Speek, Tiiu, 1958-
Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest
Nagy, M; Baróniková, S; Grancai, D; Mucaji, P
From the chloroform part of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot, leaves five constituents were isolated: tyrosol, esculetine, kempferol-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetine-3-O-glucoside, and quercetine. Further six constituents (probably malvidine, two secoiridoid glycosides, caffeic acid monosaccharide ester, quercetine monoglycoside (no hyperoside), and quercetine diglycoside (no rutinoside)) were isolated from the methanolic part of above mentioned drug. PMID:11797198
Full Text Available Adelbert von Chamisso foi um escritor e poeta de língua alemã, nascido em família aristocrática francesa emigrada para a Alemanha em 1792. Este artigo, examinando o conto "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", primeiro trabalho publicado por Chamisso, aponta os aspectos autobiográficos dessa obra que antecipa a vida de seu autor até na exatidão das minúcias. O artigo mostra como a sublimação artística permitiu que o escritor encontrasse para si mesmo um caminho pelo trabalho científico e pela criação literária, e indica que essa espécie de "aceitação intelectual" do recalcado poderia ser vista como equivalente a um resultado de tratamento psicanalítico.Chamisso was a German writer and poet born in an aristocratic French family emigrated to Germany in 1792. This paper, inquiring into Chamisso's tale "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", his first issued writing, points to its autobiographical features that anticipate the life of its author even in its precise details. This paper shows how artistic sublimation allowed the writer to succeed in finding for himself a path towards scientific work and literary creation, and emphasizes that this kind of "intellectual acceptation" of the repressed could be seen as equivalent to the result of a psychoanalysis treatment.
The Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis is a literary prize awarded by the Robert Bosch Stiftung to non-German authors who write in German and chose this language as their form of expression. Since the first prizes were awarded in 1985, 65 writers from more that twenty different countries have won the award. It was Harald Weinrich who convinced the Bosch Stiftung of the value of establishing the Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis. In the 1980s, the prize was awarded to what was still called ‘Gastarbeiterlit...
Arenas, Patricia Marta; Correa, Rubén Florestan; Cortella, Alicia Rita
Numerosos registros bibliográficos se refieren a la utilización de algas en tratamientos para combatir la obesidad. En particular, están muy difundidos los productos comerciales que contienen algas pardas (Phaeophyta), principalmente del género Fucus. En el presente trabajo se analizaron los contenidos de muestras comerciales de diverso origen, en sus distintas formas farmacéuticas. Se identificaron principalmente dos géneros de Phaeophyta: Fucus y Ascophyllum. Se encontraron además elementos...
Rahaweman, A. C.; Pamungkas, J.; Madduppa, H.; Thoms, C.; Tarman, K.
Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta macroalgae are important sources of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutically relevant antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral bioactivities. Oftentimes, these algae-derived compounds are, in fact, produced by endophytic fungi living inside the macroalgal tissue. Numerous studies have shown that endophytic fungi can produce a broad range of active metabolites such as terpenes, alkaloids, and quinones. The aim of the present study was to screen fungal strains isolated from a variety of Caulerpa spp., Halimeda spp., and Sargassum spp. for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Thirteen morphologically different isolates were tested. Two of them showed pronounced activity against S. aureus in agar diffusion assays.
沈照鹏; 胡增淼; 刘培; 赵琳; 高笑; 江晓路
以海带为原料,经褐藻胶裂解酶降解而获得含褐藻寡糖的海藻汁,并测定了海藻汁中寡糖的分子量分布及其他理化指标。经酶解作用,海藻汁中还原糖含量提高了近50倍,总糖含量增加到酶解前的2.5倍。由阴离子电喷雾电离质谱测得褐藻胶裂解酶降解产物主要是分子量小于1000,聚合度在2～5之间的小分子寡糖。在此基础上,将海藻汁与各种调味品基料按一定比例混合,根据各种调味品不同的加工工艺特点,选择不同的加入环节。通过感官评定,确定了两种海藻调味品的最佳配方,并研究了其多项理化指标和卫生指标。%Seeweed juice which contained phaeophyta oligosaccharide through the degradation of alginate lyase was obtained from kelp.Both the oligose molecular weight distribution and other physico chemical indexes in the juice were studied.After zymohydrolysis,the content of the reducing sugar in seaweed juice increased nearly 50 times,the total sugar content increased to 2.5 times.The result after analyzed by anion electrospray ionization mass spectrum measurement indicated that the product was mainly composed by a small molecule whose molecular weight was less than 1000 and whose degree of polymerization was 2~5.On this basis,seaweed juice and various condiments were put together according to certain mixing ratio,and different join links considering different process characteristics of various condiment were chosen.Through the organoleptic investigation,The optimal formula of the two kinds of seaweed was determined.Besides,multiple physiochemical indexes and health indicators were studied.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wilderness study report; Federal Register notice; materials sent to news media; public hearing package, mailing list, handout materials, attendance list, and...
Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta
carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii
Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.
Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui
A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression
Fraser, Ceridwen I; Waters, Jonathan M
The parasitic phaeophycean endophyte Herpodiscus durvillaeae (Lindauer) G. R. South has previously only been recorded from New Zealand, in association with a single host species, Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot (southern bull-kelp). Here we use DNA sequence data from plastid and nuclear markers (chloroplast rbcL, ribosomal LSU, and a nuclear pseudogene copy of COI) to test for the presence of H. durvillaeae beyond the New Zealand region, and on host species other than D. antarctica. Analyses of samples from the Falkland Islands confirm the first record of H. durvillaeae from the Atlantic Ocean. We report that Falkland Islands H. durvillaeae are genetically indistinguishable from samples of this species from New Zealand's sub-Antarctic Campbell Island, suggesting recent dispersal of the parasite across the Pacific Ocean, presumably by rafting with its buoyant macroalgal host. We also here record H. durvillaeae from New Zealand endemics Durvillaea poha Fraser et al. and D. willana Lindauer. PMID:27008401
Hansen, Espen; Eilertsen, Hans Chr; Ernstsen, Arild; Genevière, Anne-Marie
The marine bloom-forming alga Phaeocystis pouchetii is suspected to produce some toxic compound responsible for reduced growth, fecundity and survival of other marine organisms. Sea urchin early development was used as a model to investigate the degree and nature of toxicity. Colonial cells of P. pouchetii were collected during its spring-bloom along the coast of northern Norway and maintained in culture for a short period of time in order to evaluate the concentration of toxic compounds present inside the cells or excreted to the surrounding seawater medium. Cells were harvested by filtration and toxins were extracted separately from the collected cells and the filtrate using organic solvents. We found that extracts from the filtered seawater at a concentration corresponding to 9.0 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) completely blocked cell divisions in embryos of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis, whereas extracts from intact algal cells were only mildly cytotoxic. When the extracts from seawater culture medium were purified by RP-HPLC, cytotoxic activity towards S. granularis embryos was recovered in three consecutive fractions. Moreover, unfertilised eggs incubated in the active HPLC fractions became unproductive, whereas incubation of sperm gave a reduced fertilisation rate. This anti-proliferative effect was further characterized by immunofluorescence staining of sea urchin embryos. DNA labelling revealed that incubating sea urchin embryos in the purified algal extracts inhibited both pronuclei migration and fusion. Incorporation and detection of the DNA-base analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine showed that DNA-replication was blocked. Furthermore, staining of alpha-tubulin subunits demonstrated that embryonic tubulin organisation was altered. We conclude that P. pouchetii produce some anti-mitotic compound, and that senescent colonial cells to a great extent excrete this compound to their surroundings. PMID:12782080
Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.
