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Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, health education has been shown to be highly effective since people become aware of the importance of human and porcine cysticercosis and the possibility of eliminating it. Nevertheless it has to be implemented by knowledgeable people. On the other hand, the life cycle can be controlled by avoiding swine cysticercosis. This review describes the studies performed to vaccinate pigs against T. solium and indicate that short time perspectives are very encouraging for the production of an optimal vaccine.

Ana Flisser

2001-04-01

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Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment [...] aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, health education has been shown to be highly effective since people become aware of the importance of human and porcine cysticercosis and the possibility of eliminating it. Nevertheless it has to be implemented by knowledgeable people. On the other hand, the life cycle can be controlled by avoiding swine cysticercosis. This review describes the studies performed to vaccinate pigs against T. solium and indicate that short time perspectives are very encouraging for the production of an optimal vaccine.

Ana, Flisser; Marshall W, Lightowlers.

2001-04-01

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TSOL18 vaccine antigen of Taenia solium: development of monoclonal antibodies and field testing of the vaccine in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibod...

Assana, E.

2010-01-01

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Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2012-01-01

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Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. PMID:24793221

Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

2014-09-01

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In vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits, sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Activated oncospheres of T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium were incubated in vitro in culture medium, test serum, and a source of complement, and oncosphere killing was assessed after 10 days of culture. In vitro oncosphere killing reflected the presence of specific antibody, and the oncosphere-killing assay typically indicated immunity to the homologous parasite that had been determined in vivo. This study describes the first reliable oncosphere-killing assays for T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium. These assays will be used for further research into the optimization of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis. PMID:16729683

Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Rolfe, Rick A; Velásquez Guzmán, Jeanette C; Farfán Salazar, Marilú J; Verástegui Pimentel, Manuela R; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilmanl, Robert H; Strugnell, Richard A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2006-04-01

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Intraventricular Taenia solium neurocysticercosis: a report of three cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is reported to be a common condition in Nepal. So far imaging diagnosis was mainstay of the diagnosis. In this paper, we report three patients presenting with neurological symptoms due to intraventricular NCC. We have diagnosed the causative agent as T. solium on molecular basis. Further research is warranted to assess the actual health impact of T. solium in Nepal.

Pant, B.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Shrestha, P.; Shrestha, I.; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre

2011-01-01

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Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüên...

Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga; Linhares Guido Fontgalland Coelho; Torres Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; Araújo José Luiz de Barros; Barbosa Silvia Minharro

2006-01-01

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Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Seth Oâ??Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

2012-04-20

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Occurrence of Taenia solium and Cysticercosis in Man in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cysticercosis is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem. In Egypt Taenia solium/ human cysticercosis is rare. Therefore, this study aims to survey the occurrence of T. solium and cysticercosis in human in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were collected from 425 patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, who attended some hospitals in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were examined by both direct smear method and simple gravity sedimentation technique. Ninety two serum samples were collected randomly from the patients. IgG antibodies against Taenia solium and its cysticerci (Cysticercus cellulose were detected in human serum by using ELISA. The occurrence of T. solium among 425 examined patients in the present work was 0.7% by using sedimentation stool examination technique. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium/cysticercosis in humans in Assiut and Sohage Governorates was 6.5% by using ELISA test. A great variation in the ecological distribution of Taenia solium/Cysticercosis in human was detected between Assiut and Sohage Governorates (8.1% & 3.33% respectively. Higher seroprevalence was detected in women (8.5% than men (3.0%. There was positive correlation between the age of the patient and the infection rate which was 5.3% in the age group below 20 years, 5.5% in the age group 20-40 years and 11.1% in the age group above 40 years. Results obtained in this study reveal that cysticercosis is prevalent among man in the examined areas. Public health education is considered the key factor for control of cysticercosis. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 57-60

Basem

2010-04-01

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Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts. PMID:10386436

Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

1999-06-01

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Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:24962350

Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

2014-08-01

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Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH show [...] ed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

Pablo, Maravilla; Aldo, Valera; Valeria, Souza; Mario, Martinez-Gordillo; Ana, Flisser.

1049-10-01

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Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3' foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3' e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3' e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3' para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (ndegrees AB020399 e ndegrees AB020395. As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa.

Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga

2006-01-01

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Seroprevalence of human Taenia solium cysticercosis in Haiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human Taenia solium cysticercosis is common in developing countries due to poor sanitary conditions and economics based on breeding livestock, especially pigs, with low hygiene standards. Neurocysticercosis, caused by migration of the larvae of the tapeworm in the nervous system, is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy in adults in Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, and East and South Asia. This makes neurocysticercosis a large public health problem in developing countries. Two clinical cases of neurocysticercosis have been observed recently in Haiti. In order to evaluate the prevalence of human T. solium cysticercosis in this country, in 2007 we conducted a cross-sectional serological retrospective survey using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) in Port-au-Prince, where sewage systems are rare and swine usually roam freely throughout the area. A total of 216 serum samples, obtained from healthy adults seen in the work setting of periodical medical visits, were tested after storage at - 20 degrees C. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 2.8% (6/216). The immunodominant bands recognized in Western blots were 23-26 kDa (100%), 39 kDa (67%), 45 kDa and 6-8 kDa (50%), 50-55 kDa (33%). These results confirm for the first time an endemic situation of cysticercosis in humans in Haiti, with similar prevalence as that reported in other Latin American and African countries. It reinforces the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by local public health services. PMID:19245737

Raccurt, C P; Agnamey, P; Boncy, J; Henrys, J-H; Totet, A

2009-06-01

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Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or ‘recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs. It is concluded that mass-treatment can result in a short term dramatic reduction in prevalence, whereas interventions targeting interruption of the life cycle lead to long-term reduction in prevalence.

Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang

2007-01-01

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Purification of Taenia solium cysticerci superoxide dismutase and myoglobin copurification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Superoxide dismutase from Taenia solium cysticerci ( Ts SOD) was purified by sequential ion exchange chromatography on quaternary-amino-ethyl-cellulose (QAE) followed by hydrophobic interaction on phenyl sepharose (PS) and chromatofocusing on a polybuffer exchanger 94 (PBE). Ts SOD is a 30 kDa molecular weight dimeric enzyme with 15 kDa monomers. It is partially negative, hydrophilic, with 6.3 isoelectric point and has 2,900 U/mg activity. Bovine erythrocyte SOD antibodies cross react with Ts SOD. This enzyme is 80% inhibited by 10 mM of KCN suggesting that it has a Cu/Zn active site. Furthermore, Ts SOD totally loses its activity at 100 degrees C for 4 min. The first 25 amino acids from the Ts SOD N-terminal are (M K A V X V M R G E E G V K G V V H F T Q A G D A). This sequence is 76% similar to the Schistosoma mansoni Cu/Zn SOD. By chance, myoglobin (Mb) was also found during the purification process. A 16 kDa band was recognized in immunoblotting by horse heart Mb antibodies in QAE, PS and PBE, the last-mentioned being found at pH 7.0. The first 15 amino acids from the amino terminal group (G L S D G E W Q L V L N V W G) in this 16 kDa protein are identical to several other Mbs which have been reported. PMID:12209327

González, R; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Plancarte, A

2002-10-01

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The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana / Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reativida [...] de cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB)". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium Abstract in english Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the [...] Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.

Teresa, Montenegro; Robert H., Gilman; Rosa, Castillo; Victor, Tsang; Joy, Brandt; Angela, Guevara; Hernan, Sanabria; Manuela, Verastegui; Charles, Sterling; Elba, Miranda.

19

The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana / Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reativida [...] de cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB)". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium Abstract in english Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the [...] Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.

Teresa, Montenegro; Robert H., Gilman; Rosa, Castillo; Victor, Tsang; Joy, Brandt; Angela, Guevara; Hernan, Sanabria; Manuela, Verastegui; Charles, Sterling; Elba, Miranda.

1994-08-01

20

Solitary Neurocysticercosis Case Caused by Asian Genotype of Taenia solium Confirmed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Japanese woman presenting with neurologic symptoms was presumptively diagnosed with neurocysticercosis based on imaging findings. Hooklets in the scolex of the resected lesion were not confirmed through histopathological observation. However, the illness was confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis to be a solitary neurocysticercosis case caused by the Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Shigeo; Yamamura, Koji; Chang, Chia-cheng; Kawamura, Shunji; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-?-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships. PMID:22657393

Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

2012-09-01

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Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR / Specific discrimination between Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by one step PCR assay and duplex-PCR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso [...] n° AB020399 para T. saginata e n° AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt) de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (n° AB020399 e n° AB020395). As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa. Abstract in english This study was conducted to evaluate a protocol and to select novel primers for the species-specific identification of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by PCR and duplex-PCR assays. Sequences of the LSU rRNA gene of taenids were obtained from the GenBank (T. saginata access n° AB020399 and T. soliu [...] m access n° AB020395). The sequences were aligned and then used for primer design. The generic primer TBR3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') was selected from a conserved region. The T. saginata specific primer TBR-4 (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') as well as T. solium specific primers TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') and TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') were selected from different semi-conserved regions. The selected sequences were examined in for similarities with other organisms through the GenBank Blast procedure and experimentally by PCR using total DNA (tDNA) extracted from cysticerci and proglottids from both parasites. The primer pair TBR-3/TBR-4 amplified specific fragments of 328 bp from T. saginata tDNA. The pairs TBR-3/TBR5 and TBR-3/TBR-6 amplified, respectively, the expected and specific fragments of 310bp and 286bp from the T. solium tDNA. Sequencing of the amplicons followed by comparison to GenBank reference sequences confirmed the identities of the PCR products. The detection sensitivity was equivalent to 1fg of T. solium tDNA and 0,2fg of T. saginata tDNA. The combination of primers TBR-3/TBR-4 and TBR3/TBR-6 and the size of amplicons allowed the establishment of a duplex-PCR assay to detect T. saginata and T. solium DNA. No cross reaction was observed with any combination of primers in reactions with tDNA of the parasites Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana

Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga, Jardim; Guido Fontgalland Coelho, Linhares; Fernando Araripe Gonçalves, Torres; José Luiz de Barros, Araújo; Silvia Minharro, Barbosa.

23

Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR / Specific discrimination between Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by one step PCR assay and duplex-PCR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso [...] n° AB020399 para T. saginata e n° AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt) de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (n° AB020399 e n° AB020395). As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa. Abstract in english This study was conducted to evaluate a protocol and to select novel primers for the species-specific identification of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by PCR and duplex-PCR assays. Sequences of the LSU rRNA gene of taenids were obtained from the GenBank (T. saginata access n° AB020399 and T. soliu [...] m access n° AB020395). The sequences were aligned and then used for primer design. The generic primer TBR3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') was selected from a conserved region. The T. saginata specific primer TBR-4 (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') as well as T. solium specific primers TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') and TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') were selected from different semi-conserved regions. The selected sequences were examined in for similarities with other organisms through the GenBank Blast procedure and experimentally by PCR using total DNA (tDNA) extracted from cysticerci and proglottids from both parasites. The primer pair TBR-3/TBR-4 amplified specific fragments of 328 bp from T. saginata tDNA. The pairs TBR-3/TBR5 and TBR-3/TBR-6 amplified, respectively, the expected and specific fragments of 310bp and 286bp from the T. solium tDNA. Sequencing of the amplicons followed by comparison to GenBank reference sequences confirmed the identities of the PCR products. The detection sensitivity was equivalent to 1fg of T. solium tDNA and 0,2fg of T. saginata tDNA. The combination of primers TBR-3/TBR-4 and TBR3/TBR-6 and the size of amplicons allowed the establishment of a duplex-PCR assay to detect T. saginata and T. solium DNA. No cross reaction was observed with any combination of primers in reactions with tDNA of the parasites Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana

Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga, Jardim; Guido Fontgalland Coelho, Linhares; Fernando Araripe Gonçalves, Torres; José Luiz de Barros, Araújo; Silvia Minharro, Barbosa.

2006-02-01

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[Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (pcysticercosis establishes the program's effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventions to achieve eradication. PMID:25272177

de Aluja, Aline S; Suárez-Marín, Raúl; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Morales-Soto, Julio; Martínez-Maya, José Juan; Villalobos, Nelly

2014-06-01

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Evaluation of the protective potential of a Taenia solium cysticercus mimotope on murine cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An NC-1 mimotope from Taenia solium cysticerci can help identify patients with neurocysticercosis through immunoassay. After chemical synthesis, an NC-1 peptide was coupled to bovine serum albumin (NC-1/BSA) for used as an immunogen in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis, which is an experimental model of cysticercosis caused by T. solium. NC-1/BSA immunisation decreased parasitaemia by inducing 74% protection compared to the 77% protection obtained with T. crassiceps crude antigen. The influence of immunisation was also observed on the size and stage of development of the parasite. Antibodies from NC-1/BSA-immunised mice recognised proteins from the tegument and from the buddings, and intense immunostaining was observed in the final stage of the metacestode. The capacity of NC-1/BSA to induce protective antibodies which are reactive to proteins from the tegument of the metacestode suggests that this mimotope is a potential candidate for a vaccine against human and animal cysticercosis. PMID:22027483

Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Minozzo, João Carlos; Gabardo, Juarez; Teixeira, Kádima Nayara; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa Magalhães; de Moura, Juliana

2011-11-28

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Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples / Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesqui [...] sados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from [...] 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Gisele Cristina, Arruda; Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius, Quagliato; Qláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

2007-04-01

27

Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples / Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesqui [...] sados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from [...] 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Gisele Cristina, Arruda; Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius, Quagliato; Qláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

28

Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesquisados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose.

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

2007-04-01

29

Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle.Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great socioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter

2000-06-01

30

Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata / Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consid [...] eradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle. Abstract in english Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great soc [...] ioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

Márcia Regina, Pfuetzenreiter; Fernando Dias de Ávila, Pires.

2000-06-01

31

Antígenos de larva de Taenia solium em ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina Taenia solium metacestode antigens in ELISA for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados alguns parâmetros inerentes ao ELISA, por meio de ensaios de reatividade de soros-controle positivos e negativos para a cisticercose bovina com relação a três tipos de antígenos de larva de Taenia solium: total, de escólex e de membrana. As concentrações de antígeno de 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2 e 4µg por orifício, e as diluições de soro de 1:25, 1:50, 1:100 e 1:200, foram os parâmetros que menos influenciaram no desempenho do teste. A substância bloqueadora, o leite desnatado e as diluições de conjugado, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 e 1:5.000, representaram os melhores indicadores de desempenho do teste. Concluiu-se que essa combinação de critérios deve ser considerada no diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina, em atividades de rotina ou de padronização do referido teste, considerando os três antígenos de larva de T. solium estudados.Some parameters of ELISA were evaluated using positive and negative bovine sera for cysticercosis and three types of antigens of Taenia solium larvae: total, scolex and membrane. The antigen concentrations (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4µg/well and the serum dilutions (1:25, 1:50, 1:100 and 1:200 were the parameters that influenced less the test performance; while blocking substance, skimmed milk, and conjugate dilutions, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 and 1:5.000 were the best indexes of the test performance. It was concluded that this combination of criteria should be considered in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, in routine diagnosis and for the ELISA test standardization.

L.L. Monteiro

2007-02-01

32

Antígenos de larva de Taenia solium em ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina / Taenia solium metacestode antigens in ELISA for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados alguns parâmetros inerentes ao ELISA, por meio de ensaios de reatividade de soros-controle positivos e negativos para a cisticercose bovina com relação a três tipos de antígenos de larva de Taenia solium: total, de escólex e de membrana. As concentrações de antígeno de 0,25; 0,5; 1; [...] 2 e 4µg por orifício, e as diluições de soro de 1:25, 1:50, 1:100 e 1:200, foram os parâmetros que menos influenciaram no desempenho do teste. A substância bloqueadora, o leite desnatado e as diluições de conjugado, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 e 1:5.000, representaram os melhores indicadores de desempenho do teste. Concluiu-se que essa combinação de critérios deve ser considerada no diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina, em atividades de rotina ou de padronização do referido teste, considerando os três antígenos de larva de T. solium estudados. Abstract in english Some parameters of ELISA were evaluated using positive and negative bovine sera for cysticercosis and three types of antigens of Taenia solium larvae: total, scolex and membrane. The antigen concentrations (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4µg/well) and the serum dilutions (1:25, 1:50, 1:100 and 1:200) were the [...] parameters that influenced less the test performance; while blocking substance, skimmed milk, and conjugate dilutions, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 and 1:5.000 were the best indexes of the test performance. It was concluded that this combination of criteria should be considered in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, in routine diagnosis and for the ELISA test standardization.

L.L., Monteiro; P.S.A., Pinto; J.H.P., Salcedo; J.V., Araújo; W.L.M., Santos; P.R., Cecon.

2007-02-01

33

Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium / Spliced leader gene cloning from expression library of Taenia solium cysticerci  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cisticercosis es una enfermedad causada por el estadio larvario (cisticerco) de Taenia solium. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se ve limitado por la disponibilidad de antígenos del parásito, donde una alternativa sería la clonación de genes codificantes de antígenos. En T. solium, al igual que en [...] otros parásitos, ocurre un mecanismo alternativo en el procesamiento de algunos ARNm, denominado trans-splicing, en el cual una pequeña molécula de ARN conocida como Spliced Leader (SL) es añadida al extremo 5´ de una molécula de pre-ARNm, formando diferentes ARNm maduros que contienen un extremo 5´ común. Debido a las limitaciones que presenta el diagnóstico, además del interés en el estudio de este mecanismo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue clonar moléculas que utilizan este procesamiento posttranscripcional. Para ello, se realizó un cribado mediante PCR a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticerco de T. solium utilizando como cebador directo TSSL-DW2 y como reverso ZAP-3´UP que hibridan con la secuencia SL y con la del vector, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron productos de ADNc de diferentes tamaños, que fueron clonados en un plásmido de mantenimiento (pGEM-Teasy). Posteriormente, mediante PCR de colonias se verificó la presencia de los insertos y se estimó su tamaño, obteniendo un total de 56 clones de tamaño variable (150-1200 pb). Este diseño permitió la identificación de genes de T. solium que utilizan el mecanismo de trans-splicing; y además de ser una estrategia fácil para clonar moléculas completas, abre camino para futuras investigaciones enfocadas en el diagnóstico de cisticercosis. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus). The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing [...] of some mRNAs called trans-splicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL) is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this posttranscriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-T-easy). The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp). This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

Oswgladys, Garrido; Dayana, Requena; Carlos, Flores Angulo; Teresa, Gárate; Elizabeth, Ferrer.

2012-04-01

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Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium / Spliced leader gene cloning from expression library of Taenia solium cysticerci  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cisticercosis es una enfermedad causada por el estadio larvario (cisticerco) de Taenia solium. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se ve limitado por la disponibilidad de antígenos del parásito, donde una alternativa sería la clonación de genes codificantes de antígenos. En T. solium, al igual que en [...] otros parásitos, ocurre un mecanismo alternativo en el procesamiento de algunos ARNm, denominado trans-splicing, en el cual una pequeña molécula de ARN conocida como Spliced Leader (SL) es añadida al extremo 5´ de una molécula de pre-ARNm, formando diferentes ARNm maduros que contienen un extremo 5´ común. Debido a las limitaciones que presenta el diagnóstico, además del interés en el estudio de este mecanismo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue clonar moléculas que utilizan este procesamiento posttranscripcional. Para ello, se realizó un cribado mediante PCR a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticerco de T. solium utilizando como cebador directo TSSL-DW2 y como reverso ZAP-3´UP que hibridan con la secuencia SL y con la del vector, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron productos de ADNc de diferentes tamaños, que fueron clonados en un plásmido de mantenimiento (pGEM-Teasy). Posteriormente, mediante PCR de colonias se verificó la presencia de los insertos y se estimó su tamaño, obteniendo un total de 56 clones de tamaño variable (150-1200 pb). Este diseño permitió la identificación de genes de T. solium que utilizan el mecanismo de trans-splicing; y además de ser una estrategia fácil para clonar moléculas completas, abre camino para futuras investigaciones enfocadas en el diagnóstico de cisticercosis. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus). The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing [...] of some mRNAs called trans-splicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL) is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this posttranscriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-T-easy). The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp). This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

Oswgladys, Garrido; Dayana, Requena; Carlos, Flores Angulo; Teresa, Gárate; Elizabeth, Ferrer.

