Sample records for change measurement truth

  1. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons (United States)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin


    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Ground truth spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance, which included phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a reddening of the spectra. This reddening was seen as an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pristine materials was augmented to include the space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were made on whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 9500 angstroms) filter and two nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pristine model for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in both satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pristine model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the two satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellites were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pristine model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by

  2. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values (United States)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao


    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  3. The problems of rain gauge measurement undercatch: an inconvenient truth (United States)

    Pollock, Michael; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; Wilkinson, Mark


    There exists an extensive historical body of work documenting the difficulties in accurately measuring precipitation, in particular, wind induced undercatching. The implications of this are discussed and addressed. Although the problem has been cited many times it has become 'an inconvenient truth' to hydrologists that major inaccuracies in rainfall measurement exist. To date, no universally, all encompassing solution has been proposed to mitigate or quantify these inherent systematic biases, either in historic time series or real-time high resolution measurements used for forecasting. In the context of a changing climate the importance of accurately measuring the precipitation events causing catastrophic flooding is rising to ever greater prominence (e.g. the UK floods of December 2013 and January 2014). Only by improving the ability to accurately measure all types of precipitation in all environmental and atmospheric conditions, will it be possible to augment the efficiency of flood defences, improve the spatiotemporal accuracy of flood forecasting services, plan water resources and calibrate numerical weather prediction models more precisely. An experimental design is proposed and implemented to address this issue. Phase 1 of this project compared numerous rain gauges and in situ wind speed. Results from this work propose that the annual systematic undercatch can be in the order of 20 percent in the UK. During specific events (measured at high temporal resolution), this can rise to as high as 50 percent for single wind impacted events. Phase 2 of this experiment is now commencing and will compare all instruments against pit rain gauge measurements. This consists of pairing accepted meteorological standard techniques with new and innovative equipment in four experimental locations representative of 'typical' UK rainfall patterns: upland (both west and east coast) and lowland (both west and east coast). By carrying out high resolution testing at these locations

  4. Truth and opinion in climate change discourse: the Gore-Hansen disagreement. (United States)

    Russill, Chris


    In this paper, I discuss the "inconvenient truth" strategy of Al Gore. I argue that Gore's notion of truth upholds a conception of science and policy that narrows our understanding of climate change discourse. In one notable exchange, Gore and NASA scientist, James Hansen, disagreed about whether scientific statements based on Hansen's computer simulations were truth or opinion. This exchange is featured in An Inconvenient Truth, yet the disagreement is edited from the film and presented simply as an instance of Hansen speaking "inconvenient truth". In this article, I compare the filmic representation of Hansen's testimony with the congressional record. I place their exchange in a broader historical perspective on climate change disputation in order to discuss the implications of Gore's perspective on truth. PMID:22397086

  5. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)


    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  6. Field Experiment Provides Ground Truth for Surface NMR Measurement (United States)

    Knight, R. J.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Dlubac, K. I.; Grau, B.; Grunewald, E. D.; Irons, T.; Song, Y.; Walsh, D.


    months later, borehole NMR T2 measurements were repeated with a second instrument; and logging measurements were made of the ambient magnetic field. Comparison of the three measurements of NMR relaxation show that T2* at this site is affected by inhomogeneity in the background magnetic field; this effect is most pronounced in sand and gravel units where dephasing, rather than surface relaxation, dominates the NMR response. When the borehole T2 measurements are transformed to T2*, by incorporating a term to account for this effect, we find good agreement between the two forms of measurement over the investigated depth range. The ability to ground truth the SNMR measurement has advanced our understanding of the time constant measured by SNMR, T2*, and its relationship to pore-scale properties. This is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for evaluation of groundwater resources.

  7. Speaking truth to power revisited: science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserforschung; Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien


    The issue of climate change from the perspectives of climate change scientists and climate policy makers is discussed using results from two survey questionnaires. Emphasis is given to the German context. Included is the self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the importance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Conclusions indicate that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science, and have assigned a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change than have scientists. (orig.) [German] Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogenaktionen wird diskutiert, wie sich die Problematik von Klimaveraenderungen aus der Perspektive von Klimaforschern und aus der Perspektive von mit Klimapolitik befassten Entscheidungstraegern darstellt. Die Betonung liegt auf den Verhaeltnissen in Deutschland. Eingeschlossen ist eine Einschaetzung des aktuellen Standes der Klimaforschung durch die Wissenschaftler selbst sowie der Bedeutung, welche von politischen Entscheidungstraegern verschiedenen Informationsquellen beigemessen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass sich politische Entscheidungstraeger auf zahlreiche Informationsquellen verlassen, die nur indirekt die Resultate der Klimaforschung wiedergeben und, dass dieser Personenkreis das Problem der Klimaveraenderungen als draengender ansieht als die Wissenschaftler selbst. (orig.)

  8. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons of FORMOSAT III (United States)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin


    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Laboratory spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance accounting for both solar phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a "reddening" of the spectra. This "reddening" is characterized by an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pre-flight materials was augmented to include the presumed causative agent: space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at the AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were acquired of whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 - 9500 angstroms) filter and five nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 - 6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pre-flight models for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in all satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pre-flight model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellite surfaces were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pre

  9. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.


    It is typically expected that if a mechanism is truthful, then the agents would, indeed, truthfully report their private information. But why would an agent believe that the mechanism is truthful? We wish to design truthful mechanisms, whose truthfulness can be verified efficiently (in the...... computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money for...


    Busch, Fred


    Emphasizing psychic truths as the major domain of psychoanalysis, the author explores the complexity of defining such psychic truths. It is suggested that thinking of levels of psychic truths is the most useful approach. How to understand trauma and historical truth within this context is examined. The role of the analyst as aiding the search for psychic truths, rather than functioning as psychic "truth teller," is discussed within the context of paradigmatic changes in the psychoanalytic method that form an emerging common ground. PMID:27112742

  11. Judicial Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Licuta Coman


    Full Text Available All major world encyclopedias define the essence of a phenomenon as being the unification of traits and necessary internal relations, with a relative stability in connection with adjacent phenomena. In this study, we chose to investigate a concept that is the essence of the law, namely, the judicial truth. Starting from the social intent of the law, which is to regulate the social relations, we proposed as a priority objective of this study to highlight the idea that the science of law disregards any subjective human judgment and any values outside the values of true and false. So, in this paper, we analyzed both the concept of truth and the judicial truth. The legal phenomenon is not a specific thing, and its scientific truth is an argumentative construction of the idea of justice, depending on a legal doctrine or another.


    Levine, Howard B


    After briefly reviewing Freud's search for "the truth" in psychoanalytic treatments, the author discusses Bion's views on truth and its prominence in his thinking. The author then addresses various definitions of truth, drawing particularly on recent comments by Ogden (2015). Considerations of the relationship between truth and philosophy, and of that between truth and the arts, follow; the author then returns to a focus on psychoanalytic truth as emergent. Our view of the latter has been strongly influenced, he notes, by changing views of therapeutic action and the goals of psychoanalysis. PMID:27112744

  13. Evaluating the truth brand. (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Price, Simani; Blahut, Steven


    The American Legacy Foundation developed the truth campaign, an aspirational antismoking brand for adolescents. This study tested whether a multidimensional scale, brand equity in truth, mediates the relationship between campaign exposure and youth smoking. We collected brand equity responses from 2,306 youth on a nationally representative telephone survey. Factor analysis indicates that the scale has excellent psychometric properties and effectively measures brand equity. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediation hypothesis. Results show that brand equity mediates the relationship between truth and smoking. Analyses of potential cofounders show this relationship is robust. Behavioral branding (brands about a behavior or a lifestyle) is an important public health strategy. PMID:15804907

  14. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer


    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  15. The truth is out there: measured, calculated and modelled benthic fluxes. (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Protsenko, Elizaveta


    In a modern Earth science there is a great importance of understanding the processes, forming the benthic fluxes as one of element sources or sinks to or from the water body, which affects the elements balance in the water system. There are several ways to assess benthic fluxes and here we try to compare the results obtained by chamber experiments, calculated from porewater distributions and simulated with model. Benthic fluxes of dissolved elements (oxygen, nitrogen species, phosphate, silicate, alkalinity, iron and manganese species) were studied in the Baltic and Black Seas from 2000 to 2005. Fluxes were measured in situ using chamber incubations (Jch) and at the same time sediment cores were collected to assess the porewater distribution at different depths to calculate diffusive fluxes (Jpw). Model study was carried out with benthic-pelagic biogeochemical model BROM (O-N-P-Si-C-S-Mn-Fe redox model). It was applied to simulate biogeochemical structure of the water column and upper sediment and to assess the vertical fluxes (Jmd). By the behaviour at the water-sediment interface all studied elements can be divided into three groups: (1) elements which benthic fluxes are determined by the concentrations gradient only (Si, Mn), (2) elements which fluxes depend on redox conditions in the bottom water (Fe, PO4, NH4), and (3) elements which fluxes are strongly connected with organic matter fate (O2, Alk, NH4). For the first group it was found that measured fluxes are always higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (1.5changing redox conditions some processes in the bottom water and/or on the sediment surface (oxidation, adsorption, particles dissolution, etc.) are faster than diffusion and play an important role in the benthic flux formation for these elements. For the third group measured fluxes could be often overestimated, especially for coastal shallow stations, up to 50%, because of intensive decomposition of OM and/or organisms respiration in the isolated bottom

  16. Convenient Solutions to an Inconvenient Truth : Ecosystem-based Approaches to Climate Change


    World Bank


    The World Bank's mission is to alleviate poverty and support sustainable development. Climate change is a serious environmental challenge that could undermine these goals. Since the industrial revolution, the mean surface temperature of earth has increased an average 2 degree Celsius due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Most of this change has occurred in the past...

  17. A perspective on multinational enterprises and climate change: Learning from "an inconvenient truth"?


    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.


    This paper explores whether and how an important environmental issue such as climate change can not only give multinational enterprises the opportunity to develop "green" firm-specific advantages (FSAs), but also help reconfigure key FSAs that are viewed as the main sources of firms' profitability, growth, and survival. We examine the nature and geography of such FSA development, and develop two organizing frameworks, which are subsequently applied to climate change, using information from Gl...

  18. Convenient Solutions to an Inconvenient Truth : Ecosystem-based Approaches to Climate Change


    World Bank


    Global warming and changes in climate have already had observed impacts on natural ecosystems and species. Natural systems such as wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, cloud forests, and Arctic and high-latitude ecosystems are especially vulnerable to climate-induced disturbances. However, enhanced protection and management of biological resources and habitats can mitigate the impacts and con...

  19. The truth is out there: measured, calculated and modelled benthic fluxes. (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Protsenko, Elizaveta


    In a modern Earth science there is a great importance of understanding the processes, forming the benthic fluxes as one of element sources or sinks to or from the water body, which affects the elements balance in the water system. There are several ways to assess benthic fluxes and here we try to compare the results obtained by chamber experiments, calculated from porewater distributions and simulated with model. Benthic fluxes of dissolved elements (oxygen, nitrogen species, phosphate, silicate, alkalinity, iron and manganese species) were studied in the Baltic and Black Seas from 2000 to 2005. Fluxes were measured in situ using chamber incubations (Jch) and at the same time sediment cores were collected to assess the porewater distribution at different depths to calculate diffusive fluxes (Jpw). Model study was carried out with benthic-pelagic biogeochemical model BROM (O-N-P-Si-C-S-Mn-Fe redox model). It was applied to simulate biogeochemical structure of the water column and upper sediment and to assess the vertical fluxes (Jmd). By the behaviour at the water-sediment interface all studied elements can be divided into three groups: (1) elements which benthic fluxes are determined by the concentrations gradient only (Si, Mn), (2) elements which fluxes depend on redox conditions in the bottom water (Fe, PO4, NH4), and (3) elements which fluxes are strongly connected with organic matter fate (O2, Alk, NH4). For the first group it was found that measured fluxes are always higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (1.5stations, up to 50%, because of intensive decomposition of OM and/or organisms respiration in the isolated bottom water. Values of benthic fluxes obtained by the BROM model are within the range of magnitudes measured by chamber experiments and calculated from porewater distributions (Jpw < Jmd < Jch). Using the model it is possible estimate the influence of bioturbation on elements exchange at water-sediment interface. Model has a high resolution in the

  20. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-3). [solar radiation and thermal radiation brightness temperature measurements (United States)


    Field measurements performed simultaneously with Skylab overpasses in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. The solar radiation region from 400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radiation region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were investigated. The measurements of direct solar radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical depth; the total and reflected solar radiation were analyzed for target reflectivity. These analyses were used in conjunction with a radiative transfer computer program in order to calculate the amount and spectral distribution of solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP sensors. The instrumentation and techniques employed, calibrations and analyses performed, and results obtained are discussed.

  1. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments (United States)


    Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

  2. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.


    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging, T 2, to the relaxation parameter T 2 * measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T 2 data were transformed to pseudo-T 2 * data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T 2 * obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Ground-truthing predicted indoor radon concentrations by using soil-gas radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting indoor radon potential has gained in importance even as the national radon programs began to wane. A cooperative study to produce radon potential maps was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Energy (DOE), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) with the latter taking the lead role. A county-wide predictive model based dominantly on the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data and secondly on geology, both small-scale data bases was developed. However, that model breaks down in counties of complex geology and does not provide a means to evaluate the potential of an individual home or building site. Soil-gas radon measurements on a large scale are currently shown to provide information for estimating radon potential at individual sites sort out the complex geology so that the small-scale prediction index can be validated. An example from Frederick County, Maryland indicates a positive correlation between indoor measurements and soil-gas data. The method does not rely on a single measurement, but a series that incorporate seasonal and meteorological considerations. (author)

  4. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian MacDonald


    , respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Institutions of Variable Truth Values:An Approach in the Ordered Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The concept of institution of variable truth values is introduced and some main results about institutions are generalized.In particular,some properties of institutions of variable truth values preserved by change of truth values are established.


    Davies, Jody Messler


    This paper explores the psychoanalyst's dilemmas in treating a man who came for analysis as a self-identified compulsive liar. The decision as to whether or not to treat this man, and how to do so without getting caught up in a web of deceit and manipulation, raises issues about the nature of unconscious fantasy and its relationship to psychic truth. Therapeutic action as it involves the activation of multiple internal self-other configurations and their psychodynamic relationship to each other is also explored. PMID:27112743

  7. Revuz measures under time change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we shall study how energy functionals and Revuz measures change under time change of Markov processes and provide an intuitive and direct approach to the computation of the Levy system and jumping measure of time changed process.

  8. Layered Subsurface Structure at the Chang'e-3 Landing Site Derived from Imaging Data: Awaiting Ground Truth from Chang'e-3 Radar Experiments (United States)

    Qiao, L.; Xiao, Z.; Xiao, L.; Zhao, J.


    Quantifying the subsurface stratigraphic and tectonic features of the Moon, with a depth from a few to thousands of meters, can provide significant information for solving scientific mysteries concerning regional and global evolution history. In December 2013, the Chinese Chang'e-3 (CE-3) spacecraft, carrying the Yutu (Jade Rabbit) rover, successfully landed on the northern Mare Imbrium, the Moon. The surface in-situ radar experiments by CE-3 mission provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the shallow subsurface geology of the Moon. While the processing and interpretation of radar observations usually depend on certain geophysical models and should consider regional geological settings. In this work, we quantified the subsurface structure at the CE-3 landing site using imaging data and illustrated a multi-layer subsurface structure model including three layers of regolith, two layers of basalt deposits and one layer of ejecta. Our result can provide essential references for CE-3 radar data processing and interpretation. The CE-3 radar observations can in turn validate previous technique for quantifying subsurface geology using imaging data, thus further deepening our understanding of lunar geoscience and exploration.

  9. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Künne


    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  10. Withholding truth from patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth


    The issue of whether patients should always be told the truth regarding their diagnosis and prognosis has afforded much debate in healthcare literature. This article examines telling the truth from an ethical perspective. It puts forward arguments for and against being honest with patients, using a clinical example to illustrate each point.

  11. Truth and Methods. (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way


    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary criticism. (TB)

  12. The Inconvenient Truth. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essay-type of publication on what should happen next after Al Gore's presentations on the Inconvenient Truth about the impacts of climate change. The essay states in the first lines: 'We've seen the movie, so we know the first part - we're in trouble deep. And it's time, past time, for at least some of us to go beyond warning to planning, to start talking seriously about a global crash program to stabilize the climate

  13. The Concept of Truth Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Weir


    Full Text Available “Truth regime” is a much used but little theorized concept, with the Foucauldian literature presupposing that truth in modernity is uniformly scientific/quasi-scientific and enhances power. I argue that the forms of truth characteristic of our present are wider than Foucault recognized, their relations to power more various, and their historicity more complex. The truth regime of advanced modernity is characterized by multiple, irreducible truth formulae that co-exist and sometimes vie for dominance. A truth formula stabilizes a network of elements: a relation between representation and presentation (words and things, truth and non-truth, and the place of the subject in discourse. Our contemporary truth regime comprises radically heterogeneous truthful knowledges – science, governance, religion/politics, and common culture – that have distinct histories and relations to power.