Hydroclathrus tenuis (C. Agardh), a marine brown alga was considered to be a monotypic, till H. tenuis Tseng and Baoren was reported during 1983 from south China Sea. Recently the same alga was noticed to be abundant from Kalubhar Island in the Gulf...
Ding, Lanping; Lu, Baoren; Huang, Bingxin; Tseng, C. K.
Two new species of the genus Tinocladia Kylin, T. gracilis sp. nov. and T. microsporangii sp. nov., are described. T. gracilis is characterized by its slender frond, variable size, infrequently branched medullary filaments, and short assimilating filaments with 2 7 cells. T. microsporangii is characterized by its medullary cells which are slightly larger than sub-cortical ones; narrow sub-cortical layer, usually consisting of 4 6 cells and very small unilocular sporangia. The holotypes are deposited at the Herbarium of the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.
Shi, Cuijuan; Kataoka, Hironao; Duan, Delin
Laminaria gametophyte was greatly influenced by light in its growth and development. Using light-emitting diodes (LED) as blue and red light sources, we analyzed the light effect on gametophytes development of Laminaria japonica Aresch. The gametophytes were obtained from zoospores collected in April, May, July, 2003 and September, 2004. We found that the growth of gametophytes was stimulated by increasing intensity of blue light (BL) and red light (RL) illumination, of which BL was obviously stronger than that of RL. The fertilization of gametophytes depended largely on BL, and only sufficient BL illumination could take the reproductive effect. In addition, we noticed that there was a significant difference in light responses for gametophytes developed from zoospore collected in different times. For zoospores released in April, under BL1 (73.90 μmol photons/m·s), the unicellular female gametophytes and multi-cellular male gametophytes produced eggs and sperms respectively, and further developed towards sporophytes. However, for gametophytes developed in May, July or September, they became multi-cellular and never formed oogonia or antheridia. It is believed that the Laminaria sporangium maturation stage could affect the gametophytes reaction to BL under laboratory culture conditions. Therefore, cryptochrome- or phototropin-like BL photoreceptors is probably involved in BL-induced development of Laminaria gametophytes.
WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin
TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97～48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.
A transformation model for Laminaria japonica was established from 1993 to 1998, on the basis of which the transgenic kelp with heterologous gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was obtained by using the micro- particle bombardment transformation method. Results of quantitative ELISA showed that HBsAg in transgenic kelp was 0.529 μg/mg soluble proteins on average and the highest value was 2.497 μg/mg, implying that recombinant HBsAg had natural epitope. Further support for the integration of HBsAg gene into kelp genome was obtained by PCR- Southern and total DNA hybridization. Prospect of kelp bioreactor producing high value materials such as edible HBV vaccine was discussed as well.
Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10℃ and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10℃ and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40℃ or -60℃ for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for ＞24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40℃seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaC1 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.
Qu, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xumin; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Liu, Tao
Laminaria and Saccharina have recently been recognized as two independent clades from the former genus Laminaria. Traditional morphological taxonomy is being challenged by molecular evidence from both nucleus and plastid. Intensive work is in great demand from the perspective of genome colinearity. In this study, 118 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers were screened for phylogenetic analyses, 29 based on genome sequences, while 89 were based on expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. EST-based STS marker development (29.37%) had an effi ciency twice as high as genome-sequence-based development (9.48%) as a result of high conservation of gene transcripts among the relative species. S. ochotensis, S. religiosa, S. japonica, and L. hyperborea showed great homogeneity in all 118 STS markers. Our result supports the view that the diversifi cation between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria was a more recent event and that Saccharina and Laminaria shared high phylogenetic affi nity. However, when it came to the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level among the 41 SNPs, L. hyperborea owned 29 unique SNPs against 12 within the left three Saccharina species and 12 of the 13 indels were supposedly unique for L. hyperborea, indicated by its high variability. Originating from homologous ancestors, species between the recently diverged genera Laminaria and Saccharina may have taken in enough mutations at the SNP level only, in spite of different evolutionary strategies for better adaptation to the environment. Our study lays a solid foundation from a new perspective, although more accurate phylogenetic analysis is still needed to clarify the evolutionary traces between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria.
Liu, Wei; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Duan, Delin
We conducted a phenological evaluation of Sargassum thunbergii, a common algal species, along the coast of Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China. The local S. thunbergii population entered a maturation period from early June to mid-August, when seawater temperature was 14.4 to 25.1°C. Our results suggest an increase in temperature and day length during this period initiated thalli maturation. Inhabitants of the low tidal zone had higher thalli length and biomass compared with those from the mid-and high tidal zones. We observed a switch in the length frequency distribution and contribution of length classes to biomass between the small (<20 cm) and long (20-79.9 cm) length classes at the time of thallus maturity. This suggests there is a trade-offbetween sexual reproduction and vegetative regeneration.
Yu, Shenhui; Chong, Zhuo; Zhao, Fengjuan; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin
Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China. To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development, ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S. horneri. The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China. The percentage of polymorphic loci P % (ISSR, 99.44%; SRAP, 100.00%), Nei's genetic diversity H (ISSR, 0.107-0.199; SRAP, 0.100-0.153), and Shannon's information index I (ISSR, 0.157-0.291; SRAP, 0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations. Moreover, the high degree of gene differentiation G st (ISSR, 0.654; SRAP, 0.718) and low gene flow N m (ISSR, 0.265; SRAP, 0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation, possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation. The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices ( F st) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R =0.541 5, 0.541 8; P =0.005 0, 0.002 0 and R =0.728 6, 0.641 2; P =0.001 0, 0.001 0, respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception. Overall, the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation. The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S. horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.
Amanda Ferreira Cunha; Giuliano Buzá Jacobucci
Hydroids are broadly reported in epiphytic associations from different localities showing marked seasonal cycles. Studies have shown that the factors behind these seasonal differences in hydroid richness and abundance may vary significantly according to the area of study. Seasonal differences in epiphytic hydroid cover and richness were evaluated in a Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh bed from Lázaro beach, at Ubatuba, Brazil. Significant seasonal differences were found in total hydroid cover, but ...
Ariel Ortiz; Gavino Trono Jr.
First and second year populations of the Sargassum in the intertidal and subtidal portions of a seagrass bed were tagged and monitored over a period of 14 months (May 1996-June 1997). Statistical analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA) showed that there was a temporal variation in the thallus length of the Sargassum population between the intertidal and the subtidal regions
Full Text Available First and second year populations of the Sargassum in the intertidal and subtidal portions of a seagrass bed were tagged and monitored over a period of 14 months (May 1996-June 1997. Statistical analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA showed that there was a temporal variation in the thallus length of the Sargassum population between the intertidal and the subtidal regions
Stéphane La Barre
Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.
The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been inte-grated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the ex-pected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.
ZHANG YiChen; JIANG Peng; GAO JiangTao; LIAO JianMin; SUN ShiJing; SHEN ZiLong; QIN Song
The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been integrated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the expected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.