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TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. Chapter 3 reports the investigations that were undertaken to characterise whether the principal antibody specificities raised by TSOL18 in pigs were against linear or conformational determinants. TSOL18 was expressed in two truncated forms representing either the amino terminal portion or the carboxy terminal portion, with the two truncations overlapping in sequence by 25 amino acids. The original protein (designated TSOL18N— and the two truncations (TSOL18N—-1 and TSOL18N—-2 were used in inhibition ELISA to determine their ability to inhibit the binding of protective pig antibodies to TSOL18. TSOL18N— was shown to be capable of completely inhibiting the binding of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies to TSOL18N— in ELISA. However, neither TSOL18N—-1 nor TSOL18N—-2, either alone or combined, was capable of inhibiting any detectable amount of reactivity of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies with TSOL18N—. It is concluded that the dominant antibody specificities, and likely the host-protective specificities, of TSOL18 are conformational epitopes. Chapter 4 describes the development of an antibody detection test for the specific diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. A fraction with a major band of 14 kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid (CF of T. solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration was purified using an anion exchange column on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3 was carried out in an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3 using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense or Sarcoptes

Assana, E.

2010-01-01

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Use of gamma irradiation to prevent infectivity of metacestodes of Taenia solium in pork  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis in humans and of cysticercosis in pigs in Mexico is briefly described. With the objective of interrupting the life-cycle of Taenia solium, the effect of gamma irradiation of the metacesdote was studied. Larvae were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 0.7 and 4 to 11 kGy. Doses of 6.5 kGy and higher killed all larvae, as judged by 100% failure to evaginate. When larvae irradiated with 7 kGy were fed to hamsters, no taeniae developed in their intestines. Doses of 0.5 and 0.7 kGy did not affect the capacity to evaginate, but inhibited infectivity. Twenty hamsters were each fed five larvae irradiated with 0.7 kGy, and 17 stunted taeniae were recovered ten days later, non after 30 days. Ten hamsters were each fed five larvae, each irradiated with 0.5 kGy; one worm was recovered ten days later, none after 30 days. Individual differences in susceptibility of hamsters were registered and alo differences in infectivity of metacestodes of different pigs. The results are discussed and more research is recommended to establish the minimum effective dose of irradiation to prevent the growth of T. solium in humans. (author). 9 refs, 4 tabs

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The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme. PMID:25017127

Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

2014-08-01

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Determinación por medio de marcadores moleculares SSCP y RAPD de la diversidad genética en la especie Taenia solium en Colombia DETERMINATION BY SSCP AND RAPD OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN Taenia solium ESPECIES, MAIN CAUSATIVE AGENT OF TENIOSIS AND CYSTICERCOSIS IN COLOMBIA  

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Full Text Available Utilizando las técnicas moleculares de SSCP y RAPD se pudo evidenciar rápida y claramente la variabilidad genética en Colombia de larvas del céstodo Taenia solium analizando fragmentos de genes de ADN mitocondrial y fragmentos aleatorios de ADN nuclear. El ADN estudiado se obtuvo de ocho aislados de cisticercos de cerdo provenientes de tres departamentos de Colombia: Antioquia, Nariño y Sucre. Los fragmentos obtenidos por PCR de los genes NADH deshidrogenasa 1 (ND1 y citocromo oxidasa c subunidad I (COI al ser denaturados y analizados en geles no denaturantes de acrilamida, mostraron al menos tres patrones diferentes por cada gen analizado, verificando que estos genes conservados mitocondriales son polimórficos en T. solium colombiana. Por otra parte, los cebadores decaméricos de RAPD produjeron patrones polimórficos, corroboraron la diversidad genética entre los diferentes aislamientos analizadosSSCP and RAPD techniques were performed in order to detect the genetic variability of Taenia solium cestode, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. The DNA was extracted from eight different cysts isolated of pigs originated from three distant Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Nariño and Sucre. Gene fragments corresponding to NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1 and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI were amplified by PCR using total DNA from individual cysts and later run on non denaturing SSCP acrylamide gels. Three different patterns were obtained by SSCP for both genes indicating that ND1 and COI mitochondrial genes are polymorphic in Colombian T. solium species. COI patterns were more polymorphic, related to the geographical origin. Furthermore, RAPD decameric primers showed a nuclear polymorphic DNA, that corroborates the genetic diversity between this isolates

MARCELA FERNÁNDEZ

2006-12-01

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Determinación por medio de marcadores moleculares SSCP y RAPD de la diversidad genética en la especie Taenia solium en Colombia / DETERMINATION BY SSCP AND RAPD OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN Taenia solium ESPECIES, MAIN CAUSATIVE AGENT OF TENIOSIS AND CYSTICERCOSIS IN COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Utilizando las técnicas moleculares de SSCP y RAPD se pudo evidenciar rápida y claramente la variabilidad genética en Colombia de larvas del céstodo Taenia solium analizando fragmentos de genes de ADN mitocondrial y fragmentos aleatorios de ADN nuclear. El ADN estudiado se obtuvo de ocho aislados de [...] cisticercos de cerdo provenientes de tres departamentos de Colombia: Antioquia, Nariño y Sucre. Los fragmentos obtenidos por PCR de los genes NADH deshidrogenasa 1 (ND1) y citocromo oxidasa c subunidad I (COI) al ser denaturados y analizados en geles no denaturantes de acrilamida, mostraron al menos tres patrones diferentes por cada gen analizado, verificando que estos genes conservados mitocondriales son polimórficos en T. solium colombiana. Por otra parte, los cebadores decaméricos de RAPD produjeron patrones polimórficos, corroboraron la diversidad genética entre los diferentes aislamientos analizados Abstract in english SSCP and RAPD techniques were performed in order to detect the genetic variability of Taenia solium cestode, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. The DNA was extracted from eight different cysts isolated of pigs originated from three distant Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Nariño and [...] Sucre. Gene fragments corresponding to NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) were amplified by PCR using total DNA from individual cysts and later run on non denaturing SSCP acrylamide gels. Three different patterns were obtained by SSCP for both genes indicating that ND1 and COI mitochondrial genes are polymorphic in Colombian T. solium species. COI patterns were more polymorphic, related to the geographical origin. Furthermore, RAPD decameric primers showed a nuclear polymorphic DNA, that corroborates the genetic diversity between this isolates

MARCELA, FERNÁNDEZ; AMALIA, MUÑOZ; MAURICIO, CORREDOR.

2006-12-01

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Impact of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis on the hormonal levels of free ranging boars.  

Science.gov (United States)

In chronically infected BALBc/AnN male mice, Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis induces changes in the host's sex steroids hormone that lead to their estrogenization and deandrogenization, with possible repercussions on their susceptibility to infections. Here reported are the serum steroid levels in free range cysticercotic male boars. Therefore, the possible effects of Taenia solium cysticerci over the pig steroid levels were evaluated. Herein are described the sex steroids and cortisol levels of non-cysticercotic (n=25) and cysticercotic (n=22) adult boars, as diagnosed by tongue inspection, all free-ranging in a typical village of an endemic rural area in Mexico. A significant reduction of testosterone (P=0.022) and a likely one of 17beta-estradiol (P=0.08) levels were found in the cysticercotic boars in comparison with those non-cysticercotic, whilst no significant differences in the cortisol and DHEA levels were detected. Serum levels of specific antibodies did not correlate with infection nor with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Results suggest that T. solium cysticercosis significantly affects the hormonal status of its porcine host independently of their antibody response. PMID:17716821

Peña, N; Morales, J; Morales-Montor, J; Vargas-Villavicencio, A; Fleury, A; Zarco, L; de Aluja, A S; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

2007-10-21

 
 
 
 
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Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

Galileo Escobedo, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Paul Nava-Luna, Alfonso Olivos, Armando Pérez-Torres, Sonia Leon-Cabrera, J.C. Carrero, Jorge Morales-Montor

2011-01-01

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Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data on human and porcine cysticercosis were collected from 2008 to 2009 in Angonia district, and made available for burden assessment. Study subjects were 1723 persons and 661 pigs. Methods included a questionnaire survey, Ag-ELISA detection of human and porcine cysticercosis and human brain computer tomography. All data were compiled in the software for statistical analysis ‘R’. To estimate the DALYs lost due to neurocysticercosis – associated epilepsy and headache a DALY calculator was used. To estimate the total costs a cost analysis model was used. Results: Approximately 5% and 0.8% of the total population of Angonia district was estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and headache, respectively. Around two thirds of the diseased population never received any treatment. The estimates were based on reported prevalence of epilepsy and headache of 15.6% and 30.9%, respectively. Among people with reported epilepsy, 42.5% had NCC. The number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis corresponded to 35% of the total pig population. The estimated average number of DALYs lost due to NCC associated epilepsy and headache was 12.1 per thousand persons per year. The total annual costs due to T. solium cysticercosis were estimated at 1.3 million Euro of which 87% were costs linked to human cysticercosis and 13% were due to pig production losses. The annual monetary burden per case of NCC-associated epilepsy amounted at 51.0 Euro. Conclusions: Twelve DALYs per thousand persons per year and a cost of more than one million Euro per year makes T. solium cysticercosis a serious public health and agricultural threat for Angonia district.

Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas

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Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes / Duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes como portador dos ovos de T. solium. Cem besouros foram distribuídos em cinco caixas de polietileno, contendo um grama de fezes bovina misturada à proglotes grávidas de T. solium [...] trituradas. Após 24 horas, cada grupo de besouros foi transferido para uma caixa limpa e, a cada três dias, cinco besouros foram dissecados para determinar a contagem e viabilidade dos ovos nos intestinos de cada besouro. Ovos de T. solium foram detectados no sistema digestivo até 39 dias (13° dia da amostragem de 20), observando-se uma redução gradativa do número e viabilidade dos ovos, até 36 dias após a infecção. A viabilidade dos ovos foi de 40% após 24 horas da infecção, com uma média de 11 ovos por cada besouro. Besouros coprófagos têm potencial para contribuírem na dispersão dos ovos de T. solium em áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglo [...] ttids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P

Luis Antonio, Gomez-Puerta; Maria Teresa, Lopez-Urbina; Hector Hugo, Garcia; Armando Emiliano, Gonzalez.

2014-03-01

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Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes / Duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes como portador dos ovos de T. solium. Cem besouros foram distribuídos em cinco caixas de polietileno, contendo um grama de fezes bovina misturada à proglotes grávidas de T. solium [...] trituradas. Após 24 horas, cada grupo de besouros foi transferido para uma caixa limpa e, a cada três dias, cinco besouros foram dissecados para determinar a contagem e viabilidade dos ovos nos intestinos de cada besouro. Ovos de T. solium foram detectados no sistema digestivo até 39 dias (13° dia da amostragem de 20), observando-se uma redução gradativa do número e viabilidade dos ovos, até 36 dias após a infecção. A viabilidade dos ovos foi de 40% após 24 horas da infecção, com uma média de 11 ovos por cada besouro. Besouros coprófagos têm potencial para contribuírem na dispersão dos ovos de T. solium em áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglo [...] ttids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P

Luis Antonio, Gomez-Puerta; Maria Teresa, Lopez-Urbina; Hector Hugo, Garcia; Armando Emiliano, Gonzalez.

45

ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci / Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cru [...] zadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF) e extrato total (T) de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e de extrato de escólex (S) e de cisticercos (T) de Taenia solium (Tso). A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública. Abstract in english In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from [...] Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra) and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra), and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts) and of larvae (T-Ts). A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda, PINTO; Adelaide José, VAZ; Pedro Manuel Leal, GERMANO; Paulo Mutuko, NAKAMURA.

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ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

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Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública.

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

2000-04-01

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ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci / Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cru [...] zadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF) e extrato total (T) de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e de extrato de escólex (S) e de cisticercos (T) de Taenia solium (Tso). A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública. Abstract in english In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from [...] Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra) and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra), and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts) and of larvae (T-Ts). A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda, PINTO; Adelaide José, VAZ; Pedro Manuel Leal, GERMANO; Paulo Mutuko, NAKAMURA.

2000-04-01

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Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship  

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Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR, since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite.

Jorge Morales-Montor

2010-01-01

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La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES) de [...] T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba), y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control). La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the immunochromatography assay for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) by coproantigen detection. Materials and methods: IgG anti-T. solium excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens were produced in rabbits and IgG anti-rabbit IgG, in Capra hircu [...] s "goat". A portion of the anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens was conjugated with colloidal gold. Immunochromatography was performed in nitrocellulose paper strips in which two transversal bands with capture antibodies were fixed. The first band had rabbit anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens (test band), and the second band had goat IgG anti-rabbit IgG (control band). The assay was assessed using a pool of three culture media samples with E/S antigens from T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum and of Anisakis simplex larvae, as well a by a pool of three faecal samples from non-infected hamsters, from hamsters infected with H. nana, and from a pool comprising seven hamsters infected with T. solium. Results: Immunochromatography detected T. solium antigens in media samples with T. solium E/S antigens and in stool samples from hamsters infected with T. solium by staining of the test band. Negative results were obtained with culture media samples with E/S antigens from other helminths and in pooled stool samples from hamsters infected with H. nana as well as from non-infected animals. In all strips used the control band got stained. Conclusions: The immunocromatography assay is able to detect T. solium antigens, both in culture media and in stools from infected hamsters, but its sensitivity and specificity should be tested in human fecal samples for diagnosing Tenia infections through coproantigen detection.

Hermes, Escalante A; Obed, Huamanchay C; Kelly, Davelois A.

2001-07-01

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Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), B [...] ahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p

Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Maria Aparecida, Souza; Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira, Pena; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Lísia Gomes Martins de, Moura; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2012-02-01

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Infection with versus Exposure to Taenia solium: What Do Serological Test Results Tell Us?  

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Taenia solium cysticercosis is an endemic zoonosis in many developing countries. Serological tests are the most appropriate diagnostic tools to understand the transmission dynamics of the parasite, but the performances of these methods in such a setting are not known. A south Ecuadorian human population living in an endemic area was tested using three common serological tests. Because none of them is a gold standard, a Bayesian Latent Class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics. Two definitions of a case were considered to differentiate between prevalence of current infection and prior exposure to the parasite. Differences between the performances of the same test in function of the definition of a case were observed. This study shows that test results and prior information should be interpreted carefully in a Bayesian analysis framework, particularly when the latter is based on clinical studies. PMID:20682891

Praet, Nicolas; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Speybroeck, Niko; Ahounou, Serge; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Berkvens, Dirk; Hul, Anke Van; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, Margoth; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre

2010-01-01

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Taenia solium and Taenia ovis: stage-specific expression of the vaccine antigen genes, TSOL18, TSOL16, and homologues, in oncospheres.  

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Recombinant antigens that have been cloned from Taenia solium and Taenia ovis have been shown to be highly effective when used as vaccines against cysticercosis in the intermediate hosts. This study investigated the presence of mRNA encoding the TSOL18 and TSOL16 antigens in different life-cycle stages of T. solium, and their related homologues in T. ovis. Reverse transcription-PCR and Southern blotting demonstrated that the antigens are stage-specifically expressed in the oncosphere. The apparent absence of expression of TSOL18 in the metacestode life-cycle stage suggests that the vaccine based on this antigen targets exclusively the early stages in the development of the parasite. PMID:16510142

Gauci, Charles G; Verástegui, Manuela R; Gilman, Robert H; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2006-08-01

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Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

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Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoenzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the imm...

Francesco Iudici Neto; Geraldo Pianetti-Filho; Ricardo Nascimento Araújo; Evaldo Nascimento

2007-01-01

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Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.  

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Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (pSarcoptes scabiei. In conclusion, IVM at a single dose of 0.3mg/kg was efficacious against ectoparasites but did not effectively cure pigs from T. solium cysticercosis or nematodes. Oxfendazole, on the other hand, killed all nematodes and muscle cysts, but did not have any effect on ectoparasites. A combination of the two drugs would be a most useful treatment option for control of pig parasitoses in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23806569

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-10-01

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Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico  

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Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Vázquez-Flores Sonia

2001-01-01

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Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs  

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In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

2013-01-01

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CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

Sri S. Margono

2012-09-01

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Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs  

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Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

2013-01-01

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Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) binding fraction from Taenia solium metacestode improves the neurocysticercosis serodiagnosis.  

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Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most important diseases caused by parasites affecting the central nervous system. We fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose resin the total saline extract (S) from Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluated obtained fractions (DEAE S1 and DEAE S2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, n?=?123) and immunoblotting (IB, n?=?22) to detect human NC in serum. Diagnostic parameters were established by ROC and TG ROC curves for ELISA tests. IB was qualitatively analyzed. S and DEAE S1 presented sensitivity of 87. 5% and DEAE S2 90%. The best specificity was observed for DEAE S2 (90.4%). In IB, using DEAE S2 samples from NC patients presented bands of 20-25, 43-45, 55-50, 60-66, 82, 89, and 140 kDa. The great diagnostic parameters reached by DEAE S2 suggest the potential applicability of this fraction in NC immunodiagnosis. PMID:24777340

Ribeiro, Vanessa da S; Nunes, Daniela da S; Gonzaga, Henrique T; da Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2014-07-01

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Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez, Carlos Larralde, Julio Morales, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis ( [...] NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound ) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound ) and aqueous (AJ unbound ) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista de, Oliveira; Margareth Leitao, Gennari-Cardoso; Jose Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2013-05-01

62

Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis ( [...] NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound ) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound ) and aqueous (AJ unbound ) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista de, Oliveira; Margareth Leitao, Gennari-Cardoso; Jose Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

63

Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus. The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing of some mRNAs called transsplicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this post-transcriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-Teasy. The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp. This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis

Oswgladys Garrido

2012-04-01

64

Vaccines against cysticercosis and hydatidosis: foundations in taeniid cestode immunology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant oncosphere antigens have been used in the development of effective vaccines for the prevention of cysticercosis caused by Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. These vaccines were developed utilizing information gathered from numerous researchers over some 60 years which had established many of the principals concerning immunity to taeniid cestodes in their intermediate hosts. Australian scientists, or scientists with close Australian connections, made seminal early contributions to the understanding of cestode immunology that provided the foundations for more recent application of recombinant DNA methods and the development of practical vaccines. Here, some particular contributions to the field are highlighted from Drs. Michael Gemmell, Michael Rickard, David Heath and Graham Mitchell together with a précis of the recent progress in vaccine development, particularly for prevention of cysticercosis due to T. solium. PMID:16337177

Lightowlers, Marshall W

2006-01-01

65

Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim se mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração, língua ou masseter. Não se observou correlação entre concentração de anticorpos e número de cisticercos identificados.Blood samples from seven swines infected with eggs of Taenia solium, were collected weekly during a period of 140 days. The ELISA was carried out in serum, using antigen from Cysticercus cellulosae scolex (Es-Tso. The antibody levels for all animals significantly increased and maintained constant from the 21th day post-infection to the end of the experiment. The sensitivity of the ELISA test averaged between 87.5% and 100%. At the necropsy, 238 cysticerci were identified. Six swines presented at least one cysticercus in one of the organs: heart, tongue or masseter. No correlation between concentration of antibodies and number of identified cysticerci at necropsy, was observed.

K.A. Soares

2006-02-01

66

Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae / Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso) de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim s [...] e mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração, língua ou masseter. Não se observou correlação entre concentração de anticorpos e número de cisticercos identificados. Abstract in english Blood samples from seven swines infected with eggs of Taenia solium, were collected weekly during a period of 140 days. The ELISA was carried out in serum, using antigen from Cysticercus cellulosae scolex (Es-Tso). The antibody levels for all animals significantly increased and maintained constant f [...] rom the 21th day post-infection to the end of the experiment. The sensitivity of the ELISA test averaged between 87.5% and 100%. At the necropsy, 238 cysticerci were identified. Six swines presented at least one cysticercus in one of the organs: heart, tongue or masseter. No correlation between concentration of antibodies and number of identified cysticerci at necropsy, was observed.

K.A., Soares; M.R.M., Silva; M.D., Poleti; A.A.M., Maia.

