

  2. Potential flow through channel constriction.

    Lee, J.K.


    Potential flow through an eccentric, normal constriction of zero thickness in an infinitely long, straight channel of constant width and unit depth is studied by use of a Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The transformation is integrated by a direct approach. Parametric equations for streamlines are obtained and used to compute an average streamline length for a potential-flow field. -from ASCE Publications Information

  3. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    Van Hassel, Bart A.


    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  4. Continental Lower-crustal Flow: Channel Flow and Laminar Flow

    LI, Dewei

    Numerous geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations and finite element modeling indicate that crustal flow layers exist in the continental crust. Both channel flow model and laminar flow model have been created to explain the flow laws and flow mechanisms. As revealed by the channel flow model, a low-viscosity channel in middle to lower crust in orogen or plateau with thick crust and high elevation would flow outward from mountain root in response to lateral pressure gradient resulted from topographic loading or to denudation. However, according to the laminar flow model proposed based on investigation of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, circulative movement of crustal lithologies with different rheological properties between basin and orogen would occur, under the driving forces resulted from dehydration and melting of subduction plate on active continental margin and from thermal energy related to upwelling and diapiring of intercontinental mantle plume or its gravitational interactions. Similarly, when driven by gravity, the softened or melted substances of the lower crust in a basin would flow laterally toward adjacent mountain root, which would result in a thinned basin crust and a thickened orogenic crust. Partially melted magma within the thickened orogenic lower crust would cause vertical movement of metamorphic rocks of lower to middle crust due to density inversion, and the vertical main stress induced by thermal underplating of lower crust would in turn lead to formation of metamorphic core complexes and low-angle detachment fault systems. Lateral spreading of uplifting mountain due to gravitation potential would result in thrust fault systems on the border between mountain and basin. Meanwhile, detritus produced synchronously by intense erosion of uplifting mountain would be transported and deposited along the marginal deep depression in the foreland basin dragged by lower crust flow. Channel flow is similar to laminar flow in a variety of aspects


    NI Han-gen; LIU Ya-kun


    On the basis of energy and continuity equations a simple one-dimensional formulation was proposed to predict the transitional flow at an open-channel junction. An empilical relation between the junction losses, the junction angle, and the discharge ratio was suggested which agrees well with the experimental results. The results calculated by the present formulation for the depth ratio were compared with the results of earlier one-dimensional formulations and experiments. It is found that the present results coincide better with experiments than those of others.

  6. Flow and sediment transport across oblique channels

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Erik Østergaard; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    A 3D numerical investigation of flow across channels aligned obliquely to the main flow direction has been conducted. The applied numerical model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the k-ε model for turbulence closure on a curvilinear grid. Three momentum equations are...... solved, but the computational domain is 2D due to a uniformity along the channel alignment. Two important flow features arise when the flow crosses the channel: (i) the flow will be refracted in the direction of the channel alignment. This may be described by a depth-averaged model. (ii) due to shear in...

  7. An experimental study of rip channel flow

    Drønen, Nils Kjetil; Karunarathna, H.; Fredsøe, Jørgen;


    of the three-dimensional structure of the flow in the area where the rip channel, the bar and the trough meet and well inside the rip channel are presented. These measurements reveal that 3D effects play an important role, and that a depth-integrated viewpoint may not always be sufficient for......A laboratory study of the flow over a bar with a single rip channel has been performed. First, the well-known pattern of a bar circulation cell with a strong offshore-directed current out through the rip channel and a weaker onshore-directed return flow over the bar is documented. Then measurements...

  8. Anisotropic flow in striped superhydrophobic channels

    Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I


    We report results of dissipative particle dynamics simulations and develop a semi-analytical theory and of an anisotropic flow in a parallel-plate channel with two superhydrophobic striped walls. Our approach is valid for any local slip at the gas sectors and an arbitrary distance between the plates, ranging from a thick to a thin channel. It allows us to optimize area fractions, slip lengths, channel thickness and texture orientation to maximize a transverse flow. Our results may be useful for extracting effective slip tensors from global measurements, such as the permeability of a channel, in experiments or simulations, and may also find applications in passive microfluidic mixing.

  9. The technological prospective of non nuclear channels

    This prospective study concerns the electric power demand in 2050. It examines the three non nuclear sectors of production: the natural gas combined cycle power plants, the wind turbines among the renewable energies and the cogeneration electric power - heat in the ternary and building sector. The necessity of the network adaptation to the european competition and the decentralized production of electric power will suppose new investments of transport and storage. (A.L.B.)

  10. Inertial (non-Darcian) channeled seepage flow

    Foda, Mostafa A.


    A slow wave solution is identified for an infinite elastic medium intersected by a two-dimensional fluid channel. Because the wave speed is much slower than the medium's elastic shear wave, the response in the elastic medium is governed by elastostatics. The inertia of the wave is essentially focused in the fluid channel. Furthermore, wave damping is caused by fluid viscous friction on the channel in an elastic solid. It is proposed that these solutions may also be used in the case of a granular porous medium. The seepage channels would then represent a network of preferential flow paths. Therefore we would allow, in this case, the channel porosity to be different from the average granular porosity. For a strongly channel seepage flow or for a low channel porosity the solution is shown to approach that of a single-channel solution, giving rise to a slow propagating wave mode. On the other hand, for weak channeling or nearly `homogeneous' seepage flow the solution is shown to reproduce Biot's (1956) critically damped wave of the second kind. It is proposed that the resonance observed by Foda and Tzang (1994) are in the form of these strongly channeled wave modes.

  11. Stability of flowing open fluidic channels

    Jue Nee Tan


    Full Text Available Open fluidic systems have a distinct advantage over enclosed channels in that the fluids exposed nature makes for easy external interaction, this finds uses in introduction of samples by adding liquid droplets or from the surrounding gaseous medium. This work investigates flowing open channels and films, which can potentially make use of the open section of the system as an external interface, before bringing the sample into an enclosed channel. Clearly, in this scenario a key factor is the stability of the flowing open fluid. The open channels investigated include a straight open channel defined by a narrow strip of solid surface, the edges of which allow large contact angle hysteresis, and a wider structure allowing for multiple inputs and outputs. A model is developed for fluid flow, and the findings used to describe the process of failure in both cases.

  12. Parameter estimation in channel network flow simulation

    Han Longxi


    Simulations of water flow in channel networks require estimated values of roughness for all the individual channel segments that make up a network. When the number of individual channel segments is large, the parameter calibration workload is substantial and a high level of uncertainty in estimated roughness cannot be avoided. In this study, all the individual channel segments are graded according to the factors determining the value of roughness. It is assumed that channel segments with the same grade have the same value of roughness. Based on observed hydrological data, an optimal model for roughness estimation is built. The procedure of solving the optimal problem using the optimal model is described. In a test of its efficacy, this estimation method was applied successfully in the simulation of tidal water flow in a large complicated channel network in the lower reach of the Yangtze River in China.

  13. Axially shaped channel and integral flow trippers

    A fuel assembly is described comprising fuel rods positioned in spaced array by upper and lower tie-plates, an open ended flow channel surrounding the array for conducting coolant upward between a lower support plate having coolant communicated thereto to an upper support grid having a steam/water outlet communicated thereto. The flow channel surrounds the array for conducting coolant about the fuel rods. The open ended channel has a polygon shaped cross section with the channel constituting a closed conduit with flat side sections connected at corners to form the enclosed conduit; means separate from the channel for connecting the upper and lower tie-plates together and maintaining the fuel rods in spaced array independent of the flow channel. The improvement in the flow channel comprises tapered side walls. The tapered side walls extend from an average thick cross section adjacent the lower support plate to an average thin cross section adjacent the upper core grid whereby the channel is reduced in thickness adjacent the upper core grid to correspond with the reduced pressure adjacent the upper core grid

  14. Axially shaped channel and integral flow trippers

    Crowther, R.L.; Johansson, E.B.; Matzner, B.


    A fuel assembly is described comprising fuel rods positioned in spaced array by upper and lower tie-plates, an open ended flow channel surrounding the array for conducting coolant upward between a lower support plate having coolant communicated thereto to an upper support grid having a steam/water outlet communicated thereto. The flow channel surrounds the array for conducting coolant about the fuel rods. The open ended channel has a polygon shaped cross section with the channel constituting a closed conduit with flat side sections connected at corners to form the enclosed conduit; means separate from the channel for connecting the upper and lower tie-plates together and maintaining the fuel rods in spaced array independent of the flow channel. The improvement in the flow channel comprises tapered side walls. The tapered side walls extend from an average thick cross section adjacent the lower support plate to an average thin cross section adjacent the upper core grid whereby the channel is reduced in thickness adjacent the upper core grid to correspond with the reduced pressure adjacent the upper core grid.

  15. Axially shaped channel and integral flow trippers

    Crowther, R.L. Jr.; Johansson, E.B.; Matzner, B.


    This patent describes a fuel assembly. It comprises: fuel rods positioned in spaced array by upper and lower tie-plates, and open ended flow channel surrounding the array for conducting coolant upward between a lower support plate having coolant communicated thereto to an upper support grid having a steam/water outlet communicated thereto. The flow channel surrounding the array for conducting coolant about the fuel rods; the open ended channel having a polygon shaped cross section with the channel constituting a closed conduit with flat side sections connected at corners to form the enclosed conduit; means separate from the channel for connecting the upper and lower tie-plates together and maintaining the fuel rods in spaced array independent of the flow channel, the improvement in the flow channel comprising tapered side walls, the tapered side walls extending from an average thick cross section adjacent the lower support plate to an average thin cross section adjacent the upper core grid whereby the channel is reduced in thickness adjacent the upper core grid to correspond with the reduced pressure adjacent the upper core grid.

  16. Bulk flow scaling for turbulent channel and pipe flows

    Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su


    We report a theory deriving bulk flow scaling for canonical wall-bounded flows. The theory accounts for the symmetries of boundary geometry (flat plate channel versus circular pipe) by a variational calculation for a large-scale energy length, which characterizes its bulk flow scaling by a simple exponent, i.e. $m=4$ for channel and 5 for pipe. The predicted mean velocity shows excellent agreement with several dozen sets of quality empirical data for a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re), with a universal bulk flow constant $\\kappa\\approx0.45$. Predictions for dissipation and turbulent transport in the bulk flow are also given, awaiting data verification.

  17. Elastic turbulence in a curvilinear channel flow

    Jun, Yonggun


    We report detailed quantitative studies of elastic turbulence in a curvilinear channel flow in a dilute polymer solution of high molecular weight polyacrylamide in a high viscosity water-sugar solvent. Detailed studies of the average and rms velocity and velocity gradients profiles reveal an emergence of the boundary layer associated with the nonuniform distribution of the elastic stresses across the channel. The characteristic boundary width is independent of the Weissenberg number Wi and proportional to the channel width that follows from our early investigations of the boundary layer in elastic turbulence of different flow geometries. The appearance of the characteristic spatial scales of the order of the boundary layer width of both velocity and velocity gradient in the correlation functions of the velocity and velocity gradient fields in a bulk flow suggests that rare and strong parcels of excessive elastic stresses, concentrated in the boundary layer, are ejected into the bulk flow similar to jets obser...

  18. Secondary Flow Effects in Relatively Narrow Channels

    Rudolf Dvo(r)ák


    Secondary flow effects were discussed in numerous papers at the past ISAIF Symposia, mainly in connection with turbine or compressor cascades[1]. This paper will complement these papers by looking at the problem from the channel (or blade passages) geometry point of view. If we describe as secondary flows any flows in planes perpendicular to the main flow direction, then there are at least three kinds of secondary flows in a typical turbine rotor cascade: - secondary flows of the 1st kind, generated by centrifugal forces in closed curved channels, - secondary flows of the 2nd kind, generated by interacting boundary layers, mainly in corners (this will include even the horseshoe vortices), - secondary flows due to mass inflow through the tip clearance. Quite often all the secondary flow vortices merge downstream into a passage vortex with a non-negligible contribution to the channel (cascade) losses, and it is worth investigating the individual contributions to these losses to take them into account in the design procedure.

  19. Acquisition Study On Cawthorne Channel Prospect For SPDC

    The Cawthorne Channel prospect area lies in the Niger River Delta of South Central Nigeria. During 1987 to 1988, 3D seismic was conducted by Western Geophysical Company. According to SPDC's project plan, 4D seismic or 3D re-shoot program will be carried out in the year of 2002, in order to improve seismic data quality, monitor the variations of reservoir, and further to locate the infill wells for improvement of oil output in Cawthorne Channel prospect. From the knowledge of previous 3D, medium to deeper layer reflections show the lower resolution with poor S/N ratio due to lower coverage and limited maximum offset. The purpose of this paper is to introduce one way of optimizing the acquisition parameters such as trace interval, maximum offset, source array pattern and receiver pattern according to the requirement of vertical resolution, horizontal resolution, target depth and maximum frequency components to be protected. Finally the 4D/3D geometries are proposed from the geophysical parameters for Cawthorne Channel prospect

  20. Transverse flow in thin superhydrophobic channels

    Feuillebois, Francois; Vinogradova, Olga I


    We provide some general theoretical results to guide the optimization of transverse hydrodynamic phenomena in superhydrophobic channels. Our focus is on the canonical micro- and nanofluidic geometry of a parallel-plate channel with an arbitrary two-component (low-slip and high-slip) coarse texture, varying on scales larger than the channel thickness. By analyzing rigorous bounds on the permeability, over all possible patterns, we optimize the area fractions, slip lengths, geometry and orientation of the surface texture to maximize transverse flow. In the case of two aligned striped surfaces, very strong transverse flows are possible. Optimized superhydrophobic surfaces may find applications in passive microfluidic mixing and amplification of transverse electrokinetic phenomena.

  1. Flag flutter in inviscid channel flow

    Alben, Silas


    Using nonlinear vortex-sheet simulations, we determine the region in parameter space in which a straight flag in a channel-bounded inviscid flow is unstable to flapping motions. We find that for heavier flags, greater confinement increases the size of the region of instability. For lighter flags, confinement has little influence. We then compute the stability boundaries analytically for an infinite flag, and find similar results. For the finite flag we also consider the effect of channel walls on the large-amplitude periodic flapping dynamics. We find that multiple flapping states are possible but rare at a given set of parameters, when periodic flapping occurs. As the channel walls approach the flag, its flapping amplitude decreases roughly in proportion to the near-wall distance, for both symmetric and asymmetric channels. Meanwhile, its dominant flapping frequency and mean number of deflection extrema (or "wavenumber") increase in a nearly stepwise fashion. That is, they remain nearly unchanged over a wide...

  2. Topology optimization of Channel flow problems

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Sigmund, Ole; Haber, R. B.


    ]. Further, the inclusion of inertia effects significantly alters the physics, enabling solutions of new classes of optimization problems, such as velocity--driven switches, that are not addressed by the earlier method. Specifically, we determine optimal layouts of channel flows that extremize a cost...... sensitivities. Our target application is optimal layout design of channels in fluid network systems. Using concepts borrowed from topology optimization of compliant mechanisms in solid mechanics, we introduce a method for the synthesis of fluidic components, such as switches, diodes, etc....

  3. Scour monitoring via turbulent open channel flow

    Scour is the leading cause of bridge failure in the United States. It can result in the loss of lives and costs millions to repair the damage. A novel method is proposed for monitoring scour that exploits the turbulence in natural channels. The method utilizes the dynamic pressure associated with the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the flow to excite a flexible plate. A semi-empirical model is developed to describe the interaction of turbulent open channel flow with the plate. The model describes the variation of turbulent velocity fluctuations across the flow depth in an open channel resulting in a method for determining the average dynamic pressure on the flexible plate. The dynamic response of the plate is then modeled by superimposing the response of multiple modes of the disk to the random, turbulent dynamic pressure spectrum. The model is verified considering the pressure integration across the plate surface to ensure converged solutions. Due to the uncertainties in the material properties of the plate, the experimentally determined natural frequencies and vibration measurements are used to calibrate the model. The calibrated model predictions are then compared against an independent dataset for validation. In addition to describing the physical operation of the device, the semi-empirical model is also employed to optimize the field device. Measurements made using the field device also confirmed the model results, even in a non-design, misaligned flow condition. (paper)

  4. Interannual variability in the Yucatan Channel flow

    Athié, Gabriela; Sheinbaum, Julio; Leben, Robert; Ochoa, José; Shannon, Michael R.; Candela, Julio


    Mooring measurements in the Yucatan Channel, from May 2010 to May 2011 and from July 2012 to June 2013 yield a mean transport of 27 and 25 Sv, respectively, with a subinertial standard deviation of 3.5 Sv. These mean transport values are higher than the 23 Sv reported from 21 months of similar measurements (1999-2001). Analysis of low-frequency variations of a transport proxy based on 20 years of altimetry data indicates that during 1999-2001, the flow through Yucatan Channel was anomalously low. This suggests that a sizable compensation through other channels off the Gulf of Mexico is required to match the transport cable measurements of the Florida Current at 27°N.

  5. Flow in channels with superhydrophobic trapezoidal textures

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V; Vinogradova, Olga I


    Superhydrophobic one-dimensional surfaces reduce drag and generate transverse hydrodynamic phenomena by combining hydrophobicity and roughness to trap gas bubbles in a microscopic textures. Recent work in this area has focused on specific cases of superhydrophobic stripes. Here we study theoretically and numerically the hydrodynamic flow in a channel with a superhydrophobic trapezoidal texture. These allow us to evaluate the drag reduction and anisotropy of the flow for various trapezoidal reliefs. Our results provide a framework for the rational design of superhydrophobic surfaces for microfluidic applications.

  6. Flow in channels with superhydrophobic trapezoidal textures

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V.; Asmolov, Evgeny S.; Vinogradova, Olga I.


    Superhydrophobic one-dimensional surfaces reduce drag and generate transverse hydrodynamic phenomena by combining hydrophobicity and roughness to trap gas bubbles in microscopic textures. Recent works in this area have focused on specific cases of superhydrophobic stripes. Here we provide some theoretical results to guide the optimization of the forward flow and transverse hydrodynamic phenomena in a parallel-plate channel with a superhydrophobic trapezoidal texture, varying on scales larger ...

  7. Modelling debris flows down general channels

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to


    DONG Zhi-yong; LEE Joseph Hun-wei


    Numerical simulation of stepped channel flow was conducted using turbulence models based on the VOF technique. Stepped channel flow is a complicated air-water two-phase flow with free surface, which can be divided into three flow regimes: skimming flow, nappe flow and transition flow. The characteristics of skimming flow over mild stepped channel was investigated, including friction factors, air concentration profiles velocity field, clear-water and bulked depths, static pressure, etc. Smooth channel flow was also simulated to compare the hydraulic characteristics of the stepped channel flow with the smooth one. Comparisons between the computed and the measured were made. Furthermore, comparison of the computed air concentration with Straub and Anderson's data was also performed. The Fluent 6.1 software was employed to conduct this numerical simulation work.

  9. Transient MHD flow through elliptic channel

    The alternating direction implicit(ADI) method and five point difference formula is applied to obtain numerical solution of transient MHD flow through non conducting elliptic channel, under the influence of uniform magnetic field. It is also assumed that the flow is symmetrical about major and minor axes. The five point difference formula is applied for discretizing the equations at grid points of unsymmetrical nature. Velocities and induced magnetic field at different grid points of the cross section are determined. The points at which the velocity is maximum is determined for an ellipse whose major and minor axes are in the ratio 6:4, for Hartmann number 1 and 5 and magnetic Prandtl number 10-7. Graphs have been drawn showing velocity distribution along different cross sections parallel to major and minor axes. (author). 5 figs., 6 refs

  10. Static flow instability in subcooled flow boiling in parallel channels

    A series of tests for static flow instability or flow excursion (FE) at conditions applicable to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source reactor was completed in parallel rectangular channels configuration with light water flowing vertically upward at very high velocities. True critical heat flux experiments under similar conditions were also conducted. The FE data reported in this study considerably extend the velocity range of data presently available worldwide. Out of the three correlations compared, the Saha and Zuber correlation had the best fit with the data. However, a modification was necessary to take into account the demonstrated dependence of the Stanton (St) and Nusselt (Nu) numbers on subcooling levels, especially in the low subcooling regime

  11. Free-Molecular Gas Flow in Narrow (Nanoscale) Channel

    Levdansky, V.V.; Roldugin, V.I.; Žďanov, V.M.; Ždímal, V. (Vladimír)


    Free-molecular gas flow in cylindrical channels (capillaries) in various schemes of molecule scattering by channel walls in view of surface diffusion is considered. The problem of separation of gas mixtures in their flow through membranes with nanopores is studied. The problem of uniform deposition of thin films on the inner surface of the fine cylindrical channel is discussed.

  12. Borders of disorder: in turbulent channel flow

    Malkus, Willem V. R.


    A quantitative theory of the average features of turbulent flow in a channel is described without the introduction of empirical parameters. The qualitative problem consists of maximizing the dissipation rate of the mean flow subject to the Rayleigh condition that the mean flow has no inflections. The quantitative features result from a boundary stability study which determines a smallest scale of motion in the transport of momentum. The velocity fields satisfying these conditions, the averaged equations and the boundary conditions uniquely determine an entire mean velocity profile at all Reynolds numbers within ten per cent of the data. The maximizing condition for the reproducibility of averages emerges from the Navier Stokes equations as a consequence of a novel definition of nonlinear instability. The smallest scale of motion results from a theory for a time-dependent re-stabilization of the boundary layer following a disruptive instability. Computer reassessment of the several asymptotic estimates of the critical boundary eigenstructure can establish the limits of validity of the quantitative results.

  13. Upgrade of Dhruva fuel channel flow instrumentation

    Dhruva, a 100 MW Heavy Water moderated and cooled, vertical tank-type Research Reactor, using metallic natural Uranium fuel has flow instrumentation for all the 144 fuel channels, consisting of venturi and triplicate DP gauges for each fuel channel. These gauges provide contacts for generation of reactor trip on low flow through fuel channel. These DP gauges were facing numerous generic and ageing related failures over the years and was also difficult to maintain owing to obsolescence. While considering an upgrade for these DP gauges, it was also planned to replace the existing Coolant Low Flow Trip (CLFT) system with a computer based Reactor Trip Logic System (RTLS). Being a retrofit job, the existing panels for mounting the gauges, cable layout, impulse tubing layout, etc. were retained, thereby simplifying the site execution, reducing reactor down time and also reducing person-milli-Sievert consumption. A customized Electronic DP Indicating Switch (EDPIS) was conceptualized for achieving these objectives. Such a design, utilizing a standard DP transmitter with customized electronic circuitry, was developed, evaluated and finalized after a series of factory trials, field trials and prototyping. The instrument design included contact input for existing CLFT system and also provision for 4-20 mA current output for the proposed computer based RTLS. The display and form factor of the instrument remained identical to older one and ensures familiarity of O and M personnel. Since EDPIS is classified as Safety Class IA, stringent type tests, hardware FMEA and V and V of the micro-controller software were carried out as per the requirements laid down by relevant standards for qualification of these instruments. Being a customized instrument, the manufacturing process was closely monitored and was followed by stringent QA plan and acceptance tests. A total of 396 gauges were replaced in a phased manner during scheduled fuelling outages and thereby did not affect reactor


    WANG Dianchang; WANG Xingkui; YU Mingzhong; LI Danxun


    The log-law and the wake law of velocity profile for open channel flows are discussed and compared in this paper. Experimental data from eight sources are used to verify the velocity distribution models.The effect of bed level on the velocity profile is analyzed. A formula to calculate the maximum velocity is proposed. In the region of y <δm , the velocity profile approximately follows the log-law. For the region of y >δm , the effect of the aspect ratio is considered. A new velocity profile model on the basis of log-law that can unify all of the hydraulic bed roughness is presented.