Full Text Available Four Chilean sandy beaches were sampled during the summer of 2000, to study the role of stranded algal wrack deposits on the population abundances of three detritus feeder species of the macroinfauna that inhabit the upper shore levels of that beaches: the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet, the tylid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana and the tenebrionid insect Phalerisida maculata Kulzer. The beaches were Apolillado (ca. 29° S, Quidico (ca. 38° S, Guabún and Mar Brava (ca. 42° S. Replicated samples were collected with a plastic cylinder (25 cm in diameter from algal wrack deposits including the sediments beneath the wrack and nearby bare sand areas. Samples were collected at two beach levels, one closer to the sea with fresh deposits and other located on the upper beach with dry alga. Algal wrack deposits were mostly composed of the brown algae Macrocystis pyrifera (L., Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot and Lessonia nigrescens Bory. O. tuberculata was found in the algal wrack deposits and bare sands collected from Apolillado, Quidico, Guabún and Mar Brava. On the other hand, T. spinulosus was just found at Apolillado, while P. maculata occurred in the sands beneath algal wrack deposits and bare sands collected from Apolillado, Quidico and Guabún. In general, the mean abundances of O. tuberculata, P. maculta and T. spinulosus were significantly higher in those samples collected from sands beneath algal wrack deposits; i.e., 56, 61 and 14 times higher (overall means than in bare sands, respectively. It is concluded that stranded algal wrack deposits indeed promote an increase in population abundances of sandy beach detritus feeders, either because that deposits provide their main food source or shelter against variable environmental conditions (e.g., air temperature and humidity during daylight hours. That might well explain the patchiness shown by these organisms, either across or along shore. This conclusion has important
Coppejans, E.; De Clerck, O; Leliaert, F
The marine benthic brown algae of the north coast of Papua New Guinea (mainly from Madang province) are documented, based on collections made by the first author, between 1980 and 1990. All records [34 identified taxa (+Sargassum spp.)] are listed with bibliographic, taxonomic, nomenclatural and biogeographical notes. The specimens belonging to the genus Dictyota are identified according to recent species definitions. D. magneana De Clerck et Coppejans is described as new to science. Only som...
Germination inhibition of the marine macrophyte Phyllospora comosa was utilized as a sub-lethal end-point to assess and compare the effects of four oil dispersants and dispersed diesel fuel and crude oil combinations. Inhibition of germination by the water-soluble fraction of diesel fuel increased following the addition of each of the dispersants; the nominal 48-h EC50 concentration of diesel fuel declined from 6800 to approximately 400 μl 1-1 nominal for each dispersed combination. This contrasted with crude oil, where the addition of two dispersants resulted in an enhanced germination rate and an increase in nominal EC50 concentrations from 130 μl 1-1 for the undispersed crude to 4000 and 2500 μl 1-1. The results indicate that, while germination inhibition of P. comosa may be enhanced by the chemical dispersal of oil response varies with type of both oil and oil dispersant. (author)
Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin
Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.
Kajal; Chakraborty; Nammunayathuputhenkotta; Krishnankartha; Praveen; Kodayan; Kizekadath; Vijayan; Gonugontla; Syda; Rao
Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp.[Turbinaria conoides（T.conoides）and Turbinaria ornata（T.ornata）collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems.Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems,viz.,I,I-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl（DPPH）,2,2’-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt（ABTS）,H202/H0 radical scavenging,Fe2+ion chelating ability,and reducing potential.Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts,and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents（GE）/g of the seaweed extracts.Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation.Results:Ethyl acetate（EtOAc）fraction of T.conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content（105.97 mg GE/g）than that of T.ornata（69.63 mg GE/g）.Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH（64.14%）radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata.A higher ABTS（?）radical scavenging(IC503.16μg/mL),Fe2+chelating(IC500.46 mg/mL),H2O2 scavenging(IC504.25 mg/mL),lipid peroxidation inhibitory(TBARS,IC500.21 mg/mL),and reducing abilities(IC5052.67 mg/mL)（P<0.05）were realized in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata than other fractions.Conclusions:This study indicated the potential use of T.conoides and T.ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption,and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.
Kajal Chakraborty; Kodayan Kizekadath Vijayan; Gonugontla Syda Rao
Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. [Turbinaria conoides (T. conoides) and Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems. Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2′-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS), H2O2/HO radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE)/g of the seaweed extracts. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation. Results: Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of T. conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content (105.97 mg GE/g) than that of T. ornata (69.63 mg GE/g). Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH (64.14%) radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata. A higher ABTS.+ radical scavenging (IC50 3.16 µg/mL), Fe2+ chelating (IC50 0.46 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging (IC50 4.25 mg/mL), lipid peroxidation inhibitory (TBARS, IC50 0.21 mg/mL), and reducing abilities (IC50 52.67 mg/mL) (P<0.05) were realized in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata than other fractions. Conclusions: This study indicated the potential use ofT. conoides and T. ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption, and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.
Monteiro, Carla; Engelen, Aschwin H; Serrão, Ester A; Santos, Rui
Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is an invasive species that is firmly established on intertidal and subtidal rocky shores of Europe and the Pacific coast of North America. Local success and spread of S. muticum is thought to rely on its reproductive potential that seems dependent on exogenous factors like tidal and lunar cycles. This study is the first to compare the reproductive patterns (periodicity of egg expulsion and embryo settlement) of this invader in two different habitats: the middle and low intertidal. The combination of monthly, daily, and tidal samples at triplicate sites within each habitat showed a semilunar periodicity of egg expulsion and embryo settlement coincident with increasing tidal amplitude just before full and new moons. In both habitats, duration of each egg expulsion event was ∼1 week, and embryo settlement occurred during the first daily low tide and with the incoming high tide during spring tides. However, both expulsion and settlement started 1-2 d earlier, expulsion saturation was faster, and settlement was higher in the mid- compared to the low intertidal. Our results suggest that the exact timing of gamete expulsion and embryo release of S. muticum responds to local factors, including tidal cues, which result in differences between mid- and low-intertidal habitats. PMID:27033640
王莎莎; 魏晓娇; 路博钧; 王高歌
以鞭毛蛋白N端一个保守的22个氨基酸多肽(flg22)为激发子,研究其诱导海带孢子体防御反应的特征,以丰富植物分子病理学理论.采用Evans blue染色方法发现,flg22诱导后2h内,未能观察到海带孢子体细胞死亡现象,诱导后4～10 h,观察到大量死亡的细胞.TUNEL(TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling)检测方法证实,受flg22诱导后海带孢子体有DNA断裂现象,而且3’-OH末端断裂的数量随诱导时间的延长而增多,并有从诱导部位向外扩散的趋势.运用Luminol荧光检测方法检测到受flg22诱导后海带孢子体H2O2释放量迅速增加,至3h时达到峰值,约为20 μmol/L.应用荧光染料2’,7’-二氢二氯荧光黄双乙酸钠(DCFH-DA)进行ROS组织学检测,发现flg22诱导后1h即观察到绿色的荧光信号,信号强度随诱导时间的延长而增加,诱导后3h信号最强,随后绿色荧光信号的强度逐渐减弱.ROS的产生趋势与Luminol荧光检测方法的结果相一致.结果表明,flg22也是诱导海带孢子体防御反应的有效激发子.%Flg22 is an N terminal 22 amino acid peptide of flagellin. Flg22-induced defense responses were investigated in sporophytes of Saccharina japonica in this study. Our results would enrich the theory of plant molecular pathology. The results of Evans blue dye showed that cell death in the sporophytes of S. japonica was not observed within 2 h after flg22 induction, whereas large amounts of cell death were observed from 4 to 10 h. By using TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling (TUNEL), fragments with 3'-OH groups of nuclear DNA were observed. The number of 3'-OH increased gradually with the induction time and spread from the induction sites. The concentration of H2O2 increased rapidly in flg22-induced sporophytes of S. japonica, with a peak of about 20 umol/L at 3 h by using Luminol-dependent fluorescence detection method. Histological observation of radical oxygen species (ROS) production, detected by using the fluorescent dye 2 \\T- dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), showed that green DCF fluorescence intensity increased gradually with the induction time, reaching the highest level at 3 h, then decreased from 3 to 5 h. The histological observation showed a consistent result with that of quantitative analysis of H2O2. The results indicate flg22 is an effective elicitor which could induce defense responses in sporophytes of S. japonica.