2006-02-01

67

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

2014-06-01

68

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

2014-06-01

69

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

70

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

71

Efecto de diferentes temperaturas (calor y frío) en carne de cerdo sobre la viabilidad del metacestodo de Taenia solium / Effect of different temperatures (freezing and boiling) in pork on the viability of metacestodes of Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En muchas áreas rurales de México se consume la carne de cerdo infectada con el metacestodo de Taenia solium debido a la falta de inspección sanitaria de los animales que matan en forma clandestina o domiciliaria. Como consecuencia, la teniasis- cisticercosis constituye un problema importante de sal [...] ud, tanto para la población humana que padece de teniasis y de neurocisticercosis, como para la producción porcina por las pérdidas económicas para el país. Con el objetivo de recomendar un método simple y efectivo a las amas de casa en zonas rurales y marginadas, para la destrucción de los metacestodos, se expusieron trozos de 4 cm de grosor, de carne de cerdo infectada con cisticercos, a diferentes temperaturas y durante diferentes tiempos de cocción. Se realizaron pruebas de evaginación e inoculación en hámsteres con las larvas tratadas. Con base en los resultados se recomienda la cocción de la carne infectada en trozos pequeños (4 cm de grosor) durante 15 minutos, o la congelación a 0°C por 96 horas; o bien la congelación a -20°C durante 48 horas, esta última resulta impráctica en medios rurales. La cocción y la congelación a 0°C en un refrigerador doméstico, se recomiendan como procedimiento sencillo en áreas marginales para evitar el crecimiento de T. solium en el humano, de esa manera se rompe el ciclo del parásito. Abstract in english In many rural areas of Mexico, pork infected with Taenia solium is still being consumed, mainly because of the domiciliary slaughter of animals in villages where meat inspection does not exist. It follows that taeniasis cysticercosis continues to be an important health problem both for humans who su [...] ffer from taeniasis and neurocysticercosis and for pork producers due to the economic losses involved. In order to recommend a simple and effective method for housekeepers in rural zones to inactivate the metacestodes, infected pork cut in slices of 4 cm thickness was exposed to different temperatures and periods of time. Evagination trials were done and hamsters were infected with the treated larvae. The results show that metacestodes in pieces of pork of 4 cm thickness are innocuous after boiling them for 15 minutes or freezing them at 0° C for 96 hours or for 48 hours at -20° C, but the latter is not feasible in a rural environment. Boiling or freezing at 0° C in a domestic refrigerator is recommended as a simple procedure in marginated areas to avoid the growth of Taenia solium in human beings and thus interrupt the cycle of the parasite.

Gabriela, Nava Balderas; Ada Nelly, Martínez Villalobos; Aline S., de Aluja.

2009-06-01

72

Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

2014-01-01

73

Hacia el desarrollo de una vacuna en contra de la cisticercosis porcina basada en la paramiosina de Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La paramiosina de Taenia solium (TPmy) es un antígeno inmunodominante de la cisticercosis humana y porcina. Se trata de una proteína de 100 kDa con una estructura alfa-hélice superenrollada asociada al músculo y a estructuras tegumentarias del cisticerco. La TPmy tiene la propiedad de unirse al C1q [...] e inhibir la cascada del complemento. La TPmy probablemente se une al C1q a través sus dominios tipo colágena y podría estar relacionada con una estrategia parasitaria para modular la respuesta inmune del huésped. En el hombre y en el ratón, la respuesta inmune humoral en contra de la TPmy está preferentemente dirigida hacia el extremo carboxilo terminal mientras que el extremo amino terminal de la TPmy induce una respuesta protectora celular de tipo Th1. Ensayos de protección en el modelo murino de cisticercosis en ratones inmunizados con fragmentos recombinantes de TPmy revelaron que el extremo amino terminal induce alrededor de 60% de protección en contra de un reto intraperitoneal con cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Ensayos preliminares de protección por inmunización génica revelaron que el extremo amino terminal de la TPmy clonado en un vector plasmídico con un promotor de citomegalovirus induce alrededor de 79% de protección, junto con plásmidos para la expresión de IL-12, sugiriendo que este tipo de inmunización con TPmy puede resultar en el desarrollo de una vacuna eficaz y económica en contra de la cisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium paramyosin (TPmy) is a prominent 100 kDa antigen in human and porcine cysticercosis. TPmy is an ?-helical coiled coil protein present in muscle and tegumentary structures of T. solium cysticerci. TPmy has the property of binding C1q resulting in inhibition of the complement cascade. TP [...] my probably binds C1q through its collagen-like domains and could be involved in a parasite strategy to modulate host immune response. Humoral immune response against TPmy is preferentially directed against carboxyl terminal end in humans and mice, whereas amino terminal end of TPmy preferentially induces a Th1-related cellular immune response. Protection studies in murine model of cysticercosis showed that the amino terminal end fragment of TPmy induces approximately 60% protection against an i.p. challenge with Taenia crassiceps cysts when mice are immunized with recombinant fragments of TPmy. Initial protection studies using genetic immunization showed that amino terminal end fragment of TPmy cloned into a plasmid expression vector with a cytomegalovirus promoter, together with IL-12-expressing plasmids induced 79% protection, suggesting that this kind of TPmy-immunization might result in development of a cost-effective vaccine against cysticercosis.

Carlos F., Solís; José, Vázquez Talavera; Juan Pedro, Laclette.

2004-04-01

74

Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

75

Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos, ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología.There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental taeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

Javier R Ambrosio

2011-03-01

76

Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium / Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos [...] , ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología. Abstract in english There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental t [...] aeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

Javier R, Ambrosio; Armando, Zepeda-Rodríguez; Araceli, Ferrer; Olivia, Reynoso-Ducoing; Teresa I, Fortoul.

2011-03-01

77

In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium  

Science.gov (United States)

Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (?)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

2013-01-01

78

Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140 the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests for antibody (Ab detection and for antigen (Ag detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB, using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP as Ag, five (71% and six (86% animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.. The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

Andréia Bartachini Gomes

2007-09-01

79

Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

2013-01-01

80

Production of monoclonal antibodies anti-Taenia crassiceps cysticerci with cross-reactivity with Taenia solium antigens / Produção de anticorpos monoclonais anti-cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps com reatividade cruzada com antígenos de Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese É descrita a produção de potenciais anticorpos monoclonais (MoAbs) usando camundongos BALB/c imunizados com antígenos de líquido vesicular de T. crassiceps (VF-Tcra). O soro imune apresentou anticorpos IgM e IgG anti-VF-Tcra para os peptídeos [...] e 18kDa de T. solium (Tso). Após a fusão, foram selecionados 33 clones IgM com reatividade anti-Tcra e anti-Tso e 53 clones IgG com reatividade específica, sendo que destes, 5 apresentaram reatividade cruzada com antígeno de Tso. Dois clones identificaram os peptídeos 8-14 e 18kDa de VF-Tcra. Abstract in english We describe the production of the potential monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) using BALB/c mice immunized with vesicular fluid (VF)-Tcra (T. crassiceps) antigen. Immune sera presented anti-VF-Tcra ([...] ter cell fusion, we selected 33 anti-Tcra and anti-Tso reactive IgM-clones and 53 anti-Tcra specific IgG-clones, 5 of them also recognizing Tso antigens. Two clones identified the 8-14 and 18kD peptides of VF-Tcra.

Noeli M., ESPÍNDOLA; Elizabeth N., DE GASPARI; Paulo M., NAKAMURA; Adelaide J., VAZ.

 
 
 
 
81

Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis.

Maravilla Pablo

2011-01-01

82

Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoenzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00. Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imunoenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0,95 a 1,00. O antígeno bruto de escolex poderá ser empregado na triagem sorológica enquanto a proteína de 100, 95 ou 26kDa nos testes confirmatórios dos casos positivos de NC.

Francesco Iudici Neto

2007-04-01

83

Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci / Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imu [...] noenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0,95 a 1,00). O antígeno bruto de escolex poderá ser empregado na triagem sorológica enquanto a proteína de 100, 95 ou 26kDa nos testes confirmatórios dos casos positivos de NC. Abstract in english Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoe [...] nzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00). Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.

Francesco, Iudici Neto; Geraldo, Pianetti-Filho; Ricardo Nascimento, Araújo; Evaldo, Nascimento.

2007-04-01

84

Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pig-keeping and pork consumption have increased significantly in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past decade. A high and increasing prevalence of epilepsy in ESA, without a clear etiology, and an increase in cases of porcine cysticercosis have been noted in the region. Two Danida-funded projects have addressed the problem, first by assessing the prevalence, risks and impacts of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs in Mozambique and Tanzania from 2006-2009, and, through an on-going project, by trying to develop sustainable solutions for control of the disease. The study areas include Tete province, western Mozambique and Mbeya region, southern Tanzania. The prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in the area was found to be between 31-35% in pigs and 15-18% in humans based on an Ag-ELISA. In addition 45% of the human population was found to be Ab-positive for cysticercosis. Among a subgroup of the participants in Mozambique, 72% (77/107 Ag-positive) compared to 18% (8/44 Ag-negative) were having abnormal CT-scans suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Epilepsy was, in both countries, very common and strongly associated with stigmatization. Risk factors for T. solium infections included poor pig husbandry practices especially free ranging of pigs, open defecation, age of pigs, pork cooking practices, lack of meat inspection, and lack of knowledge regarding transmission of the disease. The on-going project focuses on health education and proper pig management as means to control not only T. solium cysticercosis, but also African swine fever, another serious constraint for improving the livelihood of smallholder pig producers in the region.

Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin

85

Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140) the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into [...] thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for antibody (Ab) detection and for antigen (Ag) detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB), using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag) or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP) as Ag, five (71%) and six (86%) animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP) allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.). The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

Andréia Bartachini, Gomes; Killarney Ataíde, Soares; Ednéia Casagrande, Bueno; Noeli Maria, Espindola; Alberto Hiroshi, Iha; Antônio Augusto Mendes, Maia; Regina Helena Saramargo, Peralta; Adelaide José, Vaz.

2007-09-01

86

[Evaluation of epidemiological situation of cestode infections in Poland in the years 1997-2006 on the basis of data from san-epid stations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1997-2006, 3,523 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 2,748 were caused by Taenia saginata, 41 by T. solium, 533 by Taenia species, 20 by Hymenolepis nana, 5 by Hymenolepis diminuta, 11 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 3 by Dipylidium caninum. Moreover, 350 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 8 cases of cysticercosis were also registered. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:21473070

Waloch, Maria; Sobolewska, Alicja; Dzbe?ski, Tadeusz H

2010-01-01

87

The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were examined 1, 4 and 8 weeks after oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment. As controls, half of the pigs received no treatment. Lesions were graded 0-V according to their inflammatory response, based on viability of the parasite, the degree and type of cellular response as well as deposition of collagen. Comparison of the degree of inflammatory response was made between treated and un-treated groups showing a significant difference in the mean grade of inflammatory response between 1 and 8 weeks after OFZ treatment. The OFZ treated pigs were further divided into 4 cyst intensity groups. The group with the highest cyst intensity had the lowest mean grade of inflammatory response and the group with the lowest cyst intensity had the highest mean grade of inflammatory response. Thus the present study supports the hypothesis that the time needed for the body to clear the cysts depends on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at the time of treatment.

Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine

2012-01-01

88

Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 sho [...] wed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 %) of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 %) were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years) and in the oldest (51-60 years) group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

Luis, Escalante; Edwin C., Rowland; Malcolm R., Powell.

89

Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 sho [...] wed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 %) of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 %) were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years) and in the oldest (51-60 years) group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

Luis, Escalante; Edwin C., Rowland; Malcolm R., Powell.

1995-12-01

90

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and huma [...] n-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

Hector, Palafox-Fonseca; Gerardo, Zuniga; Raul Jose, Bobes; Tzipe, Govezensky; Daniel, Pinero; Laura, Texco-Martinez; Agnes, Fleury; Jefferson, Proano; Graciela, Cardenas; Marisela, Hernandez; Edda, Sciutto; Gladis, Fragoso.

2013-11-01

91

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

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Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia Vázquez-Flores

2001-12-01

92

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico / La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaro [...] n los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed [...] by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia, Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto, Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana, Flisser; Peter M., Schantz.

93

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico / La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaro [...] n los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed [...] by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia, Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto, Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana, Flisser; Peter M., Schantz.

94

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico / La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaro [...] n los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed [...] by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia, Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto, Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana, Flisser; Peter M., Schantz.

2001-12-01

95

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico / La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaro [...] n los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed [...] by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia, Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto, Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana, Flisser; Peter M., Schantz.

2001-12-01

96

Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis. PMID:23959481

Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

2013-06-01

97

Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out in an antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3) using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense and Sarcoptes scabiei, and with serum samples of rabbits hyper-immunised with metacestode cyst fluid of T. hydatigena and T. solium. Antibody titres of lightly or heavily infected pigs differed in their kinetics. However, the increase in F3-specific antibodies could not be related to the infection level. Analysis of the specificity of the F3 showed that serum samples of pigs infected with other parasites did not recognise this antigen. Cross-reaction with T. hydatigena occurred in ELISA using cyst fluid as antigen, but the F3 antigen fraction was not recognized by rabbit hyper-immune serum samples to T. hydatigena. Evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Ab-ELISA-F3 was done by a non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using 66 serum samples from Zambian village pigs. The total number of cysticerci of these pigs was determined by dissection (28 pigs harboured T. solium cysticerci and 38 were negative at dissection). In addition, 58 serum samples from Cameroonian pigs (28 pigs from cysticercosis-free farms and 30 pigs with cysticerci at tongue inspection) were used in a separate ROC analysis. The results from the ROC analysis yielded a low diagnostic value (area under ROC curve=0.48) with the sera from the Zambian pigs while a relatively high diagnostic value was obtained with the sera from Cameroonian pigs (area under ROC curve=0.78). The main factor contributing to a low diagnostic value based on the Zambian serum samples seemed to be the false-positive reactions that were likely caused by the occurrence of transient antibodies in the non-infected animals. PMID:17101161

Assana, E; Kanobana, K; Tume, C B; Zoli, P A; Nguekam; Geerts, S; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P

2007-06-01

98

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

2013-07-01

99

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

2013-09-01

100

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

 
 
 
 
101

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

102

Taenia solium metacestode immunodominant peptides recognized by IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum paired samples from patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to test if serological distinction between patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis (NCC), could be accomplished by the recognition of immunodominant peptides in total saline antigenic extract of Taenia solium metacestodes by IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid [...] (CSF) and serum paired samples. CSF and serum samples of 10 each, active NCC patients, inactive NCC, and individuals with other neurological disorders, were used to recognize the antigenic peptides by western blot (WB). In the active NCC the 28-32 and 39-42 kDa peptides were more frequently detected in CSF than in sera (p 80 kDa) for diagnosis of NCC. The final conclusions were that the difference between active and inactive NCC may be done with the detection of peptides only in the CSF samples and that the 47-52, 64-68, and 70 kDa bands may be included as specific markers for active NCC when detected in CSF samples by WB using total saline extract of T. solium metacestode.

Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Leandro Pajuaba de, Moura; Vinicius Paulino da, Costa; Marcelo Simão, Ferreira; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2007-09-01

103

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 / Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo [...] teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%), Tupaciguara (5,0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8%) e Uberlândia (4,7%). Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população. Abstract in english Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence an [...] tibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%), Tupaciguara (5.0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8%) and Uberlândia (4.7%). The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.

Elisângela de Paula, SILVEIRA-LACERDA; Eleuza Rodrigues, MACHADO; Sílvio César de Freitas, ARANTES; Julia Maria, COSTA-CRUZ.

2002-07-01

104

Neurocysticercosis: detection of IgG, IgA and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and saliva samples by ELISA with Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps antigens  

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Full Text Available We assayed samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, serum and saliva from patients with neurocysticercoses, control group and individuals with other parasitoses, by ELISA with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra and Taenia solium total antigen (Tso for the detection of antibodies. The sensitivity for IgG-Tcra was 100% for CSF and serum, and 32.0% for saliva; and for IgG-Tso 100% for CSF, 80.0% for serum and 24.% for saliva. Specificity was 100% for CSF and 80.0% for serum with both antigens, and 100% for saliva with Tcra and 87.5% with Tso. The sensitivity and specificity for IgA-Tcra was, respectively, 40.0% and 100% for CSF, 36.0% and 97.1% for serum, and 4.0% and 90.0% for saliva. IgE detection showed 24.0% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity for serum, with no detection in CSF samples. The search for antibodies revealed the presence of IgG > IgA > IgE in CSF, serum and saliva samples, with IgG being present in all phases of the disease, while IgA/IgE were more frequent in the inactive form.

BUENO EDNÉIA CASAGRANDA

2000-01-01

105

Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil / Anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium em amostras de soro de habitantes da região centro-oeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um total de 354 amostras de soro de habitantes que freqüentaram o Laboratório Clínico em Catalão, Goiás, na região centro-oeste do Brasil, foram colhidas no período de junho a agosto de 2002. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta e enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E [...] LISA) com o objetivo de detectar anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium. As amostras reativas e inconclusivas foram testadas pelo Western blotting (WB). Considerando WB como reação confirmatória, a freqüência de anticorpos nas amostras de soro da população estudada foi 11,3% (IC: 5,09 - 17,51). As bandas imunodominantes mais frequentemente reconhecidas no WB foram 64-68 kDa (97,5%) e 47-52 kDa (80%). A porcentagem de soropositividade para cisticercose foi significativamente maior nos indivíduos que residiam em áreas sem sistema de esgoto (p Abstract in english A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay i [...] n order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB). Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51). The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5%) and 47-52 kDa (80%). The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p

Heliana B. de, Oliveira; Rosângela M., Rodrigues; Ivanildes S. C., Barcelos; Luciana P., Silva; Julia M., Costa-Cruz.

2006-02-01

106

Structural and biochemical studies of a recombinant 25.5 kDa glutathione transferase of Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we studied a recombinant mu-class glutathione transferase of 25.5 kDa from Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1) that follows Michaelis–Menten kinetics with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The kinetic parameters obtained for rTs25GST1-1 with CDNB and GSH were V(max) =12.04 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=1.38 mM, and V(max) =10.20 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=0.90, respectively. The optimal activity was found at pH 8 in the 37-40 °C temperature range. Circular dichroism studies for rTs25GST1-1 at different pH showed that it maintains a typical ?-helix structure between pH 6.5-7.5, but loses it between pH 8 and 8.5. Thermal CD assays showed rTs25GST1-1 barely changed its secondary structure. Unfolding/refolding assays showed that rTs25GST1-1 retained its structure up to 40 °C without loss of its activity. Additionally, exposure of rTs25GST1-1 to cumene hydroperoxide did not produce significant changes in its structure and only affected 50% of its activity. PMID:23959386

Roldan, Aramis; Torres-Rivera, Anayetzin; Landa, Abraham

2013-11-01

107

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

Mekonnen Sissay M

2011-06-01

108

Mimotope peptides selected from phage display combinatorial library by serum antibodies of pigs experimentally infected with Taenia solium as leads to developing diagnostic antigens for human neurocysticercosis.  

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Neurocysticercosis is caused by penetration of the tapeworm Taenia solium larvae into the central nervous system resulting in a diverse range of neurologic complications including epilepsy in endemic areas that globalization spreads worldwide. Sensitive and specific immunodiagnosis is needed for the early detection and elimination of the parasite, but the lack of standardized, readily obtainable antigens is a challenge. Here, we used the phage display for resolving the problem. The rationale of the strategy rests on the concept that the screening of combinatorial libraries with polyclonal serum to pathogens reveals families of peptides mimicking the pathogen most immunodominant epitopes indispensable for the successful diagnosis. The screening of a 7mer library with serum IgG of four pigs experimentally infected with parasite followed by computer aided segregation of the selected sequences resulted in the discovery of four clusters of homologous sequences of which one presented a family of ten mimotopes selected by three infected pig serum IgGs; the common motif sequence LSPF carried by the family was considered to be the core of an immunodominant epitope of the parasite critical for the binding with the antibody that selected the mimotopes. The immunoassay testing permitted to select a mimotope whose synthetic peptide free of the phage with the amino acid sequence Leu-Ser-Fen-Pro-Ser-Val-Val that distinguished well a panel of 21 cerebrospinal fluids of neurocysticercosis patients from the fluids of individuals with neurological complications of other etiology. This peptide is proposed as a lead for developing a novel molecularly defined diagnostic antigen(s) for the neurocysticercosis. PMID:23022592

Gazarian, Karlen; Rowlay, Merril; Gazarian, Tatiana; Vazquez Buchelli, Jorge Enrique; Hernández Gonzáles, Marisela

2012-12-01

109

Molecular cloning of genes encoding oncosphere proteins reveals conservation of modular protein structure in cestode antigens.  