  15. Optimization of Meridional Flow Channel Design of Pump Impeller

    Miyauchi Sunao; Horiguchi Hironori; Fukutomi Jun-ichirou; Takahashi Akihiro


    The meridional flow channel design of a pump impeller affects its performance. However, since so many design parameters exist, a new design method is proposed in which a meridional and blade-to-blade flow channel is designed by the parallel use of the circulation distribution provided by the designer. Thus, an optimization method was used to design an axis-symmetrical meridional flow channel from the circulation distribution. In addition, the inverse design method proposed by Zangeneh et al. ...

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.

    Rothmayer, A P


    Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large. PMID:24936018

  17. Covert Flow Graph Approach to Identifying Covert Channels

    XiangMei Song


    Full Text Available In this paper, the approach for identifying covert channels using a graph structure called Covert Flow Graph is introduced. Firstly, the construction of Covert Flow Graph which can offer information flows of the system for covert channel detection is proposed, and the search and judge algorithm used to identify covert channels in Covert Flow Graph is given. Secondly, an example file system analysis using Covert Flow Graph approach is provided, and the analysis result is compared with that of Shared Resource Matrix and Covert Flow Tree method. Finally, the comparison between Covert Flow Graph approach and other two methods is discussed. Different from previous methods, Covert Flow Graph approach provides a deep insight for system’s information flows, and gives an effective algorithm for covert channel identification.

  18. Stationary flow solution for water levels in open channels

    Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Molenaar, J.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Adriaanse, P.I.


    We study stationary flow in open discharge channels. A model is derived from basic principles, which is solved numerically for the water level and discharge as a function of position along the channel. The model describes the effect of external inflow from fields adjacent to the channel. Several sce

  19. Flow and cooling in narrow, vertical rectangular channels

    Laminar flows and energy transfers in narrow, vertical rectangular channels has gained considerable attention in recent years. the cooling channels of TR-2 reactor of CNAEM research center are same and the width of channels is 2.1 mm. Natural convention cooling in these channels, in case of a loss of forced circulation cooling, as would happen in a accident, has utmost importance. A simple open loop experiment was set up in Nuclear Engineering Dep. for the simulation of TR-2 channels. The dummy fuel plates defining cooling channels were heated electrically and temperature measurements were made by thin wire thermocouples. The fluid used at the moment is air. Constant heat flux case was studied only. For the comparison purposes, simplified forms of Navie-Stokes equations for free convention cooling and incompressible flows were solved also on a variable mesh grid by relaxation technique. Flow and temperature distributions inside the channel nad some integral parameters, such as Nu number, were obtained

  20. Container terminals in Europe : their position in marketing channel flows

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.


    This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows) and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and inter-modal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter’s theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive ...

  1. Inertia-Dominated Capillary Channel Flow in Microgravity

    Klatte, Joerg; Grah, Aleksander; Dreyer, Michael


    The fluid dynamics video shows three-dimensional experimental and numerical investigations of open channel flows in microgravity. The dynamic reorientation of the free surface from 1g to 0g environment can be observed in a wedge-shaped channel for subcritical and for supercritical flow rate with a collapse of the interface. In addition three-dimensional computations determine important characteristics of the flow, such as the free surface shape, the velocity field, the dynamics of the reorien...

  2. Experiments on Unsteady Seperating Flow in an Open Channel

    Koppel, T


    Experiments on unsteady separating flow past a sudden expansion in an open channel are described. To simulate tidal flow the flow rate in the approach channel varied as a half-sine with time. Different visualization techniques to obtain an insight into the behaviour of the separating vortex in time and space were used. Laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) was employed to measure velocities and turbulence characteristics. The data obtained from the LDV-measurements was processed on a computer using...

  3. The thermalhydraulic behaviour of a CANDU channel during a channel flow blockage accident

    The aim of this paper is to perform an analysis of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of CANDU channel during a channel flow blockage accident and to present the final results. This event assumes a flow blockage in one of the reactor fuel channels, that leads to a reduction of the flow in the affected channel, and consequently to fuel cladding and fuel temperature increase. The main conclusions of this analysis are as follows: - For the complete range of flow blockage the effective shutdown is achieved and a good cooling is maintained in the unblocked channels of both primary circuit loops; - Behaviour of the blocked channel depends on the size of the blockage; - For the blockage which are not large enough to cause coolant superheating, the channel remains intact and there are no release to the containment; - Coolant superheating occurs only if the channel flow is reduced to less than 20 % of the normal flow; - Cooling in the intact loop is maintained by pumped circulation and heat removal by steam generators; - Thermal-hydraulic results are used in containment, fuel and fuel channel analysis. (authors)

  4. Numerical computation of pulsatile flow through a locally constricted channel

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Layek, G. C.


    This paper deals with the numerical solution of a pulsatile laminar flow through a locally constricted channel. A finite difference technique has been employed to solve the governing equations. The effects of the flow parameters such as Reynolds number, flow pulsation in terms of Strouhal number, constriction height and length on the flow behaviour have been studied. It is found that the peak value of the wall shear stress has significantly changed with the variation of Reynolds numbers and constriction heights. It is also noted that the Strouhal number and constriction length have little effect on the peak value of the wall shear stress. The flow computation reveals that the peak value of the wall shear stress at maximum flow rate time in pulsatile flow situation is much larger than that due to steady flow. The constriction and the flow pulsation produce flow disturbances at the vicinity of the constriction of the channel in the downstream direction.




    Laboratory experiments on longitudinal dispersion in clear-water and sediment-laden open channel flows are reported. Data from these experiments and those available from previous studies indicate that the suspended sediment present in the flow affects the longitudinal dispersion process. The observed velocity distributions over the depth of sediment-laden flows indicate that the velocity deviates from the mean velocity more in sediment-laden flows than in clear-water flows. The velocity distributions over the cross section and secondary flow in the channel are also expected to be altered due to the presence of suspended sediments in the flow. For these reasons, more dispersion is found in sediment-laden flows than in corresponding clear-water flows. A predictor for the dispersion coefficient in sediment-laden flows is proposed.

  6. Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop in Superhydrophobic Channels

    Stevens, Kimberly; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel R.; Iverson, Brian C.


    Superhydrophobic surfaces promote dropwise condensation, which increases the rate of thermal transport, making them desirable for use in condensers. Adiabatic two-phase flow loops have been constructed to gain insight into the hydrodynamics of two-phase systems, laying the groundwork for further study of condensing flow on superhydrophobic surfaces. A two-phase flow loop to measure pressure drop and visualize the flow patterns of two-phase flow in superhydrophobic channels relative to classic...

  7. Stationary magnetohydrodynamic flows in curved coaxial channels

    The curvilinear geometry of the channel does not significantly affects the gas parameters. For sufficiently high inflow velocities, the velocity of the plasma and gas over the channel, both in the case of its curvilinear configuration and the configuration with the constant average radius, remains constant, and their other main parameters stop changing

  8. Flow boiling heat transfer in mini-channels

    In view of practical significance of a correlation of heat transfer coefficient in the aspect of such applications as engineering design and prediction, some efforts towards correlating flow boiling heat transfer coefficients for mini-channels have been made in this study. Based on analyses of existing experimental investigations of flow boiling, it was found that liquid-laminar and gas-turbulent flow is a common feature in many applications of mini-channels. Traditional heat transfer correlations for saturated flow boiling were developed for liquid-turbulent and gas-turbulent flow conditions and thus may not be suitable in principle to be used to predict heat transfer coefficients in mini-channels when flow conditions are liquid-laminar and gas-turbulent. By considering flow conditions (laminar or turbulent) in the Reynolds number factor F and single-phase heat transfer coefficient hsp, the Chen correlation has been modified to be used for four flow conditions such as liquid-laminar and gas-turbulent one often occurring in mini-channels. A comparison of the newly developed correlation with various existing data for mini-channels shows a satisfactory agreement. In addition, an extensive comparison of existing general correlations with databases for mini-channels has also been made. (author)

  9. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel networks

    H Prashanth Reddy; M Hanif Chaudhry; Jasim Imran


    Although, natural channels are rarely rectangular or trapezoidal in cross section, these cross sections are assumed for the computation of steady, gradually varied flow in open channel networks. The accuracy of the computed results, therefore, becomes questionable due to differences in the hydraulic and geometric characteristics of the main channel and floodplains. To overcome these limitations, an algorithm is presented in this paper to compute steady, gradually varied flow in an open-channel network with compound cross sections. As compared to the presently available methods, the methodology is more general and suitable for application to compound and trapezoidal channel cross sections in series channels, tree-type or looped networks. In this method, the energy and continuity equations are solved for steady, gradually varied flow by the Newton–Raphson method and the proposed methodology is applied to tree-type and looped-channel networks. An algorithm is presented to determine multiple critical depths in a compound channel. Modifications in channel geometry are presented to avoid the occurrence of multiple critical depths. The occurrence of only one critical depth in a compound cross section with modified geometry is demonstrated for a tree-type channel network.

  10. Experimental study on flow behavior at open channel confluences

    WANG Xiekang; WANG Xianye; LU Weizhen; LIU Tonghuan


    Channel confluences are common in natural rivers and hydraulic engineering, and the flow behavior at confluences becomes very complex because of the interactionbetween the tributary and the main river. In this study, the experiments were performed in a combined flume with a 30~ angle between the main and tributary flume located at Sichuan University. The velocity was measured by using a three-component acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) over a grid defined throughout the junction region. Based on the analysis of the velocity at the confluence, the distinctive char- acteristics of a channel confluence flow may be divided into several zones including a zone of separation immediately downstream of the junction branch channel, the maximum and minimum velocity regions at the upstream and down- stream in the confluent channel, and a shear plane developed between the two combining flows downstream of the conflu- ent channel. In addition, secondary circulations in different directions at the higher and lower velocity zones are observed as well.

  11. Flow boiling in microgap channels experiment, visualization and analysis

    Alam, Tamanna; Jin, Li-Wen


    Flow Boiling in Microgap Channels: Experiment, Visualization and Analysis presents an up-to-date summary of the details of the confined to unconfined flow boiling transition criteria, flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, instability characteristics, two phase flow pattern and flow regime map and the parametric study of microgap dimension. Advantages of flow boiling in microgaps over microchannels are also highlighted. The objective of this Brief is to obtain a better fundamental understanding of the flow boiling processes, compare the performance between microgap and c

  12. Flow Analysis in Two Pass Smooth Square Channel



    Full Text Available This project aim is to presenting the air flow analysis in two pass smooth square channel experiments. The experiments were carried out on a horizontally oriented two pass smooth square channel with turn in sharp 1800 . The smooth square channel size was 2 cm. Calculations were performed by using CFD software “gambit &fluent”. The predictions results of mass flow rate & heat transfer rate of the air flow inside the sharp 180° turn in square channel with using different Reynolds numbers (10000, 20000, 40000 & 60000 were compared against with experiment results obtained from based on journal. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using Gambit2.3.16&Fluent6.3.26 software with 2D, unsteady and turbulent flow conditions assumed. Three different turbulence models were used namely the k-ε, k  and Reynolds stress models in conjunction with non-equilibrium wall functions.

  13. Two-phase flow instabilities in a vertical annular channel

    Babelli, I.; Nair, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    An experimental test facility was built to study two-phase flow instabilities in vertical annular channel with emphasis on downward flow under low pressure and low flow conditions. The specific geometry of the test section is similar to the fuel-target sub-channel of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Mark 22 fuel assembly. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was observed following flow excursion and flow reversal in the test section. Density wave instability was not recorded in this series of experimental runs. The results of this experimental study show that flow excursion is the dominant instability mode under low flow, low pressure, and down flow conditions. The onset of instability data are plotted on the subcooling-Zuber (phase change) numbers stability plane.

  14. Inertia-Dominated Capillary Channel Flow in Microgravity

    Klatte, Joerg; Dreyer, Michael


    The fluid dynamics video shows three-dimensional experimental and numerical investigations of open channel flows in microgravity. The dynamic reorientation of the free surface from 1g to 0g environment can be observed in a wedge-shaped channel for subcritical and for supercritical flow rate with a collapse of the interface. In addition three-dimensional computations determine important characteristics of the flow, such as the free surface shape, the velocity field, the dynamics of the reorientation and the flow rate depended collapse of the free surface. The good agreement validates the capabilities of the numerical solver.


    Subhasish DEY


    The Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are important parameters in fluvial hydraulics. Steadynonuniform flow in open channels with streamwise sloping beds having upward seepage through loose beds is theoretically analyzed to estimate the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress. Equations of the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are developed, assuming a modified logarithmic velocity distribution law due to upward seepage, and using the Reynolds and continuity equations of twodimensional flow in open channels.

  16. Numerical Investigation of Developing Velocity Distributions in Open Channel Flows

    Usman Ghani


    Full Text Available The velocity profiles in open channel flows start developing after entering into the channel for quite some length. All types of laboratory experiments for open channel flows are carried out in the fully developed flow regions which exist at some length downstream the inlet. In this research work an attempt has been made to investigate the impact of roughness and slope of the channel bed on the length required for establishment of fully developed flow in an open channel. A range of different roughness values along with various slopes were considered for this purpose. It was observed that an increase in roughness results in reduction of development length; and development length reduces drastically when roughness reaches to the range normally encountered in open channel flows with emergent vegetation or natural river flows. However, it was observed that the change of slope did not have any noticeable effect on development length. This work suggests that CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics technique can be used for getting a reliable development length before performing an experimental work

  17. Numerical investigation of developing velocity distributions in open channel flows

    The velocity profiles in open channel flows start developing after entering into the channel for quite some length. All types of laboratory experiments for open channel flows are carried out in the fully developed flow regions which exist at some length downstream the inlet. In this research work an attempt has been made to investigate the impact of roughness and slope of the channel bed on the length required for establishment of fully developed flow in an open channel. A range of different roughness values along with various slopes were considered for this purpose. It was observed that an increase in roughness results in reduction of development length; and development length reduces drastically when roughness reaches to the range normally encountered in open channel flows with emergent vegetation or natural river flows. However, it was observed that the change of slope did not have any noticeable effect on development length. This work suggests that CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technique can be used for getting a reliable development length before performing an experimental work. (author)

  18. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels

    Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima


    Linear stability of stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict parameter regions in which stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by critical wavenumbers and spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of ...


    ZOU Li-yong; LIU Nan-sheng; LU Xi-yun


    Pulsating turbulent open channel flow has been investigated by the use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique coupled with dynamic Sub-Grid-Scale (SGS) model for turbulent SGS stress to closure the governing equations. Three-dimensional filtered Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved by a fractional-step method. The objective of this study is to deal with the behavior of the pulsating turbulent open channel flow and to examine the reliability of the LES approach for predicting the pulsating turbulent flow. In this study, the Reynolds number (Reτ ) is chosen as 180 based on the friction velocity and the channel depth. The frequency of the driving pressure gradient for the pulsating turbulent flow ranges low, medium and high value. Statistical turbulence quantities as well as the flow structures are analyzed.

  20. Report on tests using a flow visualization rig - three channel per pass configuration

    The flow visualization rig was upgraded to have 3 heated channels per pass. A series of natural circulation flow tests were done. Under test conditions, long periods of flow stagnation with high heater temperatures were observed in one of the channels. This 3 channel per pass rig shows flow patterns with some reverse channel flows, together with continued heat removal by the boiler

  1. Pulsating laminar fully developed channel and pipe flows.

    Haddad, Kais; Ertunç, Ozgür; Mishra, Manoranjan; Delgado, Antonio


    Analytical investigations are carried out on pulsating laminar incompressible fully developed channel and pipe flows. An analytical solution of the velocity profile for arbitrary time-periodic pulsations is derived by approximating the pulsating flow variables by a Fourier series. The explicit interdependence between pulsations of velocity, mass-flow rate, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress are shown by using the proper dimensionless parameters that govern the flow. Utilizing the analytical results, the scaling laws for dimensionless pulsation amplitudes of the velocity, mass-flow rate, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress are analyzed as functions of the dimensionless pulsation frequency. Special attention has been given to the scaling laws describing the flow reversal phenomenon occurring in pulsating flows, such as the condition for flow reversal, the dependency of the reversal duration, and the amplitude. It is shown that two reversal locations away from the wall can occur in pulsating flows in pipes and channels and the reversed amount of mass per period reaches a maximum at a certain dimensionless frequency for a given amplitude of mass-flow rate fluctuations. These analyses are numerically conducted for pipe and channel flows over a large frequency range in a comparative manner. PMID:20365456

  2. Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels

    The phenomenon of counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) in thin rectangular channels is important in determining the heat removal capability of research reactors which use plate-type fuel elements similar to the MTR design. An analytical expression for predicting CCFL in narrow rectangular channels was derived from the momentum equations for the liquid and gas phase. The model assumes that the liquid downflow is in the form of a film along the narrower side walls of the channel, while the gas flow occupies the wide span of the rectangular channel. The average thickness of liquid film is related to the rate of gas flow through a stability criterion for the liquid film. The CCFL correlation agrees with air/water data taken at relatively high gas velocities. Depending on the magnitude of the dimensionless channel width W*, the new CCFL correlation approaches zero liquid penetration either in the form of a Wallis correlation or in terms of a Kutateladze number. The new correlation indicates that for a thin rectangular channel, the constant C in the Wallis flooding correlation depends on the aspect ratio of the channel. The approach to the appropriate asymptotic solutions also justifies the use of twice the wide span as the correct length scale for thin rectangular channels. 14 refs., 6 figs


    Rajkumar V. RAIKAR; Subhasish DEY


    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume to measure the two-dimensional turbulent flow field in the scoured zone of channel contractions under a clear-water scour condition. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to detect the flow field at different vertical lines along the centerline of uncontracted (main channel) and contracted zones of the channel. The distributions of time-averaged velocity components, turbulent intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses are presented in nondimensional graphical form. The bed shear stresses are computed from the measured Reynolds stresses being in threshold condition within the zone of contraction where bed was scoured. The data presented in this paper would be useful to the investigators for the development of kinematic flow model and morphological model of scour at a channel or river contraction.

  4. Analysis and comparison between rough channel and pipe flows

    Sassun, David; Flores, Oscar; Orlandi, Paolo


    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel and pipe flows are presented to highlight the effect of roughness at low Reynolds number (Reτ = 180 ‑ 360). Several surfaces are reproduced with the immersed boundaries method, allowing a one-to-one comparison of the two canonical flows. In general, all rough surfaces produce the same effect on the flow in pipes and channels, with small differences in the roughness function, RMS velocities and spectral energy density of pipes and channels. The only exception is for the rough surfaces made of longitudinal bars. In particular, the triangular bars (riblets) show drag reduction in the channel and drag increase in the pipe. This behaviour is linked to the development of spanwise rollers and wide u-structures near the plane of the crest of the pipe.

  5. Long wavelength flow analysis in a curved channel

    Ali, Nasir [Dept. of Mathematics, International Islamic Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan); Sajid, Muhammad [Theoretical Plasma Physics Div., PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hayat, Tasawar [Dept. of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)


    This study is concerned with the peristaltic flow of a viscous fluid in a curved channel. Mathematically the problem is governed by two partial differential equations. Closed form solutions of the stream function, axial velocity, and pressure gradient are developed under long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. The influence of curvature is analyzed on various flow quantities of interest. (orig.)

  6. Vortex structures in turbulent channel flow behind an orifice

    Makino, Soichiro; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Kawamura, Hiroshi


    Direct numerical simulation of a channel flow with an orifice has been performed for Reτ0=10 - 600, where uτ0 is the friction velocity calculated from the mean pressure gradient, δ the channel half width and ν the kinematic viscosity. In the wake region, the mean flow becomes asymmetric by the Coanda effect. The degree of asymmetry increases with increasing the Reynolds number for the laminar flow at Reτ0effect upon the reattachment locations and streamwise vortices near the wall in the wake region.


    Wilhelm BECHTELER; Davood FARSHI


    This paper presents some preliminary results of 2-D numerical simulation of open channel flow with moveable bed. The unsteady two dimensional channel flow and sediment transport are simulated by solving shallow water equations and sediment continuity equation in conservation form based on unstructured finite volume method. Redefining longitudinal and transverse slopes of the bed is implemented in order to consider them in the bedload equation. A simple modeling treatment dealing with secondary flow effect on sediment movement is also discussed. Finally, two examples of numerical simulation are presented.

  8. Flows and mixing in channels with misaligned superhydrophobic walls

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V; Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I


    Aligned superhydrophobic surfaces with the same texture orientation reduce drag in the channel and generate secondary flows transverse to the direction of the applied pressure gradient. Here we show that a transverse shear, superimposed with the conventional Poiseuille and slip-driven plug flows, can be easily generated by using superhydrophobic channels with misaligned textured surfaces. We propose a general theoretical approach to quantify this transverse flow by introducing the concept of an effective shear tensor. To illustrate its use, we present approximate theoretical solutions and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations for striped superhydrophobic channels. Our results demonstrate that the transverse shear leads to complex flow patterns on the length scale of the texture period, which leads to a new mechanism of a passive mixing at low Reynolds number. This vertical mixing occurs at the texture period scale and does not require the contribution of side walls. Our results provide a basis for design ...

  9. Flows and mixing in channels with misaligned superhydrophobic walls

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V.; Asmolov, Evgeny S.; Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I.


    Aligned superhydrophobic surfaces with the same texture orientation reduce drag in the channel and generate secondary flows transverse to the direction of the applied pressure gradient. Here we show that a transverse shear can be easily generated by using superhydrophobic channels with misaligned textured surfaces. We propose a general theoretical approach to quantify this transverse flow by introducing the concept of an effective shear tensor. To illustrate its use, we present approximate theoretical solutions and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations for striped superhydrophobic channels. Our results demonstrate that the transverse shear leads to complex flow patterns, which provide a new mechanism of a passive vertical mixing at the scale of a texture period. Depending on the value of Reynolds number two different scenarios occur. At relatively low Reynolds number the flow represents a transverse shear superimposed with two corotating vortices. For larger Reynolds number these vortices become isolated, by suppressing fluid transport in the transverse direction.

  10. Numerical Method to Predict Slip Length in Turbulent Channel Flow

    Nowrouz Mohammad Nouri


    Full Text Available In the present research work, we introduce a new method for estimating the slip length on superhydrophobic surfaces. Hence, a dynamic force is added to momentum equations and velocity boundary condition is rewritten in a new form. Laminar and turbulent channel flows are considered and two force functions are used with different profiles to investigate their effects on results. The turbulent channel flow is considered at Re  180 and the Large Eddy Simulation (LES method has been applied to analyze this flow. All results indicate that this method can predict the streamwise slip length with a good accuracy, which is comparable with the Navier’s method. So, using this numerical solution and also measuring pressure drop and mass flow rate in the channel, slip length can be calculated. Consequently, the errors and difficulties of slip length measurements in typical methods such as AFM and μPIV would be eliminated.

  11. Flow-induced channelization in a porous medium

    Mahadevan, Amala


    We propose a theory for erosional channelization induced by fluid flow in a saturated granular porous medium. When the local fluid flow-induced stress is larger than a critical threshold, grains are dislodged and carried away so that the porosity of the medium is altered by erosion. This in turn affects the local hydraulic conductivity and pressure in the medium and results in the growth and development of channels that preferentially conduct the flow. Our multiphase model involves a dynamical porosity field that evolves along with the volume fraction of the mobile and immobile grains in response to fluid flow that couples the spatiotemporal dynamics of the three phases. Numerical solutions of the resulting initial boundary value problem show how channels form in porous media and highlights how heterogeneity in the erosion threshold dictates the form of the patterns and thus the ability to control them.