Zou, Dinghui; Gao, Kunshan; Luo, Hanjin
The short-term and long-term effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and respiration were examined in cultures of the marine brown macroalga Hizikia fusiformis (Harv.) Okamura grown under ambient (375 μL · L(-1) ) and elevated (700 μL · L(-1) ) CO2 concentrations and at low and high N availability. Short-term exposure to CO2 enrichment stimulated photosynthesis, and this stimulation was maintained with prolonged growth at elevated CO2 , regardless of the N levels in culture, indicating no down-regulation of photosynthesis with prolonged growth at elevated CO2 . However, the photosynthetic rate of low-N-grown H. fusiformis was more responsive to CO2 enrichment than that of high-N-grown algae. Elevation of CO2 concentration increased the value of K1/2 (Ci) (the half-saturation constant) for photosynthesis, whereas high N supply lowered it. Neither short-term nor long-term CO2 enrichment had inhibitory effects on respiration rate, irrespective of the N supply, under which the algae were grown. Under high-N growth, the Q10 value of respiration was higher in the elevated-CO2 -grown algae than the ambient-CO2 -grown algae. Either short- or long-term exposure to CO2 enrichment decreased respiration as a proportion of gross photosynthesis (Pg) in low-N-grown H. fusiformis. It was proposed that in a future world of higher atmospheric CO2 concentration and simultaneous coastal eutrophication, the respiratory carbon flux would be more sensitive to changing temperature. PMID:27021713
10. aprillil külastab Tartut Robert Boschi Fondi väljaantava Adelbert Chamisso preemia 1992. a. laureaat Adel Karasholi; kohtumisõhtul Tartu Saksa Kultuuri Instituudis loeb autor luuletusi oma viimati ilmunud luulekogudest "Wenn Damaskus nicht wäre" (München, 1999), "Also sprach Abdulla" (München, 1995). Vt. ka Looming, 2003, nr. 5, lk. 790
The aggregate zooids of Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, S. maxima Forskål, 1775, and the group of the species S. aspera Chamisso, 1819, S. younti Van Soest, 1973, S. thompsoni Foxton, 1961, and S. gerlachei Foxton, 1961, show a difference in the arrangement of the oral musculature. Differences in the
Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E
Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821). PMID:24871741
Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A
A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084
刘树霞; 徐军田; 邹定辉
Cremades Ugarte, Javier
Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is an Asian seaweed that is valuable as an edible species. This kelp was first reported for Spain in the 1980s on Galician coasts, where it is now widely distributed and incorporated into the native community. In Galicia, intertidal populations of the sporophytic phase typically inhabit sites under moderate wave-exposure in the early spring, albeit they can be found throughout the year as the species displays at least two recruitment periods per year. The morphology varies between individuals and depends strongly on the spatiotemporal pattern of environmental conditions. The chronology of the introduction of this species and the types of habitat where it is currently integrated on Galician coasts clearly reveal that the presence and local expansion of this kelp is influenced largely by human activities, mainly shellfish aquaculture and maritime traffic. U. pinnatifida has a slow natural expansion, limited aggressiveness and it temporarily fills empty niches; this kelp displays luxuriant growth only on artificial substrates or in otherwise disturbed communities.Undaria pinnatifida es una especie asiática de gran interés económico como alga alimentaria que en la década de los ochenta apareció por primera vez en España en las costas de Galicia, donde actualmente se encuentra ampliamente distribuida y naturalizada. Las poblaciones intermareales de los esporófitos de esta especie en la costa gallega son propias de localidades moderadamente expuestas a la acción del oleaje, siendo muy notorias a principios de primavera; aunque pueden encontrarse casi todoel año, al existir al menos dos períodos anuales de reclutamiento. La morfología de los ejemplares que las forman es muy variable y está fuertemente relacionada con las variaciones espaciotemporales de las condiciones ambientales. Analizando la cronología de su introducción en Galicia y los hábitats y tipos de comunidades en las que se integra, se observa claramente la influencia de las actividades humanas en todo ello, sobre todo las derivadas de la acuicultura de moluscos y el tráfico marítimo. U. pinnatifida es una especie de lenta expansión natural, poco agresiva y que ocupa temporalmente nichos ecológicos vacíos, siendo solo abundante sobre sustratos artificiales o en aquellos naturales cuya vegetación ha sido en alguna medida previamente degradada.
Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.
(Phaeophyta)) from Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep, India). Addition of ammonium (up to 20 mmol L-1) led to pronounced uptake within 4–6 min, with the amount of ammonium taken up during surge phase (<4 min) accounting for from about half to 10 times that taken up...
Kapraun, Donald F.
• Background and Aims Multicellular eukaryotic algae are phylogenetically disparate. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for fewer than 1 % of the described species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. The present investigation aims to summarize the state of our knowledge and to add substantially to our database of C-values for theses algae.
Al-Amoudi, Omar A.; Mutawie, Hawazin H.; Patel, Asmita V.; Blunden, Gerald
The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for bioactive compounds in marine algae. An important economic algae, through chemical composition analysis and their antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Chemical composition analysis of three algal samples from the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca (U), Phaeophyta Sargassum crassifolia (S) and Rhodophyta Digenea simplex (D) was tested. Main components were sugars (57....
ZELIHA DEMIREL; FERDA F. YILMAZ-KOZ; ULKU N. KARABAY-YAVASOGLU; GUVEN OZDEMIR; ATAKAN SUKATAR
The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, as well as the essential oils of brown algae (Phaeophyta) Colpomenia sinuosa, Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyota dichotoma var. implexa, Petalonia fascia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. The essential oil of the macroalgae was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was determined using the procedures ...
The Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) initiated the Environmental Radioactivity studies in the Antarctic Region in 1996. The objective of this research was to determine the levels of natural and artificial radioactivity achieving the evaluation of the radiological status in the antarctic region. Samples of brown algae (phaeophyta), lichens, moss, gramineous, soil, marine sediment, sea water and air were collected in the surrounding area of the Machu Picchu Scientific Station. This study shows the results corresponding to the 1999-2000 period
Muta Harah, Zakaria; Japar Sidik, Bujang; Raesah, Amit; Suzalina Akma, Awing; Ogawa, Hisao
A study on macroalgae was carried out around Golden Beach, Similajau National Park during the month of April 2005. Collections and recordings of macroalgae species and life forms were conducted during low tide period. A total of 35 macroalgae were identified belonging to 27 genera comprising of 10 species (28.6%) Chlorophyta, 6 species (17.1%) Phaeophyta and 19 species (54.3%) Rhodophyta. Sargassum paniculatum, the common species inhabited the sand and rock substrates. Entero-morpha intestina...
Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz; Rui Pereira; Andreia Ferreira Domingues
Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta), brown/yellow (Phaeophyta), red (Rhodophyta), and blue-green (Cyanophyta). Some green seaweed has active ...
In order to allow students to understand the systematics and evolution of plants, the qualitative analysis of fat-soluble photosynthetic pigments by the procedure of thin-layer chromatography was carried oout in a senior high school biology class. The materials used in the class were Oscillatoria sp. (Cyanophyta), dried “Nori” Porphyra sp. （Rhodophyta), Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta), Spirogyra sp. (Chlorophyta), and Conocephalum conicum (Bryophyta). Through practical teaching, the students...