  14. Archaeological Evidence for Abrupt Cimate Change: Results from Satellite Imagery Analysis and Subsequent Ground-Truthing in the El-Manzalah Region, Northeast Egyptian Delta (United States)

    Parcak, S. H.


    The abrupt global climate changes recorded at 8.2, 5.2 and 4.2 ka BP caused a wide range of transformations within ancient societies, including the focus of this study: ancient Egypt . In the case of the climatic changes that occurred at 4.2 ka BP, scholars have debated hotly the events surrounding the "collapse" of the Old Kingdom. Despite such studies into the Old Kingdom's "collapse", there have been insufficient regional settlement pattern studies in Egypt to augment hypotheses concerning the mechanisms behind the cultural transformations that occurred at the end of the Old Kingdom. Utilizing a combination of satellite imagery analysis and subsequent ground-truthing techniques over a broad region in the East Delta, this study aims to reconstruct pharaonic settlement distributions in relation to the changing northeast delta topography, river courses, marshlands, and coastline. Although geo-political and religious factors played varying roles in settlement patterns, this study overlies the economic and environmental components behind the settlement of individual sites and areas. For instance, prior to the formation of the Manzala lagoon, beginning in the 4th century AD, the Mendesian branch of the Nile flowed past Mendes and its satellite, maritime port at Tell Tebilla: As early as the Old Kingdom, Tell Tebilla provided an ideal location for the formation of a town, being well-located to exploit both riverine and maritime transportation routes through trade, and regional floral and faunal resources from hunting, fishing, cultivation and animal husbandry. Key factors such as long-term fluctuations in precipitation, flood levels, and river courses, can affect dramatically the fortunes of individual settlements, areas, and regions, resulting in the decline and abandonment of some sites and the foundation and flourishing of other sites, especially within marginal regions. The Egyptian delta represents an ideal region for studying the impacts of climatic changes

  15. Peculiarity of understanding of truth within traditional and active approaches


    Solonko, Leonid


    The present article focuses on the problem of understanding of truth during different historical stages. Special attention is paid to the transition from archaic worldview to active approach which implies substantial changes in relationship between the world and human beings. Plato's allegory of the cave is chosen as a perfect illustration of a new vision of truth that combines traditional and original elements. The author emphasizes the specific of three basic approaches to the truth outline...

  16. The Inconvenient Truth. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiou, T.


    Essay-type of publication on what should happen next after Al Gore's presentations on the Inconvenient Truth about the impacts of climate change. The essay states in the first lines: 'We've seen the movie, so we know the first part - we're in trouble deep. And it's time, past time, for at least some of us to go beyond warning to planning, to start talking seriously about a global crash program to stabilize the climate.

  17. Music, Emotions, and Truth (United States)

    Packalen, Elina


    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  18. Truth in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor R. Machan


    Full Text Available Can there be truth in philosophy? A problem: it is philosophy, its various schools, that advances what counts as true versus false, how to go about making the distinction. This is what I wish to focus on here and see if some coherent, sensible position could be reached on the topic.

  19. An inconvenient truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  20. Meaning, Truth and Phenomenology


    Bevir, Mark


    This essay approaches Derrida through a consideration of his writings on Saussure and Husserl. Derrida is right to insist, following Saussure, on a relational theory on meaning: words do not have a one to one correspondence with their referents. However, he is wrong to insist on a purely differential theory of meaning: words can refer to reality within the context of a body of knowledge. Similarly, Derrida is right to reject Husserl's idea of presence: no truths are simply given to consciousn...

  1. On Fast Post-Processing of Global Positioning System Simulator Truth Data and Receiver Measurements and Solutions Data (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)


    Post-Processing of data related to a Global Positioning System (GPS) simulation is an important activity in qualification of a GPS receiver for space flight. Because a GPS simulator is a critical resource it is desirable to move off the pertinent simulation data from the simulator as soon as a test is completed. The simulator data files are usually moved to a Personal Computer (PC), where the post-processing of the receiver logged measurements and solutions data and simulated data is performed. Typically post-processing is accomplished using PC-based commercial software languages and tools. Because of commercial software systems generality their general-purpose functions are notoriously slow and more than often are the bottleneck problem even for short duration experiments. For example, it may take 8 hours to post-process data from a 6-hour simulation. There is a need to do post-processing faster, especially in order to use the previous test results as feedback for a next simulation setup. This paper demonstrates that a fast software linear interpolation algorithm is applicable to a large class of engineering problems, like GPS simulation data post-processing, where computational time is a critical resource and is one of the most important considerations. An approach is developed that allows to speed-up post-processing by an order of magnitude. It is based on improving the post-processing bottleneck interpolation algorithm using apriori information that is specific to the GPS simulation application. The presented post-processing scheme was used in support of a few successful space flight missions carrying GPS receivers. A future approach to solving the post-processing performance problem using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is described.

  2. Formalism and the notion of truth (United States)

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    of truth. The point of disagreement is ultimately rooted in a difference of opinion about the adequacy of thinking the concept of truth independently of an account of what philosophers of science call theory change.

  3. On Truth and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hjort Bundgaard


    Full Text Available This article has two main currents. First, it argues that an affinity or similarity can be identified between the philosophy of Gianni Vattimo (the so-called “Weak Thinking” and the “Discourse Theory” of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The two theorizations are engaged with related problems, but have conceptualized them differently; they share central insights, but understand them with different vocabularies. The article furthermore illuminates as regards what this affinity consists in, and it discusses the differences and similarities between the two theoretical positions. The second current of the article takes the ‘postmodern’ philosophical problems of anti-foundationalism and nihilism as its point of departure. It raises the questions of: 1 how it is possible at the same time to take the critique of universality and objectivity seriously and still believe in the value of ethics and science; and, 2 how we are to understand emancipation if there is no necessary relationship between truth and freedom. The article investigates the status, meaning and interconnection of the categories of truth, knowledge, ethics, politics and emancipation in the light of the absence of metaphysical first principles. The article concludes that: A faith can constitute a “weak foundation” of knowledge and ethics; and, B nihilism can be combined with the political and ethical ambitions of universal human emancipation and radical democracy.

  4. When truth is personally inconvenient, attitudes change: the impact of extreme weather on implicit support for green politicians and explicit climate-change beliefs. (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; McLean, Meghan C; Bunzl, Martin


    A naturalistic investigation of New Jersey residents, both before and after they experienced Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, examined support for politicians committed or opposed to policies designed to combat climate change. At Time 1, before both hurricanes, participants showed negative implicit attitudes toward a green politician, but at Time 2, after the hurricanes, participants drawn from the same cohort showed a reversed automatic preference. Moreover, those who were significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy were especially likely to implicitly prefer the green politician, and implicit attitudes were the best predictor of voting after the storms, whereas explicit climate-change beliefs was the best predictor before the storms. In concert, the results suggest that direct experience with extreme weather can increase pro-environmentalism, and further support conceptualizing affective experiences as a source of implicit attitudes. PMID:24058064

  5. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  6. Twardowski On Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Simons


    Full Text Available Of those students of Franz Brentano who went on to become professional philosophers, Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938 is much less well-known than his older contemporaries Edmund Husserl and Alexius Meinong. Yet in terms of the importance of his contribution to the history of philosophy, he ranks among Brentano’s students behind at most those two, possibly only behind Husserl. The chief contribution of Twardowski to global philosophy came indirectly, through the influence of his theory of truth on his students, and they on their students, and so on. The most important of these grandstudents is one whom Twardowski presumably knew but never taught, and whose adopted name is obtained by deleting four letters from his own: Tarski.

  7. The Real truth

    CERN Document Server

    Baratella, Stefano


    We study a real valued propositional logic with unbounded positive and negative truth values that we call R-valued logic. Such logic slightly extends continuous propositional logic which, in turn, builds on Lukasiewicz many-valued logic. After presenting the deduction machinery and the semantics of R-valued logic, we prove a completeness theorem for finite theories. Then we define unital and Archimedean theories, in accordance with the theory of Riesz spaces. In the unital setting, we prove the equivalence of consistency and satisfiability and an approximated completeness theorem similar to the one that holds for continuous propositional logic. Eventually, among unital theories, we characterize Archimedean theories as those for which strong completeness holds. We also point out that R-valued logic provides alternative calculi for Lukasiewicz and for propositional continuous logic.

  8. Davidson, Dualism, and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg


    Full Text Available Happy accidents happen even in philosophy. Sometimes our arguments yield insights despite missing their target, though when they do others can often spot it more easily. Consider the work of Donald Davidson. Few did more to explore connections among mind, language, and world. Now that we have critical distance from his views, however, we can see that Davidson’s accomplishments are not quite what they seem. First, while Davidson attacked the dualism of conceptual scheme and empirical content, he in fact illustrated a way to hold it. Second, while Davidson used the principle of charity to argue against the dualism, his argument in effect treats the principle as constitutive of a conceptual scheme. And third, while Davidson asserted that he cannot define what truth ultimately is—and while I do not disagree—his work nonetheless allows us to saymore about truth than Davidson himself does. I aim to establish these three claims. Doing so enriches our understanding of issues central to the history of philosophy concerning how, if at all, to divvy up the mental or linguistic contribution, and the worldly contribution, to knowledge. As we see below, Davidson was right in taking his work to be one stage of a dialectic begun by Immanuel Kant.1 He was just wrong about what that stage is. Reconsidering Davidson’s views also moves the current debate forward, as they reveal a previously unrecognized yet intuitive notion of truth—even if Davidson himself remained largely unaware of it. We begin however with scheme/content dualism and Davidson’s argument against it.

  9. An existential theory of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Cannon


    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to present a simplified account of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers - namely, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, and Marcel. It is designed to serve as a supplement to conventional textbook treatments of the nature of truth, which typically ignore the contributions that existentialists have made to the topic. An existential theory of truth stresses the epistemological (not ontological indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one’s personal participation in determining them. Contrary to superficial interpretations, this theory does not do away either with a transcendent reality or with objectivity. What is rejected is anything that would circumvent the necessary task of participating, oneself, in the epistemological determination of truth.

  10. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets (United States)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.


    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect surface geologic and topographic signatures of interest. This work includes a preliminary comparison of surface signatures detected from varying standoff distances to assess current sensor performance and benefits.





    This paper reports some novel approach on linguistic logic with our intention to realize CWW, Computing With Words, via a simple example which consists of only five words. As a by product, this simple example of the linguistic logical system may serve as a mathematical model, modeling the degree of truthfulness in daily usage. The five words set of a linguistic variable modeling the degree of truthfulness are; true, nearly true, undecided, nearly false and false. We subjectively choose trapez...

  12. Correspondence Truth and Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Karakostas, Vassilios


    The logic of a physical theory reflects the structure of the propositions referring to the behaviour of a physical system in the domain of the relevant theory. It is argued in relation to classical mechanics that the propositional structure of the theory allows truth-value assignment in conformity with the traditional conception of a correspondence theory of truth. Every proposition in classical mechanics is assigned a definite truth value, either 'true' or 'false', describing what is actually the case at a certain moment of time. Truth-value assignment in quantum mechanics, however, differs; it is known, by means of a variety of 'no go' theorems, that it is not possible to assign definite truth values to all propositions pertaining to a quantum system without generating a Kochen-Specker contradiction. In this respect, the Bub-Clifton 'uniqueness theorem' is utilized for arguing that truth-value definiteness is consistently restored with respect to a determinate sublattice of propositions defined by the state...

  13. Measure change in multitype branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggins, J.D.; Kyprianou, A.E.


    The Kesten-Stigum theorem for the one-type Galton-Watson process gives necessary and sufficient conditions for mean convergence of the martingale formed by the population size normed by its expectation. Here, the approach of Lyons, Peres and Pemantle (1995) to this theorem, which exploits a change o

  14. The Discussion about Truth Viewpoint and its Significance on the View of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facheng Shang


    Full Text Available In this study, we have a discussion about truth viewpoint and its significance on the view of Broad-spectrum Philosophy, which inherit and develop the truth of Marxist philosophy Broad-spectrum. Philosophy provides a unique perspective; it introduces the concept of observocontrol mode, which regards the truth as an image in the equivalence class. By changing the observocontrol mode, it reveals “Multilobe” of the truth of the same objective. To answer the question on "how to test the truth", it constructs the procedures and criteria to knowledge the truth. These researches have an important revelation on the enrichment and development of the study of Marxism truth theory.

  15. Medical science, culture, and truth (United States)

    Gillett, Grant


    There is a fairly closed circle between culture, language, meaning, and truth such that the world of a given culture is a world understood in terms of the meanings produced in that culture. Medicine is, in fact, a subculture of a powerful type and has its own language and understanding of the range of illnesses that affect human beings. So how does medicine get at the truth of people and their ills in such a way as to escape its own limited constructions? There is a way out of the closed circle implicit in the idea of a praxis and the engagement with reality that is central to it and the further possibility introduced by Jacques Lacan that signification is never comprehensive in relation to the subject's encounter with the real. I will explore both of these so as to develop a conception of truth that is apt for the knowledge that arises in the clinic. PMID:17178003

  16. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare maximi...

  17. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  18. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale. (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna


    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time. PMID:27315354

  19. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation


    Ilić Zoran


    The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts i...

  20. Truth Commission Impact: An Assessment of How Commissions Influence Politics and Society (SWP 16)


    Bakiner, Onur


    This paper defines truth commission impact as the effect of truth commissions on government policy, judicial processes and social norms. It isolates impact from the causal effects of similar post-conflict institution-building and other transitional justice and conflict resolution measures. It examines ten causal mechanisms through which truth commissions are expected to influence politics and society. Immediate political impact through the implementation of recommendations and delayed politic...

  1. Normativity and deflationary theories of truth


    Bruno Mölder


    It has been argued that deflationary theories of truth stumble over the normativity of truth. This paper maintains that the normativity objection does not pose problems to at least one version of deflationism, minimalism. The rest of the paper discusses truth-related norms, showing that either they do not hold or they are not troublesome for deflationism.

  2. Normativity and deflationary theories of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mölder


    Full Text Available It has been argued that deflationary theories of truth stumble over the normativity of truth. This paper maintains that the normativity objection does not pose problems to at least one version of deflationism, minimalism. The rest of the paper discusses truth-related norms, showing that either they do not hold or they are not troublesome for deflationism.

  3. Blowing Sunshine #3: Transforming Inconvenient Truths to Convenient Truths


    Cairns, John


    The inconvenient truth of the matter is that an overwhelming majority of mainstream scientists accept the scientific evidence on global warming. Attempting to _blow sunshine on global warming is becoming increasingly difficult because the vast majority of scientist ignore attempts to damage their reputations and integrity and keep producing more evidence via the scientific process and publishing their work in peer-reviewed, professional journals.

  4. Measuring Severity and Change in Anorexia Nervosa. (United States)

    Piazza, Eugene; And Others


    Describes the State of Mind (SOM) Questionnaire, which measures severity and change of clinical state in anorexia nervosa. A study of 42 anorexia patients and 4 control groups showed a strong correlation between depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and the Anorexia Scale, which comprise the SOM. (JAC)

  5. The Truth about Accuracy


    Buekens, Filip; Truyen, Frederik


    When we evaluate the outcomes of investigative actions as justified or unjustified, good or bad, rational or irrational, we make, in a broad sense of the term, evaluative judgments about them. We look at operational accuracy as a desirable and evaluable quality of the outcomes and explore how the concepts of accuracy and precision, on the basis of insights borrowed from pragmatics and measurement theory, can be seen to do useful work in epistemology. Operational accuracy (but not metaphysical...

  6. Publication Bias in Measuring Anthropogenic Climate Change


    Reckova, Dominika; Irsova, Zuzana


    We present a meta-regression analysis of the relation between the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and changes in global temperature. The relation is captured by “climate sensitivity”, which measures the response to a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations compared to pre-industrial levels. Estimates of climate sensitivity play a crucial role in evaluating the impacts of climate change and constitute one of the most important inputs into the computation of the social cost ...