  12. Ultrasonic flow monitoring of SDS/ECI feeder channels

    The indicated flows of some of the instrumented-channels of the CANDU Shutdown System (SDS) and Emergency Cooling Injection (ECI) system can become degraded over time, which will result in reduction of operating margin, nuisance alarms and workarounds. As one mitigation strategy, using Ultrasonic Cross-Correlation Flow Meter (USCCFM) to monitor flow rate of SDS and ECI feeder channels has been implemented in Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Darlington Nuclear Generation Station (DNGS) for years. This paper introduces the methods in data analysis for USCCFM monitoring and the detection of abnormal measurement drift in the feeders' orifice flow meter. Results represented in the paper reveal that the long-term, reliable and stable flow measurement by USCCFM can be used as benchmark when the orifice based Flow Instrument Degradation (FID) occurs. (author)

  13. Thermal-Pressure-Driven Gas Flows through Micro Channels

    In this paper we study mass flow rate of rarefied gas flow through micro/nanoscale channels under simultaneous thermal and pressure gradients using an improved direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Before targeting thermal/pressure driven flows, we first analyze pressure-driven flows and verify our DSMC solver. Next, we study micro-/ nanochannels flows under simultaneous pressure-temperature gradients while our main objective is to predict mass flow rate increment due to thermal creep effects. The effects of thermal creep are studied over a wide range of flow rarefaction from the slip to free molecular regime. Our results showed that the non-dimensional thermal creep mass flow rate increments of the Poiseuille flow increases and approaches the value of 0.578 at free molecular limit.

  14. Reynolds number effects on particle agglomeration in turbulent channel flow

    M Afkhami; A. Hassanpour; Fairweather, M.; Njobuenwu, DO


    The work described in this paper employs large eddy simulation and a discrete element method to study particle-laden flows, including particle dispersion and agglomeration, in a horizontal channel. The particle-particle interaction model is based on the Hertz- Mindlin approach with Johnson-Kendall-Roberts cohesion to allow the simulation of Van der Waals forces in a dry air flow. The influence of different flow Reynolds numbers, and therefore the impact of turbulence, on particle agglomeratio...

  15. Predictions for particle deposition from LES of ribbed channel flow

    Predictions for the deposition of spherical and cylindrical particles from a ribbed channel flow onto adjacent flow boundaries are obtained using large eddy simulation (LES) under the assumption of one-way coupling. Results indicate that spherical particles tend to accumulate on the vertical rib wall facing the mean-flow direction with little particle deposition onto surfaces immediately downstream of the rib. This preferential deposition is not predicted for cylindrical particles

  16. Surface drifter trajectories highlight flow pathways in the Mozambique Channel

    Hancke, L.; Roberts, M. J.; Ternon, J. F.


    The pattern of surface circulation in the Mozambique Channel was elucidated from the trajectories of 82 satellite-tracked drifters over the period 2000-2010 and complementary satellite-derived altimetry. Overall, the trajectories indicated that anticyclonic activity was mostly observed on the western side of the Channel, with cyclonic activity being more prevalent in the east. A lack of eddy activity was noted in the southeast corner of the Channel (i.e. SW of Madagascar). Drifter behaviour illustrated that surface water from the Comoros Basin, entrained into anticyclonic eddies during formation, can be retained and isolated for months whilst being transported southwards through the Channel. During a tropical cyclone weather event, a drifter was observed to switch between counter-rotating eddies indicating that horizontal mixing of the Ekman layer does occur. The drifters also illustrated and emphasised the flow field and transport between eddies (i.e. the interstitial flow) in the Mozambique Channel. Despite the dominance of southward propagating anticyclones, drifters were able to move north and south through the Channel in the frontal flow field between eddies within periods of 51-207 days. Cross-channel transport in both directions between the Madagascan and Mozambique shelf regions was similarly observed, with time spans of 19-30 days. Surprisingly, drifters from the southern limb of the East Madagascar Current were transported westward across the channel to the Mozambique shelf. This transport was similarly facilitated by the frontal flow field between eddies. It is hypothesised that the frontal zones between eddies and interstitial waters play an important role in distributing biota in the Mozambique Channel.

  17. Thermal Drawdown-Induced Flow Channeling in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs

    Fu, Pengcheng; Hao, Yue; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; Carrigan, Charles R.


    We investigate the flow-channeling phenomenon caused by thermal drawdown in fractured geothermal reservoirs. A discrete fracture network-based, fully coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical simulator is used to study the interactions between fluid flow, temperature change, and the associated rock deformation. The responses of a number of randomly generated 2D fracture networks that represent a variety of reservoir characteristics are simulated with various injection-production well distances. We find that flow channeling, namely flow concentration in cooled zones, is the inevitable fate of all the scenarios evaluated. We also identify a secondary geomechanical mechanism caused by the anisotropy in thermal stress that counteracts the primary mechanism of flow channeling. This new mechanism tends, to some extent, to result in a more diffuse flow distribution, although it is generally not strong enough to completely reverse flow channeling. We find that fracture intensity substantially affects the overall hydraulic impedance of the reservoir but increasing fracture intensity generally does not improve heat production performance. Increasing the injection-production well separation appears to be an effective means to prolong the production life of a reservoir.

  18. Statistical simulation of rarefied gas flows in micro-channels

    Rarefied gas flows through micro-channels are simulated using particle approaches, named as the information preservation (IP) method and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In simulating the low speed flows in long micro-channels the DSMC method encounters the problem of large sample size demand and the difficulty of regulating boundary conditions at the inlet and outlet. Some important computational issues in the calculation of long micro-channel flows by using the IP method, such as the use the conservative form of the mass conservation equation to guarantee the adjustment of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions and the super-relaxation scheme to accelerate the convergence process, are addressed. Stream-wise pressure distributions and mass fluxes through micro-channels given by the IP method agree well with experimental data measured in long micro-channels by Pong et al. (with a height to length ratio of 1.2:3000), Shih et al. (1.2:4800), Arkilic et al. and Arkilic (1.3:7500), respectively. The famous Knudsen minimum of normalized mass flux is observed in IP and DSMC calculations of a short micro-channel over the entire flow regime from continuum to free molecular, whereas the slip Navier-Stokes solution fails to predict it

  19. Multiple flow profiles for two-phase flow in single microfluidic channels through site-selective channel coating

    Logtenberg, Hella; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Browne, Wesley R.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    An approach to control two-phase flow systems in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device using spatially selective surface modification is demonstrated. Side-by-side flows of ethanol : water solutions containing different polymers are used to selectively modify both sides of a channel by

  20. Channel flow structure measurements using particle image velocimetry

    Two different flow structures in a laboratory channel were examined using a flow visualization technique, known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The first channel flow structure was that of a steady flow over a horizontal channel bottom. Photographs of particle displacements were taken in the boundary layer in a plane parallel to the flow. These photographs were analyzed to give simultaneous measurements of two components of the velocity at hundreds of points in the plane. Averaging these photographs gave the velocity profile a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel to the water surface. The results gave good agreement with the known boundary layer theory. This technique is extended to the study of the structure under a progressive wave in the channel. A wavelength of the propagating wave is divided into sections by photographing it continously for a number of frames. Each frame is analyzed and a velocity field under this wave at various phase points were produced with their respective directions. The results show that velocity vectors in a plane under the wave could be achieved instantaneously and in good agreement with the small amplitude wave theory

  1. Micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer with flow instabilities

    Flow boiling heat transfer in micro-channels has attracted much interest in the past decade, and is currently a strong candidate for high performance compact heat sinks, such as those required in electronics systems, automobile air conditioning units, micro-reactors, fuel cells, etc. Currently the literature presents numerous experimental studies on two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels, providing an extensive database that covers many different fluids and operating conditions. Among the noteworthy elements that have been reported in previous studies, is the sensitivity of micro-channel evaporators to oscillatory two-phase instabilities. These periodic fluctuations in flow and pressure drop either result from the presence of upstream compressibility, or are simply due to the interaction among parallel channels in multi-port systems. An oscillating flow presents singular characteristics that are expected to produce an effect on the local heat transfer mechanisms, and thus on the estimation of the two-phase heat transfer coefficients. The present investigation illustrates results for flow boiling of refrigerants R-134a, R-236fa, and R-245fa in a 510 μm circular micro-channel, exposed to various degrees of oscillatory compressible volume instabilities. The data describe the main features of the fluctuations in the temperatures of the heated wall and fluid, and draw attention to the differences in the measured unstable time-averaged heat transfer coefficients with respect to those for stable flow boiling. (author)

  2. A universal transition to turbulence in channel flow

    Sano, Masaki; Tamai, Keiichi


    Transition from laminar to turbulent flow drastically changes the mixing, transport, and drag properties of fluids, yet when and how turbulence emerges is elusive even for simple flow within pipes and rectangular channels. Unlike the onset of temporal disorder, which is identified as the universal route to chaos in confined flows, characterization of the onset of spatiotemporal disorder has been an outstanding challenge because turbulent domains irregularly decay or spread as they propagate downstream. Here, through extensive experimental investigation of channel flow, we identify a distinctive transition with critical behaviour. Turbulent domains continuously injected from an inlet ultimately decayed, or in contrast, spread depending on flow rates. Near a transition point, critical behaviour was observed. We investigate both spatial and temporal dynamics of turbulent clusters, measuring four critical exponents, a universal scaling function and a scaling relation, all in agreement with the (2 + 1)-dimensional directed percolation universality class.

  3. The mechanical energy equation for total flow in open channels

    刘士和; 范敏; 薛娇


    The mechanical energy equation is a fundamental equation of a 1-D mathematical model in Hydraulics and Engineering Fluid Mechanics. This equation for the total flow used to be deduced by extending the Bernoulli’s equation for the ideal fluid in the streamline to a stream tube, and then revised by considering the viscous effect and integrated on the cross section. This derivation is not rigorous and the effect of turbulence is not considered. In this paper, the energy equation for the total flow is derived by using the Navier-Stokes equations in Fluid Mechanics, the results are as follows:(1) A new energy equation for steady channel flows of in-compressible homogeneous liquid is obtained, which includes the variation of the turbulent kinetic energy along the channel, the for-mula for the mechanical energy loss of the total flow can be determined directly in the deduction process. (2) The theoretical solution of the velocity field for laminar flows in a rectangular open channel is obtained and the mechanical energy loss in the energy equa-tion is calculated. The variations of the coefficient of the mechanical energy loss against the Reynolds number and the width-depth ratio are obtained. (3) The turbulent flow in a rectangular open channel is simulated using 3-D Reynolds averaged equations closed by the Reynolds stress model (RSM), and the variations of the coefficient of the mechanical energy loss against the Reynolds number and the width-depth ratio are discussed.

  4. Separation of Particles in Swirling Flow in Coaxial Channel

    Vasilevsky Michail


    Full Text Available Cyclones are widely used devices to separate a dispersed phase (e.g. particles or droplets from a continuous phase. The separation of particles in coaxial channels with different length is considered in paper. In this study we show that as coaxial channels length grows, the efficiency increases. In addition we demonstrate that as a gap between cylinder components is reduced, the aerosol spray efficiency is reduced also in turbulent flow.

  5. Separation of Particles in Swirling Flow in Coaxial Channel

    Vasilevsky, Michail; Zyatikov, Pavel; Deeva, Vera; Kozyrev, Ilya


    Cyclones are widely used devices to separate a dispersed phase (e.g. particles or droplets) from a continuous phase. The separation of particles in coaxial channels with different length is considered in paper. In this study we show that as coaxial channels length grows, the efficiency increases. In addition we demonstrate that as a gap between cylinder components is reduced, the aerosol spray efficiency is reduced also in turbulent flow.

  6. Numerical solution of incompressible flow through branched channels

    Louda, Petr; Kozel, K.; Příhoda, Jaromír; Beneš, L.; Kopáček, T.


    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 318-324. ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0977; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : channel flow * branched channel * EARSM turbulence model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011


    Nor Azwadi Che Sidik


    Full Text Available Computational prediction of fluid-solid particle interaction in an expansion horizontal channel with wide range of Reynolds numbers. Lagrangian-Lagrangian numerical technique to predict the movement of solid particle. The method is based on mesocale scheme of lattice Boltzmann method for prediction of fluid dynamics and second Newton’s law for the dynamics of solid particles. The flow behaviour at the downstream of the expansion channel is critically dependence on the Reynolds number of the flow. The removal percentage of the contaminant critically dependence on the flow structure donwstream of the expansion channel. The strength of recirculation region plays significant role due to the step in the cavity.

  8. Observations of the flow in the Mozambique Channel

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; Lutjeharms, Johann R. E.; Schouten, Mathijs W.; Veth, Cornelis


    During a recent research cruise to investigate the nature and continuity of the Mozambique Current, we observed that the flow in the Mozambique Channel is dominated by a train of large anti-cyclonic eddies (diameters >300 km) that reach to the channel bottom and propagate southward. At a frequency of 4 per year they cause a net poleward transport of about 15 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s). In the deep sea, a Mozambique Undercurrent flows equatorward along the continental slope. Using a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler maximum observed velocities are about 0.2 m/s around 2400 m with another current core around 1000 m. It carries about 5 Sv of intermediate (AAIW) and deep waters (NADW) of Atlantic origin into the Channel. Subsequently, the equatorward flowing AAIW is largely entrained by the eddies and, while mixing with intermediate water from the North Indian Ocean in the eddy core, returned to the Agulhas Retroflection region.

  9. Numerical simulation of separated flows in channels

    Louda, P.; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, P.; Kozel, K.


    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2012), s. 145-153. ISSN 1003-2169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : backward facing step flow * EARSM model * SST model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2012

  10. Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry Measurements in Turbulent Liquid Metal Channel Flow

    Rivero, Michel; Jian, Dandan; Karcher, Christian; Cuevas, Sergio


    Control of molten metal flow using magnetic fields is important in industrial applications. The Electromagnetic Flow Control Channel (EFCO) is an experimental test facility, located at Ilmenau University of Technology, for the development of such kind of control systems. The working fluid is the low-melting liquid metal alloy GaInSn in eutectic composition. In this channel, flow control is realized by combining and coupling the non-contact flow driving technology of electromagnetic pumps based on rotating permanent magnets and the non-contact flow rate measurement technology termed Lorentz Force Velocimetry (LFV). The flow rate is adjusted by controlling the rotation rate of the permanent magnet system. Physically, LFV is based on measuring the force acting on a magnet system. This force is induced by the melt flow passing through the static magnetic field generated by the system and is proportional to the flow. To calibrate such flow meters, we apply UDV technique to measure and analyse both turbulent hydrodynamic and MHD flow profiles in EFCO at various Reynolds numbers.

  11. Behaviour of organised disturbances in fully developed turbulent channel flow

    P K Sen; Srinivas V Veeravali


    In our earlier work we have shown the relevance of stability theory in understanding the sustenance of turbulence in turbulent boundary layers. Here we adopt the same model to study the evolution of organised disturbances in turbulent channel flow. Since the dominant modes are wall modes we find that the stability characteristics in the two flows are nearly identical although the boundary conditions (at the edge of the boundary layer and at the centre of the channel) are different. Comparisons with the experiments of Hussain and Reynolds are also presented.

  12. Direct numerical simulation analysis of local flow topology in a particle-laden turbulent channel flow

    Bijlard, M.J.; Oliemans, R.V.A.; Portela, L.M.; Ooms, G.


    The results of point-particle Eulerian–Lagrangian direct numerical simulation (DNS) calculations of dilute particle-laden turbulent channel flow are used to study the effect of the particles on the local flow topology. It is found that in the viscous sublayer, the flow becomes increasingly more two-dimensional as the two-way coupling effect (due to interaction between particles and fluid flow) increases with increasing particle load. Beyond the viscous sublayer the modifications in flow topol...


    HUAI Wen-xin; WU Zhen-lei; QIAN Zhong-dong; GENG Chuan


    Results of several Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of open channel flows with non-submerged vegetation are presented in this article. It is shown that the vegetation can make the flow structure in the mainstream direction uniform for both supercritical and subcritical flows. For subcritical flows, the LES results of the ensemble-average of time-averaged velocity distributions at four vertical sections around a single plant are in good agreement with measurements. The velocity sees double peaks at the upper and lower positions of flows. For supercritical flows, the ensemble-average velocities see some discrepancy between LES and measurement results. Some secondary flow eddies appear near the single plant, and they just locate in the positions of the double peaks in stream-wise velocity profiles. It is also found that the vegetation drag coefficient deceases as the Froude number increases.

  14. Flow bifurcations, Eulerian chaos and flow mixing in open block tandem channels

    Heat transfer enhancement in open channels with geometrical inhomogeneities may occur when the flow evolves from a laminar to a turbulent regime through a transition scenario by increasing a critical flow parameter as the Reynolds number. In converging-diverging wavy channels for example, flow regimes of Lagrangian chaos -that enhances the flow mixing- and Eulerian chaos are the responsible for the enhancement of heat transfer from a hot surface to a mean flow. Chips attached to a motherboard generate a high amount of heat that needs to be removed. The chip performance depends on the chip temperature, which must remain in a low (reasonable) value. One way of removing heat is through a forced flow that extracts the heat from the chip surface. The heat transport rate depends strongly on the flow characteristics, which vary with the Reynolds number. A set of chips can be seen as a block tandem channel, where each block generates heat that needs to be extracted through the chip surface by a flow that circulates between the block and upper surfaces. This paper reports flow characteristics numerical investigations in a block tandem channel. The flow characteristics are obtained from direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using spectral element methods for laminar and transitional Reynolds numbers flow regimes. Extended and reduced 2D computational models are used to determine the appropriated computational domain for the simulations, which are meshed to capture and describe flow characteristics, such as velocity gradients, vortex dynamics, and flow mixing that develops for transitional flows. The flow characteristics, obtained in terms of vortex dynamics, Fourier spectra, and pseudo-phase spaces, show a transition scenario characterized by a first Hopf bifurcation as the flow evolves from a laminar to a periodic flow, and a second Hopf bifurcation as the flow evolves to quasi-periodic flow for higher Reynolds numbers. The first flow

  15. Determination of the functioning parameters in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with an exponential channel.

    Déjardin, P


    The flow conditions in normal mode asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation are determined to approach the high retention limit with the requirement d≪l≪w, where d is the particle diameter, l the characteristic length of the sample exponential distribution and w the channel height. The optimal entrance velocity is determined from the solute characteristics, the channel geometry (exponential to rectangular) and the membrane properties, according to a model providing the velocity fields all over the cell length. In addition, a method is proposed for in situ determination of the channel height. PMID:23885667

  16. Numerical simulations of heat transfer in plane channel flow

    Gharbi, Najla El; Benzaoui, Ahmed


    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models (such as k-{\\epsilon} models) are still widely used for engineering applications because of their relatively simplicity and robustness. In fully developed plane channel flow (i.e. the flow between two infinitely large plates), even if available models and near-wall treatments provide adequate mean flow velocities, they fail to predict suitable turbulent kinetic energy "TKE" profiles near walls. TKE is involved in determination of eddy viscosity/diffusivity and could therefore provide inaccurate concentrations and temperatures. In order to improve TKE a User Define Function "UDF" based on an analytical profile for TKE was developed and implemented in Fluent. Mean streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy "TKE" profiles were compared to DNS data for friction Reynolds number $Re_{\\tau}$ = 150. Simulation results for TKE show accurate profiles. Simulation results for horizontal heated channel flows obtained with Fluent are presented. Numerical result...

  17. Flows of granular material in two-dimensional channels

    Bain, Oliver; Billingham, John; Houston, Paul; Lowndes, Ian


    Secondary cone-type crushing machines are an important part of the aggregate production process. These devices process roughly crushed material into aggregate of greater consistency and homogeneity. We apply a continuum model for granular materials (`A Constitutive Law For Dense Granular Flows', Nature 441, p727-730, 2006) to flows of granular material in representative two-dimensional channels, applying a cyclic applied crushing stress in lieu of a moving boundary. Using finite element metho...

  18. Numerical Simulation of slug flow in a micro-channel

    Carlson, Andreas


    Multiphase dynamics and characteristics of slug flow in micro channels are investigated computationally by means of advanced numerical simulation methods. Although, due to its importance in many engineering and biomedical applications, the topic has been studied previously, methods for robust and accurate simulation of slug flow remain elusive. Evaluation of current state-of-the-art Computational Multi Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) technology depicts deficiency with advanced computational methods (Vo...

  19. Particle-Interaction Effects in Turbulent Channel Flow

    M Afkhami; A. Hassanpour; Fairweather, M.; Njobuenwu, DO


    Large eddy simulation and a discrete element method are applied to study the flow, particle dispersion and agglomeration in a horizontal channel. The particle-particle interaction model is based on the Hertz-Mindlin approach with Johnson-Kendall-Roberts cohesion to allow the simulation of Van der Waals forces in a dry air flow. The influence of different particle surface energies on agglomeration, and the impact of fluid turbulence, are investigated. The agglomeration rate is found to be stro...

  20. Flow of MHD Carreau Fluid in a Curved Channel

    Saima Noreen


    Full Text Available Analysis has been made for the curvature effects on the MHD peristaltic flow of an incompressible Carreau fluid in a channel. The flow problem is first reduced in the wave frame of reference and then solved after employing the long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Expressions of stream function, pressure gradient, magnetic force function, induced magnetic field and current density are derived and then examined for various parameters of interest.

  1. Numerical Study of Polymers in Turbulent Channel Flow

    Bagheri, Faranggis


    The phenomenon of drag reduction by polymers in turbulent flow has beenstudied over the last 60 years. New insight have been recently gained by meansof numerical simulation of dilute polymer solution at moderate values of theturbulent Reynolds number and elasticity. In this thesis, we track elastic parti-cles in Lagrangian frame in turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 180, by tracking,where the single particle obeys the FENE (finite extendible nonlinear elastic)formulation for dumbbel model. The f...

  2. DNS of turbulent flow in a rod-roughened channel

    A numerical investigation has been performed to study pressure-driven turbulent flow in a rod-roughened channel at Reynolds number Reτ=400 based on the mean pressure-gradient. Both channel walls were roughened by square rods with a height k of only 1.7% of the channel height or k+=13.6 in wall units. The pitch-to-height ratio was 8, which corresponds to the so-called 'k-type' roughness and the resulting flow field was classified as 'transitionally rough'. The Reynolds-averaged streamline pattern exhibited two co-rotating vortices which filled the cavity between two consecutive rods. The averaged flow field which separated from one rod did not reattach and a return flow was observed all along the bottom of the cavity. Outside the roughness sublayer, i.e. beyond 5k, no discernible streamwise variation of the mean velocity and second-order statistics could be observed, whereas the correlation between the streamwise and wall-normal mean velocity components persisted somewhat further away from the surface. Inside the roughness sublayer, however, significant differences in the turbulence field between smooth- and rough-wall layers were observed, for instance the high-energy region formed by the shear layer emanating from the crest of the roughness elements. Visualizations of instantaneous flow fields revealed the presence of elongated streaky structures similar to those routinely observed in flows along a smooth surface

  3. Using DNS and Statistical Learning to Model Bubbly Channel Flow

    Ma, Ming; Lu, Jiacai; Tryggvason, Gretar


    The transient evolution of laminar bubbly flow in a vertical channel is examined by direct numerical simulation (DNS). Nearly spherical bubbles, initially distributed evenly in a fully developed parabolic flow, are driven relatively quickly to the walls, where they increase the drag and reduce the flow rate on a longer time scale. Once the flow rate has been decreased significantly, some of the bubbles move back into the channel interior and the void fraction there approaches the value needed to balance the weight of the mixture and the imposed pressure gradient. A database generated by averaging the DNS results is used to model the closure terms in a simple model of the average flow. Those terms relate the averaged lateral flux of the bubbles, the velocity fluctuations and the averaged surface tension force to the fluid shear, the void fraction and its gradient, as well as the distance to the nearest wall. An aggregated neural network is used for the statistically leaning of unknown closures, and closure relationships are tested by following the evolution of bubbly channel flow with different initial conditions. It is found that the model predictions are in reasonably good agreement with DNS results. Supported by NSF.