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Recombinant oncosphere antigens have been found to be remarkably effective when used as vaccines against cysticercosis and hydatid disease. Comparison of the structural features of these proteins and their associated genes suggest common features between antigens. Here molecular cloning is used to complete comparisons of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia ovis, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis oncosphere antigens and genes. The exon/intron structure of genes cloned from T. solium and T. ovis genomic DNA (tsol16 and to16, respectively) in this study was found to be highly conserved. Two closely related tsol16 genes were cloned from the T. solium genome. Their corresponding transcripts were cloned from T. solium oncospheres and a comparison of their deduced amino-acid sequence with that of the protein encoded by to16 indicates that these proteins are the most highly conserved oncosphere proteins identified so far. Cloning of another gene from T. solium (designated tsol18) and comparison with the homologous gene of T. saginata (tsa18) also revealed substantial conservation of gene structure. Comparisons of the genes cloned in this study with genes encoding oncosphere antigens from other taeniid cestodes identified striking conservation of exon structure. The highly conserved regions of the genes encode a putative secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain in each of the oncosphere proteins. The location of exon boundaries in relation to protein features identifies a clear modular structure among all members of these oncosphere antigens. Identification of structural conservation of genes encoding antigenic proteins across several taeniid species suggests that the encoded proteins play important roles in host infection and parasite survival. PMID:12672528

Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2003-04-01

110

Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose. MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA. RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose.

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

2011-06-01

111

Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin) for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) / Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina) para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina) de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose [...] . MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas) e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias) foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA). RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography) from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHO [...] D: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders) and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons) were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

112

Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin) for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) / Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina) para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina) de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose [...] . MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas) e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias) foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA). RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography) from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHO [...] D: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders) and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons) were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

2011-06-01

113

Advances in parasitism by larval cestodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A round table of international scientists was held to discuss status of research on parasitism and diseases caused by larval cestode infections. The principal species discussed included Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, etiological agents of the cystic and alveolar forms of hydatid disease, respectively, and Taenia solium, the cause of cysticercosis. Recent advances in research include new experimental models, methods of in vitro culture, methods of immunodiagnosis, a vaccine, and new approaches to epidemiological investigation and control. Considerable progress has been achieved in the development of chemotherapy for larval cestode diseases, however, many questions and issues related to indications for and evaluation of treatment remain unresolved. Application of modern biotechnology in these diseases have produced many new diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention tools and a major current challenge is to make these available for clinical and field application, including control programs. The use of different methods--from the classical morphological one to the recently DNA based technologies--for differentiation of new strains, and most importantly, the use of these modern molecular methods for comparing antigens with potential vaccinating abilities against the different strain/species, was highlighted during this round table. PMID:1805671

Flisser, A

1991-01-01

114

Estudio de la respuesta inmune humoral en cerdos infectados con huevos y posoncosferas de Taeina solium / Study on immune humoral response in pigs infected with eggs and posoncospheresof Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Due to the importance of cysticercosis in Mexico and Latin America and to the fact that in the last years another mechanism of infection for this disease has been proposed, i.e. through postoncospheres and immunosuppression of the host, we have considered relevant to perform the present work, which [...] consisted in assessing the immune response induced by dexamethasone as well as that produced by parasites in pigs infected with T. solium eggs, or postoncosphere-infected, and in postoncosphere-infected and dexamethasone-treated animals. We used 10 recently weaned pigs, three were used as controls, two of them without the drug and one with it; two were infected with T. solium eggs; five with postoncospheres receiving also dexamethasone three of them.We evaluated the humoral response against parasite antigen using indirect haemagglutination (IH) and ELISA methods Results of the immune humoral response revealed titres of up to 1:128 in T. solium eggs infected animals, of 1:16 in postoncosphere infected animals, and of 1:32 towards the end of the experiment in postoncosphere plus dexamethasone animals. Absorbance titres with ELISA confirmed these findings. Data obtained by IH show that the antibody titres of the pigs challenged with postoncospheres and postoncospheres plus dexamethasone are positive as compared to the titres obtained in the pigs infected with T. solium eggs. Results from the ELISA confirmed this finding, since, from weeks 14 to 17, the pigs became positive, behaving as those pigs that developed cysticercosis. This is relevant as it indicates that the antiposcosphere antibodies recognized antigens of T. solium larvae.

Gloria, Rojas Wastavino; Patricia, Tato Zaldívar; Sandra, SolanoGalvez; Luis, Herrera Montalvo; Manuel, Gutiérrez Quiroz; Paz, SalazarSchettino.

115

Estudio de la respuesta inmune humoral en cerdos infectados con huevos y posoncosferas de Taeina solium / Study on immune humoral response in pigs infected with eggs and posoncospheresof Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Due to the importance of cysticercosis in Mexico and Latin America and to the fact that in the last years another mechanism of infection for this disease has been proposed, i.e. through postoncospheres and immunosuppression of the host, we have considered relevant to perform the present work, which [...] consisted in assessing the immune response induced by dexamethasone as well as that produced by parasites in pigs infected with T. solium eggs, or postoncosphere-infected, and in postoncosphere-infected and dexamethasone-treated animals. We used 10 recently weaned pigs, three were used as controls, two of them without the drug and one with it; two were infected with T. solium eggs; five with postoncospheres receiving also dexamethasone three of them.We evaluated the humoral response against parasite antigen using indirect haemagglutination (IH) and ELISA methods Results of the immune humoral response revealed titres of up to 1:128 in T. solium eggs infected animals, of 1:16 in postoncosphere infected animals, and of 1:32 towards the end of the experiment in postoncosphere plus dexamethasone animals. Absorbance titres with ELISA confirmed these findings. Data obtained by IH show that the antibody titres of the pigs challenged with postoncospheres and postoncospheres plus dexamethasone are positive as compared to the titres obtained in the pigs infected with T. solium eggs. Results from the ELISA confirmed this finding, since, from weeks 14 to 17, the pigs became positive, behaving as those pigs that developed cysticercosis. This is relevant as it indicates that the antiposcosphere antibodies recognized antigens of T. solium larvae.

Gloria, Rojas Wastavino; Patricia, Tato Zaldívar; Sandra, SolanoGalvez; Luis, Herrera Montalvo; Manuel, Gutiérrez Quiroz; Paz, SalazarSchettino.

1999-07-01

116

[Cestode infections in Poland in 2009].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the year 2009, 26 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 20 were caused by Taenia saginata, 4 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 1 by Hymenolepis diminuta. Moreover, 23 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. PMID:21913477

Waloch, Maria

2011-01-01

117

Vaccination against cestode parasites: anti-helminth vaccines that work and why.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly effective recombinant vaccines have been developed against the helminth parasites Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata and Echinococcus granulosus. These vaccines indicate that it is possible to achieve a reliable, high level of protection against a complex metazoan parasite using defined recombinant antigens. However, the effectiveness of the vaccines against the taeniid cestodes stands in contrast to the more limited successes which characterise attempts to develop vaccines against other platyhelminth or nematode parasites. This review examines the features of the host-parasite relationships among the taeniid cestodes which have formed the basis for vaccine development. Particular consideration is given to the methodologies that have been used in making the cestode vaccines that might be of interest to researchers working on vaccination against other helminths. In developing the cestode vaccines, antigens from the parasites' infective larval stage contained within the egg (oncosphere) were identified as having the potential to induce high levels of protection in vaccinated hosts. A series of vaccination trials with antigen fractions, and associated immunological analyses, identified individual protective antigens or fractions. These were cloned from cDNA and the recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. This strategy was independently successful in developing vaccines against T. ovis and E. granulosus. Identification of protective antigens for these species enabled rapid identification, cloning and expression of their homologues in related species and thereby the development of effective vaccines against T. saginata, E. multilocularis and, more recently, T. solium. The T. saginata vaccine provides an excellent example of the use of two antigen components, each of which were not protective when used individually, but when combined they induce a reliable, high level of protection. One important contributing factor to the success of vaccine development for the taeniid cestodes was the concentration on studies seeking to identify native host-protective antigens, before the adoption of recombinant methodologies. The cestode vaccines are being developed towards practical (commercial) application. The high level of efficacy of the vaccines against T. solium cysticercosis and hydatid disease suggests that they would be effective also if used directly in humans. PMID:12878418

Lightowlers, M W; Colebrook, A L; Gauci, C G; Gauci, S M; Kyngdon, C T; Monkhouse, J L; Vallejo Rodriquez, C; Read, A J; Rolfe, R A; Sato, C

2003-07-25

118

Echinococcus metacestodes as laboratory models for the screening of drugs against cestodes and trematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the cestodes, Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia solium represent the most dangerous parasites. Their larval stages cause the diseases cystic echinococcosis (CE), alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cysticercosis, respectively, which exhibit considerable medical and veterinary health concerns with a profound economic impact. Others caused by other cestodes, such as species of the genera Mesocestoides and Hymenolepis, are relatively rare in humans. In this review, we will focus on E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestode laboratory models and will review the use of these models in the search for novel drugs that could be employed for chemotherapeutic treatment of echinococcosis. Clearly, improved therapeutic drugs are needed for the treatment of AE and CE, and this can only be achieved through the development of medium-to-high throughput screening approaches. The most recent achievements in the in vitro culture and genetic manipulation of E. multilocularis cells and metacestodes, and the accessability of the E. multilocularis genome and EST sequence information, have rendered the E. multilocularis model uniquely suited for studies on drug-efficacy and drug target identification. This could lead to the development of novel compounds for the use in chemotherapy against echinococcosis, and possibly against diseases caused by other cestodes, and potentially also trematodes. PMID:19765346

Hemphill, A; Stadelmann, B; Scholl, S; Müller, J; Spiliotis, M; Müller, N; Gottstein, B; Siles-Lucas, M

2010-03-01

119

Biochemical analysis of a recombinant glutathione transferase from the cestode Echinococcus granulosus.  

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Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are believed to be a major detoxification system in helminths. We describe the expression and functional analysis of EgGST, a cytosolic GST from Echinococcus granulosus, related to the Mu-class of mammalian enzymes. EgGST was produced as an enzymatically active dimeric protein (rEgGST), with highest specific activity towards the standard substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB; 2.5 micromol min(-1)mg(-1)), followed by ethacrynic acid. Interestingly, rEgGST displayed glutathione peroxidase activity (towards cumene hydroperoxide), and conjugated reactive carbonyls (trans-2-nonenal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal), indicating that it may intercept damaging products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, classical GST inhibitors (cybacron blue, triphenylthin chloride and ellagic acid) and a number of anthelmintic drugs (mainly, hexachlorophene and rafoxanide) were found to interfere with glutathione-conjugation to CDNB; suggesting that they may bind to EgGST. Considered globally, the functional properties of rEgGST are similar to those of putative orthologs from Echinococcus multilcularis and Taenia solium, the other medically important cestodes. Interestingly, our results also indicate that differences exist between these closely related cestode GSTs, which probably reflect specific biological functions of the molecules in each parasitic organism. PMID:20034460

Harispe, Laura; García, Gabriela; Arbildi, Paula; Pascovich, Leticia; Chalar, Cora; Zaha, Arnaldo; Fernandez, Cecilia; Fernandez, Veronica

2010-04-01

120

A simple method for collecting eggs of taeniid cestodes from fresh, frozen or ethanol-fixed segments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method was devised for collecting eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and T. saginata. All gravid segments, either fresh or frozen or 70% ethanol-fixed, were gently scraped using a pestle on a 150 mesh stainless steel sieve. Eggs and tissue debris were washed out all together with mouse tonicity phosphate buffered saline (MTPBS) through the 150 mesh sieve into a glass beaker. Egg suspension with a huge amount of tissue debris in MTPBS was centrifuged 5 min at 3000 r.p.m. (x 1600 g) and the pellet of eggs and tissue debris was resuspended with 1 vol. of MTPBS and 2 vol. of Percoll (Pharmacia) and centrifuged 60 min at 3000 r.p.m. More than 90% of eggs sedimented in the pellet. The supernatant covered with tissue debris was decanted, and the egg pellet was resuspended and centrifuged several times with MTPBS to remove Percoll. It is suggested that this simple method may prove useful for preparation of eggs of biohazardous taeniid cestodes, such as Taenia solium and Echinococcus spp. PMID:7635631

Takemoto, Y; Negita, T; Ohnishi, K; Suzuki, M; Ito, A

1995-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

Hernandez-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

122

Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts. PMID:23090389

Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2013-01-01

123

Mitochondrial DNA data reveal cryptic species within Taenia krabbei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticerci of Taenia sp. from two elks (Alces alces) in Finland were characterized using morphological criteria and sequences of two mitochondrial DNA regions. The host species, size, structure and location of the cysticerci indicated that they might belong to Taenia krabbei, a circumpolar species occurring in a sylvatic life cycle in wild canids and cervids. Based on the number, length and shape of the rostellar hooks, the specimens could not be unambiguously defined as belonging to T. krabbei, T. cervi, T. ovis or T. solium. In the phylogenetic analysis, based on mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data, Taenia sp. was placed as a sister species of T. solium, distant from T. krabbei isolates previously characterized from Svalbard. This indicates that the Finnish and the Svalbard isolates, resembling T. krabbei, cannot represent a single species. The results suggest that careful morphological and genetic analyses of further isolates from intermediate and definitive hosts are required to define the taxonomic status of these two cryptic species. PMID:20304093

Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lehtinen, Markus J; Laaksonen, Sauli; Holmström, Sauli; Isomursu, Marja; Oksanen, Antti; Meri, Seppo

2010-06-01

124

Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP, a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 within granulomas in T. crassiceps-infected wild type (WT mice and mice deficient in SP-precursor (SPP or the SP-receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1. Granuloma volumes of infected SPP- and NK1-knockout mice were reduced by 31 and 36%, respectively, compared to WT mice (P<.05 for both and produced up to 5-fold less IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 protein. Thus, SP signaling contributes to granuloma development and proinflammatory cytokine production in T. crassiceps infection and suggests a potential role for this mediator in human cystercercosis.

Armandina Garza

2010-01-01

125

NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae. PMID:10961852

Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

1999-12-01

126

Cestode vaccines: origins, current status and future prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant vaccines have been developed which are highly effective in preventing infection with Taenia ovis in sheep, Taenia saginata in cattle, Taenia solium in pigs and Echinococcus granulosus in livestock animals. T. ovis and T. saginata are economically significant parasites and the commercial success or otherwise of vaccines against them will rely on their economic value. E. granulosus and T. solium are zoonotic parasites that cause cystic hydatid disease and neurocysticercosis, respectively, in humans. Vaccines against these parasites have been developed to assist with the control of transmission of the human diseases rather than for prevention of infections in livestock per se. Regions of high prevalence for cystic hydatid disease and neurocysticercosis occur primarily in the developing world. As a consequence, vaccines against them are of little or no commercially interest - they are Orphan Vaccines. Lack of commercial interest in these vaccines has made public sector support for their development necessary well beyond the research phase trough into completion of commercial scale-up and other more commercially-related assessments. Practical use of the vaccines will require commercial-scale production according to international manufacturing standards. Identifying partners and support in this endeavour is now of prime importance in efforts to achieve the potential of these vaccines as new tools for the control of cystic hydatid disease and neurocysticercosis. PMID:17274847

Lightowlers, M W

2006-01-01

127

Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites: Implications for development of recombinant vaccines produced in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts. PMID:23090389

Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2013-01-01

128

[The helminth fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus 1758) in north Hesse and east Westphalia. 1. Cestodes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Between November 1989 and June 1990 a total number of 397 foxes were examined for the presence of cestodes. The animals came from the districts of Arnsberg, Detmold and Kassel. In 16.4% of the foxes infections with Echinococcus multilocularis were found, in 28.5% Taenia crassiceps, in 14.4% Taenia polyacantha, in 4.3% Mesocestoides spp., in 3.3% Multiceps multiceps, in 2.5% Hydatigera taeniaeformis, in 0.8% Taenia hydatigena and in 0.3% Taenia martis. Infections with Echinococcus multilocularis very often showed high worm numbers of more than 1000 per fox. The number of worms for the other cestodes mostly varied between one and ten specimen per animal. PMID:1396164

Ballek, D; Takla, M; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M

1992-09-01

129

First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

2010-10-01

130

Molecular and genetic characterisation of the host-protective oncosphere antigens of taeniid cestode parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly effective recombinant vaccines have been developed against Taenia ovis infection in sheep, Taenia saginata infection in cattle, Taenia solium infection in pigs, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis infections in a variety of intermediate host species. These vaccines have been based on the identification and expression in Escherichia coli of antigens derived from the oncosphere life cycle stage, contained within the parasites' eggs. Investigation of the molecular aspects of these proteins and the genes encoding them have revealed a number of common features, including the presence of a predicted secretory signal sequence, and one or two copies of a fibronectin type III domain, each encoded by separate exons within the associated gene. Evidence has been obtained to confirm glycosylation of some of these antigens. Ongoing investigations will shed light on the biological roles played by the proteins within the parasites and the mechanism by which they make the parasites vulnerable to vaccine-induced immune responses. PMID:13678636

Lightowlers, M W; Gauci, C G; Chow, C; Drew, D R; Gauci, S M; Heath, D D; Jackson, D C; Dadley-Moore, D L; Read, A J

2003-09-30

131

Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760

Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

2014-09-01

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Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and in EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Paraná-Brazil  

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Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the cerebral presence of Taenia solium metacestode (Cysticercus cellulosae), is responsible for neurological disorders worldwide. In order to validate an immunodiagnosis for public-health patients in the State of Parana-Brazil, crude antigen of Taenia crassicepsmetacestode (Cysticercus longicollis) was used as an alternative heterologous antigen to be used in ELISA and in electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) for active and inactive NCC diagnosis. Indirect ELISA was ...

João Carlos Minozzo; Juliana de Moura; Sérgio Monteiro Almeida; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol

2008-01-01

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Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.  

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Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

2013-04-01

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Distribution of Parasitic Cestod  

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Full Text Available Background: Ligulae intestinalis is a parasitic cestode, which has the economic-health importance in fishery industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this parasite in Mazandaran. The effects of habitat temperature and kind of pool (sandy-cement were considered as well. Methods: In this study, 103 fish samples were obtained in all stages; the samples (male and female were divided into 3 groups based on length of fish, temperature, origin of cultured fish, kind of pool, height from sea and sex. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out in all stages of the parasite (procercoid, plerocercoid and adult. Chi-square and Pearson's double square tests (P<0.05 were conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence and determination of reliability in six sampling areas, respectively. Results: Total rate of the parasites were 9.7% in all groups. There was significant difference between parasitism rate and height of sea level, kind of pool (maximum in sandy pools and high temperature. The multi analyses regarding to above-mentioned three criteria also indicated meaningful difference between these criteria and parasitism rate. Seasonal conditions enhance the prevalence of ligulae intestinalis. Conclusion: Flexibility in parasite's life cycle and choosing different hosts makes it challenging case in fishery industry; moreover its prevalence could be predicted according to environmental conditions so choosing the minimal at risk place for salmonids farming. Further studies are recommended for evaluating the problems in fish fertility and probable risk for infected fish consumers.

S Karimi

2008-04-01

135

Characterization of Taenia madoquae and Taenia regis from carnivores in Kenya using genetic markers in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and their relationships with other selected taeniids.  

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In the present study, we have extended earlier taxonomic, biochemical and experimental investigations to characterize two species of Taenia from carnivores in Kenya by use of the sequences of a variable domain (D1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase 1 genes of mitochondrial DNA. Emphasis was placed on the characterization of Taenia madoquae from the silver-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) and Taenia regis from the lion (Panthera leo), given the previous absence of any DNA sequence data for them, and on assessing their genetic relationships with socioeconomically important taeniids. The study showed that T. regis was genetically most closely related to T. hydatigena, and T. madoquae to T. serialis, T. multiceps or T. saginata. The present findings provide a stimulus for future work on the systematic relationships and epidemiology of lesser-known taeniid cestodes in Africa and other continents, employing mitochondrial sequence data sets. PMID:17600673

Zhang, L; Hu, M; Jones, A; Allsopp, B A; Beveridge, I; Schindler, A R; Gasser, R B

2007-01-01

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Application of biotechnology methods to the study of cestodes.  