  7. Categorical Foundations of Quantum Logics and Their Truth Values Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiris, E


    We introduce a foundational sheaf theoretical scheme for the comprehension of quantum event structures, in terms of localization systems consisting of Boolean coordinatization coverings induced by measurement. The scheme is based on the existence of a categorical adjunction between presheaves of Boolean event algebras and Quantum event algebras. On the basis of this adjoint correspondence we prove the existence of an object of truth values in the category of quantum logics, characterized as subobject classifier. This classifying object plays the equivalent role that the two-valued Boolean truth values object plays in classical event structures. We construct the object of quantum truth values explicitly and argue that it constitutes the appropriate choice for the valuation of propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems.

  8. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J. C. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Solstad, S. [Inst. for Energy Technologoy, Halden (Norway)


    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  9. Direct measurements of the magnetic entropy change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique; von Moos, Lars;


    An experimental device that can accurately measure the magnetic entropy change, Δs, as a function of temperature, T, and magnetic field, H, is presented. The magnetic field source is in this case a set of counter-rotating concentric Halbach-type magnets, which produce a highly homogeneous applied...

  10. Changing domains in human capital measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox


    Full Text Available Orientation: The management context is dynamic; this is especially evident in human capital as the primary source of value creation as opposed to physical and natural resources. In response, measurement methodologies have moved from a transactional approach (strategy implementation to a transformational approach (human capital contribution paradigm, as well as diverging into different purposes. To date, there has been little overlap on recent domains to consider in managing and measuring the contribution of the human resource function and employees, and how to unlock and add value.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and describe changing domains within human capital management to be managed and measured.Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of changing measurement domains to aid practitioners to manage and measure the contribution of the human resource function and employees, in order to unlock and add value and ultimately contribute to the success of an organisation.Research design, approach and method: Unstructured, in-depth interview data of purposively selected cases from a selected panel of human resource practitioners specialising in human capital measurement was thematically analysed in this exploratory-descriptive investigation.Main findings: Findings suggested that seven domains should be managed and measured. These domains highlight new areas of impact and levels of management. In addition, crossdomain relationships in measurement allow for an understanding of the impact and potential value on which to capitalise.Practical/managerial implications: New domains to manage and measure focus the attention of practitioners beyond the transactional performance management paradigm to a transformational approach to influence the business strategy. Higher education institutions need to develop students’ cognitive skills to facilitate systems thinking.Contribution: This study suggests a new

  11. Change in singing voice production, objectively measured. (United States)

    Schutte, Harm K; Stark, James A; Miller, Donald G


    Although subglottal pressures in conversational speech are relatively easily measured and thus known, the higher values that sometimes occur in singing (especially in tenors) have received little attention in the literature. Still more unusual is the opportunity to measure a large-scale change over decades in the application of pressure in singing production. This study compares measurements of subglottal pressure in a tenor/singing teacher (JS) at two points in his career: in his early thirties, when he was a subject in HS's dissertation study on the efficiency of voice production; and recently, in his fifties, in connection with JS's forthcoming book on the history of the pedagogy of Bel Canto. Although a single case study, its points of special interest include the high values initially measured (up to 100 cm H2O) and the reduction of this figure by more than 50% in the maximal values of the recent measurements. The study compares these values with those of other singers in the same laboratory (both with esophageal balloon and directly, with a catheter passed through the glottis) and in the literature, as well as discusses in detail the problems pertaining to the measurement (repeatability, correcting for lung volume, etc.). As a sophisticated subject, JS makes some pertinent observations about the changes in his use of subglottal pressure. PMID:14740931

  12. In situ optical measurements of Chang'E-3 landing site in Mare Imbrium: 2. Photometric properties of the regolith (United States)

    Jin, Weidong; Zhang, Hao; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Yazhou; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Lucey, Paul G.; Kaydash, Vadim G.; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Xue, Bin; Di, Kaichang; Xu, Bin; Wan, Wenhui; Xiao, Long; Wang, Ziwei


    The panorama cameras onboard the Yutu Rover of the Chang'E-3 lunar mission acquired hundreds of high-resolution color images of the lunar surface and captured the first in situ lunar opposition effect (OE) since the Apollo era. We extracted the phase curve and the color ratio in three bands with the phase angle range from 2° to 141°. Photometric inversions using the Hapke model reveal that submicroscopic dusts are present in the landing area and both the coherent backscattering and the shadow hiding are responsible for the strong OE. Compared with spaceborne measurements, the grains in the landing site are brighter, more transparent, and appear to be better crystallized than the average maria basaltic grains. The results show that the phase-reddening effect appears to be present in the in situ phase curves. The current phase curve can be used as the ground-truth validations of any future spaceborne phase curve measurement over the landing site region.

  13. Academic Training: Telling the truth with statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23, 24 & 25 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Telling the truth with statistics by G. D'Agostini / NFN, Roma, Italy The issue of evaluating and expressing the uncertainty in measurements, as well as that of testing hypotheses, is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the frontier cases typical of particle physics experiments. Fundamental aspects of probability will be addressed and the applications, solely based on probability theory, will cover several topics of practical interest, including counting experiments, upper/lower bounds, systematic errors, fits and comparison of hypotheses. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127

  14. Presenters of An Inconvenient Truth as intermediaries of environmental communication


    Frank, Andrew Fredrick


    This case study investigates the role of the intermediary in public engagement on climate change, through interviews with twenty Canadian presenters of Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth. The study explores the relationship between presenters, audiences and The Climate Project Canada (recently renamed the Climate Reality Project Canada), the organization tasked with training and coordinating presenters. Investigating the development and delivery of climate change presentations, the study looks a...

  15. The Philosophical Problem of Truth in Librarianship (United States)

    Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross


    The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of truth in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of truth closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…

  16. Ethics and Truth in Archival Research (United States)

    Tesar, Marek


    The complexities of the ethics and truth in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and truth in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…

  17. Direct measurements of the magnetic entropy change


    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique; von Moos, Lars; Bjørk, Rasmus; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian


    An experimental device that can accurately measure the magnetic entropy change, Δs, as a function of temperature, T, and magnetic field, H, is presented. The magnetic field source is in this case a set of counter-rotating concentric Halbach-type magnets, which produce a highly homogeneous applied field with constant orientation. The field may be varied from 0 to 1.5 T in a continuous way. The temperature stability of the system is controlled to within ±10 mK and the standard range for the cur...


    Ogden, Thomas H


    The author's focus in this paper is on the role that language plays in bringing to life the truth of the patient's lived experience in the analytic session. He discusses particular forms of discourse that enable the patient to experience with the analyst the truth that the patient had previously been unable to experience, much less put into words, on his own. The three forms of discourse that the author explores-direct discourse, tangential discourse, and discourse of non sequiturs-do not simply serve as ways of communicating the truth; they are integral aspects of the truth of what is happening at any given moment of a session. The truth that is experienced and expressed in the analytic discourse lies at least as much in the breaks (the disjunctions) in that discourse as in its manifest narrative. PMID:27112745


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In 'An undermining diagnosis of relativism about truth', Horwich claims that the notion of relative truth is either explanatorily sterile or explanatorily superfluous. In the present paper, I argue that Horwich's explanatory demands set the bar unwarrantedly high: given the philosophical import of the theorems of a truth-theoretic semantic theory, Horwich's proposed explananda, what he calls acceptance facts, are too indirect for us to expect a complete explanation of them in terms of the deliverances of a theory of meaning based on the notion of relative truth. And, to the extent that there might be such an explanation in certain cases, there is no reason to expect relative truth to play an essential, ineliminable role, nor to endorse the claim that it should play such a role in order to be a theoretically useful notion.

  20. Climate: the truth and the false

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate sciences have become extraordinary instruments for the media and the politicians. The climate debates regularly put forward the question of our knowledge: what do we know exactly, what can we assert, and of what are we doubtful? A subsidiary question would be: are scientists telling us the truth? For the scientific community, there is no doubt that human activities are modifying the Earth's atmosphere composition and that the surface temperature of the Earth has globally warmed up since the beginning of the 20. century. We live on a planet with a finite dimension: fossil resources are not forever and wastes are accumulating. Is the greenhouse effect already changing climate? Is it the only factor which will control the climate evolution? What would be the natural rhythm of climate? Are scientists capable to unravel the wheels of the climate machine? What is the situation of the climate change under way with respect to the turbulences of the past? What is an acceptable climate change? This book gives a clear answer to each of these questions as far as the answer is known. (J.S.)

  1. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran


    Full Text Available The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts is a painful trauma, which endangers individual moral norms, threatens the national identity and requires, on individual level, plugging in the defense mechanism, in order to prevent penetration of painful emotions into the consciousness. Primitive psychological mechanisms of defense, focused around splitting (projection, denial, are the main obstacles in accepting the truth both on individual and group level. There is also another extreme form of reaction manifested through "hypertrophy" of the truth and one-sided self-accusation. In this paper the author presents psychological explanation of the process of accepting the truth as the prerequisite for reconciliation and transformation of the conflict.

  2. Truth-value transmittal fuzzy reasoning interpolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianping; LEUNG Yee


    In this paper, we firstly associate fuzzy reasoning algorithm with the interpolation algorithm and discuss the limitation of defuzzification methods used commonly in the fuzzy reasoning algorithm. Secondly, we give a new fuzzy reasoning algorithm in case of single input, called the truth-value transmittal method, and discuss its properties. Finally, we analyze the rationality to adopy the truth-value transmittal method as the defuzzification method of full implication triple I method, and show that although CRI and triple I fuzzy reasoning method are different from fuzzy output set, they are uniform finally under the truth-value transmittal defuzzification method.



    Ramakrishna. G


    Truth is a deeper subject then it at first appears. A concept which confronts us at the start of discussion is the different forms of truth which all the "truth theories" assume. On an existant level everything which lies within our consciousness is in its own way true. The god Mars is true in its existance as idea, it is not however true as a physicalized incaration. It is these embodied facts which the Correspondence theory deals with, its theory is that that which is true i...

  4. The Myth and Truth : Non-regular Employment in Japan


    Kojima, Noriaki


    A lot of Japanese including the mass media believe that young men play the lead in non-regular employment. It is, however, only a myth. In truth, the leading parts of non-regular employment are middle-aged women and elderly people, both men and women. In addition, such a situationwill not change at least for a while. The reality of this no-regular employment is clarified from an analysis of the detailed tabulation of the Labor Force Survey.

  5. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes. (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren


    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimation of nonuniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multiscene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored, and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed algorithm to outperform the state of the art across several measures and shadow categories. To complement our data set, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research. PMID:27607503

  6. From the value of truth to truth as a value and as a norm


    Tiercelin, Claudine


    In summary, we can, I think, find the following interesting elements in the pragmatists’ approach to truth. 1. A nice balance of several components of the theories of truth The pragmatists do not refuse the classical theories of truth as much as they present a fine balance of some of their elements while providing a framework which makes it possible for us to understand them better. If they reject correspondence, they do insist on the fact that truth is independent, up to a point, of what we ...

  7. Collective interviewing:a transactive memory approach towards identifying signs of truthfulness


    Vernham, Zarah; Vrij, Aldert; Leal, Sharon; Mann, Samantha; Hillman, Jackie


    Group interviewing has been neglected in the deception literature, yet it coincides with recent collective memory research. The present experiment applied the transactive memory theory to a collective interviewing situation and explored whether signs of truthfulness emerged through measuring joint memory recall. Truth-tellers were real couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year and cohabiting. Lying pairs were friends who pretended to be in a relationship for at least one ye...

  8. The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission (United States)

    Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan


    TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.

  9. Changes in "thermal lens" measure diffusivity (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.


    In an extension of "thermal lens" effect to new applications and better resolution, two laser beams combine to rapidly measure thermal diffusivity and other molecular dynamic properties. New double-beam technique handles very small samples unlike classical techniques for measuring diffusivity. It can be used for measurements on samples undergoing stress, making it applicable to data collection for structural engineering.

  10. Paradoxical Truths and Persistent Myths: Reframing the Team Competence Conversation. (United States)

    Lingard, Lorelei


    Medicine has conventionally had an individualist orientation to competence. Individual competence is conceptualized as a stable possession that, once acquired, holds across contexts. Individual competence is necessary; however, it is insufficient for quality health care. We also need to attend to collective competence in order to grapple with paradoxical truths about teamwork, such as: competent individuals can form incompetent teams. Collective competence is conceptualized as a distributed capacity of a system, an evolving, relational phenomenon that emerges from the resources and constraints of particular contexts. This article outlines a set of paradoxical truths about teamwork in health care and uses the concept of collective competence to explain how they can hold true. It then considers a set of persistent myths about teamwork which have their roots in an individualist orientation, exploring how they hold us back from meaningful change in how we educate for, and practice as, health care teams. Finally, the article briefly considers the implications of these truths and myths for educational issues such as interprofessional education and competency-based health professional education. PMID:27584064

  11. Appearing truthful generalizes across different deception situations. (United States)

    Frank, Mark G; Ekman, Paul


    The authors investigated whether the ability to appear truthful is specific to deception situations. Male participants were interrogated after they took part in 2 high-stake deception situations, one involving a mock crime and another involving a false opinion. The videotaped interrogations from each situation were shown to independent groups of undergraduate observers. The proportion of observers who judged each participant as truthful in one situation correlated highly with the proportion of observers who judged the same participant as truthful in the other situation. This was not correlated with physiognomy judgments. Follow-up studies revealed that although the participants showed consistency in their facial, body, and paralinguistic behaviors across situations, observers' judgments seemed to be driven only by the consistency of the dynamic facial behaviors. These results are discussed in terms of the evolutionary importance of the face in communication. PMID:15008651

  12. Truthful Feedback for Sanctioning Reputation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Witkowski, Jens


    For product rating environments, similar to that of Amazon Reviews, it has been shown that the truthful elicitation of feedback is possible through mechanisms which pay buyer reports contingent on the reports of other buyers. We study whether similar mechanisms can be designed for reputation mechanisms at online auction sites where the buyers' experiences are partially determined by a strategic seller. We show that this is impossible for the basic setting. However, introducing a small prior belief that the seller is a cooperative commitment player leads to a payment scheme with a truthful perfect Bayesian equilibrium.

  13. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato


    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  14. The Experience of Truth in Jazz Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    This is a book on truth, experience, and the interrelations between these two fundamental philosophical notions. The questions of truth and experience have their roots at the very heart of philosophy, both historically and thematically. This book gives an insight into how philosophers working in...... the fields of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics respond to challenges posed by these questions, not only in relation to the history of philosophy, but to philosophy itself. The book contains texts written by distinguished professors and in particular by young scholars. It is the result of a...

  15. Serial measurement of relative changes in net magnetization, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed to what extent relative changes in net magnetization could be measured with the low field (0.043 T) MR imager. By the procedure to stabilize the whole MR imager hardware, we could measure the minute relative changes of the net magnetization (less than 1%) from the forearm presumably related to blood volume change. This method may be useful to measure physiological changes of blood volume in various human tissues though we need further development of hardware to measure minute relative changes in MR signal intensity with small volume selection. (author)

  16. Measuring the value of induced technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze the value of induced technological change (ITC) for cutting the costs of reaching climate stabilization targets using techniques from the tax burden literature. First, ITC is valuable as it increases the elasticity of emissions with respect to carbon prices, and thereby it decreases the burden associated with an enforced emission reduction. Second, under ITC, emission abatement may generate a positive learning dividend when the social value of the induced change in learning exceeds its costs. We discuss under which assumptions we expect ITC to turn out a valuable feature, or not. We also carry out a numerical analysis with two models, one focusing on energy savings, the other focusing on energy transition. The models suggest that both the decreased carbon tax burden and the learning dividend gain can be substantial, compared to the costs of abatement without ITC



    Salvary, Stanley C. W.


    Debates on inflation have subsided, but the issue is not dead. Debates on this issue are as perennial as the grass; as soon as there are continuous and significant increases in the level of prices, the debates will be resumed with much vigor. Therefore, the issue has to be addressed in spite of the cessation of debate at this time. Many arguments have been presented that under conditions of changes in the general level of prices financial statements are irrelevant and uninterpretable. Accordi...

  18. New Developments in the Analysis and Measurement of Change. (United States)

    Arndt, Stephan

    The problem of change scores' correlation with initial status and the problem of low reliability in the measurement of change are addressed. By treating the correlation between initial status and change as a design problem rather than a statistical issue, research questions can be formulated in terms of changes in the shapes of growth curves…

  19. Expressivism and the value of truth


    Sinclair, Neil


    This paper is a reply to Michael Lynch's "Truth, Value and Epistemic Expressivism" in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research for 2009. It argues that Lynch's argument against expressivism fails because of an ambiguity in the employed notion of an 'epistemically disengaged standpoint'.