Garrigue, Claire; Tsuda, R.T.
A catalog of the marine benthic algae (#Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta$ and #Rhodophyta$) reported from New Caledonia is presented in two sections : 1. Classification; 2. Check list with references and localities. There are 35 genera, 130 species of green algae; 23 genera, 59 species of brown algae; and 79 genera, 147 species of red algae which represent a rich algal flora for the subtropics. (Résumé d'auteur)
郑柏林; 刘剑华; 杨毓英
In this paper, the composition, distribution, seasonal variation and biomass of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were studied during the period from May of 1981 to April of 1982.The results of the investigation are as follows: 1. 83 species of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were found,and they are indentified as: 13 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta and 54 Rhodo-phyta.2. According to the flora of 83 species of benthic algae in Qingdao Mati Reef, it seems that they belong to warm temperate.3. The annual biomass and biomass variation of benthic algae in March were hightest of the west part of Qingdao Mati Reef.
Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric
This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.
Márcia Barbosa de Sousa
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively
Demao Li; Fang Lü; Guangce Wang; Baicheng Zhou
The cell organelles of the coenocytic alga Codium fragile (Sun) Hariot aggregated rapidly and protoplasts were formed when its protoplasm was extruded out in seawater. Continuous observation showed that there were long and gelatinous threads connecting the cell organelles. The threads contracted, and thus the cell organelles aggregated into protoplasmic masses. The enzyme digestion experiments and Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Anthrone stainings showed that the long and gelatinous threads involved in the formation of the protoplasts might Include protein and saccharides as structure components. Nile Red staining Indicated that the protoplast primary envelope was non-lipid at first, and then lipid materials Integrated Into its surface gradually. The fluorescent brightener staining Indicated that the cell wall did not regenerate in the newly formed protoplasts and they all disintegrated within 72 h after formation. Transmission electron microscopy of the cell wall of wild C. fragile showed electron-dense material embedded in the whole cell wall at regular intervals. The experiments indicated that C. fragile would be a suitable model alga for studying the formation of protoplasts.
吴青; 梁广文; 曾玲; 陆永跃
调查结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲Brontispa longissima(Gestro)的寄主植物有26属36种,危害比较严重的寄主有椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)、大王椰子(Roystonea regia O.F.Cook)、假槟榔(Archontophoenix alexandrae(F.V.Mueller))、鱼尾葵(Caryota ochlandra Hance)、三药槟榔(Areca triandra Roxburgh ex Buchanan)、金山葵(Syagrus romanzoffiana(Chamisso)Glassman)、菲岛鱼尾葵(Caryota cumingii Loddiges ex Martius)、刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin)、国王椰子(Ravenea rivularis L.)等.野外观察和采集标本鉴定结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲捕食性天敌有11种,主要种类为蚂蚁Formica sp.、毛蠼螋Cheatospania sp.、中华大螳螂Parattenodera sinensis Saussure;致病微生物有3种,主要是绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae.
Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M
Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467
Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing
Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area. PMID:26031019
Neidy Pauline Cetz-Navarro
Full Text Available Se revisaron muestras de macroalgas de un hábitat pocas veces analizado (colindante a la parte basal del tejido vivo de los corales Acropora palmata y Diploria strigosa y de una zona de México poco conocida florísticamente (parte Sur del Caribe mexicano, con base a lo cual se reporta a Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta y Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta como nuevos registros de macroalgas para la costa del Atlántico mexicano. Además, se reporta a Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta como nuevo registro para la parte costera continental del Atlántico mexicano, ya que sólo se había registrado hace más de 40 años para Arrecife Alacranes, sitio alejado aproximadamente 180 km al norte de Puerto Progreso, Yucatán. Aunque las especies de macroalgas no presentaron estructuras reproductoras, probablemente por tener crecimiento clonal y estar invadiendo tejido coralino, los caracteres morfológicos permitieron su identificación con certeza. Con excepción de la primera especie, las otras no se habían registrado creciendo sobre corales. Tomando en cuenta estos nuevos registros, el total de especies de macroalgas registradas hasta este estudio para el Caribe mexicano es de 546, incluyendo 307 Rhodophyta, 171 Chlorophyta y 68 Phaeophyta. Esta zona tropical y la costa templada de Baja California conforman las dos zonas florísticas marinas más ricas de México.Macroalgae samples from a habitat uncommonly analyzed (next to the basal part of live tissue of the corals Acropora palmata and Diploria strigosa, and from a Mexican zone barely known floristically (the southern part of the Mexican Caribbean were studied. Based on those samples, Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta, and Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta are recognized as new records for the Mexican Atlantic coast. Similarly, Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta is recognized as a new record for the continental coast of the Mexican
Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.
郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声
Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.
韩丽君; 范晓; 严小军
Cation-exchange chromatography was selected to extract and separate betaines from marine algae. On the basis of the special chemical characteristics of the betaines and their analogues, Dragendorff's reagent (KBiI4) was used to test the existence of betaines and their analogues in marine algae. The total content of betaines from seven species was obtained by using the Reinkeate salt precipitation method. The results showed that the content of betaines in two species of Chlorophyta and two species of Rhodophyta were relatively high,and that the content of betaines in Enteromopha prolifera could even reach to 0.9%. The content in the three species of Phaeophyta was relatively low.
郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声
Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlomphyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurenc/a okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.
Leandro De Santis Ferreira
Full Text Available SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile, Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh, Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing, Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux, Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta. Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area.
Full Text Available The author investigated the presence of various carotcnoids in some phytobenthos species (20 species representative of Chlorophytn, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The presence of following carotenoids has been determined 1 in Chlorophyta lycopene, α-, β-, γ- , ε-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein and astaxanthin esier; 2 in Phorophyta: α-, β-, γ- , ε- carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diataxanthin, fucoxanthin, fucoxanthol, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and rhodoxanthin-like: 3 in Rhodophyta α-, β-, γ-carotene,α-, β-,cryptoxanthin, lutein lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, anthcraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, fucoxanthin neoxanthin and violaxanthin The total carotenoid content ranged from 1.197 ( Cystoseira corniculata to 16 748 mg g-1 dry weight (Chaetomorpha aerea.
Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina Evaluation of macroalgae from Santa Catarina’s coast with the brine shrimp assay
Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.Samples of 19 macroalgae species (4 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 10 Rhodophyta have been collected from two points of Santa Catarina's coast. The ethanolic extracts were avaluated with the brine shrimp assay in order to perform a screening for potential toxicity. A total of 25 extracts presented significant results in one or more of the tested concentrations. The phylum Rhodophyta presented more statistically significant results with the chi-square test, as well as lower values of LC50. The extracts of Acanthophora spicifera (from Canasvieiras and Ilha do Francês, Hypnea musciformis and Pterocladiella capillacea (both from Ilha do Francês presented LC50 below 50 mg/mL. Differences between the species of same genus (Codium decorticatum and Codium isthmocladium and the influence of environmental factors (Hypnea musciformis were observed.