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The advent of biotechnology has invigorated research on the control of cestode diseases, especially cysticercosis infections in man and animals. The utilization of hybridoma technology to produce antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies has resulted in great strides towards obtaining pure antigens relevant for immunodiagnostic purposes and for research on vaccines. However, the isolation and identification of antigens is only the initial step in the development of such reagents. Production of antigens in quantities sufficient for research/development and commercialization is hampered by the scarcity of viable parasite material for extraction. Expectations are that this problem can be surmounted by application of recombinant DNA methods to produce cloned genes for antigen expression in cultured microorganisms or cells. Remarkable progress has been made recently in isolating and cloning genes from several important cestode species and antigens have been expressed in vitro with genes cloned from Taenia taeniaformis and T. hydatigena. Although these early efforts have not as yet resulted in practical antigen production, the prospects for doing so appear good. The complex epidemiology of cestode diseases is another research subject that has benefited from the successful application of the tools of biotechnology. For example, the greater precision in typing biological variants afforded by DNA analysis has led to important revisions of the understanding of hydatid disease. DNA probes are now available for Echinococcus spp, which are effective for typing isolates. These probes may also find use as reagents for distinguishing eggs of Echinococcus from other taeniid eggs, a serious difficulty for field investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3043700

Murrell, K D; Rhoads, M L

1988-03-01

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Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus  

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Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

Maravilla Pablo

2011-07-01

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Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature cestode infections in dogs.  

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The efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against intestinal cestodes was investigated in four randomised, blinded placebo-controlled dose confirmation studies in dogs experimentally infected with Echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis and in dogs naturally infected with Dipylidium caninum or Taenia spp. The tablets were used at the minimum recommended dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight. The studies demonstrated 100% efficacy against mature and immature E. granulosus and E. multilocularis and mature Taenia spp. and D. caninum. Additionally, one of the studies demonstrated non-interference of emodepside with the efficacy of praziquantel against D. caninum. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and effective against mature and immature stages of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis and mature stages of Taenia spp. and D. caninum. PMID:19575223

Schroeder, Iris; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schimmel, Annette; Deplazes, Peter; Kok, Dawid J; Schnyder, Manuela; Krieger, Klemens J

2009-08-01

139

The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.  

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In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-04-01

140

Cestode infections in animals: immunological diagnosis and vaccination.  

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Cestode infections in animals are important because several species are zoonotic, causing cysticercosis and hydatidosis in man, and because of the economic losses incurred due to infections in livestock. Information on immunological diagnosis of and vaccination against cestode infection is restricted almost exclusively to the taeniid cestodes in which two groups of mammalian hosts are concerned: the intermediate host infected with the larval parasite and the definitive host infected with the adult tapeworm parasite. Research towards developing serological tests for the diagnosis of larval cestode infection in animals has been largely unsuccessful. Substantial problems remain, due to the frequent existence of multiple infections with different taeniid species and antigenic crossreactivity between these related parasites, and the low level of specific antibody response to infection. Problems with poor specificity and sensitivity of traditional serological tests for cysticercosis and hydatidosis have prevented the development of any practical test for ante-mortem diagnosis of infection. A recent new approach to the diagnosis of Taenia saginata infection by detecting circulating parasite antigen offers some prospect for the development of a practical diagnostic test for cysticercosis in cattle. The effectiveness of the arecoline purge for detection of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs has been reduced by the widespread availability of praziquantel. A serological method for diagnosis of E. granulosus in dogs has been developed which offers equivalent or superior diagnostic sensitivity compared with arecoline purge. This test should provide a valuable tool in hydatid control campaigns for the diagnosis of existing or recent past infections in dogs. Substantial progress has been made towards developing a practical vaccine for the prevention of T. ovis infection in sheep. An antigen derived from the parasite egg has been identified and produced in Escherichia coli using recombinant DNA techniques. The vaccine, which protects sheep against challenge infection with T. ovis, is the first highly effective defined antigen vaccine against any parasite infection of man or animals. Commercial development of this vaccine is in progress. The success achieved with the T. ovis vaccine augurs well for the rapid development of other recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis caused by other taeniid species and against hydatidosis in animals. PMID:2132691

Lightowlers, M W

1990-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.  

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Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

2014-01-01

142

Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.  

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Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere. PMID:21980787

Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

2011-08-01

143

Vitellogenesis in two spathebothriidean cestodes.  

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Vitellogenesis in two spathebothriidean tapeworms, dixenous adult Cyathocephalus truncatus and monoxenous progenetic Diplocotyle olrikii, has been examined using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Each vitelline follicle consists of vitellocytes at various stages of development and one irregularly shaped interstitial cell. Projections of the interstitial cell enclose the vitellocytes and extend as a cytoplasmic sheath on the follicular periphery. An outer thin fibrous layer (= extracellular lamina) covers the cytoplasmic sheath in C. truncatus, but lacks in D. olrikii. Maturing and mature vitellocytes contain vitelline material in the form of single small shell globules that gradually fuse and give rise to the large shell globule clusters. Morphology of shell globule clusters differs slightly in both species. In addition, single "lamellar" granules are present in the cytoplasm of vitellocytes of C. truncatus, but not in D. olrikii. Both electron lucent and electron dense lipid droplets are present in the vitellocytes of C. truncatus, whereas only electron dense lipids occur in D. olrikii. A single lipid droplet turns up occasionally in the nuclei of some of the vitellocytes of C. truncatus. The ultrastructural features of vitellogenesis in spathebothriideans resemble those reported previously in "lower" cestodes, especially in pseudophyllideans. PMID:15940521

Brunanská, Magdaléna; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Dezfuli, Bahram S

2005-08-01

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Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.  

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Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

2014-09-15

145

First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia  

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Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

Kataranovski Milena

2010-01-01

146

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.  

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A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

2008-08-01

147

Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989) / Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de pro [...] glotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5%) casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60%) estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80%) eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22%) de T. solium. Abstract in english Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,6 [...] 63 (0.5%) cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60%) of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80%) of them were from Taenia saginata.

Rosa Maria Donini Souza, Dias; Maria Ivani P. Gonçalves da, Silva; Ana Célia Steffen, Mangini; Sylvia A. Gurgel, Vellosa; Domingas M. A. G. Vieira, Torres; Rita Maria da, Silva; Adelaide José, Vaz.

148

Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989  

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Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

1991-04-01

149

The carriage of larval echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes by the musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) along the Ourthe River and its tributaries (Belgium).  

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In Belgium, the carriage of Echinococcus multilocularis by the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) can be very high in some areas. This study was designed to evaluate the carriage of the larval form of E. multilocularis and other cestodes in a musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) population trapped along the Ourthe River (southeastern Belgium). Six hundred fifty-seven musk rats were necropsied, and the larval cestodes of the abdominal and pleural cavities were identified. For E. multilocularis, the fertility of the cysts was verified in 58 liver samples. The following species were found: Taenia taeniaeformis (65.8%), Taenia martis (22.2%), E. multilocularis (22.1%), Taenia polyacantha (2.6%), and Taenia crassiceps (0.9%). Results were analyzed according to the site of capture (upper, middle, and lower Ourthe). There was a highly significant relationship between the carriage of E. multilocularis and the site of capture (the prevalence being higher in the upper part of the river). This difference could be due to different geoclimatic conditions. All but one hepatic lesion were found to contain protoscoleces of E. multilocularis (98.8%). The musk rat is probably infected through the consumption of plant material contaminated by the fox's feces. The red fox can occasionally prey on musk rats, but the musk rat cadavers that are left on the river banks by the trappers are probably also consumed. This could favor the maintenance of E. multilocularis life cycle. In conclusion, the musk rat seems to be highly susceptible to E. multilocularis and in Belgium could play the role of reservoir; when present this species could represent an inexpensive and sensitive bioindicator for the study and monitoring of the zoonosis. PMID:19395737

Mathy, A; Hanosset, R; Adant, S; Losson, B

2009-04-01

150

Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens  

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Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

BRAGAZZA Lúcia M.

2002-01-01

151

Neuroparasitic infections: cestodes, trematodes, and protozoans.  

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Parasitic infection of the nervous system can produce a variety of symptoms and signs. Because symptoms of infection are often mild or nonspecific, diagnosis can be difficult. Familiarity with basic epidemiological characteristics and distinguishing radiographic findings can increase the likelihood of detection and proper treatment of parasitic infection of the nervous system. This article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for some of the more common infections of the nervous system caused by cestodes, trematodes and protozoans: Echinococcus spp., Spirometra spp. (sparganosis), Paragonimus spp., Schistosoma spp., Trypanosoma spp., Naegleria fowlerii, Acanthamoeba histolytica, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. PMID:16170739

Walker, M D; Zunt, J R

2005-09-01

152

Oncospheral penetration glands and secretory blebs are the sources of Taenia ovis vaccine antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G; Walduck, Anna K; Anderson, Garry A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2010-10-01

153

Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis / Fração hidrofóbica de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata, ao contrário da fração hidrofílica, contém marcadores imunodominantes para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose humana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando que antígenos alternativos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NC) continua sendo um desafio devido ao aumento da dificuldade em se obter parasitas de suínos naturalmente infectados, para a preparação do antígeno homólogo de Taenia solium, o objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi avaliar frações detergente (D) e aquosa (A), do extrato salino de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata para diagnóstico da NC. MÉTODOS: Bovinos, naturalmente infectados com Taenia saginata, procedentes da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram obtidos de frigoríficos e abatidos de acordo com a técnica de inspeção recomendada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal. As frações D e A foram obtidas utilizando Triton X-114 (TX-114). Amostras de soro foram obtidas de 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de NC, 45 com diagnóstico de outras doenças parasitárias e 30 de indivíduos aparentemente normais. Níveis de IgG foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Imunoblotting. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste ELISA foram 95% e 73,3%, quando utilizado o extrato salino, 95% e 82,6% para fração D, e 65% e 61,3% para a fração A, respectivamente. O ensaio Imunoblotting confirmou os resultados do teste ELISA, sendo a fração D mais eficiente que os outros extratos, observando-se que o componente 70-68kDa se comportou como imunodominante para os pacientes com NC. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados demonstraram que a fração D de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata obtida com TX-114 pode ser utilizada como fração antigênica heteróloga pelo Imunoblotting para o diagnóstico sorológico da NC humana, considerando sua habilidade para selecionar antígenos imunodominantes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

Flávia de Assunção, Gonçalves; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista, Oliveira; Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco, Rezende; José Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

154

Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis / Fração hidrofóbica de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata, ao contrário da fração hidrofílica, contém marcadores imunodominantes para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose humana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando que antígenos alternativos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NC) continua sendo um desafio devido ao aumento da dificuldade em se obter parasitas de suínos naturalmente infectados, para a preparação do antígeno homólogo de Taenia solium, o objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi avaliar frações detergente (D) e aquosa (A), do extrato salino de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata para diagnóstico da NC. MÉTODOS: Bovinos, naturalmente infectados com Taenia saginata, procedentes da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram obtidos de frigoríficos e abatidos de acordo com a técnica de inspeção recomendada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal. As frações D e A foram obtidas utilizando Triton X-114 (TX-114). Amostras de soro foram obtidas de 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de NC, 45 com diagnóstico de outras doenças parasitárias e 30 de indivíduos aparentemente normais. Níveis de IgG foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Imunoblotting. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste ELISA foram 95% e 73,3%, quando utilizado o extrato salino, 95% e 82,6% para fração D, e 65% e 61,3% para a fração A, respectivamente. O ensaio Imunoblotting confirmou os resultados do teste ELISA, sendo a fração D mais eficiente que os outros extratos, observando-se que o componente 70-68kDa se comportou como imunodominante para os pacientes com NC. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados demonstraram que a fração D de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata obtida com TX-114 pode ser utilizada como fração antigênica heteróloga pelo Imunoblotting para o diagnóstico sorológico da NC humana, considerando sua habilidade para selecionar antígenos imunodominantes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

Flávia de Assunção, Gonçalves; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista, Oliveira; Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco, Rezende; José Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2010-06-01

155

Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis Fração hidrofóbica de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata, ao contrário da fração hidrofílica, contém marcadores imunodominantes para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose humana  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the detergent (D and aqueous (A fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114. Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando que antígenos alternativos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NC continua sendo um desafio devido ao aumento da dificuldade em se obter parasitas de suínos naturalmente infectados, para a preparação do antígeno homólogo de Taenia solium, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar frações detergente (D e aquosa (A, do extrato salino de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata para diagnóstico da NC. MÉTODOS: Bovinos, naturalmente infectados com Taenia saginata, procedentes da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram obtidos de frigoríficos e abatidos de acordo com a técnica de inspeção recomendada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal. As frações D e A foram obtidas utilizando Triton X-114 (TX-114. Amostras de soro foram obtidas de 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de NC, 45 com diagnóstico de outras doenças parasitárias e 30 de indivíduos aparentemente normais. Níveis de IgG foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Imunoblotting. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste ELISA foram 95% e 73,3%, quando utilizado o extrato salino, 95% e 82,6% para fração D, e 65% e 61,3% para a fração A, respectivamente. O ensaio Imunoblotting confirmou os resultados do teste ELISA, sendo a fração D mais eficiente que os outros extratos, observando-se que o componente 70-68kDa se comportou como imunodominante para os pacientes com NC. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados demonstraram que a fração D de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata obtida com TX-114 pode ser utilizada como fração antigênica heteróloga pelo Imunoblotting para o diagnóstico sorológico da NC humana, considerando sua habilidade para selecionar antígenos imunodominantes.

Flávia de Assunção Gonçalves

2010-06-01

156

Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples. PMID:21112414

Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

2011-01-01

157

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines / Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido á desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais lev [...] emente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1) anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata) e (2) antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas). A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina. Abstract in english Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typ [...] ically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

Silvana de Cassia, Paulan; Rutilia Marisela Hernandes, Gonzales; Laura Adalid, Peralta; Josy Campanha, Vicentini-Oliveira; Germano Francisco, Biondi; Edda Sciuto, Conde; Robert Michael Evans, Parkhouse; Caris Maroni, Nunes.

2013-06-25

158

Phylogeny of Taenia: Species definitions and origins of human parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogeny is fundamental as it constrains explanations about history and forms our foundation for recognizing and diagnosing species. In the absence of such a framework taxonomists historically relied on intuitive processes, personal judgment and authority, often embracing a typological view of species that disregarded otherwise unequivocal historical and biological criteria. Species of Taenia are among the most characteristic tapeworms infecting carnivores and humans as definitive hosts and indeed Taeniidae is unique among the Eucestoda in requiring 2 obligate mammalian hosts for transmission; a high percentage (>80%) of life cycles have been completely elucidated among the approximately 45 species and nominal subspecies of Taenia. Until recently there had been no comprehensive attempts at reconstruction of a phylogeny among these important parasites. Such analyses have allowed us to explore the origins and evolution of those independent species of Taenia that occur in humans (T. saginata, T. asiatica, and T. solium) and to understand the ecological and historical processes serving as determinants of biogeography and host-association. These studies supported the status of T. asiatica as a valid species and diagnosed a relationship as the sister-species of T. saginata. These conclusions contrasted with a diversity of opinions that would subsume T. asiatica as a subspecies. Recognition of a species constitutes a specific and testable hypothesis, is not an arbitrary decision and is most appropriately assessed in the context of phylogenetic or historical data. Considering macrospecies, a process has been outlined by Brooks and McLennan [Brooks DR, McLennan DA. The nature of diversity: an evolutionary voyage of discovery. University of Chicago Press: Chicago; 2002] as follows: (1) Discovery: a systematist describes the species; (2) Phylogenetic reconstruction; (3) Evaluation I: do sister-species show geographical overlap-are they sympatric or allopatric (use phylogeny+geographical distributions)? (4) Evaluation II: are sister-species reproductively isolated based on information from natural history, ecology and reproductive biology? Species may be viewed in the context of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary processes. For instance, microspecies are defined in ecological time and involve populations and contemporary process that are potentially reversible (reticulate). In contrast, macrospecies as exemplified by T. saginata and T. asiatica are divergent lineages resulting from processes in evolutionary time where an ancestor has undergone a permanent split that is non-reversible (non-reticulate). Applying these criteria in evaluation of T. saginata and T. asiatica, it becomes clear that in evolutionary time these represent historical lineages with independent spatial and temporal trajectories, having separated from a common ancestor near 0.78 to 1.71 MYBP in Africa, or Eurasia. In ecological time, sympatry, reproductive isolation, and differences in life history evident for T. saginata and T. asiatica as observed in China, and perhaps other regions of Southeast Asia, further serve to validate these taeniids. PMID:16371252

Hoberg, Eric P

2006-01-01

159

Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps.  

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Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P=0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P=0.023, P=0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease. PMID:18160069

Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Oncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T; Craig, Philip S; Anderson, Garry A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2008-07-01

160

Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

2014-06-16

 
 
 
 
161

Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and in EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Paraná-Brazil  

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Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC, the cerebral presence of Taenia solium metacestode (Cysticercus cellulosae, is responsible for neurological disorders worldwide. In order to validate an immunodiagnosis for public-health patients in the State of Parana-Brazil, crude antigen of Taenia crassicepsmetacestode (Cysticercus longicollis was used as an alternative heterologous antigen to be used in ELISA and in electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB for active and inactive NCC diagnosis. Indirect ELISA was able to discriminate between active and inactive samples and presented high specificity and sensitivity. Any immunodominant band was able to distinguish the NCC stages, although the EITB showed 100% specificity. The immunological results proved to be an important auxiliary toll for NCC diagnosis, mainly for public-health systems in developing countries, where either the neuroimage techniques are not accessible or the resources are scarce.Neurocisticercose (NCC, causada pela presença do metacestódeo do parasito Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae no sistema nervoso central, é uma doença mundialmente conhecida como responsável por distúrbios neurológicos. Com o objetivo de validar um imunodiagnóstico para pacientes da rede pública do estado do Paraná-Brasil, o extrato bruto do metacestódeo de T. crassiceps (C. longicollis foi produzido e utilizado como antígeno heterólogo para o diagnóstico de NCC ativa e inativa utilizando-se ELISA e eletroimunotransferência (EITB. O ensaio de ELISA indireto foi capaz de discriminar a forma ativa e inativa da NCC, apresentando alta especificidade e sensibilidade. Ao se utilizar EITB, nenhuma proteína foi imunodominante de forma a distinguir os diferentes estágios da NCC, embora o ensaio tenha tido 100% de especificidade. Os resultados mostram que os ensaios imunológicos podem ser uma ferramenta auxiliar importante para o diagnóstico da NCC, principalmente para o sistema público de saúde, cujo diagnóstico por imagem não é acessível ou cujos recursos financeiros são escassos.

João Carlos Minozzo

2008-12-01

162

Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and in EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Paraná-Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neurocisticercose (NCC), causada pela presença do metacestódeo do parasito Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae) no sistema nervoso central, é uma doença mundialmente conhecida como responsável por distúrbios neurológicos. Com o objetivo de validar um imunodiagnóstico para pacientes da rede pública [...] do estado do Paraná-Brasil, o extrato bruto do metacestódeo de T. crassiceps (C. longicollis) foi produzido e utilizado como antígeno heterólogo para o diagnóstico de NCC ativa e inativa utilizando-se ELISA e eletroimunotransferência (EITB). O ensaio de ELISA indireto foi capaz de discriminar a forma ativa e inativa da NCC, apresentando alta especificidade e sensibilidade. Ao se utilizar EITB, nenhuma proteína foi imunodominante de forma a distinguir os diferentes estágios da NCC, embora o ensaio tenha tido 100% de especificidade. Os resultados mostram que os ensaios imunológicos podem ser uma ferramenta auxiliar importante para o diagnóstico da NCC, principalmente para o sistema público de saúde, cujo diagnóstico por imagem não é acessível ou cujos recursos financeiros são escassos. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the cerebral presence of Taenia solium metacestode (Cysticercus cellulosae), is responsible for neurological disorders worldwide. In order to validate an immunodiagnosis for public-health patients in the State of Parana-Brazil, crude antigen of Taenia crassicepsmetacestode [...] (Cysticercus longicollis) was used as an alternative heterologous antigen to be used in ELISA and in electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) for active and inactive NCC diagnosis. Indirect ELISA was able to discriminate between active and inactive samples and presented high specificity and sensitivity. Any immunodominant band was able to distinguish the NCC stages, although the EITB showed 100% specificity. The immunological results proved to be an important auxiliary toll for NCC diagnosis, mainly for public-health systems in developing countries, where either the neuroimage techniques are not accessible or the resources are scarce.

João Carlos, Minozzo; Juliana de, Moura; Sérgio Monteiro, Almeida; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

1127-11-01

163

Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fas...