  20. On Vagueness, Truth Values and Fuzzy Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr


    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2009), s. 367-382. ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : vagueness * truth values * fuzzy logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Empirical progress and nomic truth approximation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Theodorus


    In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000) I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic truth approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of

  2. Library Marketing: Old and New Truths. (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel


    Discusses the use of marketing by not-for-profit institutions, focusing on its role in libraries. Ten truths relevant to library marketing at present and in the future, which deal with programs and services, marketing professionals, users' needs and concerns, and library budgets, are presented. (EJS)

  3. Inconvenient truth or public health threat? (United States)

    Bateman, Chris


    For Tim Noakes, the University of Cape Town's 'great centenary debate' on what constitutes a healthy diet was a 'kangaroo court', deliberately set up to discredit the 'inconvenient and threatening truths' behind his relatively recent and much-touted high-fat, no sugar, no carbohydrates eating regimen. PMID:23374311

  4. [Truth disclosure in medicine: psychological perspective]. (United States)

    Bascuñán, M Luz


    Truth telling in medicine is difficult and stressful. Medical training teaches to mitigate pain and suffering, but death and health deterioration causes feelings of frustration among physicians. Physicians tend to conceal bad news to avoid the suffering caused by such adverse information. However, veracity is an integral part of a respectful relationship and is the basis of confidence between patients and health providers. However, confusing truthfulness with a mere exposure of all the available information is an oversimplification of the problem. Therefore the real issue drifts from "how convenient is to communicate the truth" to "how to share the information with my patient" in a setting in which he can express his feeling and thoughts. Communicating the truth is an ethical imperative. The patient has the right to be informed and the physician must provide this information timely and taking into account the capacity, interest and emotional status of the patients. Therefore prudence, warmth and bioethical reasoning are required for a good medical practice. PMID:16075136

  5. Truthfulness in science teachers’ corporeal performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer


    , sincerity and trustworthiness in dealing with classroom management. Jane shows effort, fidelity and honesty in developing outdoor teaching. Simon shows transparency, objectivity and sincerity in his support of colleagues. By addressing the relations in the vocabulary of truthfulness the teachers in this...

  6. No-arbitrage conditions and absolutely continuous changes of measure


    Claudio Fontana


    We study the stability of several no-arbitrage conditions with respect to absolutely continuous, but not necessarily equivalent, changes of measure. We first consider models based on continuous semimartingales and show that no-arbitrage conditions weaker than NA and NFLVR are always stable. Then, in the context of general semimartingale models, we show that an absolutely continuous change of measure does never introduce arbitrages of the first kind as long as the change of measure density pro...

  7. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a...

  8. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truth-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be...

  9. TRUTHS Hidden in Plain View (United States)

    McCann, Thomas M.; Jones, Alan C.; Aronoff, Gail


    If schools are to improve, they must abandon the business-oriented rhetoric of the accountability movement and concentrate on what we know will improve student achievement: improving the quality of instruction in all classrooms. To accomplish this, educators first must define high-quality teaching and measure how closely teachers in the classrooms…

  10. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J


    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  11. Truth and beauty in contemporary urban photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colistra


    Full Text Available Does city still need photography? Or does it show itself more effectively through other forms of communication? The question brings us back almost two hundred years ago, at the time of the spread of the first daguerreotypes, when the query was: Does city still need painting? The question raises several other issues - truth and beauty, analogical and digital, truth and photo editing - that this essay examines by comparing some images. We are convinced that “the more we can speak of a picture, the more unlikely it is to speak of photography” (R. Barthes. The essay describes the work of some artists/photographers who have addressed the issue of urban photography. Works in which the figurative and visionary component is based on the interaction of traditional shooting techniques and processes of digital post-production.

  12. Telling the truth and medical ethics. (United States)

    Gillon, R


    Gillon discusses the conflicting moral implications of the principles of respect for autonomy and of beneficence and non-maleficence when telling patients the truth about their illnesses and treatments. The case for nondisclosure is usually based on three major arguments: that doctors' Hippocratic obligations to benefit and not harm their patients take precedence over not deceiving them; that the range of possible conditions and prognoses makes it difficult for physicians to know the full truth or for patients to comprehend it; and that patients do not wish to be told dire news. Gillon rejects each of these arguments, contending that avoiding deceit is a basic moral norm that can be defended from utilitarian as well as deontological points of view. With regard to the argument concerning patient attitudes, he recommends that pilot studies be done, asking patients what their preferences are at the time they register with a doctor or hospital. PMID:3933749

  13. An inconvenient truth; Une verite qui derange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Gore


    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  14. Truthful Unsplittable Flow for Large Capacity Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Yossi; Gutner, Shai


    In this paper, we focus our attention on the large capacities unsplittable flow problem in a game theoretic setting. In this setting, there are selfish agents, which control some of the requests characteristics, and may be dishonest about them. It is worth noting that in game theoretic settings many standard techniques, such as randomized rounding, violate certain monotonicity properties, which are imperative for truthfulness, and therefore cannot be employed. In light of this state of affairs, we design a monotone deterministic algorithm, which is based on a primal-dual machinery, which attains an approximation ratio of $\\frac{e}{e-1}$, up to a disparity of $\\epsilon$ away. This implies an improvement on the current best truthful mechanism, as well as an improvement on the current best combinatorial algorithm for the problem under consideration. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that any algorithm in the family of reasonable iterative path minimizing algorithms, cannot yield a better approximation ratio. Conseque...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laly Catalina Peralta Gonzalez


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the right of truth in order to elucidate the complexity and tensions involved in defining what ‘truth’ means in transitional contexts. Following this purpose, it explores the experience undergone by the women of San Carlos (Antioquia in the Centro de Acercamiento para la Reparación y la Reconciliación.

  16. Belief, truth, and the enigma of error.


    Solberg, Mariann


    The thesis discusses problems related to the American Philosopher Donald Davidson’s (1917-2003) views upon beliefs, truth and error. Underlying questions are; what are the basic conditions for knowledge? What are the prerequisites for understanding other human beings? What are the conditions for emergence of beliefs that can be true or false? The thesis focuses on the role that our inherited characteristics play in understanding other human beings, and these are seen in relation to the signif...

  17. The Vienna School for Truth Exploration


    Hijab, Wasfi A.


    The [fantasy] Vienna School for Truth Exploration was founded by Ludwig Wittgenstein in 1918 [the Tractatus"s Preface date]. Its aim: Prepare students for exploring the world and its reality. Its textbook: The famous Tractatus. Its motto: "Argue or Agree!" The School has a peculiar aura of back-to-the-future, since its students have already been to a mid-nineteen forties Ludwig Wittgenstein"s lectures at Cambridge. It may get confusing, as these "two" philosophers happ...

  18. States, Events, and Truth-makers


    Botti Benevides, Alessander; Masolo, Claudio


    In the last decade, the debate about the ontological foundations of reified temporal logics (RTLs) has been relatively quiet, even though we think some problems still exist. In this paper, we identify some of these problems and propose (partial) solutions to them in a FOL framework. States are here characterized (at the syntactic level) as truth-makers of propositions-they reify true propositions-and events are built from states. These choices make the event-state distinction much crisper tha...

  19. Truth, Reason, and Faith in Modern Civilisation: The violence of truth and the truth of violence in modern �secular� Western civilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn


    Full Text Available What is truth? What is reason? What is faith? These questions have been hotly debated and have been the cause of violence prior to the rise of the modern and so-called secular state. The rise of the modern �secular� state was founded on the distinction between reason and faith thus bringing to an end the religious violence which was inspired by their respective truths. The concept of truth will be questioned, thus questioning the �truth� that reason and faith can be neatly separated from each other and consequently that the secular and religious can be separated into neat categories. There is an inherent violence (political, religious and linguistic in the Truth(s, be it the truths of either religion or secular reason, namely the originary linguistic violence of truth. This article will ask the question: How can one speak of truth, reason and faith in a modern civilisation and seek ways beyond the violence of truths towards interdisciplinary open dialogue of a democracy still to come?

  20. Camera on Vessel: A Camera-Based System to Measure Change in Water Volume in a Drinking Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Ayoola


    Full Text Available A major problem related to chronic health is patients’ “compliance” with new lifestyle changes, medical prescriptions, recommendations, or restrictions. Heart-failure and hemodialysis patients are usually placed on fluid restrictions due to their hemodynamic status. A holistic approach to managing fluid imbalance will incorporate the monitoring of salt-water intake, body-fluid retention, and fluid excretion in order to provide effective intervention at an early stage. Such an approach creates a need to develop a smart device that can monitor the drinking activities of the patient. This paper employs an empirical approach to infer the real water level in a conically shapped glass and the volume difference due to changes in water level. The method uses a low-resolution miniaturized camera to obtain images using an Arduino microcontroller. The images are processed in MATLAB. Conventional segmentation techniques (such as a Sobel filter to obtain a binary image are applied to extract the level gradient, and an ellipsoidal fitting helps to estimate the size of the cup. The fitting (using least-squares criterion between derived measurements in pixel and the real measurements shows a low covariance between the estimated measurement and the mean. The correlation between the estimated results to ground truth produced a variation of 3% from the mean.

  1. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan. (United States)

    Gillett, Grant


    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism. PMID:26615543

  2. Folded Compact Range Development and Coherent Change Detection Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.


    A novel, folded compact range configuration has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories compact range antenna and radar cross section measurement facility, operated by the Radar/Antenna Department 2343, as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD) measurements. This report describes the development of the folded compact range configuration, as well as the initial set of coherent change detection measurements made with the system. These measurements have been highly successful, and have demonstrated the viability of the folded compact range concept in simulating SAR CCD measurements. It is felt that follow-on measurements have the potential of contributing significantly to the body of knowledge available to the scientific community involved in CCD image generation and processing, and that this tool will be a significant aid in the research and development of change detection methodologies.

  3. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti


    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  4. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel


    study ofGIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter onthe surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recentlydeveloped ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change...... in Greenland. Theresult is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected GreenlandNetwork (GNET) sites.We find that observations are highly influenced by the direct attraction from the ice and ocean. Thisis especially evident in the measurements conducted at the...... GNET station near the Helheim Glacier.The effect of the direct attraction diminishes at sites that are more than one degree from the source.Here, the dominant signal is the effect of the elastic signal from present day ice mass changes. We findagreement between the measured and modelled gravity changes...

  5. Measures for assessing practice change in medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increasing numbers of randomised trials and systematic reviews examining the efficacy of interventions designed to bring about a change in clinical practice. The findings of this research are being used to guide strategies to increase the uptake of evidence into clinical practice. Knowledge of the outcomes measured by these trials is vital not only for the interpretation and application of the work done to date, but also to inform future research in this expanding area of endeavour and to assist in collation of results in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Methods The objective of this review was to identify methods used to measure change in the clinical practices of health professionals following an intervention aimed at increasing the uptake of evidence into practice. All published trials included in a recent, comprehensive Health Technology Assessment of interventions to implement clinical practice guidelines and change clinical practice (n = 228 formed the sample for this study. Using a standardised data extraction form, one reviewer (SH, extracted the relevant information from the methods and/or results sections of the trials. Results Measures of a change of health practitioner behaviour were the most common, with 88.8% of trials using these as outcome measures. Measures that assessed change at a patient level, either actual measures of change or surrogate measures of change, were used in 28.8% and 36.7% of studies (respectively. Health practitioners' knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 22.8% of the studies and changes at an organisational level were assessed in 17.6%. Conclusion Most trials of interventions aimed at changing clinical practice measured the effect of the intervention at the level of the practitioner, i.e. did the practitioner change what they do, or has their knowledge of and/or attitude toward that practice changed? Less than one-third of the trials measured, whether or not any change


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael DELOACH


    Full Text Available For societies suffering in the wake of a repressive regime, truth commissions may be a necessary compromise regarding the form of transitional justice pursued, but they can still play a far-reaching role in the democratization of civil-military relations. Because the perpetrators of past abuses are likely to continue to wield some level of power at the time of transition, prosecution of these members may be politically infeasible. Lacking the mandate to prosecute guilty parties or implement recommendations, truth commissions can still lay the foundation for a new era of civil-military relations. By distinguishing contemporary institutions from their past acts, revealing the patterns that allowed abuses to be carried out , and helping garner the political will for reforms, truth commissions can provide the impetus for the security sector reforms necessary to ensure a democratic future.

  7. An Inconvenient Truth: An Application of the Extended Parallel Process Model (United States)

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Roberto, Anthony J.


    "An Inconvenient Truth" is an Academy Award-winning documentary about global warming presented by Al Gore. This documentary is appropriate for a lesson on fear appeals and the extended parallel process model (EPPM). The EPPM is concerned with the effects of perceived threat and efficacy on behavior change. Perceived threat is composed of an…

  8. Quality Changes of Frozen Meat During Storage and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jiangping


    The frozen is a common method of meat storage, generally applications in meat industrial. However, the quality of meat still have taken place changes even in the low temperature, This article discussion on the changes of frozen meat quality during freezing storage, and give the corresponding control measures.

  9. Measuring Resistance to Change at the Within-Session Level (United States)

    Tonneau, Francois; Rios, Americo; Cabrera, Felipe


    Resistance to change is often studied by measuring response rate in various components of a multiple schedule. Response rate in each component is normalized (that is, divided by its baseline level) and then log-transformed. Differential resistance to change is demonstrated if the normalized, log-transformed response rate in one component decreases…

  10. Performance measurement of workplace change in two different cultural contexts


    Riratanaphong, C.


    There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. This PhD research fo...

  11. A measurement framework for pin-pointing routing changes


    Teixeira, Renata; Rexford, Jennifer


    Changes in the end-to-end path between two hosts can lead to sud-den changes in the round-trip time and available bandwidth, or even the complete loss of connectivity. Determining the reason for the routing change is crucial for diagnosing and fixing the problem, and for holding a particular domain accountable for the disrup-tion. Active measurement tools like traceroute can infer the cur-rent path between two end-points, but not where and why the path changed. Analyzing BGP data from multipl...

  12. University: truth, scientific research and professional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Betancourt-Serna


    Full Text Available This is a historical overview of the university institution based on the ternary chronological paradigm– Medieval University (XI-XVIII centuries, Modern University (XIX and XX centuries and Contemporary University (XXI century and on. Then, it takes into account the university purposedetermined nature according to the historical period: Truth (Medieval University, scientific research (Modern University and professional training ( Contemporary University. It also considers the scientist typology as follows: humanist (Medieval University, experimental (Modern University and geonomic (Contemporary University. First and second ternary contemporary models have disregarded the prior models to some extent. Nonetheless, the three purpose-determined models contribute to figure out the university institution identity.

  13. Trauma, healing and the reconstruction of truth. (United States)

    Mucci, Clara


    The author analyzes recent developments in trauma theory, made necessary especially after the massive psychic traumas following World War II and the Shoah. The theories of Freud and Ferenczi are analyzed, especially, their different views of reality and their clinical attitude. When working with survivors of any trauma (from incest to genocide) it is necessary to reconstruct the historical details as carefully as possible, with the appropriate timing. Psychoanalysis is therefore viewed as an ethical and political practice similar to testimony, allowing the reconstruction of truth within the community and interrupting the cycle of the death instinct from one generation to the next. PMID:24603171

  14. Searching for the Truth about "Truth in Testing" Legislation. A Background Report. Report No. 132. (United States)

    Brown, Rexford; McClung, Merle Steven

    The background out of which "truth in testing" legislation arose is reviewed in this report, which also describes existing state and federal testing legislation, details arguments raised in hearings on the legislation, analyzes the legal issues raised, and provides a framework for simplifying the arguments and gathering more information. At the…

  15. Measuring change management in manufacturing processes : a measurement method for simulation-game-based process development


    Taskinen, Leo Tapani


    The aim of this research is to find an answer to the research problem, which is "How can change management be measured in order to help manufacturing companies develop their manufacturing processes?" To solve the research problem, a constructive action research method is applied. The proposed solution to the research problem, i.e., a change management measurement system, is developed based on principles found in project management literature, process change management literature, performance ...

  16. The truth on journalism: relations between its practice and discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bertasso Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretically approach over the relations that journalism establishes with the concept of truth. The notion of truth in Foucault leads the debate. This reflection centers on how journalism builds discursive strategies that produces effects of truth on itsreports. The journalist discourse presents itselfas truthful, although its constructive discourse of the world is a result of rules, practices and values. The debate of “truth” allows us to comprehend the complexity and particularities of journalism as a discursive practice that has reflection in the social knowledge of reality.

  17. Perjury versus Truth-Revelation: Quantity or Quality of Testimony


    Winand Emons


    In trials witnesses often slant their testimony to advance their interests.To obtain truthful testimony, courts rely on perjury rules. We show that perjury rules are not truth-revealing and we derive a truth-revealing mechanism for the same set of restrictions under which perjury rules operate. If the judge uses a truth-revealing mechanism, he will get less testimony than under perjury because the defendant will not present a witness with unfavorable news; however, testimony is of higher qual...