  4. Verification of SOPHT for parallel channel flow stability

    As part of a continuing program to verify the thermalhydraulic computer code SOPHT, a number of experimental tests designed to study parallel channel flow instability were simulated. This phenomenon of flow instability could cause dryout of reactor fuel resulting in poor heat transfer to the coolant and increased fuel temperatures. Selected tests from two out reactor experimental programs are predicted with the SOPHT code. Both of these test programs were carried out at Westinghouse Canada Incorporated, Hamilton, Ontario, under contract to Atomic Energy of Canada. The first test facility consisted of a vertical heated channel in parallel with an unheated bypass connected between a common inlet and outlet header. The second test facility was similar to the first, however there were three parallel heated channels as well as an unheated bypass

  5. DNS of turbulent channel flow subject to oscillatory heat flux

    Bukhvostova Anastasia


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the heat transfer in a turbulent channel flow, which is periodically heated through its walls. We consider the flow of air and water vapor using direct numerical simulation. We consider the fluid as a compressible Newtonian gas. We focus on the heat transfer properties of the system, e.g., the temperature difference between the walls and the Nusselt number. We consider the dependence of these quantities on the frequency of the applied heat flux. We observe that the mean temperature difference is quite insensitive to the frequency and that the amplitude of its oscillations is such that its value multiplied by the square root of frequency is approximately constant. Next we add droplets to the channel, which can undergo phase transitions. The heat transfer properties of the channel in the case with droplets are found to increase by more than a factor of two, compared to the situation without droplets.

  6. Numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flow

    Li, Y.; McLaughlin, J.B.; Kontomaris, K.; Portela, L.


    This paper presents results for the behavior of particle-laden gases in a small Reynolds number vertical channel down flow. Results will be presented for the effects of particle feedback on the gas-phase turbulence and for the concentration profile of the particles. The effects of density ratio, mas

  7. Free-Molecular Gas Flow in Narrow (Nanoscale) Channel

    Levdansky, V.V.; Roldugin, V.I.; Žďanov, V.M.; Ždímal, Vladimír


    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2014), s. 802-814. ISSN 1062-0125 Grant ostatní: BRFFI(BY) T12P-018; RFBR(RU) 12-08-90009 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : narrow channels * free-molecular gas flow * surface diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Urban Infrastructure, Channel-Floodplain Morphology and Flood Flow Patterns

    Miller, A. J.; Smith, J. A.; Nelson, C. B.


    The relationship between the channel and the floodplain in urban settings is heavily influenced by (1) altered watershed hydrologic response and frequency distribution of flows, (2) channel enlargement resulting from altered hydrology under conditions of limited sediment supply, (3) direct modification of channels and floodplains for purposes of erosion mitigation, flood protection, commercial development and creation of public amenities, (4) valley constrictions and flow obstructions associated with bridges, culverts, road embankments and other types of floodplain encroachment causing fragmentation or longitudinal segmentation of the riparian corridor. Field observation of inundation patterns associated with recurring floods in the Baltimore metropolitan area is used in combination with 2-dimensional hydraulic modeling to simulate patterns of floodplain inundation and to explore the relationships between magnitude and shape of the flood hydrograph, morphology of the urban channel-floodplain system, and the frequency and extent of floodplain inundation. Case studies include a July 2004 flood associated with a 300-year 2-hour rainfall in a small (14.2 km2) urban watershed, as well as several other events caused by summer thunderstorms with shorter recurrence intervals that generated an extraordinary flood response. The influence of urban infrastructure on flood inundation and flow patterns is expressed in terms of altered (and hysteretic) stage-discharge relationships, stepped flood profiles, rapid longitudinal attenuation of flood waves, and transient flow reversals at confluences and constrictions. Given the current level of interest in restoration measures these patterns merit consideration in planning future development and mitigation efforts.

  9. Drop deformation in stokes flow through converging channels

    Wrobel, LC; Soares, D.; Das Bhaumik, CL


    This work presents an application of a direct BEM formulation for drop deformation and interaction in Stokes flows through converging channels. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effect, on drop deformation, of the channel’s convergence ratio, the drop-fluid viscosity ratio, the interfacial tension and the initial relative position of the drops.

  10. Morphology of Cryogenic Flows and Channels on Dwarf Planet Ceres

    Krohn, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Otto, Katharina A.; von der Gathen, Isabel; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Williams, David A.; Pieters, Carle M.; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.


    Cereś surface is affected by numerous impact craters and some of them show features such as channels or multiple flow events forming a smooth, less cratered surface, indicating possible post-impact resurfacing [1,2]. Flow features occur on several craters on Ceres such as Haulani, Ikapati, Occator, Jarimba and Kondos in combination with smooth crater floors [3,4], appearing as extended plains, ponded material, lobate flow fronts and in the case of Haulani lobate flows originating from the crest of the central ridge [3] partly overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim. Haulanís crater flanks are also affected by multiple flow events radiating out from the crater and partly forming breakages. Flows occur as fine-grained lobes with well-defined margins and as smooth undifferentiated streaky flows covering the adjacent surface. Thus, adjacent craters are covered by flow material. Occator also exhibits multiple flows but in contrast to Haulani, the flows originating from the center overwhelm the mass wasting deposits from the rim [4]. The flows have a "bluish" signature in the FC color filters ratio. Channels occur at relatively fresh craters. They also show the "bluish" signature like the flows and plains. Only few channels occur at older "reddish" craters. They are relatively fresh incised into flow features or crater ejecta. Most are small, narrow and have lobated lobes with predominant distinctive flow margins. The widths vary between a few tens of meters to about 3 km. The channels are found on crater flanks as well as on the crater floors. The occurrence of flow features indicates viscous material on the surface. Those features could be formed by impact melt. However, impact melt is produced during the impact, assuming similar material properties as the ejecta it is expected to have nearly the same age as the impact itself, but the flows and plains are almost free of craters, thus, they seem to be much younger than the impact itself. In addition, the

  11. A reciprocal theorem for boundary-driven channel flows

    Michelin, Sebastien


    In a variety of physical situations, a bulk viscous flow is induced by a distribution of surface velocities, for example in diffusiophoresis (as a result of chemical gradients) and above carpets of cilia (as a result of biological activity). When such boundary-driven flows are used to pump fluids, the primary quantity of interest is the induced flow rate. In this letter we propose a method, based on the reciprocal theorem of Stokes flows, to compute the net flow rate for arbitrary flow distribution and periodic pump geometry using solely stress information from a dual Poiseuille-like problem. After deriving the general result we apply it to straight channels of triangular, elliptic and rectangular geometries and quantify the relationship between bulk motion and surface forcing.

  12. Modeling of drag reduction in turbulent channel flow with hydrophobic walls by FVM method and weakly-compressible flow equations

    Ling Li; Ming-Shun Yuan


    In this paper the effects of hydrophobic wall on skin-friction drag in the channel flow are investigated through large eddy simulation on the basis of weaklycompressible flow equations with the MacCormack's scheme on collocated mesh in the FVM framework. The slip length model is adopted to describe the behavior of the slip velocities in the streamwise and spanwise directions at the interface between the hydrophobic wall and turbulent channel flow. Simulation results are presented by analyzing flow behaviors over hydrophobic wall with the Smagorinky subgrid-scale model and a dynamic model on computational meshes of different resolutions. Comparison and analysis are made on the distributions of timeaveraged velocity, velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress as well as the skin-friction drag. Excellent agreement between the present study and previous results demonstrates the accuracy of the simple classical second-order scheme in representing turbulent vertox near hydrophobic wall. In addition, the relation of drag reduction efficiency versus time-averaged slip velocity is established. It is also found that the decrease of velocity gradient in the close wall region is responsible for the drag reduction. Considering its advantages of high calculation precision and efficiency, the present method has good prospect in its application to practical projects.

  13. Granular flow over inclined channels with linear contraction

    Tunuguntla, D R; Thornton, A R; Bokhove, O


    We consider dry granular flow down an inclined chute with a localised contraction theoretically and numerically. The flow regimes are predicted through a novel extended one-dimensional hydraulic theory. A discrete particle method validated empirical constitutive law is used to close this one-dimensional asymptotic model. The one-dimensional model is verified by solving the two-dimensional shallow granular equations through discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM). For supercritical flows, the one-dimensional asymptotic theory surprisingly holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel.

  14. The technological prospective of non nuclear channels; La prospective technologique des filieres non nucleaires

    Claverie, M.; Clement, D.; Girard, C


    This prospective study concerns the electric power demand in 2050. It examines the three non nuclear sectors of production: the natural gas combined cycle power plants, the wind turbines among the renewable energies and the cogeneration electric power - heat in the ternary and building sector. The necessity of the network adaptation to the european competition and the decentralized production of electric power will suppose new investments of transport and storage. (A.L.B.)

  15. Mathematical model of two-phase flow in accelerator channel

    О.Ф. Нікулін


    Full Text Available  The problem of  two-phase flow composed of energy-carrier phase (Newtonian liquid and solid fine-dispersed phase (particles in counter jet mill accelerator channel is considered. The mathematical model bases goes on the supposition that the phases interact with each other like independent substances by means of aerodynamics’ forces in conditions of adiabatic flow. The mathematical model in the form of system of differential equations of order 11 is represented. Derivations of equations by base physical principles for cross-section-averaged quantity are produced. The mathematical model can be used for estimation of any kinematic and thermodynamic flow characteristics for purposely parameters optimization problem solving and transfer functions determination, that take place in  counter jet mill accelerator channel design.

  16. History dependent vortex flow dynamics in mesoscopic channels

    Intriguing and novel physical aspects related to the vortex flow dynamics have been recently observed in mesoscopic channel devices of a-NbGe with NbN channel edges. In this work we have studied the flow properties of such confined vortices as a function of the magnetic field history, using dc-transport and mode-locking (ML) measurements. As opposed to the field down situation, in field up case a kink anomaly in the dc I-V curves is detected. The mode-locking measurements unveil the dynamic change in the flow configurations around this anomaly: n moving rows of vortex array at low velocity changes suddenly to n + 2 rows at high velocity around the anomaly

  17. Passive scalars in turbulent channel flow at high Reynolds number

    Pirozzoli, Sergio; Bernardini, Matteo; Orlandi, Paolo


    We study passive scalars in turbulent plane channels at computationally high Reynolds number, which allows to observe previously unnoticed effects. The mean scalar profiles are found to obey a generalized logarithmic law which includes a linear correction term in the whole lower half-channel, and they follow a universal parabolic defect profile in the core region. This is consistent with recent findings regarding the mean velocity profiles in channel flow. The scalar variances also exhibit a near universal parabolic distribution in the core flow, and hints of a sizeable log layer, unlike the velocity variances. The energy spectra highlight the formation of large scalar-bearing eddies spanning each half-channel, which are caused by production excess over dissipation, and which are clearly visible in the flow visualizations. Close correspondence of the velocity and scalar eddies is observed, the main difference being that the latter have more convoluted interfaces, which translates into higher scalar dissipation. Another notable Reynolds number effect is the decreased correlation of the scalar field with the vertical velocity field, which is traced to the reduced effectiveness of ejection events. We acknowledge that the results reported in this paper have been achieved using the PRACE Research Infrastructure resource FERMI based at CINECA, Casalecchio di Reno, Italy.

  18. Ferrofluid magnetoviscous control of wall flow channeling in porous media

    Fa(ic)al Larachi; Damien Desvigne


    We analyzed the phenomenon of ferrofluid magnetoviscosity in high-permeability wall-region non-magnetic porous media of the Müller kind.After upscaling the pore-level ferrohydrodynamic model, we obtained a simplified volume-average zero-order axisymmetric model for non-Darcy non-turbulent flow of steady-state isothermal incompressible Newtonian ferrofluids through a porous medium experiencing external constant bulk-flow oriented gradient magnetic field, ferrofluid self-consistent demagnetizing field and induced magnetic field in the solid. The model was explored in contexts plagued by wall flow maldistribution due to low column-to-particle diameter ratios. It was shown that for proper magnetic field arrangement, wall channeling can be reduced by inflating wall flow resistance through magnetovisco-thickening and Kelvin body force density which reroute a fraction of wall flow towards bed core.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of oscillatory flows in microfluidic channels

    Hansen, J.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.


    In this paper we apply the direct non-equilibrium molecular dynamics technique to oscillatory flows of fluids in microscopic channels. Initially, we show that the microscopic simulations resemble the macroscopic predictions based on the Navier–Stokes equation very well for large channel width, high...... density and low temperature. Further simulations for high temperature and low density show that the non-slip boundary condition traditionally used in the macroscopic equation is greatly compromised when the fluid–wall interactions are the same as the fluid–fluid interactions. Simulations of a system with...

  20. Computation of Internal Fluid Flows in Channels Using the CFD Software Tool FlowVision

    Kochevsky, A N


    The article describes the CFD software tool FlowVision (OOO "Tesis", Moscow). The model equations used for this research are the set of Reynolds and continuity equations and equations of the standard k - e turbulence model. The aim of the paper was testing of FlowVision by comparing the computational results for a number of simple internal channel fluid flows with known experimental data. The test cases are non-swirling and swirling flows in pipes and diffusers, flows in stationary and rotating bends. Satisfactory correspondence of results was obtained both for flow patterns and respective quantitative values.

  1. The influence on performance of co-flow and counter-flow PEM fuel cell channels

    Full text: A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a PEM fuel cell with serpentine flow field channels that combines co-flow and counter-flow configurations is presented in this paper. The PEM fuel cell performance is significantly influenced by the direction of fuel and oxidant flow. Therefore, the CFD model used in this paper accounts for the major transport phenomena that occur in PEM fuel cells with co-flow and counter-flow configuration. The results will highlight the convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, the electrode kinetics, and the potential fields. (authors)

  2. Effect of flow field on open channel flow properties using numerical investigation and experimental comparison

    Khazaee, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Torbat-e-jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-jam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadiun, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper a complete three-dimensional and two phase CFD model for flow distribution in an open channel investigated. The finite volume method (FVM) with a dynamic Sub grid-scale was carried out for seven cases of different aspect ratios, different inclination angles or slopes and convergence-divergence condition. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to allow the free-surface to deform freely with the underlying turbulence. The discharge through open channel flow is often evaluated by velocity-area integration method from the measurement of velocity at discrete locations in the measuring section. The variation of velocity along horizontal and vertical directions is thus very important to decide the location of the sensors. The aspect ratio of the channel, slope of the channel and divergence- convergence of the channel have investigated and the results show that the depth of water at the end of the channel is higher at AR=0.8 against the AR=0.4 and AR=1.2. Also it is clear that by increasing the inclination angle or slope of the channel in case1, case4 and case5 the depth of the water increases. Also it is clear that the outlet mass flow rate is at a minimum value at a range of inclination angle of the channel.

  3. Effect of flow field on open channel flow properties using numerical investigation and experimental comparison

    I. Khazaee, M. Mohammadiun


    Full Text Available In this paper a complete three-dimensional and two phase CFD model for flow distribution in an open channel investigated. The finite volume method (FVM with a dynamic Sub grid-scale was carried out for seven cases of different aspect ratios, different inclination angles or slopes and convergence-divergence condition. The volume of fluid (VOF method was used to allow the free-surface to deform freely with the underlying turbulence. The discharge through open channel flow is often evaluated by velocity-area integration method from the measurement of velocity at discrete locations in the measuring section. The variation of velocity along horizontal and vertical directions is thus very important to decide the location of the sensors. The aspect ratio of the channel, slope of the channel and divergence- convergence of the channel have investigated and the results show that the depth of water at the end of the channel is higher at AR=0.8 against the AR=0.4 and AR=1.2. Also it is clear that by increasing the inclination angle or slope of the channel in case1, case4 and case5 the depth of the water increases. Also it is clear that the outlet mass flow rate is at a minimum value at a range of inclination angle of the channel.

  4. Modelling of flow and heat transfer in PV cooling channels

    Diarra, D.C.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Under sunny conditions, the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) modules can be 20 to 30 degrees C above the ambient air temperature. This affects the performance of PV modules, particularly in regions with hot climates. For silicon solar cells, the maximum power decreases between 0.4 and 0.5 per cent for every degree C of temperature increase above a reference value. In an effort to address this issue, this experimental and numerical study examined an active PV panel evaporative cooling scheme that is typically used in hot arid climates. The cooling system circulated cool air behind the PV modules, extracting heat and lowering solar cell temperature. A fluid dynamic and thermal model of the combined system was developed using the EES program in order to study the configuration of the cooling channel and the characteristics of the cooling flow. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the cooling channel were then calculated along with pressure drop and fan power associated with the air-circulation. The net power output was also calculated. The objective was to design a cost efficient cooling system and to optimize its flow and pressure drop in order to maximize power output. The study demonstrated how the performance of the PV panel is influenced by the geometry of the cooling channel, the inlet air temperature and the air flow rate. 2 refs.

  5. Flow resistance and its prediction methods in compound channels

    Kejun Yang; Shuyou Cao; Xingnian Liu


    A series of experiments was carried out in a large symmetric compound channel composed of a rough main channel and rough floodplains to investigate the resistance characteristics of inbank and overbank flows.The effective Manning,Darcy-Weisbach,Chezy coefficients and the relative Nikuradse roughness height were analyzed.Many different representative methods for predicting the composite roughness were systemat-ically summarized.Besides the measured data,a vast number of laboratory data and field data for compoundchannels were collected and used to check the valid-ity of these methods for different subsection divisionsincluding the vertical,horizontal,diagonal and bisec-tional divisions.The computation showed that thesemethods resulted in big errors in assessing the compos-ite roughness in compound channels,and the reasonswere analyzed in detail.The error magnitude is relatedto the subsection divisions.

  6. Flow regimes in inclined open-channel flows of granular materials

    Campbell, C. S.; Brennen, C. E.; Sabersky, R. H.


    Open-channel flows of fluids may be classified as supercritical or subcritical, depending on whether their average velocity ῡ is larger, equal to or smaller than the propagation rate of small disturbances √(gh) cos α (where g is the gravitational acceleration, h is the flow depth and [alpha] is the channel inclination). Typically, the flow type is classified by the magnitude of the Froude number, ῡ√(gh), relative to its value under critical conditions Fr_c = √(cosα). Supercritical and subcr...

  7. Thermally stratified sodium channel flow: turbulence and modeling

    Numerical simulation of sodium stratification in open channel flow has been studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) employing an Algebraic Heat Flux Model (AHFM) closure for the turbulent heat flux. The results are validated against experimental data and the AHFM is compared with the simplified Reynolds analogy employing a constant turbulent Pr number. Influence of buoyancy on turbulence created in the mixing layer has been evaluated and its influence on the momentum and energy transport in the vertical direction assessed. It has been found that the choice of turbulent heat flux model influences the achieved results for temperature and velocity field which might affect the flow developing and persistence of stratification in the channel. Moreover both experiment and validation show the possibility of creation of a strong stratification also for low Pr number fluids, warning the stratification problem as an existing phenomenon likely to occur in liquid metal nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected into a channel flow

    Gorder, Robert; Vajravelu, Kuppalapalle


    In this paper, we study the nonlinear coupled boundary value problem arising from the nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected by an external source into a channel flow. We obtain exact solutions for the steady flow for some special cases and an implicit exact solution for the unsteady flow. Additionally, we obtain analytical solutions for the transient flow. From the obtained solutions, we are able to deduce the qualitative influence of the model parameters on the solutions. Furthermore, we are able to give both exact and analytical expressions for the skin friction and wall mass transfer rate as functions of the model parameters. The model considered can be useful for understanding the polluting situations of an improper discharge incident and evaluating the effects of decontaminating measures for the water bodies.

  9. Coherent vorticity extraction in turbulent channel flow using anisotropic wavelets

    Yoshimatsu, Katsunori; Sakurai, Teluo; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Morishita, Koji; Ishihara, Takashi


    We examine the role of coherent vorticity in a turbulent channel flow. DNS data computed at friction-velocity based Reynolds number 320 is analyzed. The vorticity is decomposed using three-dimensional anisotropic orthogonal wavelets. Thresholding of the wavelet coefficients allows to extract the coherent vorticity, corresponding to few strong wavelet coefficients. It retains the vortex tubes of the turbulent flow. Turbulent statistics, e.g., energy, enstrophy and energy spectra, are close to those of the total flow. The nonlinear energy budgets are also found to be well preserved. The remaining incoherent part, represented by the large majority of the weak coefficients, corresponds to a structureless, i.e., a noise-like background flow.

  10. Distribution of incompressible flow within interdigitated channels and porous electrodes

    Kee, Robert J.; Zhu, Huayang


    This paper develops a general model with which to evaluate flow uniformity and pressure drop within interdigitated-channel structures, especially in the context of redox flow batteries. The governing equations are cast in dimensionless variables, leading to a set of characteristic dimensionless parameter groups. The systems of governing equations are solved computationally, with the results presented graphically. Because the results are general, the underlying model itself is not needed to apply the quantitative design guidelines. However, the paper presents and discusses all the information required to recreate the model as needed.


    ZHAO Ling-zhi; PENG Yan; LU Fang; LI Jian; LI Ran; LIU Bao-lin


    The flow loss of a helical channel Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thruster without MHD effect was numerically studied with 3-D simulations,and a flow loss coefficient ξ was defined to quantify the flow loss and its influencing factors were studied.The results show that ξ decreases in a first-order exponential manner with the pitch of a helical wall and the Reynolds number,and it declines slowly when t / T > 0.2 and Re > 105,a flow guide makes the flow more smooth and uniform,especially in the flow guide and helical wall sub-regions and thus reduces the flow loss greatly,by about 30% with the averaged value of ξ from 0.0385to 0.027,a rectifier weakens the helical flow and strengthens the axial one in the rectifier and outlet sub-regions,thus reduces the rotational kinetic pressure with the averaged value of ξ declining about 4% from 0.0385 to 0.037,and ξ decreases with a rectifier's axial length when Re > 105.

  12. The effect of wall heating on instability of channel flow

    Sameen, A; Govindarajan, Rama


    A comprehensive study of the effect of wall heating or cooling on the linear, transient and secondary growth of instability in channel flow is conducted. The effect of viscosity stratification, heat diffusivity and of buoyancy are estimated separately, with some unexpected results. From linear stability results, it has been accepted that heat diffusivity does not affect stability. However, we show that realistic Prandtl numbers cause a transient growth of disturbances that is an order of magn...

  13. Heat transfer to liquid sodium flowing through annular channel, (4)

    An experimental study was carried out to clarify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid sodium flowing turbulently through an annular channel. For a concentric condition, average psi(=average epsilonH/epsilonM) was found to agree with that proposed by Aoki or Ramm for circular tube. For eccentric conditions, circumferential temperature variations around the inner wall were measured and Nusselt numbers were evaluated. Numerical calculations were also made for temperature fields and compared with the measurements. (author)

  14. Communication flow, channels, content and climate in downsizing

    Illia, Laura; Lurati, Francesco; La Rocca, Antonella


    Effective internal communication contributes to the overall organizational communication that aims to maintain a sustainable reputation during times of change. Arising from this belief, this paper aims to develop a theoretical framework in which the type of communication content, flows, channels, and climate better fits into the planning, implementation, and revitalization phases within the downsizing process. To this end, a literature review on downsizing studies has been conducted, resultin...

  15. Processes of Turbulent Liquid Flows in Pipelines and Channels

    R. I. Yesman


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for an analysis and calculation of processes pertaining to turbulent liquid flows in pipes and channels. Various modes of liquid motion in pipelines of thermal power devices and equipment have been considered in the paper.The presented dependences can be used while making practical calculations of losses due to friction in case of transportation of various energy carriers.

  16. Utilization of Different Variables for the Visualization of Fluid Flows:Application to Instantaneous Channel Flows

    Gérard J. Poitras; L.-Emmanuel Brizzi; Yves Gagnon


    The results of different numerical algorithms for the computation of unsteady fluid flows are used to visualize different variables of the flow. In particular, the instantaneous vorticity, velocity and pressure fields, along with streamline plots, are presented as a function of time inside a visualization window of the computational domain.The different forms of visualization are used to analyze the flow inside a two-dimensional channel incorporating an obstacle, which can represent several interesting flows such as the flow over electronic components, heat transfer devices and buildings.

  17. Rain and channel flow supplements to subsurface water beneath hyper-arid ephemeral stream channels

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Faulconer, Joshua; Shaw, Jeremy R.; Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Cooper, David J.