ZHENG Dao-jun; LIANG Yuan-fa; LIU Gou-min; YAN Dong-hai; LINGHU Chang-di; TIAN Yong-hui
The random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) was applied to detect the genetic relationships and diversity among 21 germplasm materials of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae, which involved 8 species, i.e., Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume, L. henryi Hemsl., L. japonicum Thunb, L. japonicum Thunb. vat. pubscens Koidz, L. luciduM Ait., L. pedunculare Rehd, Osmanthus masumuranus Hayata, and L. delavayanm Hariot. 20 RAPD primers selected were applied for the amplification on the 21 germplasm materials mentioned above. 427 bands were obtained, and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 97.7%. The genetic similarity coefficients (GS) ranged from 0.1522 to 0.8322 with an average of 0.5466. There was a significant genetic difference among germplasm materials of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae, and UPGMA cluster based on the GS of RAPD could distinguish all test germplasm materials clearly and indicated the relationship of the 8 species mentioned above, all of which indicated that RAPD markers could be used for the studies of genetic diversity and relationship and classification of germplasm resources of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae. Analysis results of RAPD showed that L. japonicum Thunb. var. pubscens Koidz has closer genetic relationship with L. pedunculare Rehd and further genetic relationship with L. japonicum Thunb. among all tested species. The authors suggest that further research is needed to study whether L. japonicum Thunb. var. pubscens Koidz should be classified into a variata of L. japonicum Thunb, or should be considered as an independent species. The analysis results supported that L. pururascens Y. C. Yang should be combined into L. robustum (Roxb.) Biume.
Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar y caracterizar la composición de especies de la zona submareal de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México; se realizaron muestreos de macroalgas marinas bentónicas en 7 sitios durante 1995-2000. Como resultado de 25 buceos Scuba entre 3 y 33 m de profundidad se encontraron 150 especies de macroalgas para el área de estudio; 10 son Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta y 114 Rhodophyta. Del total, 47 son registros nuevos para el área de estudio y 2 de éstos, Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell y Minium parvum R.L. Moe, son nuevos para la flora marina del Pacífico de México. Se incluye una revisión de las investigaciones en las que se han considerado las macroalgas presentes en la bahía de Todos Santos y una discusión sobre la composición de las especies encontradas, su distribución vertical y reproducción, así como sobre las especies epífitas y parásitas del área.In order to identify and characterize the species composition of the subtidal zone of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, benthic marine macroalgae were sampled at 7 sites from 1995 to 2000. As a result of 25 scuba at derds for the study area, of which Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell and R.L Moe Minium parvum are new to the marine flora of Pacific Mexico. We include a research that consider the macroalpths between 3 and 33 m we found a total of 150 species of macroalgae for the study area, of which 10 are Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 114 Rhodophyta; 47 species represent new recogae in the Todos Santos Bay and a discussion on the composition of species found, its vertical distribution and reproduction, particularly the species epiphytes and parasites present in the study area.
A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi
This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.
Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio
This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787
In order to continue with the Research Program in Environmental Radioactivity in the Antarctic Region initiated in 1996, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) participated in the 11th Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ANTAR XI) on 2000. The main objective of this study is to evaluate environmental components for achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity level. For this purpose, samples of brown macro-algae (phaeophyta), lichen, moss, gramineous, soil, marine sediment, sea water and air were collected in the surrounding area of the Machu Picchu Scientific Station. The physical, radiochemical treatment and radiometric assays of the samples were done in the Environmental Control Department of the 'RACSO' Nuclear Center. The presence of anthropogenic radionuclide Cs-17, in some antarctic environmental components, confirms that this element was dispersed globally after the nuclear testing carried out in other latitudes. The environmental radiological impact in the antarctic ecosystem has been minimum due to the low levels of found radioactivity. In general, lichens seem to accumulate more Cs-137 than other biological components
Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin
Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.
Full Text Available As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries.
Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Słupkowska, Joanna; Saniewska, Dominka; Saniewski, Michał
Macrophyta are the initial link introducing toxic mercury to the trophic chain. Research was carried out at 24 stations located within the Polish coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, in the years 2006-2012. Fifteen taxa were collected, belonging to four phyla: green algae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Phaeophyta), red algae (Rhodophyta) and flowering vascular plants (Angiospermophyta), and total mercury concentrations were ascertained. The urbanisation of the coastal zone has influenced the rise in Hg concentrations in macroalgae, and the inflow of contaminants from the river drainage area has contributed to an increase in metal concentration in vascular plants. At the outlets of rivers possessing the largest drainage areas in the Baltic (the Vistula and the Oder), no increases in mercury concentration were observed in macrophyta. Increase in environmental quality and a prolonged vegetative season results in the growing coverage of algae on the seabed and in consequence leads to rapid introduction of contemporary mercury and Hg deposited to sediments over the past decades into the trophic chain. Thriving phytobenthos was found to affect faster integration of Hg into the trophic web. PMID:25563830
Andrea Cristine Koishi
Full Text Available Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.
Full Text Available Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.
Mukund C Thakur; C R K Reddy; Bhavanath Jha
Port Okha coast,which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast,is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year.Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April.The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period.Of this,Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species.The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable ﬂoristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions.Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors,strong currents primarily forced by tides,also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach.This ultimately causes changes in ﬂoristic features of the existing algal beds.
Shimaa M. El Shafay
Full Text Available This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of diethyl ether, methanol, ethanol and chloroform extracts of red algae Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Sargassum vulgare, Sargassum fusiforme and Padina pavonia (Phaeophyta collected from Red sea, Egypt. The algal extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against ten multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The highest inhibition activity among all extracts was obtained with 100 μl diethyl ether extract S. fusiforme against Staphylococcus aureus 2 and 50 μl ethanol extract of S. vulgare against Klebsiella pneumoniae. The algal extract of S. fusiforme and S. vulgare was characterized by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phenols, terpenes, acetogenins, indoles, fatty acids and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. Transmission electron microscopy was applied for determining the morphological changes in S. aureus 2 and K. pneumonia treated with 100 μl diethyl ether extract of S. fusiforme and 50 μl ethanol extract of S. vulgare, respectively. Perforation of cell wall, leakage of cytoplasmic contents, severe distortion of outer cell shape, inner chromatin mild scattered cytoplasmic vacuolation, rupture of cell wall, and decreased cell size for both bacterial isolates treated with 100 μl diethyl ether of S. fusiforme extract and 50 μl S. vulgare ethanolic extract were recorded.
Dayanne Lopes Gomes
Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.
To evaluate the properties of algae to concentrate radioactive elements, 14 species of algae like Sargassum were collected in the Prefecture and analyzed for their 232Th and 238U levels with Yokogawa HP4500 ICP-MS apparatus. The places of collection included those near the water discharge of an atomic power station. Mean 232Th and 238U levels were found to be 120 and 260 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and Phaeophyta showed more than several times higher 238U level than Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. There was no clear difference in 232Th levels. No difference between places of collection was observed in Sargassum 232Th or 238U level. Adsorption of 232Th particle to and incorporation of soluble 238U into algae body were suggested. Mean 232Th and 238U radioactivities were found 73 and 510 μBq/g wet wt, respectively, and the respective annual committed effective doses, 0.2 and 0.3 μSv, calculated from those values were confirmed to be enough lower than the annual public dose limit, 1 mSv. (K.H.)
SU Xiurong; LIU Huihui; CHEIN Kwan Paul
This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55μg/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml-4.96 μg/ ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μg/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphyocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24 μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kondoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4-12) types of fatty acids.
Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi
Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.