  18. Tarski’s one and only concept of truth


    Smid, Jeroen


    In a recent article, David (Tarski’s convention T and the concept of truth, pp. 133–156, 2008) distinguishes between two interpretations of Tarski’s work on truth. The standard interpretation has it that Tarski gave us a definition of truth in-L within the meta-language; the non-standard interpretation, that Tarski did not give us a definition of true sentence in L, but rather a definition of truth, and Tarski does so for L within the metalanguage. The difference is crucial: for on the ...

  19. Trends in Mapping, Measuring, and Monitoring Land Cover Change (United States)

    Loveland, T. R.; Hansen, M.


    The necessity for improved maps and statistics documenting the rates and characteristics of land cover change from local to global scales has been driven by the acceptance that land change has pervasive and substantial environmental consequences. The expanding need for accurate land cover change characteristics data over long time periods and large geographic areas has stimulated both methodological and mission advances. Two important methodological advances include the use of the continuous fields approach for quantifying key landscape characteristics including vegetation cover and surface imperviousness, and the increased emphasis on using probability sampling to precisely estimate land cover change rates. We are using Landsat-based sampling within ecoregions to assess 1972-2000 land change in the United States. An additional methodological trend is the use of multi-source remotely sensed data for land cover change assessments. An example that blends these three elements is our use of MODIS and Landsat to map and measure 2000-2005 global deforestation. MODIS forest fraction maps provide an annual source of forest change locations that provides an efficient means to stratify probable change. Automated classification of randomly sampled Landsat scenes provide a means for detecting forest change within forest biomes and generating precise estimates of period deforestation. Studies such as this are enabled by the NASA Earth Observing System program and the NASA-USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission. Together, these missions extend the global Earth observation record to unprecedented levels and enable new generations of detailed land change assessments.

  20. Measurement of cell volume changes by fluorescence self-quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, J.F.; Litman, Thomas; Alvarez-Leefmans, F.J.; Winther, B. R.; Zeuthen, Thomas


    At high concentrations, certain fluorophores undergo self-quenching, i.e., fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing fluorophore concentration. Accordingly, the self-quenching properties can be used for measuring water volume changes in lipid vesicles. In cells, quantitative determination of...... concentrations of the fluorophore calcein suitable for measurement of changes in cell water volume by self-quenching. The relationship between calcein fluorescence intensity, when excited at 490 nm (its excitation maximum), and calcein concentration was investigated in vitro and in various cultured cell types...... corresponded to a decrease in calcein fluorescence with high signal-to-noise ratio (>15). Similar results were obtained with the fluorophore BCECF when excited at its isosbestic wavelength (436 nm). The present results demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence self-quenching to measure rapid changes in cell...

  1. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Technique to Measure Changes in Intracranial Pressure (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.


    Changes in intracranial pressure can be measured dynamically and non-invasively by monitoring one or more cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile components. Pulsatile components such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures are partially transferred to the cerebrospinal fluid by way of blood vessels contained in the surrounding brain tissue and membrane. As intracranial pressure varies these cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile components also vary. Thus, intracranial pressure can be dynamically measured. Furthermore, use of acoustics allows the measurement to be completely non-invasive. In the preferred embodiment, phase comparison of a reflected acoustic signal to a reference signal using a constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop ultrasonic device allows the pulsatile components to be monitored. Calibrating the device by inducing a known change in intracranial pressure allows conversion to changes in intracranial pressure.

  2. Measuring Changes in the Economics of Medical Practice. (United States)

    Fleming, Christopher; Rich, Eugene; DesRoches, Catherine; Reschovsky, James; Kogan, Rachel


    For the latter third of the twentieth century, researchers have estimated production and cost functions for physician practices. Today, those attempting to measure the inputs and outputs of physician practice must account for many recent changes in models of care delivery. In this paper, we review practice inputs and outputs as typically described in research on the economics of medical practice, and consider the implications of the changing organization of medical practice and nature of physician work. This evolving environment has created conceptual challenges in what are the appropriate measures of output from physician work, as well as what inputs should be measured. Likewise, the increasing complexity of physician practice organizations has introduced challenges to finding the appropriate data sources for measuring these constructs. Both these conceptual and data challenges pose measurement issues that must be overcome to study the economics of modern medical practice. Despite these challenges, there are several promising initiatives involving data sharing at the organizational level that could provide a starting point for developing the needed new data sources and metrics for physician inputs and outputs. However, additional efforts will be required to establish data collection approaches and measurements applicable to smaller and single specialty practices. Overcoming these measurement and data challenges will be key to supporting policy-relevant research on the changing economics of medical practice. PMID:26105674

  3. Measurable Changes in Hydronephrosis During Pregnancy Induced by Positional Changes: Ultrasonic Assessment and its Diagnostic Implication


    Mehdi Haghighat; Mohammad Rajaei Isfahani


    Introduction: Unilateral or bilateral dilation of the ureters occurs commonly during pregnancy. Ultrasonography is a suitable diagnostic method for hydronephrosis; however, it cannot differentiate obstructive from nonobstructive hydronephrosis. Our aim was to evaluate measurable changes in hydronephrosis induced by a mother’s positional changes using ultrasonography to differentiate hydronephrosis during pregnancy from pathologic etiologies. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women presenting fo...

  4. Are gait variability and stability measures influenced by directional changes?


    Riva, F; Grimpampi, E.; Mazza, C; Stagni, R.


    Background Many gait variability and stability measures have been proposed in the literature, with the aim to quantify gait impairment, degree of neuro-motor control and balance disorders in healthy and pathological subjects. These measures are often obtained from lower trunk acceleration data, typically acquired during rectilinear gait, but relevant experimental protocols and data processing techniques lack in standardization. Since directional changes represent an essential aspect of gai...

  5. Measuring multivariate redundant information with pointwise common change in surprisal


    Robin A. A. Ince


    The problem of how to properly quantify redundant information is an open question that has been the subject of much recent research. Redundant information refers to information about a target variable S that is common to two or more predictor variables Xi. It can be thought of as quantifying overlapping information content or similarities in the representation of S between the Xi. We present a new measure of redundancy which measures the common change in surprisal shared between variables at ...

  6. Method for Measuring Changes in Surface Tension on Agar


    Weisberg, David S.; Dworkin, Martin


    The surface tension of agar surfaces was determined by measuring the contact angles formed by drops of various hydrophobic liquids on the surface and then calculating the composite surface free energy function by solving a series of simultaneous equations derived from these data. This method was used to measure the change in the surface tension of agar produced by the addition of various concentrations of albumin. The resulting curve was typical of the effect of increasing concentrations of s...

  7. Measurement equivalence of the dispositional resistance to change scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oreg, S.; Bayazıt, M.; Vakola, M.; Arciniega, L.; Armenakis, A.; Barkauskiene, R.; Bozionelos, N.; Fujimoto, Y.; González, L.; Han, J.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jimmieson, N.; Kordačová, J.; Mitsuhashi, H.; Mlačić, B.; Ferič, I.; Kotrla Topič, M.; Ohly, S.; Oystein Saksvik, P.; Hetland, H.; Saksvik, I.B.; van Dam, K.

    New York : Routledge, 2011 - (Davidov, E.; Schmidt, P.; Billiet, J.), s. 249-278 ISBN 978-1-84872-823-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700250702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : dispositional resistance to change * measurement * validation across cultures Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  8. Measuring reliable change of emotional and behavioural problems in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, Maria; Bilenberg, Niels


    that if these corrections are implemented in routine outcome measurement of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD), the estimate of change in total HoNOSCA score after adjustment is clearly smaller in absolute value than the absolute difference estimate. If RTM and the ceiling/floor effect...

  9. Elevation Change Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, R.; Keller, K.; Nielsen, C. S.; Gundestrup, N.; Tscherning, C. C.; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Dall, Jørgen


    Repeated GPS measurements have been performed at the centre of the Greenland Ice Sheet since 1992. Results have shown that the ice sheet is essentially stable at this location, with GPS-determined strain and elevation change rates in good accordance with yearly snow accumulation and glaciological....... The paper outlines the surveys carried out, some preliminary results, and intercomparisons of GPS, laser altimetry and SAR techniques.......Repeated GPS measurements have been performed at the centre of the Greenland Ice Sheet since 1992. Results have shown that the ice sheet is essentially stable at this location, with GPS-determined strain and elevation change rates in good accordance with yearly snow accumulation and glaciological...... flow models. In a local ice cap in East Greenland (Geikie Plateau) repeated GPS, airborne laser altimetry and SAR interferometry have been used to study ice movements in the more climatically variable coastal zone, where meter-level annual elevation changes are possible due to the high precipitation...

  10. On authenticity: the question of truth in construction and autobiography. (United States)

    Collins, Sara


    Freud was occupied with the question of truth and its verification throughout his work. He looked to archaeology for an evidence model to support his ideas on reconstruction. He also referred to literature regarding truth in reconstruction, where he saw shifts between historical fact and invention, and detected such swings in his own case histories. In his late work Freud pondered over the impossibility of truth in reconstruction by juxtaposing truth with 'probability'. Developments on the role of fantasy and myth in reconstruction and contemporary debates over objectivity have increasingly highlighted the question of 'truth' in psychoanalysis. I will argue that 'authenticity' is a helpful concept in furthering the discussion over truth in reconstruction. Authenticity denotes that which is genuine, trustworthy and emotionally accurate in a reconstruction, as observed within the immediacy of the analyst/patient interaction. As authenticity signifies genuineness in a contemporary context its origins are verifiable through the analyst's own observations of the analytic process itself. Therefore, authenticity is about the likelihood and approximation of historical truth rather than its certainty. In that respect it links with Freud's musings over 'probability'. Developments on writing 'truths' in autobiography mirror those in reconstruction, and lend corroborative support from another source. PMID:22212034

  11. Ground truth data requirements for altimeter performance verification (United States)

    Walsh, E. J.


    The amount and type of ground truth required for an altimeter experiment is a function of the uncertainty in the satellite orbit, the altimeter error budget and the type of operation being performed. Ground truth requirements will be discussed with reference to three areas of operation: the global mode, the high intensity mode and calibration.

  12. Some Arguments for the Operational Reading of Truth Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gomułka


    Full Text Available The main question of our article is: What is the logical form of statements containing expressions such as “… is true” and “it is true that …”? We claim that these expressions are generally not used in order to assign a certain property to sentences. We indicate that a predicative interpretation of these expressions was rejected by Frege and adherents to the prosentential conception of truth. We treat these expressions as operators. The main advantage of our operational reading is the fact that it adequately represents how the words, “true” and “truth,” function in everyday speech. Our approach confirms the intuition that so-called T-equivalences are not contingent truths, and explains why they seem to be—in some sense—necessary sentences. Moreover, our operational readingof truth expressions dissolves problems arising from the belief that there is some specific property—truth. The fact that we reject that truth is a certain property does not mean that we deny that the concept of truth plays a very important role in our language, and hence in our life. We indicate that the concept of truth is inseparable from the concept of sentence and vice versa—it is impossible to explicate one of these concepts without appeal to the other.

  13. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro;


    algorithms at their core. These methods require accurate ground truth of both malicious and benign DNS traffic for model training as well as for the performance evaluation. This paper elaborates on the problem of obtaining such a ground truth and evaluates practices employed by contemporary detection methods...

  14. Truth or dare: expertise and risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing evidence that the public is as concerned with the risks associated with technology as it is enthused by the opportunities that technology presents. Experts are increasingly referred to not so much for solutions to social problems per se, but paradoxically to problems attendant on technological solutions themselves. In these circumstances, there is an urgent need for the role of the expert to be clarified. While the public and political actors have essentially looked to experts for certainty in an uncertain world, this is precisely what scientific rationality cannot provide. The inherent modesty of science (exemplified, for example, by the need for falsifiability) must always be compromised at the point when a decision is made, when 'knowledge' becomes 'action'. There is accordingly a need to be clear about the status of scientific information or knowledge on the one hand, and the effect of the decision to act on the other - and hence the appropriate locus of responsibility. Analysing the process from expert advice through to political or economic decision can help to clarify the point at which misunderstanding arises, at which the inherently provisional truth of science is transformed into the effectively absolute truth implied by a decision to apply knowledge as technology. Recognizing that it is at this point that risks are run (as well as the opportunity for rewards created) may lead to greater clarity as to the respective roles. It may in turn offer some lessons as regards the design of risk governance arrangements and the place of experts in them. (author)

  15. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth. (United States)

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg


    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements. PMID:27474181

  16. An Inconvenient Truth: Barriers to Truth Recovery in the Aftermath of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland


    Mcalinden, Anne-marie


    Contemporary settled democracies, including the United States, England and Wales and Ireland, have witnessed a string of high profile cases of institutional child abuse in both church and state settings. Set against the broader literature on transitional justice, this analysis argues that there are significant barriers to truth recovery within the particular context of historical institutional abuse by the clergy in the Republic of Ireland. In the main, I argue that the frameworks of the inqu...

  17. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions. (United States)

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio


    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  18. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar S. Kolosovas-Machuca


    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p<0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p<0.001 and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  19. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravinder Kumar Banyal; B Raghavendra Prasad


    We report the pump-probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.

  20. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films (United States)

    Banyal, Ravinder Kumar; Raghavendra Prasad, B.


    We report the pump--probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.

  1. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    ), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom and...... measurement system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  2. Modeling environmental changes from measures of spatial environmental structure (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Ciobanu, Mircea; Nicolae, Doina N.; Talianu, Camelia


    Change is intrinsic to ecosystems, but is also the essence of instability and the outgrowth of situations that lack sustainability. It must also be recognized that change can be associated with either restoration or degradation. Compressed multiband image data provides increased flexibility and practicality for systematic change detection on a regional basis. Combining such capability with conceptual extensions of spatial pattern analysis represents a methodology for systematically monitoring spatial structure of spectral change across landscapes in order to profile characteristic broad scale regimes of change and to indicate trends in those regimes. Sustainability and ecosystem health are watchwords of contemporary ecosystem management. To solve urgent needs in application of remote sensing data, environmental change must be detected based on monitoring spatial and temporal regimes across landscapes. Environmental landscape level indices are used to examine land cover transitions. Based on classified TM images for North-Western Black Sea, Constantza urban area, Romania, conditional probability matrices of land cover transition are compared to measures of landscape structure. Based on proper algorithms for structural composition modeling were defined landscape elements being estimated the probabilistic behavior of pixels. This approach suggests a means of linking the probabilistic behavior of the fine scale dynamics to the pattern observed at larger spatial scales.