Evaldo Nascimento

1982-01-01

164

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of 2.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE). Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter. PMID:21247427

2011-01-01

165

The musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) as intermediate host of cestodes in the Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation on the presence of larval cestodes in musk rats (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried out in two regions of the Netherlands (east Groningen and south Limburg) where in a earlier study foxes with Echinococcus multilocularis were found. A total of 1726 musk rats were dissected (1200 in Groningen, 526 in Limburg). Larval stages of Taenia taeniaeformis were most frequently found (total 44.8%: Groningen 42%, Limburg 51.3%), followed by T. martis (total 6.1%: Groningen 0.7%, Limburg 18.6%). Infections with T. crassiceps (total 0.3%: Groningen 0%, Limburg 1.0%), T. polyacantha (total 0.2%; Groningen 0.3%, Limburg 0%) and E. multilocularis (0.1%: Groningen 0.1%, Limburg 0%) were rare. Infections with T. taeniaeformis were more frequent in adults (71.8%) than in juveniles (34.2%). The same was found for T. martis: adults 15.3%, juveniles 2.5%. This difference was also reflected in the relation between weight of the animals and presence of infection. Heavier animals (>1000 g) were more often infected with T. taeniaeformis (74.1%) than animals less than 1000 g (34.8%). In musk rats weighing less than 500 g (n=155) only 5.2% were infected, but above 1200 g, 82.6%. The highest number of T. taeniaeformis was 28, of T. martis 13, of T. crassiceps >1000 and of T. polyacantha 24. The E. multilocularis was in a very young stage, a few white spots in the liver. Although E. multilocularis infections were exceptional, it is expected that with a rise in the number of infected foxes in the Netherlands the number of infected musk rats will increase. PMID:14597276

Borgsteede, Fred H M; Tibben, Joop H; van der Giessen, Joke W B

2003-11-01

166

Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution. PMID:23146722

Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

2013-01-01

167

Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ? 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections. PMID:24703071

Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

2014-04-28

168

Expression of the Tpanxb1 gene from Taenia pisiformis and its potential diagnostic value by dot-ELISA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in rabbits that results in economic losses. To date, there has been limited information available on the early detection of infection by this parasite. This study describes a dot-ELISA method based on an autologous antigen annexin B1 (Tpanxb1). Its potential for serodiagnosis of rabbit cysticercosis was also evaluated. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tpanxb1 (rTpanxb1) protein could be specifically recognized by rabbit anti-sera. In serum trials, the antibodies could be detected by dot-ELISA using rTpanxb1 at 14 days post-infection. The positive response was present for up to 49 days post-infection. Based on the necropsy results of 169 rabbit samples, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-ELISA were 94.55% and 92.86%, respectively. This study provides a foundation for studying the immunological function of annexin and its application to control Taenia cestodes. PMID:24325657

Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Wu, Xuhang; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Mei; Chen, Zuqin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-04-01

169

Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells  

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Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

2011-01-01

170

On some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a systematic survey of some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy. The following eight species were recorded: Monobothrium wageneri, Cyathocephalus truncatus, Triaenophorus nodulosus (plerocercoids and adults), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, B. claviceps, Ligula intestinalis (plerocercoids), Schistocephalus sp. (plerocercoids) and Proteocephalus percae from Perca fluviatilis which is reported from freshwater fish in Italy for the first time. All the tapeworms recovered are described and figured. PMID:1339972

Scholz, T; Paggi, L; Di Cave, D; Orecchia, P

1992-12-01

171

Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita / Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo ob [...] servado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente. Abstract in english Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obtained from rats infected 2,5 months earlier with viable eggs. The humoral immunological response of cats and rats was detected in the second week after infection and the peaks of circulating anti [...] bodies occurred in the fourth and fifth weeks, respectively.

Evaldo, Nascimento.

172

In vitro hatching of oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis using eggs isolated from fresh, frozen, formalin-fixed and ethanol-fixed segments.  

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In order to establish a simple means of handling eggs of taeniid cestodes under non-biohazardous conditions, gravid segments of Taenia taeniaeformis were fixed in ethanol or formalin or were frozen. In vitro hatching of oncospheres was carried out by the 0.5% sodium hypochlorite method using eggs isolated from the nonviable and viable segments. No oncospheres hatched from formalized eggs, whereas almost all oncospheres hatched from all other eggs but the number of oncospheres recovered was highly variable. Oncospheres hatched from eggs isolated from frozen segments were highly fragile. The highest figures for in vitro hatching of oncospheres were recorded when eggs isolated either from segments fixed in 70% ethanol or from viable segments were used. PMID:7829850

Negita, T; Ito, A

1994-09-01

173

Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian M. O.

2011-01-01

174

Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens / Frequência de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco na população de uma comunidade rural brasileira (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determinada por ELISA e imunoblot usando antígenos de Taenia crassiceps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Considerando o impacto na saúde pública gerado pela ocorrência da cisticercose, especialmente a forma neurológica, neurocisticercose (NC), foi estudada a freqüência de positividade de anticorpos anti-cisticerco em amostras de soro de 1.863 habitantes do município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, situado [...] a 80 Km de Ribeirão Preto, região considerada endêmica para a cisticercose. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste ELISA usando extrato antigênico de líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e as amostras reagentes e inconclusivas foram analisadas pelo imunoblot. Das 459 amostras submetidas ao imunoblot, 40 foram fortemente imunorreativas para os peptídeos imuno dominantes de 18 e 14kD. Considerando o uso do teste imunoblot como confirmatório, dada sua elevada especificidade, a soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-cisticerco foi de 2,1% na população estudada. Abstract in english Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC), we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal distr [...] ict located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra). The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

Lúcia M., BRAGAZZA; Adelaide J., VAZ; Afonso D.C., PASSOS; Osvaldo M., TAKAYANAGUI; Paulo M., NAKAMURA; Noeli M., ESPÍNDOLA; Alessandra, PARDINI; Ednéia C., BUENO.

175

Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens / Frequência de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco na população de uma comunidade rural brasileira (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determinada por ELISA e imunoblot usando antígenos de Taenia crassiceps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Considerando o impacto na saúde pública gerado pela ocorrência da cisticercose, especialmente a forma neurológica, neurocisticercose (NC), foi estudada a freqüência de positividade de anticorpos anti-cisticerco em amostras de soro de 1.863 habitantes do município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, situado [...] a 80 Km de Ribeirão Preto, região considerada endêmica para a cisticercose. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste ELISA usando extrato antigênico de líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e as amostras reagentes e inconclusivas foram analisadas pelo imunoblot. Das 459 amostras submetidas ao imunoblot, 40 foram fortemente imunorreativas para os peptídeos imuno dominantes de 18 e 14kD. Considerando o uso do teste imunoblot como confirmatório, dada sua elevada especificidade, a soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-cisticerco foi de 2,1% na população estudada. Abstract in english Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC), we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal distr [...] ict located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra). The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

Lúcia M., BRAGAZZA; Adelaide J., VAZ; Afonso D.C., PASSOS; Osvaldo M., TAKAYANAGUI; Paulo M., NAKAMURA; Noeli M., ESPÍNDOLA; Alessandra, PARDINI; Ednéia C., BUENO.

2002-02-01

176

THE WILD RODENT Akodon azarae (CRICETIDAE: SIGMODONTINAE AS INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Taenia taeniaeformis (CESTODA: CYCLOPHYLLIDEA ON POULTRY FARMS OF CENTRAL ARGENTINA  

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Full Text Available Este trabajo informa la presencia de estrobilocercos de Taenia taeniaeformis en el roedor Akodon azarae. Un total de 289 roedores pertenecientes a las especies A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens y Mus musculus fueron capturados en granjas avícolas del centro de Argentina. Todos los roedores fueron examinados en busca de parásitos. Sólo A. azarae presentó quistes de cestodes en el hígado. Los valores de prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia media de la infestación fueron 8.33%, 2.09 y 0.17, respectivamente, y no se observó ninguna diferencia entre los sexos de los roedores infectados. Se concluye que A. azarae es susceptible de infectarse con T. taeniaeformis cuando frecuenta hábitats domésticos y peridomésticos, ya que en ambientes naturales nunca fue registrada su presencia en estos roedores. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que T. taeniaeformis mantiene tres tipos diferentes de ciclos de vida en el área estudiada: 1 un ciclo doméstico entre Rattus norvegicus y mascotas (perros y gatos, ya que R. norvegicus ha sido encontrada parasitada en las granjas; 2 otro ciclo doméstico entre A. azarae y mascotas cuando estas últimas se acercan a los alambrados de las granjas; y 3 un ciclo silvestre entre A. azarae y Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae, ya que se ha observado en el área de estudio que A. azarae es predado por este felino en cuyas heces se han encontrado huevos de Taenia sp.

Mariela H. Mi\\u00F1o

2013-01-01

177

Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp. PMID:17184919

Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

2007-04-10

178

Seasonal dynamics of the cestode fauna in spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias (Squaliformes: Squalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study furthers understanding of cestode infections in a marine environment through time and space by following seasonal fluctuations in infection parameters of three cestode species (Gilquinia squali, Trilocularia gracilis and Phyllobothrium squali) parasitizing spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the northwest Atlantic and comparing them to work previously published from the northeast Atlantic on T. gracilis. For each cestode species, host size, season and presence of the other cestode species were analysed using generalized linear models to determine if they were good predictors of prevalence and intensity. Infection parameters differed across season for the three cestode species. However, within T. gracilis seasonal trends were found to be remarkably similar on both sides of the Atlantic, differing only in a somewhat delayed decline in prevalence in the northwest Atlantic. The differences seen in infection measures across cestode species likely reflect the unique life history strategies of different parasite species. While general trends appear to be maintained across disparate localities, variation seen is likely due to differences in accessibility to intermediate hosts and host diet across sites. The knowledge gained from understanding cestode infections in the vast ocean environment allows us to speculate about the factors driving fluctuations in parasite infections in elasmobranchs. PMID:24569058

Pickering, Maria; Caira, Janine N

2014-06-01

179

Variation in cestode assemblages of Mastomys and Arvicanthis species (rodents: Muridae) from Lake Retba in Western Senegal.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied patterns of variation in cestode communities of 3 abundant rodent species that live in sympatry in the Niayes of the Retba Lake, Western Senegal. We evaluated whether the host species have the same parasites and, within host species, whether the variability in parasite community is related to intrinsic (sex, age of the host individual) or extrinsic (habitat, season) factors. Arvicanthis niloticus was parasitized by 2 cestode species, namely Inermicapsifer madagascariensis and the highly dominant Raillietina trapezoïdes . Raillietina baeri was the only cestode species found in Mastomys erythroleucus , and there was no cestode in M. huberti . Prevalence and abundance levels of cestodes were very high in A. niloticus , especially in adults. Seasonal and habitat effects were found in both cestode communities of M. erythroleucus and A. niloticus . Local host specificity and abundance/prevalence levels suggested variations in the interaction between rodents and cestode intermediate host species among habitats and seasons. PMID:20486740

Sall-Dramé, R; Brouat, C; Bâ, C T; Duplantier, J M

2010-08-01

180

Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Concomitant Infection of Appendix with Taenia and Enterobius vermicularis  

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Full Text Available Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical disease in children and young adult. There are many reports in the world, concerning the infectivity of appendix with different parasites. However, concomitant infection of appendix with Taenia and Enterobius vermicularis is a rare case. A twelve years old boy, living in Islam-shahr, Iran, admitted to a hospital, presenting symptoms suggestive of appendicitis. Following surgically resection of the appendix, histopathological examination was performed on H&E stained sections. In the lumen of the appendix, section of E. vermicularis adult female and eggs of Taenia were visible.

A.R. Meamar

2006-01-01

182

Efeito do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata Effect of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de demonstrar a eficácia do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata em condições laboratoriais, foi montado ensaio em placas de Petri com agar - água 2%. Houve atividade ovicida (pWith the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs under laboratory conditions, a trial was set up in Petri dishes with water-agar 2%. There was ovicidal activity (p < 0.05 in relation to the control group on the tenth day of interaction and an internal colonization rate of 25.5% in the eggs.

Fabio Ribeiro Braga

2008-12-01

183

Efeito do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata / Effect of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de demonstrar a eficácia do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata em condições laboratoriais, foi montado ensaio em placas de Petri com agar - água 2%. Houve atividade ovicida (p[...] os ovos de 25,5%. Abstract in english With the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs under laboratory conditions, a trial was set up in Petri dishes with water-agar 2%. There was ovicidal activity (p [...] an internal colonization rate of 25.5% in the eggs.

Fabio Ribeiro, Braga; Jackson Victor de, Araújo; Juliana Milani, Araujo; Rogério Oliva, Carvalho; André Ricardo, Silva.

184

Impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production and increased Th2-biasing ability of dendritic cells exposed to Taenia excreted/secreted antigens: A critical role for carbohydrates but not for STAT6 signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cysticercosis, a parasitic disease caused by cestodes, the details of early interactions between parasite antigens and innate cells from the host are not well understood. In this study, the role of cestode-conditioned dendritic cells (DCs) in priming Th1 versus Th2 responses to bystander antigen was examined by using CD11c(+) DCs as antigen-presenting cells and naive CD4(+) DO11.10 lymphocytes specific to ovalbumin (OVA) as responding cells. No conventional maturation was induced in DCs exposed to Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted antigens (TcES). The ability of TcES to affect Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated maturation and the pro-inflammatory response was analyzed by co-pulsing DCs with TcES and TLR ligands. DCs exposed to TcES blocked TLR4, TLR9 and Toxoplasma soluble antigen-induced phenotypic maturation. TcES-exposed DCs also blocked secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alloreactive T cell proliferation, while preserving IL-10 production. DCs pulsed with TcES+OVA suppressed IFN-gamma, whereas they induced greater IL-4 production by CD4(+) DO11.10 cells. TcES with chemically-altered glycans failed to modulate TLR-mediated activation of DCs and their Th1-inhibitng ability, which was STAT6-independent. Our results reflect the capacity of TcES glyco-antigens to modulate Th1-type and inflammatory responses mediated through DC activation. PMID:20361966

Terrazas, César A; Gómez-García, Lorena; Terrazas, Luis I

2010-08-01

185

Digeneans and cestodes parasitic in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Threskiornithidae) from Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some digeneans and cestodes parasitic in a population of the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot) from Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are presented. The digeneans Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909), Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819), Ascocotyle (Leighia) hadra Ostrowski de Nuñez, 1992 and Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 from the intestine; Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi, 1803) from the cloaca; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899) from the bile ducts and the cestode Hymenolepis megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) from the cloaca, were recorded. The discovery of D. egregia, P. ovatus, A. heterolecithodes and P. nanum constitute new host and/or new geographical records. Adults of A. (L.) hadra, previously described in experimental definitive hosts, are first reported from a naturally infected bird. Hymenolepis megalops, a cestode of Anseriformes is first reported from Ciconiiformes. PMID:11104147

Digiani, M C

2000-01-01

186

O aparelho muscular dos Proglotes de Taenia Saginata The muscular texture of the proglottides of Taenia Saginata  

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Full Text Available The writers describe the muscular texture of the proglottides of Taenia saginata, Goeze, 1782, based upon microscopical preparations of mature and gravid proglottides stained by several methods. The muscular system of the proglottides of Taenia saginata is disposed mainly in two layers, a longitudinal and external one, and a deeper transverse layer, lining the body parenchym and internal organs. A circular or annular layer ranging under the cuticle is also referred. The writers emphasize the peculiar texture of the smooth muscle fibres, which only excepcionally do exist as isolated fibres, anastomosis between the fibres being the common histological appearence. Special features of the body parenchym such as calcareous bodies and globous nuclea scattered in the parenchym are also described.

Antonio Augusto Xavier

1945-02-01

187

O aparelho muscular dos Proglotes de Taenia Saginata / The muscular texture of the proglottides of Taenia Saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The writers describe the muscular texture of the proglottides of Taenia saginata, Goeze, 1782, based upon microscopical preparations of mature and gravid proglottides stained by several methods. The muscular system of the proglottides of Taenia saginata is disposed mainly in two layers, a longitudin [...] al and external one, and a deeper transverse layer, lining the body parenchym and internal organs. A circular or annular layer ranging under the cuticle is also referred. The writers emphasize the peculiar texture of the smooth muscle fibres, which only excepcionally do exist as isolated fibres, anastomosis between the fibres being the common histological appearence. Special features of the body parenchym such as calcareous bodies and globous nuclea scattered in the parenchym are also described.

Antonio Augusto, Xavier; Jonio F. de, Salles.

1945-02-01

188

/ The wild rodent akodon azarae (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) on poultry farms of central Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo informa la presencia de estrobilocercos de Taenia taeniaeformis en el roedor Akodon azarae. Un total de 289 roedores pertenecientes a las especies A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens y Mus musculus fueron capturados en granjas avícolas del centro de Argenti [...] na. Todos los roedores fueron examinados en busca de parásitos. Sólo A. azarae presentó quistes de cestodes en el hígado. Los valores de prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia media de la infestación fueron 8.33%, 2.09 y 0.17, respectivamente, y no se observó ninguna diferencia entre los sexos de los roedores infectados. Se concluye que A. azarae es susceptible de infectarse con T. taeniaeformis cuando frecuenta hábitats domésticos y peridomésticos, ya que en ambientes naturales nunca fue registrada su presencia en estos roedores. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que T. taeniaeformis mantiene tres tipos diferentes de ciclos de vida en el área estudiada: 1) un ciclo doméstico entre Rattus norvegicus y mascotas (perros y gatos), ya que R. norvegicus ha sido encontrada parasitada en las granjas; 2) otro ciclo doméstico entre A. azarae y mascotas cuando estas últimas se acercan a los alambrados de las granjas; y 3) un ciclo silvestre entre A. azarae y Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), ya que se ha observado en el área de estudio que A. azarae es predado por este felino en cuyas heces se han encontrado huevos de Taenia sp. Abstract in english This work reports strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis in the rodent Akodon azarae. A total of 289 rodents were captured on poultry farms in Central Argentina, belonging to the following species: A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Mus musculus. All rodents were e [...] xamined for parasites. Only A. azarae was parasitized with strobilocerci larvae. Prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of the infection in the liver were 8.33%, 2.09 and 0.17, respectively. No differences were observed between the sexes of the infected rodents. Since in natural environments no cysts were reported, A. azarae is susceptible to get infected with T. taeniaeformis when frequents domestic and peridomestic habitats. Taenia taeniaeformis may have three different life cycles in the studied area: 1) one domestic cycle between Rattus norvegicus and pets in the surrounding of the farms, since R. norvegicus was observed to be parasitized; 2) another domestic cycle between A. azarae and the pets when such pets come to the farm fences; and 3) a wild cycle between A. azarae and Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), since it was observed that A. azarae is preyed by this felid and their feces were found parasitized with eggs of Taenia sp. in the study area.

Mariela H, Miño; Elba J, Rojas Herrera; Juliana, Notarnicola.

2013-12-01

189

Mitochondrial Thioredoxin-Glutathione Reductase from Larval Taenia crassiceps (Cysticerci)  

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Mitochondrial thioredoxin-glutathione reductase was purified from larval Taenia crassiceps (cysticerci). The preparation showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity with either thioredoxin or GSSG, and was able to perform thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. At 25°C specific activities were 437 ± 27 mU mg?1 and 840 ± 49 mU mg?1 with thioredoxin and GSSG, respectively. Apparent Km values were 0.87 ± 0.04??M, 41 ± 6??M and 19 ± 10??M for thioredoxin, GSSG and NADPH, respectively...

Juan L. Rendón; Oscar Flores-Herrera; Juan Pablo Pardo; Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández; Del Arenal, Irene P.; Alberto Guevara-Flores

2010-01-01

190

Molecular and functional characterization of a Taenia adhesion gene family (TAF) encoding potential protective antigens of Taenia saginata oncospheres.  

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Two clones from an activated Taenia saginata oncosphere cDNA library, Ts45W and Ts45S, were isolated and sequenced. Both of these genes belong to the Taenia ovis 45W gene family. The Ts45W and Ts45S cDNAs are 997- and 1,004-bp-long, each corresponding to 255 amino acids and with theoretical molecular masses of 27.8 and 27.7 kDa, respectively. Southern blot profiles obtained with Ts45W cDNA as a probe suggest that these two genes are members of a multigene family with tandem organization. The full genomic sequence was determined for the Ts45W gene and a new family member, the Ts45W/2 gene. The genomic sequences of the T. saginata Ts45W and Ts45W/2 genes were at least 2.2 kb in length with four exons separated by three introns. Exons 1 and 4 coded for hydrophobic domains, while, importantly, exons 2 and 3 coded for fibronectin homologous domains. These domains are presumably responsible for the demonstrated cell adhesion and, perhaps, the protective nature of this family of molecules and the acronym TAF (Taenia adhesion family) is proposed for this group of genes. We hypothesize that these TAF proteins and another T. saginata-protective antigen, HP6, have evolved the dual functions of facilitating tissue invasion and stimulating protective immunity to first ensure primary infection and subsequently to establish a concomitant protective immunity to protect the host from death or debilitation through superinfection by subsequent infections and thus help ensure parasite survival. PMID:17048003

Gonzalez, Luis Miguel; Bonay, Pedro; Benitez, Laura; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

2007-02-01

191

Cysticercosis  

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Cysticercosis is an infection by a parasite called Taenia solium ( T. solium ), a pork tapeworm that creates ... Cysticercosis is caused by swallowing eggs from T. solium , which are found in contaminated food. Autoinfection is ...