DELGADO M. JUAN CARLOS
Full Text Available Durante la época seca en febrero y la época de lluvias en junio de 2004, fueron ubicados en el Golfo de Urabá seis estaciones con transectos paralelos a la línea de costa rocosa. Allí se removió la biomasa macroalgal de ocho cuadrantes de 1 m2 por cada estación de muestreo y distribuidos desde el supralitoral hasta tres metros de profundidad. Se estimó el porcentaje de cobertura de las microalgas; se determinó la riqueza numérica de especies y las biomasas húmeda y seca; y se midieron algunas variables fisicoquímicas. Se encontró un total de 30 taxones de macroalgas de las cuales 20 pertenecen a la división Rhodophyta. cinco Phaeophyta y cinco Chorophyta. Las especies más frecuentes y con mayor biomasa para la costa noroccidental, fueron Sargassum polyceratíum. Laurencia obtusa y L papulosa y para el costado nororiental, Grateloupia fílicina y Chladophora vagabunda. Se concluyó que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las comunidades algales de ambos costados y que las diferencias en el gradiente vertical y de la salinidad del agua, condujeron a diferencias en las comunidades establecidas sobre el litoral rocoso de ambos costados.
Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J
In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972
Highlights: • Two coastal sites (COU, GM) in the Bay of Seine affected by summer seaweed beachings. • The same temporal dynamics of the algal δ15N at the two sites. • N and P concentrations in seawater of the two sites dominated by riverine sources. • A coupling between seaweed beachings and N sources of intertidal macroalgae. - Abstract: A fine-scale survey of δ15N, δ13C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM∗, COU∗). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ15N signatures and N contents at GM∗ and COU∗. Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ15N at GM∗ were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae
Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz
Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase
Mohamed Ali Deyab; Fatma Mohamed Elnabawy Ward
Objective:To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods:T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton.T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results:The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shoresbelong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth ofT. ornata with maximum abundance (24%) during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 ×108 cell/L) recorded during October. Analysis ofT. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight) and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight) contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight), lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight), polysaccharides (agar and alginates), carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight), minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions:The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth ofT. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.
Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.
Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.
Marine environment contamination by natural radionuclides (uranium and 238U daughters) is evaluated using marine -fauna and flora elements concentrating fission - and radioactivated products released by nuclear facilities. Total alpha and beta radiometry is done in the the biota to determine the radionuclide concentration. Uranium, 226Ra and 210PO assay is done to estimate their contribution to natural radioactivity in the chosen biological indicators. Several analytical techniques required by each radionuclide are used. Potassium assay is done to evaluate the contribution of 40K to the natural radioactivity, and calcium assay to determine Ra/Ca and U/Ca ratios in the samples. For total alpha radiometry in algae the higher average value is detected in Phaeophyta (84.1 pCi/kg fresh weight); maximum concentration in animals is registered in Bunodosoma caissarum (43.1 pCi/kg fresh weight). For algae, the higher average total beta radiometry detected is in Chlorophyta (6.9 nCi/kg fresh weight); the maximum value found in animals refers to Thais Haemastoma (7.54 nCi/kg fresh weight). Potassium higher average ratio for algae occurs in Chlorophyta (12.77% ashes); for animals, the maximum value is found in Bunodosoma caissarum (13.80% ashes). The uranium concentration factor is maximum in Perna perna bissus (684) while the minimum is registered in Thais haemastoma and Sargassum vulgare (44). The 226Ra concentration factor is maximum in Sargassum vulgare (2143) and minimum in Bunodosoma caissarum (32). Maximum average ratio for 210PO in algae occurs in Phaephyta (11.5 pCi/g dry weight) and the maximum concentration for animals in Perna perna (31.5 pCi/g dry weight). The techniques employed proved to be efficient for the objectives aimed at. (Author)
Monica Dorigo Correia
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.
Mohamed Ali Deyab
Full Text Available Objective: To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods: T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton. T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results: The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shores belong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth of T. ornata with maximum abundance (24% during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 × 108 cell/L recorded during October. Analysis of T. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight, lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight, polysaccharides (agar and alginates, carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight, minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth of T. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.
The economic seaweed Hizikia fusiforme (Harv.) Okamura (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) usually experiences periodical exposures to air at low tide. Photosynthetic carbon acquisition mechanisms were comparatively studied under submersed and emersed conditions in order to establish a general understanding of its photosynthetic characteristics associated with tidal cycles. When submersed in seawater, H.fusiforme was capable of acquiring HCO3- as a source of inorganic carbon (Ci) to drive photosynthesis, while emersed and exposed to air, it used atmospheric 002 for photosynthesis. The pH changes surroundingthe H.fusiforme fronds had less influence on the photosynthetic rates under emersed condition than under submersed condition. When the pH was as high as 10.0, emersed H.fusiforme could photosynthesize efficiently, but the submersed alga exhibited very poor photosynthesis. Extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) played an important role in the photosynthetic acquisitions of exogenous Ci in water as well as in air. Both the concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon in general seawater and CO2 in air were demonstrated to limit the photosynthesis of H.fusiforme, which was sensitive to O2. It appeared that the exogenous carbon acquisition system, being dependent of external CA activity, operates in a way not enough to raise intracellular CO2 level to prevent photorespiration. The inability of H.fusiforme to achieve its maximum photosynthetic rate at the current ambient Ci levels under both submersed and emersed conditions suggested that the yield of aquaculture for this economic species would respond profitably to future increases in CO2 concentration in the sea and air.
Gordillo, Francisco J L; Aguilera, José; Jiménez, Carlos
Twenty-one species of macroalgae (four Chlorophyta, eight Rhodophyta, and nine Phaeophyta) from the Kongsfjord (Norwegian Arctic) were examined for their response to nutrient enrichment (nitrate and phosphate) in the summer period. The enzymatic activities related to nutrient assimilation, external carbonic anhydrase (CAext, EC 220.127.116.11), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 18.104.22.168), and alkaline phosphatase (AP, EC 22.214.171.124), as well as the biochemical composition (total C and N, soluble carbohydrates, soluble proteins, and pigments) were measured. CAext activity was present in all species, and showed a general decrease after nutrient enrichment. Inversely, NR activity increased in most of the species examined. Changes in pigment ratios pointed to the implication of light harvesting system in the acclimation strategy. Despite enzymatic and pigmentary response, the Arctic seaweeds can be regarded as not being N-limited even in summer, as shown by the slight effect of nutrient enrichment on biochemical composition. The exception being the nitrophilic species Monostroma arcticum and, to a lesser extent, Acrosiphonia sp. For the rest of the species studied, changes in total internal C and N, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, pigment content, and the internal pool of inorganic N were recorded only for particular species and no general pattern was shown. Acclimation to unexpected nutrient input seemed to ensure the maintenance of a stable biomass composition, rather than an optimized use of the newly available resource (except for the nitrophilic species). This indicates a high degree of resilience of the algal community to a disruption in the natural nutrient availability pattern. PMID:16829547