  3. Sweat gland function as a measure of radiation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy may result in dryness of the skin even when no other change can be detected. We describe a system for recording the electrical conductance of skin as a measure of sweat gland function. In 22 normal volunteers close agreement was obtained between measurements obtained from comparable sites on both sides of the chest. Measurements were subsequently made in 38 patients treated by radiotherapy to one side of the chest for tumours of the breast or lung using one of five different fractionation schedules. Simultaneous readings were obtained from both sides of the chest with the non irradiated side acting as a control. A dose response relationship was demonstrated: five patients who received the equivalent total dose of 15 Gy in 2-Gy fractions showed no change in conductance. Sixteen out of 23 who received an equivalent total dose of 42-46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions had a greater than 22% reduction in mean skin conductance compared with that of the control areas despite the skin appearing normal in the large majority. Marked changes in skin conductance were seen after higher total doses. In a prospective study 18 women receiving breast irradiation underwent weekly readings during treatment. A mean reduction of 40% in skin conductance was noted by the end of the second week of treatment prior to any clinical evidence of radiation change. Skin conductance returned to normal in 44% of patients by 6 months. In the remainder, those patients who showed the greatest reduction in skin conductance during treatment demonstrated the least recovery. Changes in sweat gland function can be detected and quantified in skin which may otherwise appear normal. Differences may so be demonstrated between areas treated using different fractionation schedules and the method may be applied to the detection during radiotherapy of unusually sensitive patient. (author)

  4. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong


    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee’s performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. Performance measurement methods which include an integrated perspective of performance have become essential. In addition, it has been realised that corporate real estate can contribute to organisational performance (Nourse and Roulac, 1993, De Vries et al., 2008, Lindholm, 2008, Den Heijer, 2011, Jensen et al., 2012. For this reason, worldwide organisations started to implement new ways of working in a more open and flexible work environment. Although there are various objectives and drivers of workplace change, the common objectives are to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. The new workplace does not only aim at achieving cost efficiency, but it should also support employee satisfaction and productivity.This PhD research focuses on both themes i.e. performance measurement of workplace change. The aim of this research is to provide a conceptual framework that visualises the impact of workplace change on employees’ responses to the new work environment and to present guidelines on performance measurement of workplace change

  5. A polarimeter for measurement of transient retardation changes. (United States)

    Johnston, A R


    An electronic polarimeter is described in which a signal-sampling technique and feedback are used together to measure periodic retardation changes. A Faraday cell is arranged to feed back a rotation just sufficient to cancel that caused by the unknown retardation, so that the Faraday cell current provides the quantitative measure desired. The photomultiplier output is fed to a sampling oscilloscope in the feedback loop. The instrument is best suited for the measurement of small retardation changes, of the order of 50 mrad or less. The 6-nsec time resolution obtained was limited by the photomultiplier response; a faster detector could improve it considerably. The repeatability obtained of 10(-4) rad was determined by the usual compromise between noise, primarily photon noise, and averaging time. However, other factors limit the accuracy attainable to, at best, +/-3%, for a retardation change of ~20 mrad, while a more typical accuracy was +/-5%. Either Faraday rotation, or small rotations of the optical ellipsoid of aspecimen, could also be observed. PMID:20072532

  6. A global optimization paradigm based on change of measures. (United States)

    Sarkar, Saikat; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan


    A global optimization framework, COMBEO (Change Of Measure Based Evolutionary Optimization), is proposed. An important aspect in the development is a set of derivative-free additive directional terms, obtainable through a change of measures en route to the imposition of any stipulated conditions aimed at driving the realized design variables (particles) to the global optimum. The generalized setting offered by the new approach also enables several basic ideas, used with other global search methods such as the particle swarm or the differential evolution, to be rationally incorporated in the proposed set-up via a change of measures. The global search may be further aided by imparting to the directional update terms additional layers of random perturbations such as 'scrambling' and 'selection'. Depending on the precise choice of the optimality conditions and the extent of random perturbation, the search can be readily rendered either greedy or more exploratory. As numerically demonstrated, the new proposal appears to provide for a more rational, more accurate and, in some cases, a faster alternative to many available evolutionary optimization schemes. PMID:26587268

  7. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes (United States)

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex


    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  8. Truthfulness in science teachers’ bodily and verbal actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer


    actions. The analysis shows how science teachers engage truthfully in pupil relations through an effort of applying classroom management, among other things. In all, this indicates that if science education research wants to understand science teachers’ personal relations to teaching science it could......A dramaturgical approach to teacher’s personal bodily and verbal actions is applied through the vocabulary of truthfulness. Bodily and verbal actions have been investigated among Danish primary and lower secondary school science teachers based on their narratives and observations of their classroom...... be beneficial to address the truthfulness of science teachers’ narratives and actions....

  9. "Angels & Demons" - Distinguishing truth from fiction

    CERN Multimedia


    Dan Brown's best-selling novel "Angels & Demons" was published in French on 2 March. A web page on CERN's public site is dedicated to separating truth from fiction in this novel. After the extraordinary success of Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", one of his earlier novels "Angels & Demons", published in 2000, has now become a best seller and has generated a flood of questions about CERN. This detective story is about a secret society, the Illuminati, who wish to destroy the Vatican with an antimatter bomb stolen from - wait for it - CERN! Inevitably, CERN has been bombarded with calls about the technologies described in the novel that are supposed to be under development in the Laboratory. The Press Office has always explained that, even if the novel appears to be very informative, it is in fact a mixture of fact and fiction. For instance, according to the novel CERN is supposed to own a plane that can cover the distance between Massachusetts in the United States and Switzerland in just over an hour! ...

  10. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Stan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics (where the author uses a thesis that forms a part of his own philosophy in order to reconstruct and understand the ideas of another philosopher and anideological hermeneutics (where he uses a statement expressing an interest of the community whereof he is a member in order to interpret and reconstruct the text of another philosopher. In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the interpreter wishes to unveil a truth about the philosophical text, in the other two he israther expressing a desire to talk about himself, his own beliefs and convictions, or about the beliefs of his community of reference.

  11. Telling the truth in a crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: My presentation will focus on communicating in a crisis. Drawing on my experience as NATO's Spokesman during the Kosovo air campaign and, more recently, the fight against terrorism in Afghanistan, I will outline the pressures that the media place on organizations once they are in the media spotlight. I will discuss the importance of real time information, how to deal with mistakes and how to organize a media campaign in order to seize the initiative and put one's message across. What kind of organization do you need and how do you ensure that all the players are properly coordinated? What are the target audiences and how do you deal effectively with opponents seeking to discredit your handling of the crisis? My presentation will look at the respective merits of using TV, radio, newspapers and Internet as means of crisis communication. It will also highlight the increasing role of NGOs in setting the media agenda. In an environment dominated by PR executives and 'spin doctors', the challenge is to combine truth and credibility with organization and professionalism while staying calm under pressure. How NATO attempted to meet this challenge in Kosovo, learning from the inevitable mistakes it made along the way, will be a lesson that applies to any organization caught - voluntarily or involuntarily - in a sudden crisis. (author)

  12. Convenient analogies for an inconvenient truth. (United States)

    Sargious, Peter


    Improving the health of individuals and populations while assuring the sustainability of modern healthcare systems requires a greater commitment to chronic disease prevention and management. In Canada, national challenges in the management of health care systems, such as prolonged wait times, have benefited from targeted federal investment, with provincial and territorial collaboration in the development and implementation of local strategies. The lead paper "An Inconvenient Truth: A Sustainable Healthcare System Requires Chronic Disease Prevention and Management Transformation," makes a sound argument for a similar investment toward the epidemic of chronic disease. Any strategy that might emerge from such a federal commitment ought to recognize two fundamentally important issues. First, as chronic disease prevention and management activities are largely community-based (rather than hospital or facility-based), Canada has an opportunity to move beyond a potentially disparate collection of provincial and territorial approaches to a truly national strategy. Second, and more important, effective chronic disease prevention and management will only be achievable if we reframe the challenge as a societal issue, not simply a health system concern. This reframing exercise might benefit from a greater understanding of how societal responses to other crises, such as global warming, have been triggered or accelerated. PMID:17595550

  13. Nothing but the truth? On truth and deception in dementia care. (United States)

    Schermer, Maartje


    Lies and deception are often used in the care for demented elderly and often with the best intentions. However, there is a strong moral presumption against all forms of lying and deceiving. The goal of this article is to examine and evaluate concrete examples of deception and lies in dementia care, while addressing some fundamental issues in the process. It is argued that because dementia slowly diminishes the capacities one needs to distinguish between truths and falsehoods, the ability to be lied to also disappears. When the moral reasons to reject lying are explored, it becomes clear that most of them also hold where demented patients are concerned, though this also depends on the capacities of the patient. Lying, though prima facie wrong, can sometimes be justified with an appeal to well-being. The relationship between well-being and the truth is further explored. Two examples of deceiving demented patients for reasons of beneficence are discussed, from which it can be concluded that although in some cases beneficent lies or deception will not enhance patients' well-being, there are circumstances in which they do. In general, methods that enhance the well-being of the patient without deception or lies should be favored above options that use deceit, and methods of getting the truth across without hurting the patient should be favored above blunt honesty Finally it is important to note that not only the patient but also the nursing and medical staff can be affected by the use of lies and deception. PMID:17845498

  14. Note: Work function change measurement via improved Anderson method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose the modification to the Anderson method of work function change (Δϕ) measurements. In this technique, the kinetic energy of the probing electrons is already low enough for non-destructive investigation of delicate molecular systems. However, in our implementation, all electrodes including filament of the electron gun are polarized positively. As a consequence, electron bombardment of any elements of experimental system is eliminated. Our modification improves cleanliness of the ultra-high vacuum system. As an illustration of the solution capabilities, we present Δϕ of the Ag(100) surface induced by cobalt phthalocyanine layers

  15. Note: Work function change measurement via improved Anderson method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabik, A., E-mail:; Gołek, F.; Antczak, G. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, Wrocław (Poland)


    We propose the modification to the Anderson method of work function change (Δϕ) measurements. In this technique, the kinetic energy of the probing electrons is already low enough for non-destructive investigation of delicate molecular systems. However, in our implementation, all electrodes including filament of the electron gun are polarized positively. As a consequence, electron bombardment of any elements of experimental system is eliminated. Our modification improves cleanliness of the ultra-high vacuum system. As an illustration of the solution capabilities, we present Δϕ of the Ag(100) surface induced by cobalt phthalocyanine layers.

  16. Women's Heart Disease: Join the Heart Truth Community (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Join The Heart Truth Community Past Issues / Winter ... introduced as the national symbol for women and heart disease awareness in 2002 by the NHLBI. The Red ...

  17. News, truth and crime: the Westray disaster and its aftermath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, J.L. [Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada). Department of Sociology and Criminology


    A study of the way the media portrayed the Westray Mine disaster and its aftermath over the period 1992 to 2002 is presented. The chapters titles are; power, discourse, and the production of news as truth; the explosion and its aftermath; studying the press and Westray; the press and the presentation of Westray's truth; and the politics of truth and the invisibility of corporate crime. News articles reporting the accident and outcome were sampled, coded, and evaluated by content analysis. It is concluded that the various media represented alternative truths, but did not label the corporation as criminal. This was missing from the media's reporting of the disaster.

  18. Change of measure in the lookdown particle system

    CERN Document Server

    Hénard, Olivier


    We perform various changes of measure in the lookdown particle system of Donnelly and Kurtz. The first example is a product type h-transform related to conditioning a Generalized Fleming Viot process without mutation on coexistence of some genetic types in remote time. We give a pathwise construction of this h-transform by just "forgetting" some reproduction events in the lookdown particle system. We also provide an intertwining relationship for the Wright Fisher diffusion and explicit the associated pathwise decomposition. The second example, called the linear or additive h-transform, concerns a wider class of measure valued processes with spatial motion. Applications include: -a simple description of the additive h-transform of the Generalized Fleming Viot process, which confirms a suggestion of Overbeck for the usual Fleming Viot process -an immortal particle representation for the additive h-transform of the Dawson Watanabe process.

  19. Measuring cynicism toward organizational change--one dimension or two? (United States)

    Albrecht, Simon


    Wanous, Reichers, and Austin's (2000) measure of cynicism about organizational change (CAOC) was subjected to validation and cross-validation procedures using data collected from two Australian public sector organizations. More specifically analyses were conducted to determine whether CAOC is best understood as a single dimensional or a two dimensional construct. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggest that neither a one dimensional nor a two dimensional measurement model provided a satisfactory fit to the data. However, removal of two of the original eight items resulted in a two dimensional model, with three items in each dimension, that provided a reasonable fit to the data. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19092231

  20. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)


    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  1. Situating Truth Commissions’ Historical Narratives in Context: Chile and Peru


    Bakiner, Onur


    Why do some truth commissions produce comprehensive historical narratives,while others limit themselves to writing short context chapters? Why do some narratives try to include as many perspectives as possible, while others seem content with a relatively narrow analysis? Why do some commissions avoid making judgment on politically sensitive issues, while others eagerly join historiographical controversies? What do the exclusions reveal about a particular truth commission’s understanding of tr...

  2. Public relations and journalism: truth, trust, transparency and integrity


    Davies, Frank


    Truth, trust, integrity and reputation are key concepts for understanding the relationship between journalists and public relations practitioners. This the paper: first, considers the current debate on the inter-relationship between journalism and public relations; second distinguishes varieties of public relations and journalism; third, analyses the Editorial Intelligence controversy; fourth, deconstructs aspects of "truth" and "trust" in the context of that debate; fifth, considers why the ...



    Cosmin Marinescu


    The ideas have a fundamental importance for world’s destiny. So, the scholar in economics has the consciousness responsibility to make the difference between correct and incorrect ideas. Within the human civilization world of thinking, the scientific ideas (universal truth) represent the essence of logical structure of human mind and, in the mean time, the truths about the human action and society that can be discovered by the man. In this approach, I will argue why the scholar honestmindedne...

  4. Inferring Ground Truth from Subjective Labelling of Venus Images


    Smyth, Padhraic; Fayyad, Usama; Burl, Michael; Perona, Pietro; Baldi, Pierre


    In remote sensing applications "ground-truth" data is often used as the basis for training pattern recognition algorithms to generate thematic maps or to detect objects of interest. In practical situations, experts may visually examine the images and provide a subjective noisy estimate of the truth. Calibrating the reliability and bias of expert labellers is a non-trivial problem. In this paper we discuss some of our recent work on this topic in the context of detecting small volcanoes in ...

  5. Growth changes in internal and craniofacial flexion measurements. (United States)

    May, R; Sheffer, D B


    Growth changes in both internal and craniofacial flexion angles are presented for Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and modern humans. The internal flexion angle (IFA) was measured from lateral radiographs, and the craniofacial flexion angle (CFA) was calculated from coordinate data. Stage of dental development is used as a baseline for examination of growth changes and nonparametric correlations between flexion angles and dental development stage are tested for significance. In Gorilla, the IFA increases during growth. The IFA is relatively stable in Pan and modern humans. Pan and Gorilla display an increase in the CFA. However, this angle decreases during growth in modern humans. Flexion angles were derived from coordinate data collected for several early hominid crania. Measurements for two robust australopithecine crania indicate strong internal flexion. It has been suggested that cerebellar expansion in this group may relate to derived features of the posterior cranial base. In general, australopithecine crania exhibit craniofacial flexion intermediate between great apes and modern humans. The "archaic" Homo sapiens specimen from Kabwe is most similar to modern humans. PMID:10490467

  6. Causality and Truth [Cauzalitate şi adevăr


    Dinga Emil


    The paper aims to discuss the concept of truth in its relation with causality. More exactly, the relation of causality between… causality and truth recognition is exposed and debated. The three types of truth are presented and examined in the light of the paper purpose, commenting on the consequences of the concordance-truth type, as well as crucial questions in knowledge and praxeology.

  7. Surface topographical changes measured by phase-locked interferometry (United States)

    Lauer, J. L.; Fung, S. S.


    An electronic optical laser interferometer capable of resolving depth differences of as low as 30 A and planar displacements of 6000 A was constructed to examine surface profiles of bearing surfaces without physical contact. Topological chemical reactivity was determined by applying a drop of dilute alcoholic hydrochloric acid and measuring the profile of the solid surface before and after application of this probe. Scuffed bearing surfaces reacted much faster than virgin ones but that bearing surfaces exposed to lubricants containing an organic chloride reacted much more slowly. The reactivity of stainless steel plates, heated in a nitrogen atmosphere to different temperatures, were examined later at ambient temperature. The change of surface contour as a result of the probe reaction followed Arrhenius-type relation with respect to heat treatment temperature. The contact area of the plate of a ball/plate sliding elastohydrodynamic contact run on trimethylopropane triheptanoate with or without additives was optically profiled periodically. As scuffing was approached, the change of profile within the contact region changed much more rapidly by the acid probe and assumed a constant high value after scuffing. A nonetching metallurgical phase was found in the scuff mark, which was apparently responsible for the high reactivity.

  8. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth. (United States)

    Epstein, Helen; Morris, Martina


    The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency.Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change. PMID:21406080

  9. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency. Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change.

  10. An Indispensable Truth How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F


    Both global warming and oil shortage can be solved by controlled fusion, a clean power source that will serve mankind for millennia.� The idea of hydrogen fusion as well as its difficulties are presented in non-technical language to dispel the notion that fusion is always 50 years away.� This book also summarizes the evidence for climate change and explains the principles of both fossil and "green" energy sources to show that fusion is the best alternative for central-station power in the near term as well as the far future. Praise for An Indispensable Truth: How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet: "In this study Professor Chen outlines the underlying physics, recent progress in achieving advanced plasmas and magnetic confinement, and hopes for the future. He recognizes the difficulties that remain in engineering a fusion reactor, but he remains optimistic regarding ultimate success, yet fearful of the consequences were we to fail."- James R. Schlesinger, former Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director,...

  11. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors

  12. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notarnicola, C.; Posa, F.; Refice, A.; Sergi, R.; Smacchia, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Casarano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy); De Carolis, G.; Mattia, F. [Istituto di Tecnologia Informatica Spaziale-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro di Geodesia Spaziale G. Colombo, Terlecchia, MT (Italy); Schena, V.D. [Alenia Spazio, Rome (Italy)


    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors.