    In hyper-arid regions, ephemeral stream channels are important sources of subsurface recharge and water supply for riparian vegetation, but few studies have documented the subsurface water content dynamics of these systems. This study examines ephemeral channels in the hyper-arid western Sonoran Desert, USA to determine how frequently water recharges the alluvial fill and identify variables that affect the depth and persistence of recharge. Precipitation, stream stage, and subsurface water content measurements were collected over a three-year study at six channels with varying contributing areas and thicknesses of alluvial fill. All channels contain coarse alluvium composed primarily of sands and gravels, and some locations also have localized layers of fine sediment at 2-3 m depth. Rain alone contributed 300-400 mm of water input to these channels over three years, but water content responses were only detected for 36% of the rain events at 10 cm depth, indicating that much of the rain water was either quickly evaporated or taken up by plants. Pulses of water from rain events were detected only in the top meter of alluvium. The sites each experienced ⩽5 brief flow events, which caused transient saturation that usually lasted only a few hours longer than flow. These events were the only apparent source of water to depths >1 m, and water from flow events quickly percolated past the deepest measurement depths (0.5-3 m). Sustained saturation in the shallow subsurface only developed where there was a near-surface layer of finer consolidated sediments that impeded deep percolation.


    WU Fu-sheng


    The flow resistance factors of non-submerged rigid vegetation in open channels were analyzed. The formulas of drag coefficient CD and equivalent Manning's roughness coefficient nd were derived by analyzing the force of the flow of non-submerged rigid vegetation in open channel. The flow characteristics and mechanism of non-submerged rigid vegetation in open channel were studied through flume experiments.

  19. Eruption Constraints for a Young Channelized Lava Flow, Marte Vallis, Mars

    Therkelsen, J. P.; Santiago, S. S.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.


    This study constrains flow rates for a specific channelized lava flow in Marte Vallis, Mars. We measured slope-gradient, channel width, and channel depth. Our results are similar to other recent studies which suggests similarities to long, terrestrial basaltic flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. An experimental study on onset of flow instability for downward flow within narrow rectangular channels

    For flow boiling systems, it's impossible to make stable operation under certain conditions so that these are of great concerns in the design and operation of such systems. So called two phase flow instability has possibility to cause heat transfer degradation and then it may lead mechanical damages to heat transfer surface, it should be avoided in normal and transient conditions. Among various two phase instabilities, flow excursion, also known as the Lading instability or Onset of Flow Instability (OFI) is major concern of thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis of research reactors which is under low flow and low pressure condition. The preferred configuration for boiling channels is vertical upward flow since buoyancy helps the mixture flow, and the slip velocity between the two phases that is caused by their density difference actually improves the heat transfer. However, boiling with downward flow is also of interest for accident conditions of upward flow system or even normal conditions of research reactors such as Jordan research and training reactor (JRTR) which adopts downward flow for easier fuel loading. JRTR is 5MWth open pool type research reactor which was designed to utilize plate type fuel taking account of efficient heat removal by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). It is design to be cooled by downward flow through narrow rectangular channels to maximize heat removal efficiency and to minimize fuel vibrations. However, previous OFI data is very limited for narrow rectangular channel and downward flow condition. In this study, data of onset of flow excursion conditions were generated and analyzed

  1. Numerical simulation of secondary flow in bubbly turbulent flow in sub-channel

    Secondary flow in bubbly turbulent flow in sub-channel was simulated by using an algebraic turbulence stress model. The mass, momentum, turbulence energy and bubble diffusion equations were used as fundamental equation. The basis for these equations was the two-fluid model: the equation of liquid phase was picked up from the equation system theoretically derived for the gas-liquid two-fluid turbulent flow. The fundamental equation was transformed onto a generalized coordinate system fitted to the computational domain in sub-channel. It was discretized for the SIMPLE algorism using the finite-volume method. The shape of sub-channel causes a distortion of the computational mesh, and orthogonal nature of the mesh is sometimes broken. An iterative method to satisfy a requirement for the contra-variant velocity was introduced to represent accurate symmetric boundary condition. Two-phase flow at a steady state was simulated for different magnitude of secondary flow and void fraction. The secondary flow enhanced the momentum transport in sub-channel and accelerated the liquid phase in the rod gap. This effect was slightly mitigated when the void fraction increased. The acceleration can contribute to effective cooling in the rod gap. The numerical result implied a phenomenon of industrial interest. This suggested that experimental approach is necessary to validate the numerical model and to identify the phenomenon. (author)

  2. Computation of a turbulent channel flow using PDF method

    The purpose of the present paper is to present an analysis of a PDF model (Probability Density Function) and an illustration of the possibilities offered by such a method for a high-Reynolds turbulent channel flow. The first part presents the principles of the PDF approach and the introduction of stochastic processes along with a Lagrangian point of view. The model retained is the one put forward by Pope (1991) and includes evolution equations for location, velocity and dissipation of a large number of particles. Wall boundary conditions are then developed for particles. These conditions allow statistical results of the logarithmic region to be correctly reproduced. Simulation of non-homogeneous flows require a pressure-gradient algorithm which is briefly described. Developments are validated by analysing numerical predictions with respect to Comte Bellot experimental data (1965) on a channel flow. This example illustrates the ability of the approach to simulate wall-bounded flows and to provide detailed information such as skewness and flatness factors. (author)

  3. Linear Stability Analysis of Compressible Channel Flow with Porous Walls

    Rahbari, Iman


    We have investigated the effects of permeable walls, modeled by linear acoustic impedance with zero reactance, on compressible channel flow via linear stability analysis (LSA). Base flow profiles are taken from impermeable isothermal-wall laminar and turbulent channel flow simulations at bulk Reynolds number, $Re_b$= 6900 and Mach numbers, $M_b$ = 0.2, 0.5, 0.85. For a sufficiently high value of permeability, two dominant modes are excited: a bulk pressure mode, causing symmetric expulsion and suction of mass from the porous walls (Mode 0); a standing-wave-like mode, with a pressure node at the centerline (Mode 1). In the case of turbulent mean flow profiles, both modes generate additional Reynolds shear stresses augmenting the (base) turbulent ones, but concentrated in the viscous sublayer region; the trajectories of the two modes in the complex phase velocity space follow each other very closely for values of wall permeability spanning two orders of magnitude, suggesting their coexistence. The transition fr...

  4. Experimental studies on the flow through soft tubes and channels

    V Kumaran


    Experiments conducted in channels/tubes with height/diameter less than 1 mm with soft walls made of polymer gels show that the transition Reynolds number could be significantly lower than the corresponding value of 1200 for a rigid channel or 2100 for a rigid tube. Experiments conducted with very viscous fluids show that there could be an instability even at zero Reynolds number provided the surface is sufficiently soft. Linear stability studies show that the transition Reynolds number is linearly proportional to the wall shear modulus in the low Reynolds number limit, and it increases as the 1/2 and 3/4 power of the shear modulus for the ‘inviscid’ and ‘wall mode’ instabilities at high Reynolds number. While the inviscid instability is similar to that in the flow in a rigid channel, the mechanisms of the viscous and wall mode instabilities are qualitatively different. These involve the transfer of energy from the mean flow to the fluctuations due to the shear work done at the interface. The experimental results for the viscous instability mechanism are in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions. At high Reynolds number, the instability mechanism has characteristics similar to the wall mode instability. The experimental transition Reynolds number is smaller, by a factor of about 10, than the theoretical prediction for the parabolic flow through rigid tubes and channels. However, if the modification in the tube shape due to the pressure gradient, and the consequent modification in the velocity profile and pressure gradient, are incorporated, there is quantitative agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results. The transition has important practical consequences, since there is a significant enhancement of mixing after transition.

  5. Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses

    P. E. Sandholt


    Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.

  6. Simulation of Flow Pattern in Open Channels with Sudden Expansions

    J. Mamizadeh


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional flows in sudden expansions of rectangular channels have been investigated. In this research, CFD simulation model (FLUENT6.2 is used. The k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate turbulence. Desired canal with coarse, medium and fine mesh size is selected for simulation. The results in canal with sudden expansion showed that the vortex formed by coarse mesh size and number of iteration more than 400 is asymmetric and for small and medium mesh size is symmetric. In order to analyze experimentally and numerically more closely, the pattern of flow in a flume with sudden expansion is investigated. Results showed that, asymmetrical flow pattern can be viewed with some minor changes such as roughness coefficient in any part of flume.

  7. On the Analysis of Flows in Vibrating Channels

    Zandi, Sahab; Mohammadi, Alireza; Floryan, Jerzy Maciej


    Pressure losses in channels with vibrating walls have been analyzed. Surface vibrations were assumed to have the form of travelling waves. The waves can have arbitrary profiles. The spectrally accurate immersed boundary conditions (IBC) method based on the Fourier expansions in the flow direction and the Chebyshev expansions in the transverse direction has been developed. The results show dependence of the pressure losses on the phase speed of the waves, with the waves propagating in the downstream direction reducing the pressure gradient required to maintain a fixed flow rate. A drag increase is observed when the waves propagate with a phase speed similar to the flow velocity. Analytical solution demonstrates that the drag changes result from the nonlinear interactions and vary proportionally to A2 for small enough A, where A stands for the wave amplitude. This work has been carried out with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.

  8. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels

    Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima; Vitoshkin, Helen


    Linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels to arbitrary wavenumber disturbances is studied. The problem is reduced to Orr-Sommerfeld equations for the stream function disturbances, defined in each sublayer and coupled via boundary conditions that account also for possible interface deformation and capillary forces. Applying the Chebyshev collocation method, the equations and interface boundary conditions are reduced to the generalized eigenvalue problems solved by standard means of numerical linear algebra for the entire spectrum of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors. Some additional conclusions concerning the instability nature are derived from the most unstable perturbation patterns. The results are summarized in the form of stability maps showing the operational conditions at which a stratified-smooth flow pattern is stable. It is found that for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems the stratified flow with smooth interface is stable only in confined zone of relatively lo...

  9. Implicit Large Eddy Simulation of Cavitation in Micro Channel Flows

    Hickel, S; Schmidt, S J


    We present a numerical method for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of compressible two-phase flows. The method is validated for the flow in a micro channel with a step-like restriction. This setup is representative for typical cavitating multi-phase flows in fuel injectors and follows an experimental study of Iben et al., 2010. While a diesel-like test fuel was used in the experiment, we solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a barotropic equation of state for water and vapor and a simple phase-change model based on equilibrium assumptions. Our LES resolve all wave dynamics in the compressible fluid and the turbulence production in shear layers.

  10. A Mathematical Model of Membrane Gas Separation with Energy Transfer by Molecules of Gas Flowing in a Channel to Molecules Penetrating this Channel from the Adjacent Channel

    Szwast Maciej


    Full Text Available The paper presents the mathematical modelling of selected isothermal separation processes of gaseous mixtures, taking place in plants using membranes, in particular nonporous polymer membranes. The modelling concerns membrane modules consisting of two channels - the feeding and the permeate channels. Different shapes of the channels cross-section were taken into account. Consideration was given to co-current and counter-current flows, for feeding and permeate streams, respectively, flowing together with the inert gas receiving permeate. In the proposed mathematical model it was considered that pressure of gas changes along the length of flow channels was the result of both - the drop of pressure connected with flow resistance, and energy transfer by molecules of gas flowing in a given channel to molecules which penetrate this channel from the adjacent channel. The literature on membrane technology takes into account only the drop of pressure connected with flow resistance. Consideration given to energy transfer by molecules of gas flowing in a given channel to molecules which penetrate this channel from the adjacent channel constitute the essential novelty in the current study. The paper also presents results of calculations obtained by means of a computer program which used equations of the derived model. Physicochemical data concerning separation of the CO2/CH4 mixture with He as the sweep gas and data concerning properties of the membrane made of PDMS were assumed for calculations.

  11. Use of Radioisotopes for Open-Channel Flow Measurements

    With techniques based upon the salt-dilution method, radioisotopes can be used for discharge measurements in open channels such as canals, streams and rivers. Field measurements with radioisotopes in canals discharging up to 8000 ft3/s have been made by the Bureau of Reclamation. The conditions of the field measurements are described in this paper, and important observations are made relating the results to the use of these methods for discharge measurements in rivers. The field tests were performed to study the general feasibility of the use of isotopes for discharge measurements in open channels and to investigate some of the important field problems which are still under study. These include the field requirements for necessary transverse mixing of the isotopes with die flowing water ; sorption of the isotopes by suspended sediments, channel flow surfaces and aquatic plants; and improvement of field procedures and equipment. Results of present laboratory and field tests lead to a proposed method for employing radioisotopes in river-discharge measurement to provide continuous or periodic discharge determinations. (author)

  12. A Flow-Channel Analysis for the Mars Hopper

    W. Spencer Cooley


    The Mars Hopper is an exploratory vehicle designed to fly on Mars using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere as a rocket propellant. The propellent gasses are thermally heated while traversing a radioisotope ther- mal rocket (RTR) engine’s core. This core is comprised of a radioisotope surrounded by a heat capacitive material interspersed with tubes for the propellant to travel through. These tubes, or flow channels, can be manu- factured in various cross-sectional shapes such as a special four-point star or the traditional circle. Analytical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) anal- yses were performed using flow channels with either a circle or a star cross- sectional shape. The nominal total inlet pressure was specified at 2,805,000 Pa; and the outlet pressure was set to 2,785,000 Pa. The CO2 inlet tem- perature was 300 K; and the channel wall was 1200 K. The steady-state CFD simulations computed the smooth-walled star shape’s outlet temper- ature to be 959 K on the finest mesh. The smooth-walled circle’s outlet temperature was 902 K. A circle with a surface roughness specification at 0.01 mm gave 946 K and at 0.1 mm yielded 989 K. The The effects of a slightly varied inlet pressure were also examined. The analytical calculations were based on the mass flow rates computed in the CFD simulations and provided significantly higher outlet temperature results while displaying the same comparison trends. Research relating to the flow channel heat transfer studies was also done. Mathematical methods to geometrically match the cross-sectional areas of the circle and star, along with a square and equilateral triangle, were derived. A Wolfram Mathematica 8 module was programmed to analyze CFD results using Richardson Extrapolation and calculate the grid convergence index (GCI). A Mathematica notebook, also composed, computes and graphs the bulk mean temperature along a flow channel’s length while the user dynam- ically provides the input

  13. Channel network model for flow and radionuclide migration

    The Channel Network model has been developed for simulations of flow and solute transport in fractured rock. The model, and its computer implementation CHAN3D, has been used to simulate and analyse field experiments performed in Sweden. In the performance assessment of repositories for nuclear waste a tool was needed which could handle the release from the near field and simulate the radionuclide migration in the far field. In order to develop the tool the Channel Network model was integrated with a model which calculates the near filed release in detail. The integrated model concept which may be used for performance assessment of a nuclear repository is presented. A compartment model, NUCTRAN, is used to calculate the near field release from a damaged canister. Two main items were studied; the location of a damaged canister in relation to fracture zones, and the barrier function of the host rock. (R.P.)

  14. Lagrangian Structure Function's Scaling Exponents in Turbulent Channel Flow

    The Lagrangian structure function's scaling exponents and intermittency of three-dimensional incompressible turbulent channel flow are investigated by using direct numerical simulation. The intermittency in streamwise velocity increments is found to increase in the near-wall region, which can be attributed to the presence of strong mean shear and organized motions in the near-wall region. It is found that the intermittency of transverse velocity increments is weaker than that of longitudinal ones. The present ESS evaluation of ζL(q) for the structure function of the streamwise velocity component in the channel centre is fairly close to experimental estimates of isotropic turbulence. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  15. Experimental study for flow regime of downward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel

    Kim, T. H.; Yun, B. J.; Jeong, J. H. [Pusan National University, Geunjeong-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Studies were mostly about flow in upward flow in medium size circular tube. Although there are great differences between upward and downward flow, studies on vertical upward flow are much more active than those on vertical downward flow in a channel. In addition, due to the increase of surface forces and friction pressure drop, the pattern of gas-liquid two-phase flow bounded to the gap of inside the rectangular channel is different from that in a tube. The downward flow in a rectangular channel is universally applicable to cool the plate type nuclear fuel in research reactor. The sub-channel of the plate type nuclear fuel is designed with a few millimeters. Downward air-water two-phase flow in vertical rectangular channel was experimentally observed. The depth, width, and length of the rectangular channel is 2.35 mm, 66.7 mm, and 780 mm, respectively. The test section consists of transparent acrylic plates confined within a stainless steel frame. The flow patterns of the downward flow in high liquid velocity appeared to be similar to those observed in previous studies with upward flow. In downward flow, the transition lines for bubbly-slug and slug-churn flow shift to left in the flow regime map constructed with abscissa of the superficial gas velocity and ordinate of the superficial liquid velocity. The flow patterns observed with downward flow at low liquid velocity are different from those with upward flow.

  16. Measurements of local two-phase flow parameters in a boiling flow channel

    Local two-phase flow parameters were measured lo investigate the internal flow structures of steam-water boiling flow in an annulus channel. Two kinds of measuring methods for local two-phase flow parameters were investigated. These are a two-conductivity probe for local vapor parameters and a Pitot cube for local liquid parameters. Using these probes, the local distribution of phasic velocities, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and void fraction is measured. In this study, the maximum local void fraction in subcooled boiling condition is observed around the heating rod and the local void fraction is smoothly decreased from the surface of a heating rod to the channel center without any wall void peaking, which was observed in air-water experiments. The distributions of local IAC and bubble frequency coincide with those of local void fraction for a given area-averaged void fraction. (author)

  17. Turbulent flow in a ribbed channel: Flow structures in the vicinity of a rib

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt


    PIV measurements are performed in a channel with periodic ribs on one wall. The emphasis of this study is to investigate the flow structures in the vicinity of a rib in terms of mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, probability density functions (PDF), and two-point correlations. The PDF distribution......-based visualization is applied to the separation bubble upstream of the rib. Salient critical points and limit cycles are extracted, which gives clues to the physical processes occurring in the flow....

  18. The Effect of Confluence Angle on the Flow Pattern at a Rectangular Open-Channel

    F. Rooniyan


    Full Text Available Flow connection in channels is a phenomenon which frequently happens in rivers, water and drainage channels and urban sewage systems. The phenomenon appears to be more complex in rivers than in channels, especially at the y-junction bed joint that causes erosion and sedimentation at some areas resulting to morphological changes. Flow behavior at the channel junction area depends on variables such as channel geometry, discharge ratio, tributary width and y-junction connection angle of the channel, bed level changes at the bed joint, flow characteristic at the bed joint upstream and flow Froude number in different sections. In this research, fluent numerical model and junction angles of 30o, 45o & 60o are used to analyze and evaluate the effect of channel junction geometry on the flow pattern and the flow separation zone dimensions in different ratios of flow discharge (upstream channel discharge to total discharge of the flow. Results for two ratios of flow discharge are represented. Results are in agreement with earlier studies and it is shown that the change of the channel crossing angle affects the flow pattern in the main channel and also that the dimensions of the created separation zone in the main channel become larger when the crossing angle increases. This phenomenon can also be observed when the flow discharge ratio is lower. Analysis showed that the least dimension of the separation zone will be at the crossing angle of 45o .

  19. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels

    Barmak, I.; Gelfgat, A.; Vitoshkin, H.; Ullmann, A.; Brauner, N.


    Linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels to arbitrary wavenumber disturbances is studied. The problem is reduced to Orr-Sommerfeld equations for the stream function disturbances, defined in each sublayer and coupled via boundary conditions that account also for possible interface deformation and capillary forces. Applying the Chebyshev collocation method, the equations and interface boundary conditions are reduced to the generalized eigenvalue problems solved by standard means of numerical linear algebra for the entire spectrum of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors. Some additional conclusions concerning the instability nature are derived from the most unstable perturbation patterns. The results are summarized in the form of stability maps showing the operational conditions at which a stratified-smooth flow pattern is stable. It is found that for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems, the stratified flow with a smooth interface is stable only in confined zone of relatively low flow rates, which is in agreement with experiments, but is not predicted by long-wave analysis. Depending on the flow conditions, the critical perturbations can originate mainly at the interface (so-called "interfacial modes of instability") or in the bulk of one of the phases (i.e., "shear modes"). The present analysis revealed that there is no definite correlation between the type of instability and the perturbation wavelength.

  20. Two-phase flow regime observations in a vertical hexagonal flow channel with and without a finned fuel bundle

    Previous flow regime studies have been for horizontal, vertical, and inclined pipe flow. As such, only a few studies have been performed on bundle geometries. The present paper examines the flow regimes for a vertical hexagonal flow channel with and without a finned fuel bundle. This type of a 36 finned rod hexagonal fuel bundle in parallel hexagonal flow channels is used in a MAPLE (Multi- purpose Applied Physics Lattice Experimental) type nuclear reactor. An experiment apparatus was designed consisting of the flow channel, inlet plenum and an air-water separator. The inlet plenum is used to provide a uniform mixture of air and water before entering the hexagonal flow channel. A turbine flow meter is used to determine the water flow rate. The turbine flow meter is calibrated for a low flow range and limits the measurable flow to 50 l/min. Flow pattern observation is determined by a SONY video camera, Real-Time Neutron Radiography, pressure transducer and capacitance transducer. The Sony video camera provides visual observation through a Lucite flow channel. The Real-Time Neutron Radiography system allows for flow visualization through an Aluminum flow channel. The pressure drop is correlated by the Validyne pressure transducer and the capacitance transducer provides the void fraction relationship

  1. Energy dissipation rate limits for flow through rough channels and tidal flow across topography

    Kerswell, R R


    An upper bound on the energy dissipation rate per unit mass, $\\epsilon$, for pressure-driven flow through a channel with rough walls is derived for the first time. For large Reynolds numbers, $Re$, the bound - $\\epsilon \\,\\leq \\, c\\, U^3/h$ where $U$ is the mean flow through the channel, $h$ the channel height and $c$ a numerical prefactor - is independent of $Re$ (i.e. the viscosity) as in the smooth channel case but the numerical prefactor $c$, which is only a function of the surface heights and surface gradients (i.e. not higher derivatives), is increased. Crucially, this new bound captures the correct scaling law of what is observed in rough pipes and demonstrates that while a smooth pipe is a singular limit of the Navier-Stokes equations (data suggests $\\epsilon \\, \\sim \\, 1/(\\log Re)^2\\, U^3/h$ as $Re \\rightarrow \\infty$), it is a regular limit for current bounding techniques. As an application, the bound is extended to oscillatory flow to estimate the energy dissipation rate for tidal flow across botto...

  2. Hall Effects on MHD Flow Through a Porous Straight Channel

    N. Bhaskara Reddy


    Full Text Available The effect of Hall currents on the flow of a viscous incompressible slightly conducting fluid through a porous straight channel under a uniform transverse magnetic field is considered. The pressure gradient is taken as constant quantity and the case of steady flow is obtained by taking the time since the start of the motion to be infinite. Skin friction, temperature distribution and coefficients of heat transfer at both the plates have been evaluated. The effects of Hall parameter, magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on the above physical quantities have been investigated. Velocity distribution when the pressure gradient (i varies linearly with time, and (ii decreases exponentially with time has also been evaluated.

  3. Fluid flow over arbitrary bottom topography in a channel

    Panda, Srikumar


    In this paper, two-dimensional free surface potential flow over an arbitrary bottom in a channel is considered to analyze the behavior of the free surface profile using linear theory. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible and flow is irrotational. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform technique is employed to determine the first order corrections of some important physical quantities such as free surface profile, velocity potential, etc. From the practical point of view, one arbitrary bottom topography is considered to determine the free surface profile since the free surface profile depends on the bottom topography. It is found that the free surface profile is oscillatory in nature, representing a wave propagating downstream and no wave upstream.