鹿琳; 杨官品; 朱葆华; 潘克厚
catching, streak plating and serial diluting, alone or in combination. Molecular systematic analysis identified the isolated as 19 species including 9 bacillariophytas, 3 phaeophytas, 3 heterokontaes, 2 chlorophytas, 1 dinophytas and 1 haptophyte. The isolated species were mainly small in size, of them 9 in chlorophyta, phaeophyta, heterokonatae and haptophyte were in pico-size, and 10 in bacillariophyta and dinophyta were in nano-size. Among all isolated strains, those in genera Navicula, Phaeodactylum, Skeletonema, Pavlova and Nannochloropsis were expected to be important for EPA production due to their high EPA content; 7 chlorophytas may serve as the candidates for biodiesel production;and 8 Bicosoecales in heterokontae promised for high biomass production therough fermentation and further environ-mental pollution bioremediation. In spite of the abundance of microalgae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, almost all spe-cies we fixed and identified by morphology were difficult to cultivate. Pseudo-nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. (in nano-size) were the only two species observed in fixed seawater and survived laboratory culture. Although the algae in micro-size, Coscinodiscus sp., Ceratium fusus and Noctiluca scintillans, accounted for a large portion in fixed samples, they were unable to survive laboratory culture. Technical means need further optimization in order to get as many culti-vable microalgae as possible. We found that distribution of cultivable microalgae is wide in seawaters. Bacillariophytas spread the whole area, and centralized in Laizhou Bay; while the harmful Prorocentrum minimum was collected from Yellow River Estuary where was nutriments rich thus facing the risk of red tide. Chlorophytas and haptophyte were mainly collected from north Yellow Sea, a few chlorophytas also collected around Port of Tongxhan. Most phaeophytas were collected from the coasts of Shandong Peninsula and Liaodong Peninsula. Most heterokontaes were collected from north Yellow Sea. In
El Baroty Gamal S
Full Text Available Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea; and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL (as % of total lipid were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7% followed by L. popillose (22.5 %. GL groups were analyzed for their sugars and fatty acids composition, and the result showed that the highest carbohydrate content of GLs were found in U. fasciata (6.05% and L. popillose (5.8%, and characterized by high content of monosaccharide: mannouronic acid, galactose and rhamnose. Amongst of the glycolipids of algal species, the most predominate fatty acid identified by GC were palmatic (C16:0 19.20 - 65.89% of total fatty acid, ecosatrienoic (C20:3 7.52 - 54.41%. GL analyzed by LC/MS/MS, revealed the peak at m/z 956 corresponding to the molecular formula of C51H104O17 was the most abundant molecular ion among all GLs of algal species and its fragments peaks at m/z 617(C37H58O4 and m/z 337 (C21H58O3, were tentatively identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. The in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of algal glycolipids were evaluated. GL of all algae species showed a remarkable antiviral activity in dose dependent manner. GL from D. fasciola has shown the most potent effect against HSV1 (IC50 of 10 µg/ml, comparable to that of the current antiviral drug acyclovir (IC50 55 µg/ml. On the other hand, GL of all algal species possessed a moderate antimicrobial activity. GL of T. atomaria exhibited a high inhibition effects against all test microorganisms, with MIC value ranged from 60 to 80 µg/ml. Moreover, all algal GL exhibited remarkable anticancer activities
Heloisa Elias Medeiros
Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais
The concentrations of 25 elements namely: AI, As, Br, Ca, Cd, CI, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, V and Zn in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and preconcentration NAA (PNAA). These species potentially could be used as biomonitors and bioremoval agents. The irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons were done using the Ghana Research Reactor-I (GHARR-I) facility at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facilities. Counting was done using both the conventional and anti-coincidence γ ray spectrometry. The PNAA method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, as well as Sb and V individually from the seaweed samples. The PNAA method involved the use of a mixture of PAN and TAN chelating agents and PONPE-20 surfactant in cloud point extraction (CPE). The parameters affecting the CPE have been optimized. The recoveries under the optimum conditions of pH 3.7 for V, 6.4 for Sb, 8.6 for Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, [PAN/TAN] of 1x10-4M, [PONPE-20] of 0.1% (m/v), ionic strength 0.05 M KN03, and a temperature of 410C were generally >96%. The mean detection limits for Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, V and Zn were 6.0, 3.6, 1.2, 2.8, 1.51 and 2.6 ng/g respectively. The CPE method developed was also used successfully to speciate As(III) and As(V) from the Sargassum vulgare, the seaweed. The maximum extraction of As(III) occurred at a pH of 6.7 and that of As(V) at pH of 3.8. The results indicated that As(III) and As(V) formed only 6.27% of the total arsenic concentration, while the other species of arsenic constitute 93.73%. The precision and accuracy of the INAA and PNAA methods developed were evaluated. Schewart control charts were constructed for internal quality assessment purposes. The results were
林森杰; 王路; 郑连明; 董云伟; 柳淑芳; 丁少雄; 叶乃好; 曹文清; 庄志猛
海洋生物种类多样，分布广泛，具有复杂性、多样性和趋同性等特点，为了对物种进行更快速、准确地鉴定，急需在传统形态分类学基础上，建立并结合便捷准确的分子鉴定手段。DNA 条形码提供了可信息化的分类标准和有效的分类学手段，已成为近年来分类学与生物多样性研究中重要的技术依托。本文概述了 DNA 条形码当前的发展现状与趋势，并介绍了 DNA 条形码技术在主要海洋浮游植物（红藻、褐藻、绿藻、硅藻、甲藻）、无脊椎动物（海绵动物、刺胞动物、甲壳动物和软体动物等）和鱼类中的研究进展，以及不同条形码基因针对于不同生物类群的有效性和适用性，指出了目前条形码技术在各海洋类群中存在的主要问题，并对未来的相关工作做了展望，希望为今后我国的海洋生物DNA 条形码研究提供理论基础。%Marine organisms are highly diverse,widely distributed,with high complexity and homoplasy.To enable fast and accurate identification of species,it is imperative to establish molecular techniques,to complement the tradi-tional morphological metbodology.DNA barcoding provides digitalized criteria and effective means for species iden-tification,and is becoming an important technical tool in the research on taxonomy and biodiversity.In this review, we summarize the major recent progress and current trend in DNA barcoding,particularly as it applies to the fields of marine phytoplankton (Rhodophyte,Phaeophyta,Chlorophyta,Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta ),invertebrates (Spongia,Cnidaria,Custacea,Mollusca,etc.)and fish.We provide an overview of the deffectiveness and suitability of different barcoding markers in different groups of marine organisms.We also discuss current challenges and fu-ture prospects of marine DNA barcoding in hope to provide a framework for future marine DNA barcoding research in China.
刘宇; 毕燕会; 周志刚
Saccharina japonica( Aresch. )C. E. Lane,C. Mayes et G. W. Saunders( = Laminaria japonica Aresch. ) (Phaeophyta) is an important economic seaweed in China. There is a distinct outcome about the chromosome number in this kelp due to the tiny size of these chromosomes. The karyotypes and chromosomes of S. Japonica were observed after a series of treatments including pretreatment with 0. 2% colchicines for about 10 h, Carnoy' s fixative, and mixture of enzymes prior to dropping from 30 cm height overhead glass slides for spreading the surface coat. The prepared chromosomes were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole ( DAPI), a fluorescent probe sensitive and specific to DNA. The chromosome numbers of the haploid male and female gametophytes were 31 respectively,and there were 62 in diploid sporophytes. Most of the chromosomes were either droplet or short bacilliform. In the meantime, the female gametophyte chromosomes were between 0. 78 μm and 2. 61 μm in size, larger than the males that were between 0.57 |xm and 2.17 μm. Based upon the relative size of chromosome, the karyotypes of the female or male gametophyte chromosomes were primarily analyzed. All the results laid a solid foundation for a basic technique for localization of molecular markers on kelp chromosomes.%鉴于海带染色体比较小且数目存在分歧等原因,利用0.2％秋水仙素对海带配子体及孢子体处理10 h左右,经过卡诺试剂固定、多种酶组合处理及30 cm的高位滴片,可以获得质量比较高的海带染色体；使用灵敏度高、特异性强的DNA荧光染料DAPI进行染色,结果显示,海带雌、雄配子体的染色体各为31条,孢子体染色体为62条,大多为短杆状或者点状；雌配子体染色体的大小为0.78～2.61 μm,稍大于雄配子体(大小为0.57～2.17 μm).根据染色体的大小,对海带配子体的染色体核型进行了初步分析.这些结果为分子标记的染色体定位等细胞学研究奠定了技术基础.