  13. Ground Truth Collections for Explosions in Northern Fennoscandia and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Ringdal, F; Kremenetskaya, E; Mykkeltveit, S; Schweitzer, J.; Hauk, T; Asming, V; Rock, D; Lewis, P


    to hundreds of tons), with many delays. The surface mine that we present results for typically also conducts several distinct shots across the mine nearly simultaneously (with a few seconds or tens of seconds). Measured phase ratios are more consistent for compact underground explosions. This consistency is an expected result given the smaller scope for shot variation in these smaller events. In addition, Pd/Lg ratios appear more stable than Pd/Sn ratios for both types of events. The most interesting result is that the compact underground explosions are richer in shear energy (i.e. having smaller P/S ratios) than their surface ripple-fired counterparts. We continue to work on an approach for identifying the principal mines to be targeted for screening at a particular station. Often, routine industrial blasts constitute a large proportion of events detected by monitoring stations close to major mining districts. Many mines may be present, and it may be a problem to determine which subset of mines is responsible for the majority of the events, and should be prime candidates for the deployment of ground-truth collection resources. Our solution to this problem entails several steps. The first is to find geographic clusters of events that may correspond to major groups of mines. For this step, we use event density maps generated from existing network catalogs. This year we examined some of the tradeoffs in generating event density maps: use of automated bulletins to produce maps vs. analyst-reviewed bulletins, and the amount of time required to produce stables maps which can be used to identify significant mines.

  14. A Correspondence Theory of Objects? On Kant's Notions of Object, Truth, and Actuality


    Vanzo, Alberto


    Ernst Cassirer claimed that Kant's notion of actual object presupposes the notion of truth. Therefore, Kant cannot define truth as the correspondence of a judgment with an actual object. In this paper, I discuss the relations between Kant's notions of truth, object, and actuality. I argue that Kant's notion of actual object does not presuppose the notion of truth. I conclude that Kant can define truth as the correspondence of a judgment with an actual object.

  15. Measurement of mucosite changes in the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for objective evaluation of clinical effects of mucosite in radiotherapy of neoplasms of head and neck. The use of numerical data according to mucosite scale (α) is proposed. The calculation is based on the number of affected anatomical areas (total 8) in the oral cavity, the degree of injury (0-4) and the longiness of the changes (4 classes), measured by adapted for the purpose and possibly less traumatic tools. Two other methods are also mentioned: 1) plotting (in the case of strongly expressed mucosite, declining to diffuse, the α values can be above 11); 2) method of pottential functions (the specific α value is compared with some mean value of the potential function). 1 fig., 4 tabs., 5 refs

  16. Evaluation of technological measures to cope with climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Yulchi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Onogawa Tsukuba (Japan)


    Because the global warming (climate change) is recognized as a highly probable phenomenon in the next century, the countermeasures to cope with this issue is really Important. International discussion Is progressing towards the conclusion of the treaty to stabilize global warming. Therefore, now is the time to take concrete action to reduce the emission to the greenhouse gases (GHG). To find the way to reduce the emission of the GHG, the procedure as next should be taken. (1) Systematic estimation of GHG emission (GHG analysis), (2) Identification of conventional and Innovative technologies, (3) Assessment of individual sectoral technologies, (4) Comprehensive evaluation of countermeasures as a whole. Both in the U.S.A. and Japan, this kind of research have been made independently. Among these processes, the standard methodologies should be established on the GHG analysis, the assessment of individual technologies and the comprehensive evaluation. From such a background, it is important to discuss the way to evaluate technological measures to cope with climate change between the specialist from the U.S.A. and Japan. And still required to search the possibility to establish a joint project between both countries.

  17. Moessbauer measurements of microstructural change in aged duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A duplex stainless steel (ASME SA351 CF8M) has usually been manufactured by a continuous casting technique. It consists of a paramagnetic austenite phase and a ferromagnetic ferrite phase. It has been known that the ferrite phase decomposition occurs in this steel after aging between 300 and 450 C. As a result of phase decomposition, a Fe-rich phase and a Cr-rich phase are produced in the ferrite phase. It is difficult to detect the phase decomposition even by not only optical microscopy but also transmission electron microscopy, since the decomposed structure is very fine. However, Moessbauer measurements that can detect the magnetic hyperfine field of magnetic substance may detect the microstructural change. An averaged magnetic hyperfine field increases in the ferrite phase, due to the production of the Fe-rich phase which has high magnetic hyperfine field. Therefore, the authors investigated the phase decomposition of the duplex stainless steel caused by aging, utilization Moessbauer spectroscopy which has capability of detecting this structural change in the atomic level quantitatively. The authors also investigated the potential of backscattering Moessbauer method for NDE technique

  18. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  19. TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies): A Mission to Achieve "Climate Quality" Data (United States)

    Fox, N. P.


    Over recent years the debate as to whether climate change is real has largely subsided, however there is still significant controversy over its cause and most importantly the scale of its impact and means of mitigation. Much of the latter relies upon the predictive capabilities of sophisticated, but highly complex models. Such models need globally sampled measurements of a variety of key indicative physical parameters, and in some cases proxies of others, as input data and whilst generally predicting similar things the detail of their outputs in the decadal time scales can be highly variable. Clearly the quality of the input data is crucial to such models. However, since the key indicators of climate change may only vary by a few percent per decade, the absolute accuracy of such data also needs to be very small to allow detection and provide some means of validating/discriminating and improving the models. At the present time, the accuracy of currently measured data from space is rarely, if ever, adequate to meet this requirement. Instead, high risk strategies are developed which rely upon overlapping and renormalizing data sets from consecutive flights of similar instruments to establish a long-term trend. Such a strategy is doomed to failure!. The only means of achieving robust data sets of sufficient quality and accuracy with a guarantee of long term reproducibility sufficient to detect the subtle indicators of climate change and its cause (anthropogenic from natural) is through traceability to SI units. Such traceability needs to be regularly re-established and guaranteed throughout the lifetime of a mission. However, given that most sensors degrade in performance during launch, and most importantly whilst in orbit, this is difficult to achieve with sufficient accuracy, since such sensors cannot easily be retrieved and taken back to a national standards laboratory for recalibration. TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies) is a

  20. Measurement methods and accuracy analysis of Chang'E-5 Panoramic Camera installation parameters (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Tan, Xu; Wang, Wenrui; Chen, Wangli; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Li, Chunlai


    Chang'E-5 (CE-5) is a lunar probe for the third phase of China Lunar Exploration Project (CLEP), whose main scientific objectives are to implement lunar surface sampling and to return the samples back to the Earth. To achieve these goals, investigation of lunar surface topography and geological structure within sampling area seems to be extremely important. The Panoramic Camera (PCAM) is one of the payloads mounted on CE-5 lander. It consists of two optical systems which installed on a camera rotating platform. Optical images of sampling area can be obtained by PCAM in the form of a two-dimensional image and a stereo images pair can be formed by left and right PCAM images. Then lunar terrain can be reconstructed based on photogrammetry. Installation parameters of PCAM with respect to CE-5 lander are critical for the calculation of exterior orientation elements (EO) of PCAM images, which is used for lunar terrain reconstruction. In this paper, types of PCAM installation parameters and coordinate systems involved are defined. Measurement methods combining camera images and optical coordinate observations are studied for this work. Then research contents such as observation program and specific solution methods of installation parameters are introduced. Parametric solution accuracy is analyzed according to observations obtained by PCAM scientifically validated experiment, which is used to test the authenticity of PCAM detection process, ground data processing methods, product quality and so on. Analysis results show that the accuracy of the installation parameters affects the positional accuracy of corresponding image points of PCAM stereo images within 1 pixel. So the measurement methods and parameter accuracy studied in this paper meet the needs of engineering and scientific applications. Keywords: Chang'E-5 Mission; Panoramic Camera; Installation Parameters; Total Station; Coordinate Conversion

  1. Logics preserving degrees of truth from varieties of residuated lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Bou, F; Font, J M; Gil, A; Godo, L; Torrens, A; Verdú, V


    Let K be a variety of (commutative, integral) residuated lattices. The substructural logic usually associated with K is an algebraizable logic that has K as its equivalent algebraic semantics, and is a logic that preserves truth, i.e., 1 is the only truth value preserved by the inferences of the logic. In this paper we introduce another logic associated with K, namely the logic that preserves degrees of truth, in the sense that it preserves lower bounds of truth values in inferences. We study this second logic mainly from the point of view of abstract algebraic logic. We determine its algebraic models and we classify it in the Leibniz and the Frege hierarchies: we show that it is always fully selfextensional, that for most varieties K it is non-protoalgebraic, and that it is algebraizable if and only K is a variety of generalized Heyting algebras, in which case it coincides with the logic that preserves truth. We also characterize the new logic in three ways: by a Hilbert style axiomatic system, by a Gentzen ...

  2. Is our Ground-Truth for Traffic Classification Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carela-Español, Valentín; Bujlow, Tomasz; Barlet-Ros, Pere


    . In order to evaluate these tools we have carefully built a labeled dataset of more than 500 000 flows, which contains traffic from popular applications. Our results present PACE, a commercial tool, as the most reliable solution for ground-truth generation. However, among the open-source tools......The validation of the different proposals in the traffic classification literature is a controversial issue. Usually, these works base their results on a ground-truth built from private datasets and labeled by techniques of unknown reliability. This makes the validation and comparison with other...... solutions an extremely difficult task. This paper aims to be a first step towards addressing the validation and trustworthiness problem of network traffic classifiers. We perform a comparison between 6 well-known DPI-based techniques, which are frequently used in the literature for ground-truth generation...

  3. The ground truth about metadata and community detection in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Peel, Leto; Clauset, Aaron


    Across many scientific domains, there is common need to automatically extract a simplified view or a coarse-graining of how a complex system's components interact. This general task is called community detection in networks and is analogous to searching for clusters in independent vector data. It is common to evaluate the performance of community detection algorithms by their ability to find so-called \\textit{ground truth} communities. This works well in synthetic networks with planted communities because such networks' links are formed explicitly based on the planted communities. However, there are no planted communities in real world networks. Instead, it is standard practice to treat some observed discrete-valued node attributes, or metadata, as ground truth. Here, we show that metadata are not the same as ground truth, and that treating them as such induces severe theoretical and practical problems. We prove that no algorithm can uniquely solve community detection, and we prove a general No Free Lunch the...

  4. Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

  5. Rick Hayes-Roth - TruthMarket [audio


    Hayes-Roth, Rick


    Wouldn't it be nice if there were a way to make American politics just a little more rational, just a little more evidence based? Wouldn't it be even nicer if there was a website, or an app, that helped that process along? Maybe, just maybe, a promising innovation called TruthMarket can help with the problem. It's a site where people who care about the truth crowd-fund campaigns dedicated to either proving the veracity of true claims, or the falsity of wrong ones... where, in essence, you ma...

  6. Land use change to Miscanthus: measured and modelled changes in soil carbon fractions (United States)

    Robertson, Andy; Davies, Christian; Smith, Pete; McNamara, Niall


    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by improving the carbon (C) budgets associated with energy generation. Miscanthus distribution is very limited at present and therefore in most cases propagation will require land use change. Limited case studies have shown that changing land use to Miscanthus may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the accuracy of simulating SOC dynamics under Miscanthus for scaling purposes is limited by empirical validation data regarding the longevity of newly sequestered SOC1. Consequently, in our work the size and turnover times of different SOC fractions have been quantified through physiochemical fractionation2 under a Miscanthus plantation and an adjacent paired reference site. Twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare commercial Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK. From each plot monthly measurements of CO2 emissions were taken at the soil surface between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC and CO2 emissions resulting from Miscanthus plant matter were determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil. Stable isotope techniques were also used in conjunction with soil fractionation performed annually to establish the rate of change to different soil fractions. Soil C and fractionation was also performed on five soils from an adjacent site with continued cropping of the prior land use. There is a notable increase in SOC stocks under Miscanthus when compared with the adjacent reference site (2.05 tC ha-1 yr-1) despite fractionation indicating the Miscanthus

  7. Truth and reconciliation: Should the key notions be revised?: Experiences from South-Africa and Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rombouts Heidy


    Full Text Available Both the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Gacaca tribunals, which started recently in Rwanda, are framed in terms of truth and reconciliation. But what does the truth mean? What does reconciliation mean? It can be argued that searching the truth has a very precise meaning - namely determining the details of what factually happened. And it is in this sense that most people understand the search for the truth. However it can be questioned whether this fact-finding is what the search for truth aims at in a context of transitional justice. .

  8. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions with Minimal Neutrino Energy Dependence -- A NuWro Truth Study

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Luke


    We present a Monte Carlo truth study examining nuclear effects in charged-current neutrino interactions using observables constructed in the transverse plane. Three distributions are introduced that show very weak dependence on neutrino flux and its associated uncertainty. Measurements comparing these distributions between quasi-elastic-like and single charged pion final states will provide new constraints of nuclear effects. It is suggested that the on-axis position in the NuMI beam provides the correct flux to take advantage of this reduced energy dependence in measuring nuclear effect-generated transverse imbalances.

  9. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz


    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  10. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs

  11. Antinomies of „truth and reconciliation“: Post-Yugoslav cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamanić Slobodan


    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical evaluation of the theoretical propositions and practical uses of the concept of “truth and reconciliation” (T&R, with special regard to the post-Yu­goslav case studies. Firstly, the paper indicates an antinomy situated between the liberal principle of individual autonomy and attempts to establish an “organised memory.” Drawing from the concept of “Serbian collective responsibility,” it is demonstrated how this conceptual framework undermines both the political and private autonomy of citizen, by translating the question of responsibility into the collective moral and cultural domain. Secondly, the “organised memory,” which calls for identification with “national crimes”, creates a short-circuit, resulting in re-nationalising rather than de-nationalising the figure of citizen. As a result, the forms of organized national memory induce structural limitations, producing the fragmentation of truth into separate “national truths.” Thirdly, the concept is both abstract (prescriptive and trans-historical and empirical (descriptive and enclosed within the framework of given subjectivities and categories. A paradoxical result is that T&Rtakes the consequences as its ends, whilst taking for granted the political identities constructed in the course of the conflict. In addition, the no­tion of truth in use here is reductive, aiming mostly at registering and measuring the “forensic truth” of the conflict. Finally, the absolute structural limitation of T&Rrepresents the nation state itself. Since the alternative name of T&Ris “official truth seeking” (Pricilla Hayner, this concept finds itself entrapped within the limits of the existing state’s institutional framework, depending on the “good will” of political elites. At the same time, the given “truths” are depoliticised and medicalised. The paper concludes that rather than opening new avenues for the emergence of genuinely new

  12. 77 FR 21875 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) (United States)


    ... requirements of Regulation Z. Regulation Z generally limits the total amount of fees that a credit card issuer... INFORMATION: I. Background The Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (Credit Card Act) was signed into law on May 22, 2009.\\1\\ The Credit Card Act primarily amended the Truth...

  13. On the Analogy between Cognitive Representation and Truth


    Suárez, Mauricio; Solé, Albert (Solé Sabaté)


    We defend the claim that the inferential conception of representation is generally deflationary; and we show that deflationism is consistent with pluralism regarding the notion of cognitive representation. The nature and extent of this pluralism is explored by means of an analogy with the minimalist conception of truth.

  14. Accessing Imagined Communities and Reinscribing Regimes of Truth (United States)

    Carroll, Sherrie; Motha, Suhanthie; Price, Jeremy N.


    In this article, we explore the complex and nebulous terrain between two theoretical concepts, imagined communities (Norton, 2000, 2001), that is, individuals' imagined affiliations with certain groups, and regimes of truth (Foucault, 1980), dominant images inscribed and reinscribed into individual consciousness until they become normative. Using…

  15. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.


    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined

  16. Kinesiology's "Inconvenient Truth" and the Physical Cultural Studies Imperative (United States)

    Andrews, David L.


    This article explicates the "inconvenient truth" that is at the core of the crisis currently facing the field of kinesiology. Namely, the instantiation of an epistemological hierarchy that privileges positivist over postpositivist, quantitative over qualitative, and predictive over interpretive ways of knowing. The discussion outlines the…

  17. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.


    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  18. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  19. Truth approximation by concretization in capital structure theory


    Kuipers, Theo A.F.; Cools, Kees; Hamminga, Bert


    This paper supplies a structuralist reconstruction of the Modigliani-Miller theory and shows that the economic literature following their results reports on research with an implicit strategy to come "closer-to-the-truth" in the modern technical sense in philosophy of science.

  20. Measuring Sea Level Change (Vening Meinesz Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.


    For over 75 years, the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) at the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory has maintained the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. This data set has in recent years received most attention in studies of sea level rise related to climate change. However, it is also valuable in research into ocean circulation variability (oceanography), vertical land movements (geology) and geodetic datums (geodesy). This presentation will review some of the main applications of mean sea level information so far. In addition, it will point to the role of tide gauges within what is becoming a powerful combination of gauges, GPS, absolute gravity, satellite altimetry and space gravity for the study of sea and land level variations on a global basis. However, changes in mean levels are only one part of sea level research. Other topics include changes in extreme sea levels which are of practical importance as well as being interesting scientifically. Recent studies have begun to investigate changes in extremes worldwide, identifying those areas where secular changes in extremes tend to be determined by those in mean values, and areas where they are not. In addition, intriguing recent work has identified regional changes in ocean tides which are larger than expected from secular change in the tidal potential. Such tidal changes are also important within studies of extremes. This presentation will attempt to show the wide range of studies possible with a copious globally-distributed tide gauge data set, many of which are very relevant to the understanding of a changing world.