  4. Direct numerical simulation of particle entrainment in turbulent channel flow

    Particle entrainment process in a turbulent channel flow is studied. The time history of the instantaneous turbulent velocity vector field is generated by the direct numerical simulation of the Navier--Stokes equation with the aid of a pseudospectral code. The equation of motion of submicrometer particles including Stokes drag and Brownian diffusion is used, and typical entrained particle trajectories are evaluated and statistically analyzed. It is shown that the wall coherent structure plays a dominant role on the particle entrainment process. Particles are removed from the wall region by being captured in the high speed streams moving away from the wall, which are formed by the flow structure. Furthermore, single streamwise vortices are shown to be more frequent than pairs of counter-rotating ones at every instance of time. Temporal average of the vorticity field, however, shows roughly periodic sequence of counter-rotating vortices in the wall region. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. MHD pressure driven flow of nanofluid in curved channel

    Noreen, S. [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Qasim, M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Khan, Z.H. [Department of Mathematics, University of Malakand, Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan)


    The pressure driven peristaltic flow of nanofluid in a curved channel is investigated. The flow exploration demeanors the induced magnetic field. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number approach is followed. Numerical solutions are obtained by employing shooting method. The effects of substantial parameters have been portrayed and discussed on the temperature and mass distributions, stream function, magnetic force function, induced magnetic field and pressure rise per wavelength. - Highlights: • Symmetry in the profiles of u, ϕ and h{sub x} is disturbed because of curvature effects. • The magnitude of longitudinal velocity increases with curvature. • The qualitative behavior of Nt and Nb on γ and Ω is opposite. • Magnitude h{sub x} decreases with k.

  6. Experimental investigation on flow patterns of gas-liquid two-phase upward flow through packed channel with spheres

    Experiments of visualized two-phase upward flow were conducted in the packed channel, which filled with 3, 5, 8 mm in diameter of glass sphere respectively. The gas superficial velocity ranges from 0.005 to 1.172 m/s. The liquid superficial velocity ranges from 0.004 to 0.093 m/s. Four representative flow patterns were observed as bubbly flow, cluster flow, liquid-pulse flow and churn-pulse flow, and corresponding flow pattern maps were also presented. It is found that the pulse flow region is dominant. The comparisons of flow pattern map between packed channel and non-packed channel show that the bubbly flow region in packed channel is narrower than that of non-packed channel due to the packing. The comparisons of flow pattern maps for three different packing sizes show that the cluster flow region expands with the increase of the packing diameter. In the low liquid superficial velocity, the cluster flow directly changes to churn-pulse flow in the packed channel with 8 mm packing. (authors)

  7. Ramification of Channel Networks Incised by Groundwater Flow

    Yi, R. S.; Seybold, H. F.; Petroff, A. P.; Devauchelle, O.; Rothman, D.


    The geometry of channel networks has been a source of fascination since at least Leonardo da Vinci's time. Yet a comprehensive understanding of ramification---the mechanism of branching by which a stream network acquires its geometric complexity---remains elusive. To investigate the mechanisms of ramification and network growth, we consider channel growth driven by groundwater flow as a model system, analogous to a medical scientist's laboratory rat. We test our theoretical predictions through analysis of a particularly compelling example found on the Florida Panhandle north of Bristol. As our ultimate goal is to understand ramification and growth dynamics of the entire network, we build a computational model based on the following growth hypothesis: Channels grow in the direction that captures the maximum water flux. When there are two such directions, tips bifurcate. The direction of growth can be determined from the expansion of the ground water field around each tip, where each coefficient in this expansion has a physical interpretation. The first coefficient in the expansion determines the ground water discharge, leading to a straight growth of the channel. The second term describes the asymmetry in the water field leading to a bending of the stream in the direction of maximal water flux. The ratio between the first and the third coefficient determines a critical distance rc over which the tip feels inhomogeneities in the ground water table. This initiates then the splitting of the tip. In order to test our growth hypothesis and to determine rc, we grow the Florida network backward. At each time step we calculate the solution of the ground water field and determine the appropriate expansion coefficients around each tip. Comparing this simulation result to the predicted values provides us with a stringent measure for rc and the significance of our growth hypothesis.

  8. An approach to implement virtual channels for flowing magnetic beads

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel microfluidic system with virtual channels formed by ‘walls’ of magnetic fields, including collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels. The channels are defined by the nickel patterns. With its own ferromagnetism, nickel can be magnetized using an external magnetic field; the nickel structures then generate magnetic fields that can either guide or trap magnetic beads. A glass substrate is sandwiched between the liquid containing magnetic beads and the chip with nickel structures, preventing the liquid from directly contacting the nickel. In this work, collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels are displayed sequentially. In the collecting channel portion, channels with different shapes are compared. Next, in the transporting channel portion we demonstrate I-, S- and Y-shaped channels can steer magnetic beads smoothly. Finally, in the function channel portion, a switchable trapping channel implemented with a bistable mechanism performs the passing and blocking of a magnetic bead. (paper)

  9. Does the choice of the forcing term affect flow statistics in DNS of turbulent channel flow?

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Hasegawa, Yosuke


    We seek possible statistical consequences of the way a forcing term is added to the Navier--Stokes equations in the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of incompressible channel flow. Simulations driven by constant flow rate, constant pressure gradient and constant power input are used to build large databases, and in particular to store the complete temporal trace of the wall-shear stress for later analysis. As these approaches correspond to different dynamical systems, it can in principle be envisaged that these differences are reflect by certain statistics of the turbulent flow field. The instantaneous realizations of the flow in the various simulations are obviously different, but, as expected, the usual one-point, one-time statistics do not show any appreciable difference. However, the PDF for the fluctuations of the streamwise component of wall friction reveals that the simulation with constant flow rate presents lower probabilities for extreme events of large positive friction. The low probability value ...

  10. Wave-induced topographic formstress in baroclinic channel flow

    Olbers, Dirk; Lettmann, Karsten; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf


    Large-scale zonal flow driven across submarine topography establishes standing Rossby waves. In the presence of stratification, the wave pattern can be represented by barotropic and baroclinic Rossby waves of mixed planetary topographic nature, which are locked to the topography. In the balance of momentum, the wave pattern manifests itself as topographic formstress. This wave-induced formstress has the net effect of braking the flow and reducing the zonal transport. Locally, it may lead to acceleration, and the parts induced by the barotropic and baroclinic waves may have opposing effects. This flow regime occurs in the circumpolar flow around Antarctica. The different roles that the wave-induced formstress plays in homogeneous and stratified flows through a zonal channel are analyzed with the BARBI (BARotropic-Baroclinic-Interaction ocean model, Olbers and Eden, J Phys Oceanogr 33:2719-2737, 2003) model. It is used in complete form and in a low-order version to clarify the different regimes. It is shown that the barotropic formstress arises by topographic locking due to viscous friction and the baroclinic one due to eddy-induced density advection. For the sinusoidal topography used in this study, the transport obeys a law in which friction and wave-induced formstress act as additive resistances, and windstress, the effect of Ekman pumping on the density stratification, and the buoyancy forcing (diapycnal mixing of the stratified water column) of the potential energy stored in the stratification act as additive forcing functions. The dependence of the resistance on the system parameters (lateral viscosity ɛ, lateral diffusivity κ of eddy density advection, Rossby radius λ, and topography height δ) as well as the dependence of transport on the forcing functions are determined. While the current intensity in a channel with homogeneous density decreases from the viscous flat bottom case in an inverse quadratic law ~ δ -2 with increasing topography height and

  11. Three dimensional computation of turbulent flow in meandering channels

    Van Thinh Nguyen


    In this study a finite element calculation procedure together with two-equation turbulent model k-{epsilon} and mixing length are applied to the problem of simulating 3D turbulent flow in closed and open meandering channels. Near the wall a special approach is applied in order to overcome the weakness of the standard k-{epsilon} in the viscous sub-layer. A specialized shape function is used in the special near wall elements to capture accurately the strong variations of the mean flow variables in the viscosity-affected near wall region. Based on the analogy of water and air flows, a few characteristics of hydraulic problems can be examined in aerodynamic models, respectively. To study the relationships between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model many experiments have been carried out by Federal Waterway Engineering and Research Institute of Karlsruhe, Germany. In order to test and examine the results of these physical models, an appropriated numerical model is necessary. The numerical mean will capture the limitations of the experimental setup. The similarity and the difference between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model will be found out by the results of numerical computations and will be depicted in this study. Despite the presence of similarities between the flow in closed channels and the flow in open channels, it should be stated that the presence of a free surface in the open channel introduces serious complications to three dimensional computation. A new unknown, which represents the position of nodes on this free surface, is introduced. A special approach is required for solving this unknown. A procedure surface tracking is applied to the free surface boundary like a moving boundary. Grid nodes on the free surface are free to move in such a way that they belong to the spines, which are the generator lines to define the allowed motion of the nodes on the free surface. (orig.) [German] Die numerische Simulation ist heute ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel fuer die

  12. Unstable fluid flow in a water-cooled heating channel

    Experimental investigations of the instable behavior of a pressurized water flow in forced convection in a heating channel, with subcooled or bulk boiling have been carried. Tests were conducted at 1140, 850 and 570 psi. The test section was 35 in. high, surmounted by a 25.4 in. riser, these sections were by-passed by a pipe where the flow was between 1 and 4 times the flow in the test section. The water velocity (in the test section) was between 1.6 and 6.6 ft/s. Under certain conditions oscillations with a period of several seconds and perfectly stable have been observed. A mathematical model has been defined and a good agreement obtained for the main characteristics of the oscillations. It seems that the dimensions of the riser have a determining effect: the inception of bulk boiling gives an important variation of the driving head which can generate oscillations due to the non-zero delay for the system to reach its equilibrium. (author)

  13. Hydraulics of combining flow in a right-angled compound open channel junction

    Sushant K Biswal; Pranab Mohapatra; K Muralidhar


    Although combining flows are common in natural streams, no comprehensive experimental data has been compiled to characterize the three-dimensional flow field within the compound channel confluence. The present study examines the time-averaged flow structure at confluence over a rigid bed. Current knowledge of channel confluence, based on laboratory observation indicates that cross flow interactions exert a significant influence on confluence events. Secondary current and turbulent stresses are reproduced well by the hydraulic model and found greater in the interface region as relative flow ratio decreases. Velocity fields in combining flow region arising from varying discharge ratios are presented. A zone of depression in surface elevation in compound channel junction is observed as well. The flow field in compound channel is seen to be moderately different from that of simple channel junction. This study contributes to a better knowledge of hydraulic key processes into fundamental aspect of combining flow dynamics.

  14. Numerical simulation of the channel flow affected by synthetic jet

    Dančová, Petra; Vít, T.

    Kyjev: Міністерство Освіти і Науки України, 2009, s. 14-15. [Міжнародної науково-методичної конференції ВИВЧЕННЯ САПР УКРАЇНСЬКИМИ ІНЖЕНЕРАМИ. Kyjev (UA), 25.06.2009-27.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : numerical simulation * synthetic jet * channel flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics


    NOURI Nowrouz Mohammad; SEKHAVAT Setareh; MOFIDI Alireza


    This paper investigates a theoretical prediction of friction drag reduction in turbulent channel flow which is achieved by using superhydrophobic surfaces.The effect of the hydrophobic surface is considered to be a slip boundary condition on the wall,and this new boundary condition is added to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) equations.The predicted drag reduction at Rer =180 is approximately 30%,which concurs with results obtained from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS).An important implication of the present finding is that the near-wall turbulence structures are modified with streamwise slip velocity.In addition,a noticeable effect on the turbulence structure occurs when the slip length is greater than a certain value.

  16. Experimental analysis of the flow structure in the laboratory model of SOFC fuel cell channels

    In the presented paper a flow structure in the gas channel of planar SOFC fuel cell is presented. The model taken for analysis was constructed based on the channel geometry manufactured by SOFC Power company. The shape of a channel was rectangular filled with large number of obstacles which role is to divide the flow into segments with possibly homogenous velocity distribution. The model itself was constructed from Plexiglas and the reactant gases flow was modelled by water motion. To investigate and visualize the flow structures a PIV technique was applied. Three different flow rates were taken for investigations and the flow uniformity and time dependence was studied.

  17. More Than Flow: Revisiting the Theory of Four Channels of Flow

    Ching-I Teng


    Full Text Available Flow (FCF theory has received considerable attention in recent decades. In addition to flow, FCF theory proposed three influential factors, that is, boredom, frustration, and apathy. While these factors have received relatively less attention than flow, Internet applications have grown exponentially, warranting a closer reexamination of the applicability of the FCF theory. Thus, this study tested the theory that high/low levels of skill and challenge lead to four channels of flow. The study sample included 253 online gamers who provided valid responses to an online survey. Analytical results support the FCF theory, although a few exceptions were noted. First, skill was insignificantly related to apathy, possibly because low-skill users can realize significant achievements to compensate for their apathy. Moreover, in contrast with the FCF theory, challenge was positively related to boredom, revealing that gamers become bored with difficult yet repetitive challenges. Two important findings suggest new directions for FCF theory.

  18. Analytical study on mechanism of countercurrent flow limitation in vertical rectangular channels

    A quantitative analysis of countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) or flooding was successfully carried out using the existing experimental data for the vertical rectangular channels, adopting the criterion that the CCFL condition is determined by maximizing the falling water mass velocity with respect to the thickness of falling water film for the whole flow channel, without any additional conditions. It was found that significant factors were the flow pattern, that is, which walls were wet, interfacial friction factor between liquid and gas based on the relative velocity, wall friction factors for laminar, transition, and turbulent flow of liquid and gas, and aspect ratio of rectangular channels. Thus it was clarified that the analytical results give good predictions of the existing experimental data of air-water system for vertical rectangular channels of 33 and 66 mm in channel width, 2.3 to 12.3 mm in channel gap, and 362 and 782 mm in channel length under atmospheric pressure

  19. Coalescence and breakup of large droplets in turbulent channel flow

    Scarbolo, Luca; Bianco, Federico; Soldati, Alfredo


    Coalescence and breakup of large deformable droplets dispersed in a wall-bounded turbulent flow are investigated. Droplets much larger than the Kolmogorov length scale and characterized by a broad range of surface tension values are considered. The turbulent field is a channel flow computed with pseudo-spectral direct numerical simulations, while phase interactions are described with a phase field model. Within this physically consistent framework, the motion of the interfaces, the capillary effects, and the complex topological changes experienced by the droplets are simulated in detail. An oil-water emulsion is mimicked: the fluids are considered of same density and viscosity for a range of plausible values of surface tension, resulting in a simplified system that sets a benchmark for further analysis. In the present conditions, the Weber number (We), that is, the ratio between inertia and surface tension, is a primary factor for determining the droplets coalescence rate and the occurrence of breakups. Depending on the value of We, two different regimes are observed: when We is smaller than a threshold value (We 1), a permanent dynamic equilibrium between coalescence and breakup events is established.

  20. Natural transition to turbulence in polymeric channel flow

    Lee, Sang Jin; Zaki, Tamer


    Natural transition in viscoelastic channel flow is investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS), where the polymer is modeled using the FENE-P constitutive equations. The computations capture the amplification of the primary two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves, their secondary instability and ultimately the onset of turbulence. Various Weissenberg numbers (Wi) are simulated in order to assess the influence of elasticity. As Wi is increased, the primary TS waves initially become more linearly unstable, but are subsequently stabilized at higher Wi. This trend suggests that elasticity can either promote or delay transition to turbulence, and the DNS substantiate this prediction. In order to isolate the effect of the polymer on the secondary instability process, simulations are performed for a set of elastic parameters where the primary TS wave has the same linear growth rate as the Newtonian configuration. As a result, while the linear disturbance amplification is similar in the viscoelastic and Newtonian flows, the nonlinear saturated state of the TS waves differs in the two cases, as well as their secondary instability and breakdown to turbulence. The changes in the transition process are examined by analyzing the disturbance energy budget and spectra.

  1. Evaluation of Correlations of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer of R22 in Horizontal Channels

    Zhanru Zhou; Xiande Fang; Dingkun Li


    The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two corr...

  2. Effect of the Flow Channel Structure on the Nanofiltration Separation Performance

    Zhi Chen


    Full Text Available Two kinds of newly designed feed channels, for example, a spiral and a serpentine feed channels, for a bench-scale nanofiltration module were developed to improve the filtration performance. The experiments were carried out with the modules using a commercial flat NF membrane to investigate the effects of Reynolds number (Re and flow channel structures on the flux of permeate and Mg2+ rejection. It was shown from the experimental results that although the effects of Reynolds number on fluxes were not obvious for the two new feed channels compared with a normal flow channel structure, the Mg2+ rejections varied apparently with Re. The Mg2+ rejections were almost the same for the modules with two new feed channels and larger than that for the module with normal feed channel. The numerical simulations of fluid flow in the three kinds of feed channels were completed at Re of 4800 to explain the phenomena. The results demonstrated that there was a secondary flow in both new feed channels, which strongly influences the Mg2+ rejection. The rejection increased with increasing average shear stress at the membrane wall. The spiral feed channel was the best one among the flow channel structures investigated.

  3. Radionuclide Release after Channel Flow Blockage Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

    Choi, Hoon; Jun, Hwang Yong [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The channel flow blockage accident is one of the in core loss of coolant accidents, the release path of radionuclide is very different from conventional loss of coolant accidents. The large amount of radionuclide released from broken channel is being washed during it passes through the moderator in Calandria. The objective of containment behavior analysis for channel flow blockage event is to assess the amount of radionuclide release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in case of channel flow blockage with all safety system available, that is containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  4. Transport of self-propelling bacteria in micro-channel flow

    Costanzo, A.; Di Leonardo, R.; Ruocco, G.; Angelani, L.


    Understanding the collective motion of self-propelling organisms in confined geometries, such as that of narrow channels, is of great theoretical and practical importance. By means of numerical simulations we study the motion of model bacteria in 2D channels under different flow conditions: fluid at rest, steady and unsteady flow. We find aggregation of bacteria near channel walls and, in the presence of external flow, also upstream swimming, which turns out to be a very robust result. Detailed analysis of bacterial velocity and orientation fields allows us to quantify the phenomenon by varying cell density, channel width and fluid velocity. The tumbling mechanism turns out to have strong influence on velocity profiles and particle flow, resulting in a net upstream flow in the case of non-tumbling organisms. Finally we demonstrate that upstream flow can be enhanced by a suitable choice of an unsteady flow pattern.

  5. Analytical determination of flow resistance characteristic for combination channel inside hydraulic manifold block

    Wang Yongan; Tian Shujun; Jia Chunqiang; Cao Yuning


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used in conjunction with BP neural network to study the flow resistance characteristic of the combination-channel inside hydraulic manifold block (HMB).The in put parameters of the combination-channel model were confirmed to have effect on the pressure-drop by the numerical method, and a BP neural network model was accordingly constructed to predict the channel pressure-drops.The flow resistance characteristic curves of various channels were achieved, and a performance parameter was given to evaluate the through-flow characteristic of the channel according to the curves.The predictions are in agreement with the numerical computation, indicating that the method can be utilized to accurately determine the flow characteristic of the combination channel with high efficiency.

  6. Analysing Gas-Liquid Flow in PEM Electrolyser Micro-Channels

    Lafmejani, Saeed Sadeghi; Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    further understanding of the gas-liquid flow in both the porous media and the channel is necessary for insuring proper oxygen, water and heat management of the electrolysis cell. In this work, the patterns of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in a 5×1×94 mm micro-channel are experimentally analysed. A sheet...

  7. Flow Patterns and Thermal Drag in a One-Dimensional Inviscid Channel with Heating or Cooling


    In this paper investigations on the flow patterns and the thermal drag phenomenon in one -dimensional inviscid channel flow with heating or cooling are described and discussed:expressions of flow rate ratio and thermal drag coefficient for different flow patterns and its physical mechanism are presented.


    Rajesh Khatri


    Full Text Available In this paper heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in a channel has been theoretically investigated. In this study, FEM is employed to analyze a fluid flow inside a channel and then solve for the heat flow transfer through the same channel. The fluid flow is expressed by partial differential equation (Poisson’s equation.While, heat transfer is analyzed using the energy equation. The Navier Stokes equations along with the energy equation have been solved by using simple technique. The domain is discretized using 2626 elements and that corresponds to a total number of nodes 2842. The channel has a constant heat flux at the two walls and the threedimensional numerical simulations. Numerical solutions were obtained using commercial software Ansys Fluent. The working fluid was air (Pr=0.7. The local Nusselt numbers are obtained, which can be used inestimation of flow and heat transfer performance in a channel In addition, local Nusselt numbers, velocity magnitude and temperature profiles, and pressure profiles are analyzed. Results showed that both fluid flow and temperature flow are influenced significantly with changing entrance velocity. The overall objective of thispaper is to study the flow characteristics and heat transfer analysis inside a channel while increasing entrance velocity.

  9. Numerical Investigation of the Water Droplet Transport in a PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Flow Channel

    Bittagopal Mondal; Dipankar Chatterjee


    The serpentine flow channel can be considered as one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) since it ensures an effective and efficient removal of water produced in a cell with acceptable parasitic load. Water management is one of the key issues to improve the cell performance since at low operating temperatures in PEMFC, water vapor condensation starts easily and accumulates the liquid water droplet within the flow channels, thus...

  10. Contribution of KV7 Channels to Basal Coronary Flow and Active Response to Ischemia

    Khanamiri, Saereh; Soltysinska, Ewa; Jepps, Thomas A;


    The goal of the present study was to determine the role of KCNQ-encoded KV channels (KV7 channels) in the passive and active regulation of coronary flow in normotensive and hypertensive rats. In left anterior descending coronary arteries from normotensive rats, structurally different KV7.2 to 7....... Overall, these data establish KV7 channels as crucial regulators of coronary flow at resting and after hypoxic insult....

  11. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Flow Control in a Rectangular Horizontal Channel

    Ghazali Mebarki; Samir Rahal; Abdelhek Hamza


    Laminar fluid flows and heat transfers, by forced convection, in a rectangular horizontal channel, have been numerically investigated. Three blocks, simulating electronic components, have been attached to the channel bottom wall. In order to control the flow and enhance the heat transfer rate, a rectangular cross section bar, acting as a vortex generator, has been attached to the channel top wall. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved using FLUENT. Velocity and temperature fields ...


    TAN Guang-ming; DING Zhi-liang; WANG Chang-de; YAO Xiong


    The operation methods of channel and the speed of gate regulation have great influence on the transformation of flow in water conveyance channels. Based on characteristics method, a 1-D unsteady flow numerical model for gate regulation was established in this study. The process of water flow was simulated under different boundary conditions. The influence of gate regulation speed and channel operation methods on flow transition process was analyzed. The numerical results show that under the same conditions, with increasing regulation speed of the gate, the change rates of discharge and water level increase, while the response time of channel becomes shorter, and ultimately the discharge and water level will transit to the same equilibrium states. Moreover, the flow is easier to reach stable state, if the water level in front of the sluice is kept constant, instead of behind the sluice. This study will be important to the scheme design of automatic operation control in water conveyance channels.

  13. Morphological impacts of flow events of varying magnitude on ephemeral channels in a semiarid region

    Hooke, J. M.


    Flows in ephemeral channels in semiarid areas are only occasional, and channel changes are episodic; but the flash floods can be devastating and have major geomorphological impacts. Data on morphological impacts of flows in semiarid areas are needed to increase understanding of the dynamics and variability of geomorphic responses in such channels. For this purpose nine reaches of river channel in three catchments in SE Spain - the Nogalte, Torrealvilla, and Salada - have been sites for measurement of flows and their effects over the period 1997-2012. The sites encompass a range of channel size, channel morphology, substrate, vegetation, and position within the catchments. A major difference is between schist and marl bedrock areas. Peak flow stage has been recorded and topography surveyed at frequent intervals and after major flow events. Over the 16-year period, an average of 0.5 flow events per year has been recorded at the schist sites, and an average of one per year at the marl sites; but occurrence has been highly variable from year to year. Threshold daily rainfall for channel flow is mostly 15-20 mm, but higher rainfalls do not always produce flow. One to two major floods have occurred in each of the catchments in the period, including the extreme flood event of September 2012 in the Nogalte catchment. Measured morphological changes have occurred between 2 and 10 times at the monitored sites. The same size flow can have differing effects depending on the state of the system. Low flow can mobilise sediment without producing much morphological change. The long-term trajectory of the reaches and the sediment substrate has a major influence on response to events. Channel change is governed by threshold values of hydraulic conditions. The measurements provide an indication of the scale of maximum erosion and deposition that occurs within the channels and on the floodplains over a range of flow magnitudes and the flow impacts that need to be considered in

  14. Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC

    Elif Eker


    Full Text Available In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant.The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.