192

Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis. PMID:23230370

Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh

2012-01-01

193

The molecular mechanisms of larval cestode development: first steps into an unknown world.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several hundred million years ago, the free-living ancestors of all extant helminth parasites decided to colonize entirely new habitats, the bodies of other metazoan animals. As a consequence of the resulting adaptation processes, they evolved highly complex life-cycles in which many developmental transitions were initiated and controlled by host-derived signals. Understanding the molecular basis of the original developmental mechanisms, and the modifications that occurred during co-evolution with the host, is not only fundamental to our understanding of parasitism but also highly relevant for the design of anti-parasitic drugs and vaccines. In the past several years, molecular investigations on parasitic nematode and trematode development have made considerable progress and, supported by respective genome sequencing projects and emerging methods of genetic manipulation, will be a flourishing field in the years to come. We consider it time that corresponding studies are also pushed for the third large group of parasitic helminths, the cestodes. Here, we review the first experimental steps into that area, which have been undertaken recently. We report on cestode genomics, the identification of signaling factors associated with larval development, and the establishment as well as improvement of in vitro cultivation systems by which cestode life-cycles can be studied in the laboratory. PMID:16343987

Brehm, Klaus; Spiliotis, Markus; Zavala-Góngora, Ricardo; Konrad, Christian; Frosch, Matthias

2006-01-01

194

In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

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/sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

1980-12-01

195

In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

196

Cestodes of the Brown-banded Bamboo Shark Chiloscyllium punctatum (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscylliidae from the Gulf of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Specimens of cestode parasites were collected from 120 brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected from Chon Buri province, in the Gulf of Thailand. All fish specimens were found to be infected with cestodes. Eight species in 4 genera of cestodes were recorded, Caulopatera pagei, Orectolobicestus tyleri, Spiniloculus mavensis, Yorkeria hilli, Y. kelleyae, Y. saliputium, Y. yubodohensis and Y. chonburiensis. In this study, 3,834 specimens of cestodes were found in C. punctatum of which 1,539 specimens (40.14 % were Yorkeria spp. O. tyleri (51.41 % with Y. chonburiensis the lowest (0.05 %. The prevalence of the cestode infection was highest in August (61.9 parasites per fish followed by October (57.9 parasites per fish and July (57.6 parasites per fish, whereas infection was lowest in February (21.6 parasites per fish. O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. hilli, Y. kelleyae and Y. yubodohensis were found in all seasons. Five species; C. pagei, O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. saliputium and Y. yubodohensis were the first records in Thailand.

Watchariya PURIVIROJKUL

2013-12-01

197

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae, Cestodes from Brazilian Waterfowl  

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Full Text Available Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781 Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829 Wolffhügel,1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758 in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed.

Muniz-Pereira Luís C

1998-01-01

198

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae), cestodes from Brazilian waterfowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) Wolffhügel, 1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758) in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed. PMID:9921301

Muniz-Pereira, L C; Amato, S B

1998-01-01

199

In vivo efficacy of the anthelmintic tribendimidine against the cestode Hymenolepis microstoma in a controlled laboratory trial.  

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Tribendimidine has been registered for the treatment of human soil transmitted helminthiases in China. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans it is an agonist of L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and therefore shares its mode of action with levamisole and pyrantel. Besides its broad spectrum of nematicidal efficacy, tribendimidine is efficacious against several trematodes and has been attributed to have anti-cestodal effects. However, there are few published data available for the latter. The efficacy of tribendimidine and its nematicidal metabolite deacylated amidantel against Hymenolepis microstoma were examined for their anti-cestodal potential. Doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight deacylated amidantel and 10, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg tribendimidine were administered orally on three consecutive days to mice experimentally infected with eight cysticercoids. Necropsy was performed and the worm burdens were determined one day after the last treatment. Furthermore, levamisole was used in combination with tribendimidine (100mg/kg levamisole plus 10 and 25mg/kg tribendimidine, respectively) and alone (50 and 100mg/kg) to investigate any possible interactions of the partner compounds against cestodes. Tribendimidine showed a very high efficacy at dosages of 50mg/kg or higher. Surprisingly, deacylated amidantel led to no reduction of the worm burden in any of the treatments. Combinations of levamisole with tribendimidine did not augment the effects of tribendimidine alone and as expected levamisole alone also showed no anti-cestodal activity. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time activity of tribendimidine against a cestode in a controlled laboratory study. Due to the excellent cure rates observed here, multiple tribendimidine treatments might be considered as useful scheme for treatments of cestode, nematode and trematode infections although this would significantly increase both costs and management efforts. Moreover, the differences between tribendimidine and deacylated amidantel indicate at least a strong difference in sensitivity of H. microstoma or a strong difference in drug availability. PMID:22487754

Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Welz, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Harder, Achim

2012-08-01

200

Ultrastructural reconstruction of Taenia ovis oncospheres from serial sections.  

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The cellular organisation of Taenia ovis oncospheres is interpreted from ultrathin serial sections and transmission electron microscopy following high pressure freezing and freeze-substitution. The surface of a hatched, non-activated T. ovis oncosphere is covered by an oncospheral membrane below which is the tegument bearing microvilli. The basal lamina of the tegument is underlain by broad bands of peripheral somatic musculature. Three pairs of hooks and associated muscles are present in the somatophoric third of the oncosphere. Approximately 19 cells of seven different types were identified which include: (i) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 1 containing two lateral pairs of cell bodies interconnected by narrow cytoplasmic bridges (PG1); (ii) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 2 (PG2); (iii) a single-nucleated median mesophoric gland cell; (iv) 10 somatic cells; (v) two germinative cells; (vi) two nerve cells; and (vii) a pair of median somatophoric cells. This study provides a clear understanding of the morphology of T. ovis oncospheres and forms the basis for further investigations into the biology of taeniid oncospheres. PMID:20478311

Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw P; Conn, David B; Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective.  

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Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection. PMID:24053136

De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I

2014-01-01

202

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)author)

203

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI  

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Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

2010-02-15

204

Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice / Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC) com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialme [...] nte com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals wer [...] e intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.

Hidelberto, Matos-Silva; Bruno Pereira, Reciputti; Élbio Cândido de, Paula; André Luiz, Oliveira; Vânia Beatriz Lopes, Moura; Marina Clare, Vinaud; Milton Adriano Pelli, Oliveira; Ruy de Souza, Lino-Júnior.

2012-04-01

205

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for use —(A) For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis . (B) For removal...Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (ii) Dosage...

2010-04-01

206

21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indications for use . For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus...Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (iii)...

2010-04-01

207

Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location  

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Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4) eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of infection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 57...

João Carlos Minozzo; Ferreira Gusso, Rubens L.; Castro, Edilene A.; Oscar Lago; Vanete Thomaz Soccol

2002-01-01

208

Influence of Intestinal Cestodes on the Blood Picture of the Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Present study was performed to determined the changes in the blood picture of the brown rats Rattus norvegicus naturally infected with intestinal cestodes. The results are based on the examination of 82 brown rats captured at random from Hyderabad city and its adjacent areas. Blood profiling of cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana infected male and female rats showed significantly lower values of Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb concentration, Haematocrit (Hct, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC as compared to their control (non-infected rats of both sexes. The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV value for infected male and female rats was found significantly higher than those of their control rats. A significantly higher Total Leukocyte Count (TLC in male and female infected rats was noted as against the non-infected (control rats of both sexes. The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC revealed significant increase in absolute number of each type of cell in cestode infected male and female rats. However, lymphocyte and basophil counts recorded from male infected rats were similar to the counts of their control rats. Conspicuous changes in the blood picture of cestode infected male and female rats indicate host-parasite interaction as well as the triggering of defense mechanism in the host against infection.

Nasreen Gill

2007-01-01

209

Influence of intestinal cestodes on the blood picture of the brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present study was performed to determined the changes in the blood picture of the brown rats Rattus norvegicus naturally infected with intestinal cestodes. The results are based on the examination of 82 brown rats captured at random from Hyderabad city and its adjacent areas. Blood profiling of cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana) infected male and female rats showed significantly lower values of Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Haematocrit (Hct), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) as compared to their control (non-infected) rats of both sexes. The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) value for infected male and female rats was found significantly higher than those of their control rats. A significantly higher Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) in male and female infected rats was noted as against the non-infected (control) rats of both sexes. The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) revealed significant increase in absolute number of each type of cell in cestode infected male and female rats. However, lymphocyte and basophil counts recorded from male infected rats were similar to the counts of their control rats. Conspicuous changes in the blood picture of cestode infected male and female rats indicate host-parasite interaction as well as the triggering of defense mechanism in the host against infection. PMID:19093515

Gill, Nasreen; Shaikh, Azra A; Khan, M Munif; Memon, M Saleh

2007-12-15

210

Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

2010-10-01

211

Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

2010-12-01

212

Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrollado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación.Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a series of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

Hector H. Garcia

2010-12-01

213

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae), Cestodes from Brazilian Waterfowl  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) Wolffhügel,1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758) in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are desc [...] ribed. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed.

Luís C, Muniz-Pereira; Suzana B, Amato.

1998-11-01

214

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae), Cestodes from Brazilian Waterfowl  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) Wolffhügel,1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758) in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are desc [...] ribed. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed.

Luís C, Muniz-Pereira; Suzana B, Amato.

215

A chromosome study in the progenetic cestode Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda:Spathebothriidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

The chromosomes of somatic cells of progenetic Cyathocephalus truncatus, parasite of amphipod crustaceans, Gammarus lacustris, from North-West Chukotka were investigated using standard Giemsa staining. The karyotype, not described previously, consists of 9 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 18), the most widespread number among cestodes. A considerable number of polypoid cells (34.7%) was noted in preparations. The chromosomes are comparatively large, up to 12.26 microns. According to centromeric index values, chromosomes 1 and 4 subtelocentric; 2, acrocentric to subtelocentric; 3 and 5, acrocentric; 6 and 9, metacentric; 7 submeta-subtelocentric; and 8, submetacentric. These characteristics are discussed with reference to the karyotypes previously described within other closely related groups caryophyllideans and pseudophyllideans. PMID:9024864

Petkeviciute, R

1996-11-01

216

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

217

The ultrastructure of taeniid cestode oncospheres and localization of host-protective antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taeniid eggs contain an infective larval form of the parasite, known as the oncosphere, which has been found to be highly susceptible to attack by the host's immune system and this fact has been exploited in the development of highly effective vaccines. Relatively little is known about the structure of taeniid oncospheres and the localization of host-protective antigens within or on the oncosphere. Here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge of the structure of the oncosphere and present preliminary data on the localization of a host-protective antigen within the oncospheres of Taenia ovis. The precise localization of the antigens, in the context of a detailed knowledge of the ultrastructure of the parasite, may reveal the immune mechanisms by which the taeniid parasites are killed by vaccine-induced immune responses, which, in turn, may provide clues about how vaccines could be developed against other parasitic helminths. PMID:19835645

Jabbar, A; Swiderski, Z; Mlocicki, D; Beveridge, I; Lightowlers, M W

2010-03-01

218

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangtfer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland.

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad M

2012-01-01

219

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.  

Science.gov (United States)

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland. PMID:21955737

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

2012-03-23

220

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland.

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Determinants of the prevalence of the cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops in teal wintering in the French Camargue  

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Abstract Eurasian teal Anas crecca (n?=?46,581) were inspected during ringing operations for the presence of the hymenolepidid cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops between 1954 and 1971 while wintering in the Camargue, Southern France. These birds become infected when ingesting seed shrimps (Ostracoda) that act as intermediate hosts, largely while on migration across Western Europe. The prevalence ranged from 4% to 14% per year and increased significantly over time. This long-...

2010-01-01

222

The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against two rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis microstoma in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 ?M, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 ?M, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected. PMID:24462509

Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, Ann; Behnke, J M

2014-03-17

223

Genetic Diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and Other Geographical Locations as Revealed by Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 Sequences  

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Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations w...

Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

2013-01-01

224

Relationships between uterus and eggs in cestodes from different taxa, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uterine organization and interaction with developing eggs in Tetrabothrius erostris (Tetrabothriidea), Nippotaenia mogurndae (Nippotaeniidea), Arostrilepis tenuicirrosa, and Monocercus arionis (Cyclophyllidea), cestodes belonging to three different orders, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The interactions were traced from sexually mature to gravid proglottids for all species. Pieces of evidence of interactions among these species include specific tight contacts between microlamellae of the uterine epithelium and the egg capsule, networks of fibrils between eggs and uterus, or numerous branched diverticula of the uterine wall that surround eggs or combinations of these. The contacts between uterine epithelium and eggs take place in mature and post-mature proglottids, at a period of development when eggs are newly formed and the embryos are rapidly developing. The eggs grow and develop actively in tight contact with the uterine wall. The maximum diameter of eggs increases 1.5-2 times (or 3.5-4 times in M. arionis) during development. In all species, the intimate contacts between uterus and eggs have weakened or disappeared by the time the proglottids have become gravid. The association between uterus and eggs thus appears as strong evidence of active trophic interaction (or matrotrophy) between the parent organism and developing eggs. PMID:24288049

Korneva, Janetta V; Kornienko, Svetlana A; Kuklin, Vadim V; Pronin, Nikolay M; Jones, Malcolm K

2014-01-01

225

Castration of female ninespine stickleback by the pseudophyllidean cestode Schistocephalus pungitii: evolutionary significance and underlying mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic castration may result from manipulation of host energy allocation away from reproduction, which should result in castration of lightly infected hosts as well as heavily infected ones. Castration also may result from nutrient theft alone, which incidentally influences host energy allocation to reproduction and should cause reproduction to end in heavily infected hosts. Although the pseudophyllidean cestode Schistocephalus pungitii is a castrator of ninespine stickleback fish (Pungitius pungitius), the cause and significance of castration remain unknown. We used predictions about reproductive capacity in lightly and heavily infected hosts and host size (age) at which castration occurs to address these questions. In Airolo Lake, Alaska, we found that inhibition of reproduction in ninespine stickleback occurs in small fish before the size (age) of sexual maturity and is not instantaneous. Castration was observed in lightly and heavily infected adult-size hosts. Infected fish do not reach the same size as uninfected fish, possibly because of growth inhibition or selective predation. Castration in infected adult-size female ninespine stickleback appears to be the result of adaptive manipulation of host energy allocation by the parasite, but it could result from an energy budget readily influenced by parasitism. PMID:19757873

Heins, David C; Baker, John A

2010-02-01

226

Antagonism of calcium by zinc in guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci and trachealis muscle.  

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1 In guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci and trachealis bathed in a K+-rich, Ca2+-free medium, CaCl2 (0.01-10 mM) produced a concentration-dependent contraction. Zn2+ (0.01-1 mM), Cd2+ (0.01-1 mM), verapamil (0.01-100 microM) and trifluoperazine (1-100 microM) were effective antagonists of CaCl2-induced responses. 2 Zn2+ and Cd2+ in concentrations from 0.01 to 1 mM were without effect on the tone of taenia and trachea in normal Tris solution. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cd2+, in concentrations of 1 mM,...

Sarria?, B.; Cortijo, J.; Marti?-cabrera, M.; Morcillo, E.; Esplugues, J.

1989-01-01

227

Sterilisation of cysticerci with gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticerci of Taenia solium and of Taenia saginata were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 0,2 - 1,4 kGy. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of nine days in T. solium and after six days in T. saginata. Some cysticerci of T. solium treated with low doses (0,2 - 0,8 kGy) evaginated 24 days after treatment but no T. saginata cysticerci evaginated after 15 days. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 0,2 - 1,2 kGy are as infective to golden hamsters as untreated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely and are excreted or digested from Day +12 onwards. Such tapeworms do not grow but are resorbed and finally consist of only a scolex. It appears that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells to divide and the cells do not recover from this treatment. Carcasses lightly infested with cysticercosis could be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to low doses (0,2 - 0,6 kGy) of gamma radiation

228

Expression and motor functional roles of voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) channels in the human taenia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels modulate the excitability of neurons and muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the motor effects of KV7 channel modulators and the expression of KV7 channels in the human taenia coli. The effects of KV7 channel modulators on the muscle tone of human taenia coli strips were investigated under nonadrenergic non-nitrergic conditions by organ bath studies. Gene expression and tissue localisation of channels were studied by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Under basal conditions, the KV7 channel blocker XE-991 induced concentration-dependent contractions, with mean EC50 and Emax of 18.7 ?M and 30.5% respectively of the maximal bethanechol-induced contraction, respectively. The KV7 channel activators retigabine and flupirtine concentration-dependently relaxed the taenia coli, with mean EC50s of 19.2 ?M and 29.9 ?M, respectively. Retigabine also relaxed bethanechol-precontracted strips, with maximal relaxations of 79.2% of the bethanecol-induced precontraction. The motor effects induced by the KV7 channel modulators were not affected by tetrodotoxin or ?-conotoxin GVIA. XE-991 greatly reduced retigabine- and flupirtine-induced relaxations. Transcripts encoded by all KCNQ genes were detected in the taenia coli, with KCNQ4 showing the highest expression levels. KV7.4 channels were clearly visualised by immunohistochemistry in colonic epithelium, circular muscle layer and taenia coli. KV7 channels appear to contribute to the resting muscle tone of the human taenia coli. In addition, KV7 channel activators significantly relax the taenia coli. Thus, they could be useful therapeutic relaxant agents for colonic motor disorders. PMID:24120659

Adduci, Alice; Martire, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Arena, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Gianluca; Coco, Claudio; Currò, Diego

2013-12-01

229

Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

2009-08-01

230

Stem cell proliferation during in vitro development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva to adult worm  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In free-living flatworms somatic differentiated cells do not divide, and a separate population of stem cells (called neoblasts is responsible for cell proliferation and renewal. In cestodes, there is evidence that similar mechanisms of cell renewal exist. Results In this work, we have characterized proliferative cells during the development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva (tetrathyridium to young segmented worm. This was done by two complementary strategies with congruent results: characterizing cells in S phase and their progeny by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, and characterizing cells in M phase by arresting mitotic cells with colchicine and studying their morphology and distribution. Proliferative cells are localized only in the inner parenchyma, particularly in close proximity to the inner muscle layer, but not in the cortical parenchyma nor in the sub-tegumental tissue. After proliferation some of these cells migrate to the outer regions were they differentiate. In the larvae, proliferative cells are more abundant in the anterior regions (scolex and neck, and their number diminishes in an antero-posterior way. During the development of adult segments periodic accumulation of proliferative cells are observed, including a central mass of cells that constitutes the genital primordium, which grows at least in part due to in situ proliferation. In later segments, the inner cells of genital primordia cease to proliferate and adopt a compact distribution, and proliferative cells are also found in the testes primordia. Conclusions Proliferative cells have a characteristic localization and morphology throughout development from larva to adult of Mesocestoides corti, which is similar, and probably evolutionary conserved, to that described in other model cestodes. The characteristics of proliferative cells suggest that these consist of undifferentiated stem cells.