  1. 75 FR 37525 - Truth in Lending (United States)


    ... regardless of whether the rate increase is due to a change in contractual terms or the exercise of a penalty... consumers of any specific on-account behavior in which they have engaged that gave rise to the rate increase... effective on August 20, 2009. See 74 FR 36077 (July 2009 Regulation Z Interim Final Rule). On February...

  2. In Truth We Trust: Discourse, Phenomenology, and the Social Relations of Knowledge in an Environmental Dispute


    Michael S. Carolan; Michael M. Bell


    In this age of debate it is not news that what constitutes 'truth' is often at issue in environmental debates. But what is often missed is an insight that the speakers of Middle English understood a millennium ago: that truth comes from trust, which, is the central theoretical position of this paper. Our point is that truth depends essentially on social relations - relations that involve power and knowledge, to be sure, but also identity. Thus, challenges to what constitutes the 'truth' are e...

  3. Ratio of the gnoseological and soterologic in Christian teaching on truth


    Yeroshenko, Tetiana


    The article is devoted to the Genesis and essence of the Christian teaching about the truth, according to its epistemological aspect from soteriological. The huge attention given by Christian theologians to the question of truth, due to the fact that a particular epistemological truth in the Christian consciousness correlates with the ontological truth that is eternally present in the divine essence, and in the person of Christ was incarnated and became complete available to the people. The a...

  4. Climate Change Impacts on Central China and Adaptation Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yong-Jian; CUI Jiang-Xue; WAN Su-Qin; LIU Min; CHEN Zheng-Hong; LIAO Yu-Fang; WANG Ji-Jun


    In Central China, the obvious climate change has happened along with global warming. Based on the observational analysis, the climate change has significant effects, both positive and negative, in every field within the study area, and with the harmful effects far more prevalent. Under the scenario A1B, it is reported that temperature, precipitation, days of heat waves and extreme precipitation intensity will increase at respective rates of 0.38◦C per decade, 12.6 mm per decade, 6.4 d and 47 mm per decade in the 21st century. It is widely believed that these climate changes in the future will result in some apparent impacts on agro-ecosystems, water resources, wetland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, human health, energy sectors and other sensitive fields in Central China. Due to the limited scientific knowledge and researches, there are still some shortages in the climate change assessment methodologies and many uncertainties in the climate prediction results. Therefore, it is urgent and essential to increase the studies of the regional climate change adaptation, extend the research fields, and enhance the studies in the extreme weather and climate events to reduce the uncertainties of the climate change assessments.

  5. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.


    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  6. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland (United States)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud


    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  7. Teaching the Truth: Social Justice and Social Class in Graduate School (United States)

    English, Leona M.; Roy, Carole


    Nowadays, anyone who wishes to combat lies and ignorance and to write the truth must overcome at least five difficulties. In the same way that writing the truth entails five difficulties, teaching the truth or teaching social justice in graduate education entails more than five difficulties. Some of these difficulties are inimical to the act of…

  8. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  9. Quantification of the flow measurement performance due to installation changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Luisa Auler da Silva [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The objective is to present a criterion to identify and quantify improvements in the performance of flowmeters due to alterations in the design of a measurement system. The method was developed aiming at improvements in the operational systems, but is also useful in custody transfer systems. Take as base the estimate of uncertainty in the measurement systems, and seek a more intuitive way so as to aggregate the experience and knowledge available in the company. The identification of the measurand is carried out based on available information, the processing of data and the method of calculation. The improvements in the installation of measurement systems are given priority based on the measurement uncertainty of the CTPL (temperature and pressure correction factor) and the MF(meter factor). In the case of the CTPL, the influence of the pressure, temperature and density instruments in the results of the measurement system is evaluated, and in the case of the MF, the influence of the calibration system. The possibilities for calibrating the flowmeter in industry are presented, also detailing the calibration of the operational meter against custody transfer systems. The analysis of networks includes calculating the uncertainty in the closing of the network balance, calculation of the uncertainties and contributions of the measurement systems that form part of the network, and a comparison of improvements and costs, calculation for each alteration in the design of the measurement system, and its cost per improvement of 0.01% in the uncertainty of the closing. (author)

  10. Stages of Change – Continuous Measure (URICA-E2): psychometrics of a Norwegian version


    Lerdal, Anners; Moe, Britt; Digre, Elin; Harding, Thomas; Kristensen, Frode; Grov, Ellen K; Linda N. Bakken; Eklund, Marthe L; Ruud, Ireen; Joseph S. Rossi


    Title Stages of Change – Continuous Measure (URICA-E2): psychometrics of a Norwegian version. Aim This paper is a report of research to translate the English version of the Stages of Change continuous measure questionnaire (URICA-E2) into Norwegian and to test the validity of the questionnaire and its usefulness in predicting behavioural change. Background While the psychometric properties of the Stages of Change categorical measure have been tested extensively, evaluation of the psychometric...

  11. ECG-Based Measurements of Drug-induced Repolarization Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the abnormal repolarization both in the cellular and the surface ECG along with their relationship. It has been identified that the certain morphological changes of the monophasic action potential are predictor of TdP arrhythmia. Therefore the proporti......The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the abnormal repolarization both in the cellular and the surface ECG along with their relationship. It has been identified that the certain morphological changes of the monophasic action potential are predictor of TdP arrhythmia. Therefore the...... proportional changes of the surface ECG which corresponds to the arrhythmia-triggering MAP morphology is warranted to increase the confidence of determining cardiotoxicity of drugs....

  12. Changes in production efficiency in China identification and measuring

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bing; Watada, Junzo


    Evaluating  Production Efficiency in China examines production from engineering and statistics perspectives rather than from economics and mathematics perspectives. The authors present an observable benchmark as the criterion of the production efficiency to replace the unobservable production frontier surface. This book discusses several different computing technologies, controllable variable as a path of identification, changes in production efficiency by decision making on specific operating conditions, and optimal resource allocation. The book provides a channel to tap inside the success stories of China, exploiting the way of changes in production efficiency during China’s development in the past 30 years. This book examines the concepts and realization of production efficiencies across all areas of the economy. Also the book provides the perspective of foreign direct investment (FDI) absorption to identify how Chinese economy changes in production efficiency.

  13. Approaching the truth in induction motor efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haataja, J.; Pyrhoenen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The importance of motor efficiency in the motor market is increasing. Therefore the accuracy of the efficiency value given by the manufacturer is significant. The accuracy of the efficiency determination depends on the test method used and the precision of the loss determination by the test method. Determining methods can be grouped into two broad categories: direct measurement methods and indirect methods (loss segregation methods). In the following the effect of different methods in the given motor efficiency has been investigated in more detail. While testing low voltage, polyphase squirrel cage induction motors IEC publication 34-2 allows both a direct and an indirect method to be used, but according to NEMA the IEEE-112 test method B - input-output - with loss segregation is to be used. European manufacturers prefer to use the ''summation of losses'' according to the IEC 34-2. When comparing IEC 34-2 to IEEE 112 it can be noticed that the latter one defines stabilised operating temperatures for the measurements, more accurate measuring instruments and more precise procedures to determine all losses than the IEC 34-2. The IEC 34-2 assumes an operating temperature, assumes a value for stray load loss and permits measurements at any motor operating condition with less accurate instruments. On the other hand the IEC 34-2 tolerances for motor losses are smaller than in the IEEE 112. However, it is important to note that IEEE states that besides the nominal efficiency value also a guaranteed minimum efficiency shall be shown on the nameplate. Depending on the manufacturing tolerances this minimum value can be better than the worst value that the tolerance allows. The test results shown below were measured for a high efficiency 690/400 V, four pole, general purpose 5.5 kW motor using both the IEEE 112 method B and the IEC 34-2 indirect (summation of losses) and direct methods. (orig.)

  14. How Should We Measure Global Poverty in a Changing World?


    Osberg, Lars; XU Kuan


    Before effective anti-poverty policy can be designed and implemented, the extent, trend and distribution of poverty must be identified. In this sense, poverty measurement is a crucial intermediate step in public policymaking and development planning. This paper asks whether the estimated proportion of the world’s population with income below US$1 (adjusted according to purchasing power parity) per day is a good measure of trends in global poverty. We argue that the answer depends on two impor...

  15. An analytical characterization for an optimal change of Gaussian measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Schellhorn


    Full Text Available We consider two Gaussian measures. In the “initial” measure the state variable is Gaussian, with zero drift and time-varying volatility. In the “target measure” the state variable follows an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, with a free set of parameters, namely, the time-varying speed of mean reversion. We look for the speed of mean reversion that minimizes the variance of the Radon-Nikodym derivative of the target measure with respect to the initial measure under a constraint on the time integral of the variance of the state variable in the target measure. We show that the optimal speed of mean reversion follows a Riccati equation. This equation can be solved analytically when the volatility curve takes specific shapes. We discuss an application of this result to simulation, which we presented in an earlier article.

  16. Polymer deformation gage measures thickness change in tensile tests (United States)

    Broyles, H. F.; Broyles, H. H.


    Lightweight deformation gage attached to a polymer specimen determines the thickness changes undergone by the specimen during the testing of its tensile and elongation properties. Mechanical noise from outside sources is dampened when the assembly is hung on a light rubber band.

  17. Truths and governance for adaptive management


    M. Kent. Loftin


    Managing large-scale water resources and ecosystem projects is a never ending job, and success should be measured in terms of achieving desired project performance and not just meeting prescriptive requirements of planning and constructing a project simply on time and within budget. Success is more than studying, planning, designing, or operating projects. It is developing the right plan, getting it implemented, and seeing that it is operated and performs properly. Success requires all of ...

  18. Reduce land degradation, climate change and adaptation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land degradation and desertification are a serious threat to the sustainability of production food in many areas of the Earth. the methods ecosystems and the concomitant effects management of climate change are altering the processes physical, chemical and biological processes that regulate the complex balance of terrestrial ecosystems and soil particularly in areas climatically characterized by conditions arid, semi-arid and dry sub humid areas. The RIO + 20 Conference has recognized the risk of desertification and it proposed for the post 2015 agenda the goal of a world 'Land Degradation Neutral'.The challenge of adaptation to changes climate will require a greater involvement scientific research in support of conservation and use of natural resources both in Italy and in all contexts where the challenge of sustainability of development is more urgent.

  19. Clever Enough to Tell the Truth


    Ruffle, Bradley; Tobol, Yossi


    We conduct a field experiment on 427 Israeli soldiers who each rolled a six-sided die in private and reported the outcome. For every point reported, the soldier received an additional half-hour early release from the army base on Thursday afternoon. We find that the higher a soldier's military entrance score, the more honest he is on average. We replicate this finding on a sample of 156 civilians paid in cash for their die reports. Furthermore, the civilian experiments reveal that two measure...

  20. Tacit knowledge mining algorithm based on linguistic truth-valued concept lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li


    This paper is the continuation of our research work about linguistic truth-valued concept lattice. In order to provide a mathematical tool for mining tacit knowledge, we establish a concrete model of 6-ary linguistic truth-valued concept lattice and introduce a mining algorithm through the structure consistency. Specifically, we utilize the attributes to depict knowledge, propose the 6-ary linguistic truth-valued attribute extended context and congener context to characterize tacit knowledge, and research the necessary and sufficient conditions of forming tacit knowledge. We respectively give the algorithms of generating the linguistic truth-valued congener context and constructing the linguistic truth-valued concept lattice.

  1. Measurement of stress change tensor by conical gauge probe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staš, Lubomír; Souček, Kamil; Knejzlík, Jaromír; Waclawik, P.; Palla, L.

    Bombay : Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, 2008 - (Singh, D.), s. 1397-1404 [International Conference of IACMAG /12./. Goa - Panjim (IN), 01.10.2008-06.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/06/1768 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rock stress measurement * CCBO * stress tensor Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald


    The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…

  3. Leadership for reconciliation: A Truth and Reconciliation Commission perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. J. Meiring


    Full Text Available As important as the need for authentic leadership in the fields of politics, economy and education in Africa may be, the continent is also in dire need of leadership for reconciliation. Against the backdrop of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC, the author � who served on the Commission � discusses five characteristics of leaders for reconciliation. Leaders need to be: leaders with a clear understanding of the issues at stake; leaders with respect for the truth; leaders with a sense of justice; leaders with a comprehension of the dynamics of forgiveness; and leaders with a firm commitment. The insights and experiences of both the chairperson of the TRC, Desmond Tutu, and the deputy chair, Alex Boraine, form the backbone of the article.

  4. What is "truth"? Some philosophical contributions to psychiatric issues. (United States)

    Wallace, E R


    Philosophical perspectives, although eminently relevant to clinical investigation and practice, are rarely brought to bear on psychiatric topics. The author attempts to raise professional consciousness of core issues in the philosophy of science by examining the status of truth, theory, and observation in psychiatry. He evaluates prominent approaches to the problem of knowledge, particularly those of the "subjectivists" and "relativists," such as Schafer and Spence, and the "empiricists" and "inductivists," such as the proponents of DSM-III. Drawing on contemporary philosophy of science, the work of William James, and the classical Greek conviction that more truth resides in the middle than at either extreme, the author mediates between these rival points of view. PMID:3277447


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribut Basuki


    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  6. Introductory Essay: Canada’s Own Brand of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna R. Quinn


    Full Text Available The question of how societies might reach some kind of truth or reconciliation is complicated in post-conflict societies, where physical and social devastation is obvious. Yet in so-called “settler” societies, evidence of that kind of devastation, including the gross violation of human rights and blatant abuse, along with the lasting impact of that abuse, remains invisible to many, as outlined by the authors who have contributed to thisspecial edition.

  7. Aeolian dunes as ground truth for atmospheric modeling on Mars (United States)

    Hayward, R.K.; Titus, T.N.; Michaels, T.I.; Fenton, L.K.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.


    Martian aeolian dunes preserve a record of atmosphere/surface interaction on a variety of scales, serving as ground truth for both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and mesoscale climate models, such as the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). We hypothesize that the location of dune fields, expressed globally by geographic distribution and locally by dune centroid azimuth (DCA), may record the long-term integration of atmospheric activity across a broad area, preserving GCM-scale atmospheric trends. In contrast, individual dune morphology, as expressed in slipface orientation (SF), may be more sensitive to localized variations in circulation, preserving topographically controlled mesoscale trends. We test this hypothesis by comparing the geographic distribution, DCA, and SF of dunes with output from the Ames Mars GCM and, at a local study site, with output from MRAMS. When compared to the GCM: 1) dunes generally lie adjacent to areas with strongest winds, 2) DCA agrees fairly well with GCM modeled wind directions in smooth-floored craters, and 3) SF does not agree well with GCM modeled wind directions. When compared to MRAMS modeled winds at our study site: 1) DCA generally coincides with the part of the crater where modeled mean winds are weak, and 2) SFs are consistent with some weak, topographically influenced modeled winds. We conclude that: 1) geographic distribution may be valuable as ground truth for GCMs, 2) DCA may be useful as ground truth for both GCM and mesoscale models, and 3) SF may be useful as ground truth for mesoscale models. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Behavioral pragmatism: No place for reality and truth


    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot


    The current article begins by reviewing L. J. Hayes's claim that pragmatism relies on a correspondence-based truth criterion. To evaluate her claim, the concept of the observation sentence, proposed by the pragmatist philosopher W. V. Quine, is examined. The observation sentence appears to remove the issue of correspondence from Quine's pragmatist philosophy. Nevertheless, the issue of correspondence reemerges, as the problem of homology, when Quine appeals to agreement between or among obser...

  9. On telling the truth to patients with dementia


    Marzanski, Marek


    Objectives To discover what dementia sufferers think is wrong with them, what they have been told and by whom, and what they wish to know about their illness. Background Ethical guidelines regarding telling truth appear to be equivocal. Declarations of cognitively intact subjects, attitudes of family members, and current psychiatric practice all vary, but no previous research has been published concerning what patients with dementia would like to know about their diagnosis and prognosis. Desi...

  10. Incompatibility of Happiness and Truth in Brave New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 张敏; 夏梅花


    Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is called one of the“Anti-Utopian Trilogy”because of its obvious political empha-sis. Yet the following analysis about its theme shows that it is more than a science fiction or political fable. It was given more phil-osophical significance. The fact that happiness and truth cannot be compatible in the World Stare actually gives a warning to the modern society which depends too much on technical development and material prosperity.