  15. Evolution of the Detached Westward Flow Channel as Observed by the Unwin HF Radar

    Makarevich, R. A.; Dyson, P. L.


    We examine the spatial and temporal evolution of latitudinally narrow regions with enhanced Doppler velocity observed by the Unwin TIGER HF radar equatorward of Auroral Westward Flow Channels. AWFCs were detected by both the Bruny Island and New Zealand (Unwin) TIGER radars as regions with enhanced westward convection, at about -62 deg MLAT. A second, more equatorward (~ -60 deg MLAT) channel with enhanced westward convection was detected only by the Unwin radar. The spatio-temporal behaviour of the second channel and its characteristics were found to be significantly different from those of AWFCs, e.g. both the channel and flow directions were significantly non-L-shell-aligned. We also investigate the relationship between the flow speeds within the two types of flow channels. In all cases, the second channel appeared to originate within or close to the AWFC, with the flow deviation from the magnetic L-shell direction and latitudinal separation between channels increasing with time. In sharp contrast to the AWFC that persisted for 2-3 hours, the second channel was recognizable only for 30-50 min. A relation between multiple flow channels and other subauroral phenomena such as subauroral ion drifts (SAID) and subauroral polarization streams (SAPS), and the implications of observations for models of SAID and SAPS formation are discussed.

  16. Numerical investigation on the flow structures in a narrow confined channel with staggered jet array arrangement

    Liu Haiyong; Liu Cunliang; Wu Wenming


    A series of numerical analyses have been performed to investigate the flow structures in a narrow confined channel with 12 staggered circular impingement holes and one bigger exit hole. The flow enters the channel through the impingement holes and exits through the far end outlet. The flow fields corresponding to two jet Reynolds numbers (25000 and 65000) and three channel con-figurations with different ratios of the channel height to the impingement hole diameter (Zr=1, 3, 5) are analyzed by solving the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the realizable k–e turbulence model. Detailed flow field information including the secondary flow, the interaction between the jets and the cross flow, and flow distribution along the channel has been obtained. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental results of the flow fields at the four planes along the channel are performed to validate the numerical method. The calculated impingement pattern, high velocity flow distribution, low velocity separation region and vortices are in good agreement with the experimental data, implying the validity and effectiveness of the employed numerical approach for analyzing relevant flow field.

  17. Factors affecting measurement of channel thickness in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    Dou, Haiyang; Jung, Euo Chang; Lee, Seungho


    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) has been considered to be a useful tool for simultaneous separation and characterization of polydisperse macromolecules or colloidal nanoparticles. AF4 analysis requires the knowledge of the channel thickness (w), which is usually measured by injecting a standard with known diffusion coefficient (D) or hydrodynamic diameter (dh). An accurate w determination is a challenge due to its uncertainties arising from the membrane's compressibility, which may vary with experimental condition. In the present study, influence of factors including the size and type of the standard on the measurement of w was systematically investigated. The results revealed that steric effect and the particles-membrane interaction by van der Waals or electrostatic force may result in an error in w measurement. PMID:25817708

  18. Navier-Stokes solver using Green's functions I: channel flow and plane Couette flow

    Viswanath, Divakar


    Numerical solvers of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have reproduced turbulence phenomena such as the law of the wall, the dependence of turbulence intensities on the Reynolds number, and experimentally observed properties of turbulence energy production. In this article, we begin a sequence of investigations whose eventual aim is to derive and implement numerical solvers that can reach higher Reynolds numbers than is currently possible. Every time step of a Navier-Stokes solver in effect solves a linear boundary value problem. The use of Green's functions leads to numerical solvers which are highly accurate in resolving the boundary layer, which is a source of delicate but exceedingly important physical effects at high Reynolds numbers. The use of Green's functions brings with it a need for careful quadrature rules and a reconsideration of time steppers. We derive and implement Green's function based solvers for the channel flow and plane Couette flow geometries. The solvers are validated by repro...

  19. Critical heat flux for low flow boiling in vertical uniformly heated thin rectangular channels

    Steady-state, subcooled, low flow, critical heat flux (CHF) experiments simulating natural convection boiling are performed in a thin rectangular vertical channel. The aluminum channel is heated on one side: the other side of the channel is a Pyrex window allowing visual observation of the CHF event. Both upward and downward flow conditions are tested with exit pressure varying from 20 to 85 kPa, inlet water temperature varying from 295 to 343 K (inlet subcooling 5-72 K), and mass flux varying from 30 to 80 kg s-1 m-2. Measured test results indicate downward flow dryout CHF occurring at 85% of upward flow dryout CHF values. This percentage is believed to result from the flow instability and reduced inlet subcooling induced by the counter-current flow. New dryout CHF correlations for low flow rates, representative of natural convection boiling, are recommended for both upward and downward flow. (Author)

  20. Experimental and numerical study of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with spiral flow channels

    Highlights: ► Numerical and experimental study of the fuel cell with spiral channels is performed. ► Secondary vortices in cross section of the spiral channels are found. ► Enhancement in the performance of the fuel cell by the secondary vortices is discussed. ► The spiral channels also lead to a reduction in the pressure drop of the gas flow. -- Abstract: Numerical simulation of the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with spiral channels is performed in this study. Experiments are also conducted to verify the numerical predictions. The spiral channel pattern produces secondary vortices which lead to enhancement in heat and mass transfer in the curved channels and appreciably improves the performance of the fuel cell. In addition, the spiral channels may also lead to a reduction in the pressure drop of the gas flow through the fuel cell. When the sizes of the outlet channels are designed to be smaller than those of the inlet channels, water flooding in the catalyst layers can be further improved. In the present study, the spiral channel pattern consists of five inlet channels and five outlet channels. Radius and area of the active zone are 28.2 mm and 2500 mm2, respectively. A comparison between the spiral and the serpentine channels shows that the average current density with the former is higher than that with the latter by 11.9%. It is found that numerical predictions are in close agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Transport coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow through a four-cusp channel

    The heat transfer coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow in a four-cusp channel were determined. A numerical solution was developed for laminar flow an and experimental study for turbulent flow was carried out. Systematic variations of the Reynolds number were done in the range 900-30000. The results show that the heat transfer coefficients for the four-cusp channel are much lower than the coefficients for the circular tube. (author)

  2. Surface drifter trajectories highlight flow pathways in the Mozambique Channel

    Hancke, L.; Roberts, M J; Ternon, Jean-François


    The pattern of surface circulation in the Mozambique Channel was elucidated from the trajectories of 82 satellite-tracked drifters over the period 2000-2010 and complementary satellite-derived altimetry. Overall, the trajectories indicated that anticyclonic activity was mostly observed on the western side of the Channel, with cyclonic activity being more prevalent in the east. A lack of eddy activity was noted in the southeast corner of the Channel (i.e. SW of Madagascar). Drifter behaviour i...




    Full Text Available Helical channels have a wide range of applications in petroleum engineering, nuclear, heat exchanger, chemical, mineral and polymer industries. They are used in the separation processes for fluids of different densities. The centrifugal force, free surface and geometrical effects of the helical channel make the flow pattern more complicated; hence it is very difficult to perform physical experiment to predict channel performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD can be suitable alternative for studying the flow pattern characteristics in helical channels. The different ranges of dimensional parameters, such as curvature and torsion, often cause various flow regimes in the helical channels. In this study, the effects of physical parameters such as curvature, torsion, Reynolds number, Froude number and Dean Number on the characteristics of the turbulent flow in helical rectangular channels have been investigated numerically, using a finite volume RANSE code Fluent of Ansys workbench 10.1 UTM licensed. The physical parameters were reported for range of curvature (δ of 0.16 to 0.51 and torsion (λ of 0.032 to 0.1 .The numerical results of this study showed that the decrease in the channel curvature and the increase in the channel torsion numbers led to the increase of the flow velocity inside the channel and the change in the shape of water free surface at given Dean, Reynolds and Froude numbers.

  4. Using a terrestrial laser scanner to characterize vegetation-induced flow resistance in a controlled channel

    Vinatier, Fabrice; Belaud, Gilles; Combemale, David


    Vegetation characteristics providing spatial heterogeneity at the channel reach scale can produce complex flow patterns and the relationship between plant patterns morphology and flow resistance is still an open question (Nepf 2012). Unlike experiments in laboratory, measuring the vegetation characteristics related to flow resistance on open channel in situ is difficult. Thanks to its high resolution and light weight, scanner lasers allow now to collect in situ 3D vegetation characteristics. In this study we used a 1064 nm usual Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) located 5 meters at nadir above a 8 meters long equipped channel in order to both i) characterize the vegetation structure heterogeneity within the channel form a single scan (blockage factor, canopy height) and ii) to measure the 2D water level all over the channel during steady flow within a few seconds scan. This latter measuring system was possible thanks to an additive dispersive product sprinkled at the water surface. Vegetation characteristics an...

  5. Does the choice of the forcing term affect flow statistics in DNS of turbulent channel flow?

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Frohnapfel, Bettina; Hasegawa, Yosuke


    We seek possible statistical consequences of the way a forcing term is added to the Navier--Stokes equations in the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of incompressible channel flow. Simulations driven by constant flow rate, constant pressure gradient and constant power input are used to build large databases, and in particular to store the complete temporal trace of the wall-shear stress for later analysis. As these approaches correspond to different dynamical systems, it can in principle be envisaged that these differences are reflect by certain statistics of the turbulent flow field. The instantaneous realizations of the flow in the various simulations are obviously different, but, as expected, the usual one-point, one-time statistics do not show any appreciable difference. However, the PDF for the fluctuations of the streamwise component of wall friction reveals that the simulation with constant flow rate presents lower probabilities for extreme events of large positive friction. The low probability value of such events explains their negligible contribution to the commonly computed statistics; however, the very existence of a difference in the PDF demonstrates that the forcing term is not entirely uninfluential. Other statistics for wall-based quantities (the two components of friction and pressure) are examined; in particular spatio-temporal autocorrelations show small differences at large temporal separations, where unfortunately the residual statistical uncertainty is still of the same order of the observed difference. Hence we suggest that the specific choice of the forcing term does not produce important statistical consequences, unless one is interested in the strongest events of high wall friction, that are underestimated by a simulation run at constant flow rate.

  6. Width adjustment in experimental gravel-bed channels in response to overbank flows

    Pitlick, John; Marr, Jeff; Pizzuto, Jim


    We conducted a series of flume experiments to investigate the response of self-formed gravel-bed channels to floods of varying magnitude and duration. Floods were generated by increasing the discharge into a channel created in sand- and gravel-sized sediment with a median grain size of 2 mm. Flooding increased the Shields stress along the channel perimeter, causing bank erosion and rapid channel widening. The sediment introduced to the channel by bank erosion was not necessarily deposited on the channel bed, but was rather transported downstream, a process likely facilitated by transient fining of the bed surface. At the end of each experiment, bank sediments were no longer in motion, "partial bed load transport" characterized the flat-bed portion of the channel, and the Shields stress approached a constant value of 0.056, about 1.2 times the critical Shields stress for incipient motion. Furthermore, the discharge was entirely accommodated by flow within the channel: the creation of a stable channel entirely eliminated overbank flows. We speculate that similar processes may occur in nature, but only where bank sediments are non-cohesive and where channel-narrowing processes cannot counteract bank erosion during overbank flows. We also demonstrate that a simple model of lateral bed load transport can reproduce observed channel widening rates, suggesting that simple methods may be appropriate for predicting width increases in channels with non-cohesive, unvegetated banks, even during overbank flows. Last, we present a model for predicting the equilibrium width and depth of a stable gravel-bed channel with a known channel-forming Shields stress.

  7. Flow pattern map and multi-scale entropy analysis in 3 × 3 rod bundle channel

    Highlights: • Flow patterns of steam–water two-phase flow in a 3 × 3 rod bundle were visualized. • The flow pattern map obtained for the rod bundle was compared with some existing flow pattern maps. • Multi-scale entropy was used to characterize the dynamic characteristics of the different flow patterns. • Rate of multi-scale entropy can effectively identify flow patterns in a rod bundle channel. - Abstract: The characteristics of the heat transfer and two-phase flow resistance in a rod bundle channel are closely related to flow patterns. In the present study, two-phase flow patterns for vapor–water flows in a 3 by 3 rod bundle channel were obtained at atmospheric pressure and relatively low mass flow condition. Under the current experimental conditions, slug flow found in circular tubes was not observed. Comparisons with some existing flow pattern maps and transition criteria were likewise conducted. Results show that the transition boundary of circular tube deviated from the transition boundary of the boiling two-phase flow of the rod bundle channel. Using the differential pressure signal of the vapor–liquid two-phase flow, multi-scale entropy algorithm is employed to reveal the dynamic characteristics of the different flow patterns in the rod bundle. The multi-scale entropy rate could effectively classify the flow patterns in the rod bundle channel. Results suggest that multi-scale entropy can be an effective method to reveal the dynamic details of macro and local vantages

  8. Investigation of reversed flow channel events by the ICI-3 sounding rocket

    Moen, J. I.; Dabakk, Y.; Oksavik, K.; Bekkeng, T.; Bekkeng, J. K.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Baddeley, L. J.; Abe, T.; Saito, Y.; Ogawa, Y.; Robert, P.; Yoeman, T.


    Transient flow channel events are a key characteristic of solar wind - magnetosphere coupling to the cusp ionosphere. One class of flow channels, Reversed Flow Events (RFE),was first discovered by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar and later also documented by the SuperDARN radar system. An RFE is typically a 100-200 km wide longitudinally elongated flow channel near the cusp inflow region, inside which the flow direction is opposite to the large scale ionospheric background convection. These events are hence associated with strong flow shears, and this category of flow events has been attributed to Birkeland current arcs. There are two possible explanations for their existence: (1) the RFE channel may be a region where two MI current loops, forced by independent voltage generators, couple through a poorly conducting ionosphere and (2) the reversed flow channel may be the ionospheric footprint of an inverted V-type coupling region. Electron beams of DC electric field and magnetic field experiments, and a low energy electron spectrometer (10 eV-10 keV). The auroral activity and flow context during the flight was provided by ground based optics, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar and the SuperDARN HF radars. In this talk we will present the ICI-3 test of the two physical explanations given above for the RFE phenomenon, and we will provide a quantitative measure of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability growth rate associated with the flow shears.

  9. Impact of Flow Regulation on Channel Morphology Around Tributary Junctions, West and White Rivers, Vermont

    Renshaw, C.; Curtis, K.; Magilligan, F.; Dade, W.


    By resupplying the mainstem with water and sediment, tributaries are a primary mechanism for mitigating the impacts of flow regulation. As a result, morphological and ecological adjustments associated with flow regulation may be particularly pronounced at tributary junctions. Despite the extensive literature on how dams alter channel morphology, few studies have focused specifically on the relationship between flow regulation and consequent changes in bedload sediment transport at tributary junctions. Using historical aerial photographs, modern channel surveys, and flow modeling, we compare temporal changes between regulated and unregulated tributary junction morphology and sediment transport dynamics. In contrast to what has been observed along the Colorado River, where flow regulation has led to a reduction in the number and size of channel bars, we observe significant bar growth post-regulation along the West River in southern Vermont. In some cases exposed bar area increased more than 50 percent in the first three decades after regulation and coincides with a corresponding reduction in channel width. Revegetation of former floodplain surfaces has begun to reduce the exposed bar area. However, flow modeling indicates that the channel remains underfit with respect to the new flow regime, with the current 2- and 50-yr floods lacking sufficient competence to transport the bedload sediment discharged by tributaries. Thus even 50 years post regulation, additional morphological changes are still required for the mainstem channel to fully adjust to the new flow regime.

  10. Application of a simple space-time averaged porous media model to flow in densely vegetated channels

    Hoffmann, M.R.


    Traditional flow modeling in open channels uses time-averaged turbulence models. These models are valid in clear fluid, but not if dense obstructions are present in the flow field. In this article we show that newly developed flow models can describe open channel flow as flow in a porous medium. Cle

  11. Experimental and numerical modelling of flow around the obstacles placed on a channel bottom

    Hoření, Bohumír


    The paper deals with an application of integral equations on a wake flow. Two square cylinders oriented perpendicularly to flow direction are placed on the bottom of an open channel. The results of integral method are compared with LDA measurements and with Fluent k-? simulation. Besides the averaged results that offers Fluent simulation, the integral method can also simultae dynamical properties of the flow

  12. Numerical Modeling of Surface and Volumetric Cooling using Optimal T- and Y-shaped Flow Channels

    Kosaraju, Srinivas


    The T- and Y-shaped flow channels can be optimized for reduced pressure drop and pumping power. The results of the optimization are in the form of geometric parameters such as length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. While these flow channels are optimized for minimum pressure drop, they can also be used for surface and volumetric cooling applications such as heat exchangers, air conditioning and electronics cooling. In this paper, we studied the heat transfer characteristics of multiple T- and Y-shaped flow channel configurations using numerical simulations. All configurations are subjected to same pumping power and heat generation constraints and their heat transfer performance is studied.

  13. Heat transfer and pressure drop in serpentine {mu}DMFC flow channels

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Her, Bing-Shyan [Department of Mechanical and Electro Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424 (China)


    In this paper, a 3-D mathematical model incorporated with Fluent computer code is described to investigate the flow and heat transfer for developing laminar flow in the micro direct methanol fuel cell ({mu}DMFC) with serpentine flow fields. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations are simultaneously solved by a general computational fluid dynamics code. Local, channel-mean, bended region-mean, and overall channel mean friction factors and Nusselt numbers were thus calculated and discussed. Finally, overall channel mean friction factor and Nusselt number were correlated in terms of the relevant parameters. (author)

  14. Tutorial on Feedback Control of Flows, Part I: Stabilization of Fluid Flows in Channels and Pipes

    Ole M. Aamo


    Full Text Available The field of flow control has picked up pace over the past decade or so, on the promise of real-time distributed control on turbulent scales being realizable in the near future. This promise is due to the micromachining technology that emerged in the 1980s and developed at an amazing speed through the 1990s. In lab experiments, so called micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS that incorporate the entire detection-decision-actuation process on a single chip, have been batch processed in large numbers and assembled into flexible skins for gluing onto body-fluid interfaces for drag reduction purposes. Control of fluid flows span a wide variety of specialities. In Part I of this tutorial, we focus on the problem of reducing drag in channel and pipe flows by stabilizing the parabolic equilibrium profile using boundary feedback control. The control strategics used for this problem include classical control, based on the Nyquist criteria, and various optimal control techniques (H2, H-Infinity, as well as applications of Lyapunov stability theory.

  15. Interaction of droplet and sidewalls with modified surfaces in a PEMFC gas flow channel

    Shah, Mihir M.

    A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is a clean and highly efficient way of power generation used primarily for transportation applications. Hydrogen and air are supplied to the fuel cell through gas channels, which also remove liquid water generated in the fuel cell. The clogged channels prevent reactant transport to the electrochemically active sites which comprise one of the channel walls and thus, degrading the performance of the cell. Proper management of the product water is a current topic of research interest in commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Liquid water, produced as by-product of the fuel cell reaction, can clog the gas channels easily since surface tension of water is significant at this length scale. In a PEMFC channel cross-section, water is assumed to be produced in the channel at the center along the flow axis. This assumption is primarily valid and extensively used for experimental purposes. However in a real PEMFC, the water entry is not constrained at the channel center. Hence, more investigations are made using water entry at channel corner (land region) which resulted in contradicting prior results for the water feature behavior for all relevant PEMFC operating conditions, leading to adverse two-phase flow behavior- including slug blockage and fluctuations at channel end. Very limited research is available to study the effect of gas channel surface modifications on the two-phase flow behavior and local PEMFC performance. In this study, the droplet--sidewall dynamic interactions and two--phase local pressure drop across the water droplet present in a PEMFC channel with trapezoidal geometries with surface modifications are studied. These surface modifications include micro-grooves that possess a hybrid wetting regime that will initiate and guide the water feature at channel ends to eject with general ease. Slugs are reduced to films after ejection and thus channel blockage is avoided overcoming the problems caused by water influx

  16. Monitoring debris flow induced channel morphodynamics with terrestrial laser scanning, Chalk Cliffs, CO (Invited)

    Wasklewicz, T. A.; Staley, D. M.


    Debris flows are important geomorphic agents in alpine drainages. They have been linked with channel initiation in headwater streams, connectivity of organic material and sediment through drainage basins, and as hazards to human development in and adjacent to steep watersheds. Debris flows also significantly alter channel morphometry at a variety of spatial scales. Of particular interest are topographic changes associated with multiple surge fronts within a debris flow as well as between several debris flows. An unnamed tributary stream to Chalk Creek, CO has over the last decade experienced one to four debris flow events annually. Four field sampling campaigns were conducted in the summer and fall of 2009. A Leica ScanStation 2, in conjunction with a robust local control network, were used to capture channel morphodynamics along five stream reaches prior to the debris flow season and after three debris flows. Point cloud data from the scanner permit the generation of two centimeter planimetric resolution digital terrain models (DTM). DTM-of-difference analyses and measures of slope, roughness, sediment transport volumes and channel dimensions were employed to detect spatial and temporal morphometric changes. The first debris flow occurred on unsaturated bed material and resulted in aggradation along 3 of the 5 reaches. One reach, a bedrock step, remained relatively unchanged, while the final reach saw significant erosion along boulder steps in the channel and an associated mass failure adjacent to the stream bank through this section. The second debris flow resulted in net aggradation along all of the reaches. The third and largest debris flow took place on saturated bed materials. The flow produced net erosion along all reaches. Significant channel changes were associated with the headward erosion of debris flow snouts and bank failures associated with undercutting of angle-of-repose slopes during debris flow erosion. Analysis of the potential relationships


    Wang Jia-song; He You-sheng


    A finite-volume Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme is presented for modeling dam-break flows in open channels.This method is used for solving the 2D shallow water equations on arbitrary quadrilateral meshes, based upon a second-order hybrid TVD scheme with an optimum-selected limiter in the space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta approach in the time discretization.Verification for a circular dam-break problem is carried out by comparing the present results with others and very good agreement is shown.The present algorithm is then used to predict dam-break flow characteristics in open channels such as in furcated channels.More complicated unsteady flow characteristics in these furcated channels than in the regular channels studied previously can observed in this work.

  18. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Channel Flow by a Streamwise-Periodic Array of Rotating Circular Cylinders

    In this study, we consider the heat transfer characteristics of channel flow in the presence of an infinite streamwise array of equispaced identical rotating circular cylinders. This flow configuration can be regarded as a model representing a micro channel or an internal heat exchanger with cylindrical vortex generators. A numerical parametric study has been carried out by varying Reynolds number based on the bulk mean velocity and the cylinder diameter, and the gap between the cylinders and the channel wall for some selected angular speeds. The presence of the rotating circular cylinders arranged periodically in the streamwise direction causes a significant topological change of the flow, leading to heat transfer enhancement on the channel walls. More quantitative results as well as qualitative physical explanations are presented to justify the effectiveness of varying the gap to enhance heat transfer from the channel walls

  19. Dispersion of swimming algae in laminar and turbulent channel flows: theory and simulations

    Croze, O A; Ahmed, M; Bees, M A; Brandt, L


    Algal swimming is often biased by environmental cues, e.g. gravitational and viscous torques drive cells towards downwelling fluid (gyrotaxis). In view of biotechnological applications, it is important to understand how such biased swimming affects cell dispersion in a flow. Here, we study the dispersion of gyrotactic swimming algae in laminar and turbulent channel flows. By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of cell motion within upwelling and downwelling channel flows, we evaluate time-dependent measures of dispersion for increasing values of the flow Peclet (Reynolds) numbers, Pe (Re). Furthermore, we derive an analytical `swimming Taylor-Aris dispersion' theory, using flow-dependent transport parameters given by existing microscopic models. In the laminar regime, DNS results and analytical predictions compare very well, providing the first confirmation that cells' response to flow is best described by the generalized-Taylor-dispersion microscopic model. We predict that cells drift along a channel faster th...

  20. 3D Simulation of Velocity Profile of Turbulent Flow in Open Channel with Complex Geometry

    Kamel, Benoumessad; Ilhem, Kriba; Ali, Fourar; Abdelbaki, Djebaili

    Simulation of open channel flow or river flow presents unique challenge to numerical simulators, which is widely used in the applications of computational fluid dynamics. The prediction is extremely difficult because the flow in open channel is usually transient and turbulent, the geometry is irregular and curved, and the free-surface elevation is varying with time. The results from a 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model are presented to investigate the flow structure, the velocity distribution and mass transport process in a meandering compound open channel and a straight open channel. The 3D numerical model for calculating flow is set up in cylinder coordinates in order to calculate the complex boundary channel. The finite volume method is used to disperse the governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is applied to acquire the coupling of velocity and pressure. The non-linear k- ɛ turbulent model has good useful value because of taking into account the anisotropy and not increasing the computational time. The main contributions of this study are developing a numerical method that can be applied to predict the flow in river bends with various bend curvatures and different width-depth ratios. This study demonstrates that the 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model can be used for analyzing flow structures, the velocity distribution and pollutant transport in the complex boundary open channel, this model is applicable for real river and wetland problem.

  1. Vertical flow of a multiphase mixture in a channel

    Massoudi Mehrdad; Rao C. Lakshmana


    The flow of a multiphase mixture consisting of a viscous fluid and solid particles between two vertical plates is studied. The theory of interacting continua or mixture theory is used. Constitutive relations for the stress tensor of the granular materials and the interaction force are presented and discussed. The flow of interest is an ideal one where we assume the flow to be steady and fully developed; the mixture is flowing between two long vertical plates. The non-linear boundary value pro...

  2. Multiscale modeling of mechanosensing channels on vesicles and cell membranes in 3D constricted flows and shear flows

    Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard


    We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.

  3. Control works in debris-flow channels: influence on morphology and sediment transfer

    Marchi, L.


    Extensive torrent control works, such as grade-control dams, debris basins, deflecting walls, etc. have been implemented in the European Alps since the last decades of 19th century. These structural measures, aimed at stabilizing channels and to control sediment transport, are also widespread in Japan and are increasingly present in other mountain regions. As debris flows are one of the most destructive processes in steep mountain channels, hydraulic works are often intended to attenuate debris-flow hazard. Multi-temporal aerial photos and historic records permit evaluating the long term effects of torrent control works on the morphological settings of the channels and the delivery of sediment. The experience arising from over one century of torrent control works in debris-flow channels of the Alps permits also to improve the management of steep headwater catchments. A basic issue in the management of debris-flow channels is the recognition of success versus failure of engineering control works. Successful debris-flow control works provide benchmarks for further implementations, whereas the failure in reducing debris-flow hazard may lead to refinements in planning and design of control works or to the choice of preferring non-structural measures for coping with debris flows. Data from historical archives on debris-flow occurrence and on the performance of control works are the basic sources of information for these analyses. Moreover, when dealing with hydraulic structures for debris-flow control, it should be reminded that the artificial morphology resulting from the construction of check dams provides only a temporary stability to the channel and adjacent banks. This stresses the importance of evaluating the state of conservation and the effectiveness of control works and implies the need for their careful and continuous maintenance. Inventories of hydraulic structures, coupled with detailed data on catchment and channel topography, sediment sources and supply



    Alternate bars have the property that they migrate downstream whenever floods occur. However,in meander channels whose bend angles are larger than a critical value, the migration of bars can be suppressed, and the positions of bank erosion and flood attack also will be steady. In this study, the bed morphology in flume channels with bends of various lengths and angles is investigated at various flow discharges, and the relation of bed morphology to surface flow is investigated in detail using fluid measuring software. An effort is made to obtain guidelines for the plane shape design of meander channels. Based on the experimental results of bed topography and measurement of surface flow direction and velocity distribution, from the viewpoint of bank erosion and the concentration and dispersion of flood flow the most suitable plane shape for meandering channels is suggested through which the migration of alternate bars is suppressed.


    S. T. Aksentiev


    Full Text Available The paper gives description of physical pattern of liquid screen interaction that are injected from the internal walls of a rectangular channel with gas flow. Criterion dependences for determination of intersection coordinates of external boundaries with longitudinal channel axis and factor of liquid screen head resistance.

  6. Burnout and distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels

    Boltenko, E. A.; Shpakovskii, A. A.


    Previous works on studying distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels are briefly reviewed. Interrelation between mass transfer processes and burnout is shown. A procedure for calculating burnout on convex and concave heat-transfer surfaces in narrow slot channels is presented.

  7. Effect of macromolecular polymer structures on drag reduction in a turbulent channel flow

    This paper presents the influence of injected polymer solutions on turbulence in fully developed channel flows. In particular, it investigates the impact of concentration and mixing of the polymer solution on drag reduction. It is observed, via flow visualization and birefringence measurements, that for large injection concentrations macromolecular polymer structures exist in the flow. They are found to be mostly located in the neighborhood of the channel centerline. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to characterize the mean and turbulent flow with and without the presence of macromolecular polymer structures

  8. Flow with boiling in four-cusp channels simulating damaged core in PWR type reactors

    The study of subcooled nucleate flow boiling in non-circular channels is of great importance to engineering applications in particular to Nuclear Engineering. In the present work, an experimental apparatus, consisting basically of a refrigeration system, running on refrigerant-12, has been developed. Preliminary tests were made with a circular tube. The main objective has been to analyse subcooled flow boiling in four-cusp channels simulating the flow conditions in a PWR core degraded by accident. Correlations were developed for the forced convection film coefficient for both single-phase and subcooled flow boiling. The incipience of boiling in such geometry has also been studied. (author)

  9. Effect of Slip on Peristaltic Flow of Powell-Eyring Fluid in a Symmetric Channel

    T. Hayat


    Full Text Available Peristaltic flow of non-Newtonian fluid in a symmetric channel with partial slip effect is examined. The non-Newtonian behavior of fluid is characterized by the constitutive equations of Powell-Eyring fluid. The motion is induced by a sinusoidal wave traveling along the flexible walls of channel. The flow is analyzed in a wave frame of reference moving with the velocity of wave. The equations governing the flow are solved by adopting lubrication approach. Series solutions for the stream function and axial pressure gradient are obtained. Impact of slip and other emerging flow parameters is plotted and analyzed graphically.

  10. Experimental study of fluid flow in the entrance of a sinusoidal channel

    An experimental flow visualization study of the entrance section of channels formed with sinusoidal plates was made. The experiments were conducted in a water tunnel and a laser illuminated particle tracking was used as the technique of flow visualization. The geometric parameters of the plates were maintained constant while the distance between plates, phase angle, and the Reynolds number were varied during the experiments. The flow regimes that were found in the experiments are steady, unsteady and significantly-mixed flows. Instabilities of the flow first appear near the exit of the channel, and move closer to the inlet waves as the Reynolds number grows, but in the first wave from inlet the flow is always steady. The results show that, for all other parameters fixed, the Reynolds number at which unsteady flow first appears grows with the distance between plates. The phase angle that best promotes unsteady flow depends on the average distance between plates: for certain average distance between plates, there is a phase angle that best disturbs the flow. For the set of parameters used in this experiment, a channel with eight waves is sufficiently long and the flow features presented in the first eight waves of a longer channel will be similar to what was observed here



    For two-dimensional water flow in open channel, by discritizing hydrodynamic differential equation of conservative form, the corresponding algebraic equations were derived which involve the relationship between velocity and depth. Based on the relationship, this paper deduced a modified formula of velocity correction for SIMPLE algorithm. As a test case, the flow in a prismatic channel with two different slopes was computed and a good result was obtained.

  12. Evaluation of RANS turbulence models for the simulation of channel flow

    Hedlund, André


    The objective of this report is to investigate how RANS models perform on fully developed channel flow, for Re = 13 350, and the simulations are made with the open source software OpenFOAM. The velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are compared with previously published DNS results. A short introduction to turbulence modelling is presented with focus on channel flow and the boundary layer. In total eleven models are evaluated, and the results are of varying quality. A convergence stu...

  13. Prospects for future outward migration flows : China and Southeast Asia

    Ducanes, Geoffrey; Abella, Manolo I


    Focuses on factors that are likely to influence outward migration flow from China and the Southeast Asian region, particularly the Philippines and Indonesia, in the next two decades. It finds that while current migration streams are likely to continue in the short run, important developments in demographic, economic, political, and environmental factors which vary for the different countries - are likely to shape longer terms future migration from the region.

  14. Flow cytometric applications of tumor biology: prospects and pitfalls

    A brief review of cytometry instrumentation and its potential applications in tumor biology is presented using our recent data. Age-distribution measurements of cells from spontaneous dog tumors and cultured cells after exposure to x rays, alpha particles, or adriamycin are shown. The data show that DNA fluorescence measurements have application in the study of cell kinetics after either radiation or drug treatment. Extensive and careful experimentation is needed to utilize the sophisticated developments in flow cytometry instrumentation

  15. The capillary channel flow experiments on the International Space Station: experiment set-up and first results

    Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Chen, Y.; Kiewidt, L.; Grah, A.; Klatte, J.; Jenson, R.; Blackmore, W.; Weislogel, M. M.; Dreyer, M. E.


    This paper describes the experiments on flow rate limitation in open capillary channel flow that were performed on board the International Space Station in 2011. Free surfaces (gas-liquid interfaces) of open capillary channels balance the pressure difference between the flow of the liquid in the channel and the ambient gas by changing their curvature in accordance with the Young-Laplace equation. A critical flow rate of the liquid in the channel is exceeded when the curvature of the free surface is no longer able to balance the pressure difference and, consequently, the free surface collapses and gas is ingested into the liquid. This phenomenon was observed using the set-up described herein and critical flow rates are presented for steady flow over a range of channel lengths in three different cross-sectional geometries (parallel plates, groove, and wedge). All channel shapes displayed decreasing critical flow rates for increasing channel lengths. Bubble ingestion frequencies and bubble volumes are presented for gas ingestion at supercritical flow rates in the groove channel and in the wedge channel. At flow rates above the critical flow rate, bubble ingestion frequency appears to depend on the flow rate in a linear fashion, while bubble volume remains more or less constant. The performed experiments yield vast data sets on flow rate limitation in capillary channel flow in microgravity and can be utilised to validate numerical and analytical methods.

  16. Flow dynamics and concentration polarisation in spacer-filled channels

    Lipnizki, Jens; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    been shown that the mass transport along the membrane is not fully described by the Sherwood correlation, which describes a decreasing mass transfer with an increasing distance from the inlet. It was observed that in open channel without spacers, the slope of the Sherwood correlation is decreasing by......The key to developing highly efficient spiral-wound modules is the improvement of the mass transfer mechanisms. In this study a study of the mass transfer has been carried out using a flat test cell with six permeate outlets and a rectangular feed channel. Using this experimental set-up, it has...... phenomenon was also observed in spacer-filled channels. In this case the stripes on the surface depended on the spacer geometry. Furthermore, the experiments were used to calculate the energy consumption vs. the mass transfer coefficient for different spacers. This research can be used as a foundation to...

  17. ''HFLOWR'' - a computer code for predicting flow regimes in a horizontal channel with rod cluster

    Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors have horizontal channels containing rod clusters. Occurrence of flow stratification under postulated accident conditions , significantly affects the temperatures of the exposed fuel rods. The various thermodynamic models that are to be used for the analysis depend on the flow regimes, which are expected to occur in the channel. A computer program HFLOWR has been developed to obtain the dimensionless flow regime maps and flow patterns in reactor channels of Indian PHWR under various coolant conditions. This code can be integrated with the safety analysis code, for flow regime prediction under transient/accident conditions. This report describes the various mathematical formulations used in the code and the various analyses done using this code. (author). 6 refs., 1 appendix, 34 figs

  18. Flow Oriented Channel Assignment for Multi-radio Wireless Mesh Networks

    Niu Zhisheng


    Full Text Available We investigate channel assignment for a multichannel wireless mesh network backbone, where each router is equipped with multiple interfaces. Of particular interest is the development of channel assignment heuristics for multiple flows. We present an optimization formulation and then propose two iterative flow oriented heuristics for the conflict-free and interference-aware cases, respectively. To maximize the aggregate useful end-to-end flow rates, both algorithms identify and resolve congestion at instantaneous bottleneck link in each iteration. Then the link rate is optimally allocated among contending flows that share this link by solving a linear programming (LP problem. A thorough performance evaluation is undertaken as a function of the number of channels and interfaces/node and the number of contending flows. The performance of our algorithm is shown to be significantly superior to best known algorithm in its class in multichannel limited radio scenarios.

  19. Review of Critical Heat Flux Correlations for Upward Flow in a Vertical Thin Rectangular Channel

    From the view point of safety, this type of fuel has higher resistance to earthquake and external impact. The cross section of coolant flow channel in the reactor core composed with the plate fuel is a thin rectangular shape. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of this thin rectangular channel are different with those of general circular rod fuel bundle flow channel. Accordingly it could be thought that the CHF correlation in a thin rectangular channel is different with that in a circular channel, for which a large number of researches on CHF prediction have been carried out. The objective of this paper is to review previous researches on CHF in a thin rectangular channel, summarize the important conclusion and propose the new simple CHF correlation, which is based on the data set under high pressure and high flow rate condition. The researches on CHF in rectangular channel have been partially carried out according to the pressure, heated surface number, heated surface wettability effect, flow driving force and flow direction conditions. From the literature researches on CHF for upward flow in a vertical thin rectangular channel, some CHF prediction methods were reviewed and compared. There is no universal correlation which can predict CHF at all conditions, but generally, Katto empirical correlation is known to be useful at high pressure and high flow rate. The new simple correlation was developed from the restricted data set, the CHF prediction capacity of which is better than that of Katto. Even though the prediction consistency of the new simple correlation is lower, MAE and RMS error decreased quite. For the more development of the new simple CHF correlation, the more advanced regression analysis method and theoretical analysis should be studied in future

  20. Arsenic removal from flowing irrigation water in bangladesh: impacts of channel properties.

    Lineberger, Ethan M; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf; Polizzotto, Matthew L


    Across Bangladesh, dry-season irrigation with arsenic-contaminated well water is loading arsenic onto rice paddies, leading to increased arsenic concentrations in plants, diminished crop yields, and increased human health risks. As irrigation water flows through conveyance channels between wells and rice fields, arsenic concentrations change over space and time, indicating that channels may provide a location for removing arsenic from solution. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the processes controlling arsenic concentrations in irrigation channels, limiting the ability to manipulate these systems and enhance arsenic removal from solution. The central goal of this study was to quantify how channel design affected removal of dissolved arsenic from flowing irrigation water. Field experiments were conducted in Bangladesh using a chemically constant source of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water and an array of constructed channels with varying geometries. The resulting hydraulic conditions affected the quantity of arsenic removed from solution within the channels by promoting known hydrogeochemical processes. Channels three times the width of control channels removed ∼3 times the mass of arsenic over 32 min of flowing conditions, whereas negligible arsenic removal was observed in tarp-lined channels, which prevented soil-water contact. Arsenic removal from solution was ∼7 times higher in a winding, 200-m-long channel than in the straight, 45-m-long control channels. Arsenic concentrations were governed by oxidative iron-arsenic coprecipitation within the water column, sorption to soils, and phosphate competition. Collectively, these results suggest that better design and management of irrigation channels may play a part in arsenic mitigation strategies for rice fields in Southern Asia. PMID:25602413

  1. The hydraulic geometry of narrow and deep channels; evidence for flow optimisation and controlled peatland growth

    Nanson, Rachel A.; Nanson, Gerald C.; Huang, He Qing


    At-a-station and bankfull hydraulic geometry analyses of peatland channels at Barrington Tops, New South Wales, Australia, reveal adjustments in self-forming channels in the absence of sediment load. Using Rhodes ternary diagram, comparisons are made with hydraulic geometry data from self-forming channels carrying bedload in alluvial settings elsewhere. Despite constraints on channel depths caused at some locations by the restricted thickness of peat, most stations have cohesive, near-vertical, well-vegetated banks, and width/depth (w/d) ratios of ∼ 2 that are optimal for sediment-free flow. Because banks are strong, resist erosion and can stand nearly vertical, and depth is sometimes constrained, adjustments to discharge are accommodated largely by changes in velocity. These findings are consistent with the model of maximum flow efficiency and the overarching least action principle in open channels. The bankfull depth of freely adjusting laterally active channels in clastic alluvium is well known to be related to the thickness of floodplain alluvium and a similar condition appears to apply to these swamps that grow in situ and are formed almost entirely of organic matter. The thickness of peat in these swamps rarely exceeds that required to form a bankfull channel of optimum w/d ratio for the transport of sediment-free water. Swamp vegetation is highly dependent on proximity to the water table. To maintain a swamp-channel and associated floodplain system, the channels must flow with sufficient water much of the time; they not only offer an efficient morphology for flow but do so in a way that enables bankfull conditions to occur many times a year. They also prevent the swamp from growing above a level linked to the depth of the channel. Once the channel attains the most efficient cross section, further growth of the swamp vertically is restricted by enhanced flow velocities and limited flow depths. This means that the volume of peat in such swamps is determined

  2. Effects of gas properties and inclination angle on exchange flow through a rectangular channel

    This study deals with the exchange flow of two different gases (He-air, Ar-air, and SF6-air) through a rectangular channel that has a 5-mm width, a 50-mm height, and a 200-mm length. The net exchange flow rate is measured by an electronic mass balance, and velocity distribution is measured by a laser-Doppler anemometer. Flow patterns of the exchange flow are made visual with a tracer method using smoke. The effects of gas densities, molecular diffusion coefficients, inclination angles (θ) of the channel, on the flow patterns and the net exchange flow rates, are discussed. Based on the experimental results, the net exchange flow data are correlated by the equation derived by dimensional analysis: Q*=2.87 x 10-7 Gr2.17Sc0.41θ-1.09. (author)

  3. Sediment and polyacrylamide effects on seepage losses from channeled flows

    Seepage from water streams into unlined channels determines the proportion of water distributed to adjacent soil for plant use or soil or groundwater recharge, or conveyed to downstream reaches. We conducted a laboratory study to determine how inflow amendment and related factors, sediment type (no...

  4. Model evaluation of flow boiling heat characteristics calculation in narrow rectangular channels

    Both the flow boiling heat transfer characteristics and its influence factors in narrow rectangular channel were studied experimentally. The applicability of the empirical correlations for calculating boiling heat transfer was evaluated against the experimental data. The results show that the effect of the mass flux appears to be primary, the heat transfer coefficients increase with the mass flux under the same void fraction. The correlations based on conventional channels are not suitable for mini-channels very much. The LEELEE correlation based on narrow channels give better agreement than the other evaluated. (authors)

  5. Deformation of an Elastic beam due to Viscous Flow in an Embedded Channel Network

    Matia, Yoav; Gat, Amir


    Elastic deformation due to embedded fluidic networks is currently studied in the context of soft-actuators and soft-robotic applications. In this work, we analyze the time dependent interaction between elastic deformation of a slender beam and viscous flow within a long serpentine channel, embedded in the elastic structure. The channel is positioned asymmetrically with regard to the midplane of the elastic beam, and thus pressure within the channel creates a local moment deforming the beam. We focus on creeping flows and small deformations of the elastic beam and obtain, in leading order, a convection-diffusion equation governing the pressure-field within the serpentine channel. The beam time-dependent deformation is then obtained as a function of the pressure-field and the geometry of the embedded network. This relation enables the design of complex time-dependent deformation patterns of beams with embedded channel networks. Our theoretical results were illustrated and verified by numerical computations.

  6. Bruce NGS: A discharge channel flow simulation using MODTURC-CLAS

    Better understanding of the total residual chlorine (TRC) distribution and characteristics of water flow in the open discharge channel is desired to identify a representative sampling location for TRC in the cooling water discharge channel of a nuclear generating station. A three-dimensional flow simulation for Bruce NGS A was carried out using a state-of-the-art computer code MODTURC-CLAS. The results of this model are compared with data collected from a field measurement at Bruce A discharge channel in the summer of 1993. This model can be used to predict the characteristics of the discharge flows for various operating conditions of the station, and to help optimize the selection of a representative sampling point for TRC in the discharge channel. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 refs

  7. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in helically coiled open-channels with compound cross-sections

    SHAO Xuejun; WANG Hong; CHEN Zhi


    Turbulence structure in a helically coiled open channel flow is numerically simulated using three different turbulence models--the Launder and Ying model, the Naot and Rodi model, and the nonlinear k-ε Model (SY model). Simulation results were compared with observation of (i) turbulent flows in alternating point-bar type channel bends with rectangular sections, and (ii) straight open channel flows with compound cross-sections. Based on calculations of the impact of various channel curvatures on turbulence characteristics, accuracy of the three turbulence models was analyzed with observed data as a qualitative reference. It has been found out that the Launder and Ying model and the nonlinear k-ε Model are able to predict the same general trend as measured data, and the simulation of the effect of the centrifugal force on the formation of secondary currents produces a correct pattern.

  8. Mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic flow in a vertical channel filled with nanofluids

    S. Das


    Full Text Available The fully developed mixed convection flow in a vertical channel filled with nanofluids in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field has been studied. Closed form solutions for the fluid temperature, velocity and induced magnetic field are obtained for both the buoyancy-aided and -opposed flows. Three different water-based nanofluids containing copper, aluminium oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration. Effects of the pertinent parameters on the nanofluid temperature, velocity, and induced magnetic field as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the channel wall are shown in figures and tables followed by a quantitative discussion. It is found that the magnetic field tends to enhance the nanofluid velocity in the channel. The induced magnetic field vanishes in the cental region of the channel. The critical Rayleigh number at onset of instability of flow is strongly dependent on the volume fraction of nanoparticles and the magnetic field.

  9. Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder in a slit channel: Lubrication theory versus molecular dynamics analysis

    Rahmani, Amir M; Jupiterwala, Mehlam; Colosqui, Carlos E


    Plane Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder that is arbitrarily confined (i.e., symmetrically or asymmetrically confined) in a slit channel is studied via hydrodynamic lubrication theory and molecular dynamics simulations, considering cases where the cylinder remains static or undergoes thermal motion. Lubrication theory predictions for the drag force and volumetric flow rate are in close agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of flows having molecularly thin lubrication gaps, despite the presence of significant structural forces induced by the crystalline structure of the modeled solid. While the maximum drag force is observed in symmetric confinement, i.e., when the cylinder is equidistant from both channel walls, the drag decays significantly as the cylinder moves away from the channel centerline and approaches a wall. Hence, significant reductions in the mean drag force on the cylinder and hydraulic resistance of the channel can be observed when thermal motion induces random off-center displace...

  10. Darcy Flow in a Wavy Channel Filled with a Porous Medium

    Gray, Donald D; Ogretim, Egemen; Bromhal, Grant S


    Flow in channels bounded by wavy or corrugated walls is of interest in both technological and geological contexts. This paper presents an analytical solution for the steady Darcy flow of an incompressible fluid through a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium filling a channel bounded by symmetric wavy walls. This packed channel may represent an idealized packed fracture, a situation which is of interest as a potential pathway for the leakage of carbon dioxide from a geological sequestration site. The channel walls change from parallel planes, to small amplitude sine waves, to large amplitude nonsinusoidal waves as certain parameters are increased. The direction of gravity is arbitrary. A plot of piezometric head against distance in the direction of mean flow changes from a straight line for parallel planes to a series of steeply sloping sections in the reaches of small aperture alternating with nearly constant sections in the large aperture bulges. Expressions are given for the stream function, specific discharge, piezometric head, and pressure.