Castillo Estela

2010-07-01

231

Reduction of egg size in natural populations of threespine stickleback infected with a cestode macroparasite.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manifestations of infectious disease may represent host adaptations to avoid or reduce the effects of infection on host fitness, parasite manipulations that benefit the pathogen's fitness, or nonadaptive side effects of parasitism. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Alaska and the cestode macroparasite Schistocephalus solidus provide an excellent system for study of the effects of parasitism on host egg size because females in populations there are capable of producing clutches of eggs in the face of substantial infection, contrary to the inhibition of reproduction that has been observed in other stickleback populations or other species of fish. A side effect resulting in reduction of mean ovummass among infected females was predicted based on the egg production process in female stickleback, the considerable energy and resource demands of S. solidus, and the chronic and progressive nature of the effects the macroparasite should have on the host fish. In each of 9 populations of G. aculeatus representing replicate natural experiments in lakes scattered across the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula of south-central Alaska and among all populations combined, the mean ovum mass of infected female fish is significantly reduced in comparison with that of uninfected females taken from the same population at the same time. Reduction in mean female egg mass ranged from 8 to 32% across all populations. To examine whether reduction in mean female ovum mass was a nonadaptive side effect or an adaptation, relatively large data sets from 2 of the populations were used. Mean ovum mass of infected females was predicted to decrease directly in relation to parasite index (PI) if the diminution in mean egg mass were the result of a nonadaptive side effect resulting from host nutrient loss. Alternatively, the absence of a relationship between PI and reduction in ovum mass is predicted if decreases in mean female ovum mass result from host or parasite adaptation (or both) because lightly infected hosts should show a response similar to that of heavily infected ones. In each of the 2 populations, there is a significant, negative relationship between mean female ovum mass and PI, demonstrating a correlation between the decrease in ovum mass and the level of infection. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reductions in mean female egg mass represent side effects of parasitism involving nutrient theft. Moreover, the proportional decline in egg mass with increasing PI apparently differed between the 2 populations, and there was no significant relationship between mean percent decrease in mean female ovum mass and mean PI across populations. These observations suggest that unknown ecological and evolutionary factors influence the degree of reduction in mean ovum mass in a population-specific manner. PMID:12659295

Heins, David C; Baker, John A

2003-02-01

232

In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Carex baccans (Cyperaceae): ultrastructural, histochemical and biochemical alterations in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida.  

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The aqueous juice of the root extract of Carex baccans (Family: Cyperaceae) is used as an anthelmintic in Meghalaya, India. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the extent of ultrastructural, histochemical and biochemical alterations caused by the plant derived component(s) on Raillietina echinobothrida, a cestode parasite of domestic fowl. Live tapeworms, collected from the freshly slaughtered host, were exposed to different concentrations of the crude ethanolic root extract of C. baccans for varying time durations. The treated parasites revealed complete inactivation and flaccid paralysis leading to death; they were processed for ultrastructural, histochemical and biochemical observations, as soon as paralysis set in. Compared to controls, the treated parasites showed extensive distortion and destruction of the surface fine topography of the tegument, erosion of microtriches, disruption of muscle layers, intense vacuolization of tegumental and subtegumental layers, swelling and vacuolization of mitochondria and a significantly reduced activity of tegumental enzymes like AcPase and AlkPase. Phytochemicals from the root of C. baccans seem to be effective against soft-bodied cestode parasites and need to be characterized and identified. PMID:23542633

Challam, M; Roy, B; Tandon, V

2012-04-01

233

Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

234

Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM (Netherlands); Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM (Netherlands); Osano, Odipo [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Hoitinga, Leo [Department of Earth Surface Process and Materials, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kraak, Michiel H.S., E-mail: M.H.S.Kraak@uva.nl [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya)

2010-03-01

235

Anastomotic esophageal leak due to Taenia saginata following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.  

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A 50-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower third of the esophagus underwent an esophagectomy via laparotomy and right thoracotomy. She developed a major anastomotic leak on the third postoperative day. The chest tube slipped out on the 10th postoperative day and a segment of Taenia saginata tapeworm came out through the tube drain site and was extracted. She was given praziquantel tablets treatment; after which the leakage dropped dramatically and ceased completely after one week. Patients scheduled for esophagectomy who experienced recurrent abdominal pain in areas endemic with a tapeworm need to be screened for taeniasis before surgery.

Reem M. Baleela

2006-02-01

236

Potential existence of a sylvatic cycle of Taenia ovis krabbei in Patagonia, Argentina.  

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Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are consistent with Taenia ovis ovis or T. o. krabbei. Although it is not possible to differentiate between T. o. ovis and T. o. krabbei on morphological grounds with certainty, several biological characteristics indicate the cysticercus may belong to T. o. krabbei. Red deer have been reported to be refractory to T. o. ovis infection whereas other potential intermediate hosts like cattle, goats, pigs and sheep have been shown to be refractory to T. o. krabbei. Other native ungulates sympatric with red deer in Patagonia include Lama guanicoe and the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus). Possible or known definitive hosts include native felids like Puma concolor, Felis colocolo, F. guigna and canids like Dusicyon griseus, D. culpaeus, and domestic dogs. PMID:16289565

Flueck, Werner T; Jones, Arlene

2006-02-18

237

Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location  

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Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4 eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of infection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2% were alive and 132 (18.8% were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%, kidneys 03 (0.43%, tongue 07 (1.00%, liver 12 (1.71%, lungs 15 (2.14%, diaphragm 18 (2.56%, mastication muscles 25 (3.56%, heart 49 (6.98%, anterior muscle 323 (46.00% and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%.

Minozzo João Carlos

2002-01-01

238

Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliada a taxa de recuperação e localização de cisticercos em bovinos experimentalmente infectados com ovos de Taenia saginata. Três bezerros de 6,5 meses e um adulto com 19 meses de idade foram infectados, por via oral, com 2 x 10(4) ovos de Taenia saginata. Um quinto bezerro serviu como teste [...] munha. Após 90 dias da infecção, os animais foram abatidos. Fez-se inspeção, de todos os animais, por fatiamento de órgãos e musculatura esquelética, com intervalo entre os cortes de, no máximo, cinco milímetros. Dos quatros bezerros desafiados foram recuperados 702 cisticercos sendo 570 (81,20%) vivos e 132 (18,80%) degenerados. A taxa de recuperação foi de 0,01% a 1,43% com média de 0,88%. Os 702 cistos encontrados apresentaram a seguinte distribuição anatômica: músculos hióideos 02 (0,28%), rins 03 (0,43%), língua 07 (1,00%), fígado 12 (1,71%), pulmões 15 (2,14%), diafragma 18 (2,56%), músculos da mastigação 25 (3,56%), coração 49 (6,98%), musculatura dianteira 323 (46,00%) e musculatura traseira 248 (35,33%). Na infecção experimental os cistos encontraram-se distribuídos por toda a musculatura dos animais, não mostrando predileção pelos tecidos normalmente pesquisados pelo serviço de inspeção (língua, coração, diafragma, músculos mastigatórios). Os dados da inspeção de rotina pode não estimar a real incidência da cisticercose bovina. Os bovinos adultos são mais resistentes a infecção por ovos de Taenia saginata, apresentando menor número de cisticercos e com maior número de cistos calcificados. Abstract in english Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4) eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of i [...] nfection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2%) were alive and 132 (18.8%) were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%), kidneys 03 (0.43%), tongue 07 (1.00%), liver 12 (1.71%), lungs 15 (2.14%), diaphragm 18 (2.56%), mastication muscles 25 (3.56%), heart 49 (6.98%), anterior muscle 323 (46.00%) and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%).

João Carlos, Minozzo; Rubens L. Ferreira, Gusso; Edilene A. de, Castro; Oscar, Lago; Vanete Thomaz, Soccol.

2002-12-01

239

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI / Neurocisticercose: relação entre antígeno da Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano e ressonância magnética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre a detecção de antígeno de Taenia (TA) no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e achados de ressonância magnética (RM) em pacientes com diagnóstico definitivo de neurocisticersose. MÉTODO: Sessenta e três pacientes com diagnóstico de NC foram submetidos a exame de RM e [...] exame de LCR com pesquisa de antígeno de Taenia por método imunoenzimático. RESULTADOS: A detecção de TA foi positiva em 36 pacientes (57,1%). Um total de 836 lesões foram analizadas sendo 98,7% intraparemquimatosas, 50,4% dos cistos encontravam-se íntegros, 22,1% degenerados e 19,5% calcificados. Foi observada relação significativa entre a presença dos níveis de TA detectados com o número total dos cistos e também com o número de cistos íntegros. Não foi observada relação com cistos calcificados. CONCLUSÃO: (1) a detecção de TA permite o diagnóstico etiológico em formas transicionais na NC com imagem pouco característica; (2) em estágio evolutivo final de um cisticerco no sistema nervoso, este pode não aparecer na tomografia computadorizada ou RM sendo a presença do antígeno importante para confirmação diagnóstica; (3) a detecção do TA permite também o diagnóstico de NC nos casos em que as reações inumológicas são negativas; (4) a detecção do TA representa um marcador de atividade da doença nas formas epiléticas da NC. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). METHOD: Sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI [...] of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. RESULTS: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. CONCLUSION: According to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: (1) TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; (2) in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; (3) TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; (4) TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC.

Ronaldo, Abraham; José Antonio, Livramento; Cláudia da Costa, Leite; Alessandra Xavier, Pardini; Adelaide José, Vaz; Luís dos Ramos, Machado.

2010-02-01

240

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI / Neurocisticercose: relação entre antígeno da Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano e ressonância magnética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre a detecção de antígeno de Taenia (TA) no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e achados de ressonância magnética (RM) em pacientes com diagnóstico definitivo de neurocisticersose. MÉTODO: Sessenta e três pacientes com diagnóstico de NC foram submetidos a exame de RM e [...] exame de LCR com pesquisa de antígeno de Taenia por método imunoenzimático. RESULTADOS: A detecção de TA foi positiva em 36 pacientes (57,1%). Um total de 836 lesões foram analizadas sendo 98,7% intraparemquimatosas, 50,4% dos cistos encontravam-se íntegros, 22,1% degenerados e 19,5% calcificados. Foi observada relação significativa entre a presença dos níveis de TA detectados com o número total dos cistos e também com o número de cistos íntegros. Não foi observada relação com cistos calcificados. CONCLUSÃO: (1) a detecção de TA permite o diagnóstico etiológico em formas transicionais na NC com imagem pouco característica; (2) em estágio evolutivo final de um cisticerco no sistema nervoso, este pode não aparecer na tomografia computadorizada ou RM sendo a presença do antígeno importante para confirmação diagnóstica; (3) a detecção do TA permite também o diagnóstico de NC nos casos em que as reações inumológicas são negativas; (4) a detecção do TA representa um marcador de atividade da doença nas formas epiléticas da NC. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). METHOD: Sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI [...] of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. RESULTS: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. CONCLUSION: According to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: (1) TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; (2) in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; (3) TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; (4) TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC.

Ronaldo, Abraham; José Antonio, Livramento; Cláudia da Costa, Leite; Alessandra Xavier, Pardini; Adelaide José, Vaz; Luís dos Ramos, Machado.

 
 
 
 
241

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnostic detection of Taenia saginata copro-antigens in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immunodiagnostic sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of soluble Taenia saginata antigens in stool samples (copro-antigens) of infected humans, using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies obtained from rabbits hyperimmunized with excretory/secretory antigens derived from T. saginata maintained in vitro. Investigation of operating characteristics showed very low cross-reactivity with crude antigens from helminths other than Taenia, including Dipylidium caninum and Diphyllobothrium latum. The specificity of the assay was 95% when testing stool samples from 100 persons who were either infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Enterobius vermicularis or Hymenolepis nana, or who had no intestinal helminthosis detected. Analysis of diagnostic sensitivity demonstrated that in 85% of 34 samples from 23 untreated persons with intestinal T. saginata infection (selected by previous proglottid and/or egg detection) copro-antigens were detected by the T. saginata ELISA. In the same samples, Taenia eggs were detected in 62%. Only 41% of the samples reacted positively in a heterologous T. hydatigena ELISA. Post-treatment control revealed a high concentration of T. saginata copro-antigens for 1-4 d after administration of niclosamide or praziquantel, and negative values 9-17 d after treatment. The Taenia copro-antigens remained detectable by ELISA even after storage of untreated faeces at 25 degrees C for at least 5 d. PMID:1719664

Deplazes, P; Eckert, J; Pawlowski, Z S; Machowska, L; Gottstein, B

1991-01-01

242

Gilquiniid cestodes (Trypanorhyncha) from elasmobranch fishes off New Caledonia with descriptions of two new genera and a new species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cestodes were collected from deep-sea sharks caught off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Vittirhynchus squali n. g., n. sp. (Trypanorhyncha: Gilquiniidae) is described from the spiral valve of Squalus melanurus Fourmanoir & Rivaton. The new genus possesses four bothria and a typical heteroacanthous metabasal armature but has a file of three macrohooks forming a short chainette on the internal surface of the basal armature. Sagittirhynchus aculeatus n. g., n. sp., from the spiral valve of Centrophorus sp. (undescribed), also has four bothria and a typical heteroacanthous armature but lacks a distinctive basal swelling and has the final hooks of each principal row prominently enlarged. Gilquinia minor n. sp., from the spiral valve of Centrophorus sp. (undescribed), is distinguished by the presence of only five hooks per principal row compared with eight in congeners. Gilquinia sp. is reported from Squalus melanurus. G. robertsoni Beveridge, 1990 is reported from S. megalops (Macleay). PMID:16955336

Beveridge, I; Justine, J-L

2006-11-01

243

[A new species of cestode, Vampirolepis insula sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from bats of the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands].  

Science.gov (United States)

Description of a new cestode species Vampirolepis insula sp. n. parasitizing Ambliotus nilssonni (Keyserling et Blasius, 1839 and Plecotus auritus Linnaeus, 1758 from the islands Sakhalin and Kunashir is given. The new species is closely related to the species group within the genus Vampirolepis having 30 rostellar hooks 0.020-0.022 mm length with the blades shorter than guard. The group includes V. balsaci (Joyeux et Baer, 1934) Spassky, 1954, Sawada, 1974 and V. ozensis Sawada, 1974. The main differential character of the new species is the position of genital pores on the left side of proglottides. Moreover, the new species differs from V. balsaci and V. ozensis by almost twice larger size ofscolex, suckers, and rostellum. Vampirolepis insula sp. n. also differs from V. ogaensis and V ozensis by a larger size of ovary and vitelline gland. PMID:20536008

Makarikova, T A; Guliaev, V D; Tiunov, M P

2010-01-01

244

Taenia antigens detection in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis and its relationship with clinical activity of the disease Dosagem de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano em pacientes com neurocisticercose e sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: (1 To determine the concentration of Taenia antigens in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with neurocysticercosis (NC; (2 to establish its relationship with clinical activity of the disease and with classical variables of CSF. METHOD: A CSF examination was performed in one sample from 36 patients with definitive diagnosis of NC, including: quantitative and cytomorphological study, biochemical tests, immunological reactions for cysticercosis and Taenia antigens. The antibodies for antigens detection were obtained from the larval form of Taenia crassiceps, ORF strain. After intraperitoneal passage through female mice, a group of rabbits was immunized with vesicular fluid antigens. RESULTS: The Taenia antigen was detected in CSF from 17 patients (47.2%, especially in those patients with epileptic symptoms in the last 12 months. CONCLUSION: Taenia antigens presence in CSF have significant relationship with clinically active forms of NC, being a more sensitive marker than the classic eosinophil presence.OBJETIVO: (1 Determinar a concentração de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR em doentes com neurocisticercose; (2 estudar sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença e com as variáveis clássicas do LCR. MÉTODO: Em 36 pacientes com diagnóstico definido de neurocisticercose foi realizado exame do LCR, com estudo citológico e citomorfológico, exame bioquímico, reações imunológicas para cisticercose e detecção de antígenos de Taenia. Os anticorpos para detecção desses antígenos foram obtidos a partir da forma larvar da Taenia crassiceps, cepa ORF. Após a inoculação e proliferação intraperitoneal dessa forma larvária em ratas, foi imunizado um grupo de coelhos com seu líquido vesicular. RESULTADOS: Em 17 pacientes (47,2% foi detectado antígeno de Taenia, especialmente naqueles com manifestação epiléptica nos últimos 12 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A detecção de antígeno de Taenia guarda relação significativa com a vigência de formas clinicamente ativas, sendo, nestas formas, marcador mais sensível que a eosinofilorraquia.

Ronaldo Abraham

2004-09-01

245

Taenia antigens detection in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis and its relationship with clinical activity of the disease / Dosagem de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano em pacientes com neurocisticercose e sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: (1) Determinar a concentração de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) em doentes com neurocisticercose; (2) estudar sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença e com as variáveis clássicas do LCR. MÉTODO: Em 36 pacientes com diagnóstico definido de neurocisticercose foi [...] realizado exame do LCR, com estudo citológico e citomorfológico, exame bioquímico, reações imunológicas para cisticercose e detecção de antígenos de Taenia. Os anticorpos para detecção desses antígenos foram obtidos a partir da forma larvar da Taenia crassiceps, cepa ORF. Após a inoculação e proliferação intraperitoneal dessa forma larvária em ratas, foi imunizado um grupo de coelhos com seu líquido vesicular. RESULTADOS: Em 17 pacientes (47,2%) foi detectado antígeno de Taenia, especialmente naqueles com manifestação epiléptica nos últimos 12 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A detecção de antígeno de Taenia guarda relação significativa com a vigência de formas clinicamente ativas, sendo, nestas formas, marcador mais sensível que a eosinofilorraquia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine the concentration of Taenia antigens in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurocysticercosis (NC); (2) to establish its relationship with clinical activity of the disease and with classical variables of CSF. METHOD: A CSF examination was performed in one samp [...] le from 36 patients with definitive diagnosis of NC, including: quantitative and cytomorphological study, biochemical tests, immunological reactions for cysticercosis and Taenia antigens. The antibodies for antigens detection were obtained from the larval form of Taenia crassiceps, ORF strain. After intraperitoneal passage through female mice, a group of rabbits was immunized with vesicular fluid antigens. RESULTS: The Taenia antigen was detected in CSF from 17 patients (47.2%), especially in those patients with epileptic symptoms in the last 12 months. CONCLUSION: Taenia antigens presence in CSF have significant relationship with clinically active forms of NC, being a more sensitive marker than the classic eosinophil presence.

Ronaldo, Abraham; Alessandra Xavier, Pardini; Adelaide José, Vaz; José Antonio, Livramento; Luís dos Ramos, Machado.

2004-09-01

246

Consideraciones sobre el ciclo de Taenia saginata en humanos y bovinos de la provincia Villa Clara, Cuba (Considerations on the cycle of saginata Taenia in humans and bovines of the province Villa Clara, Cuba  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el de conocer la situación del ciclo de Taenia saginata en la provincia Villa Clara. Se estudiaron los registros de matanza del matadero ¨Chichi Padrón¨ y se valoró la inspección postmortem a los bovinos faenados en este, además fueron analizadas las encuestas aplicadas a los humanos positivos a Taenia saginata desde 1998 hasta 2001. La mayor prevalencia de Cysticercus en bovinos y de casos humanos de Taenia saginata se detectaron en los municipios Manicaragua (0,60 % y 33, Placetas (0,53 % y 28 y Santa Clara (0,40 % y 26, resultados que difirieron estadísticamente (p<0.05 con los de los demás municipios de la provincia. El sistema de vigilancia postmortem en el matadero no garantiza la inocuidad de las carnes en cuanto a la cisticercosis. La teniosis es más prevalente en personas adultas y las ocupaciones más relacionadas fueron: amas de casa (56 %, gastronomía (8,3 %, matadero (2,3 % y campesinos (2,3 %, entre los síntomas más frecuentes estaban: dolor abdominal (70 %, nauseas (68 %, debilidad (36 %, descenso de peso (31 %, diarrea (28 %, nerviosismo (20 %, insomnio (18 % y anorexia (15 %. ABSTRACT.- The objective of the present work was the study of the general characteristics of the Taenia saginata life cycle in Villa Clara province. The slaughter registrations of the ¨Chichi Padrón¨ slaughterhouse was studied and was valued the postmortem inspection of bovines. Also, it was analyzed the humans positive to Taenia saginata from 1998 to 2001. The biggest Cysticercus prevalence in bovine and human cases number of Taenia saginata were detected in the municipalities Manicaragua (0,60% and 33, Placetas (0,53% and 28 and Santa Clara (0,40% and 26, results that differed statistically (p <0.05 with those of the other municipalities in the same province. The system of postmortem surveillance in the slaughterhouse doesn't guarantee the meats innocuousness from the Cysticercus viewpoint. The teniosis is more prevalent in adult people and the most related occupations were: housewives (56%, gastronomy (8,3%, slaughterhouse (2,3% and peasants (2,3%, among the most frequent symptoms they were: abdominal pain (70%, nausea (68%, weakness (36%, lost of weight (31%, diarrhea (28%, nervousness (20%, insomnia (18% and anorexy (15%.

Dr. MV Pedro De la Fe Rodríguez

2006-04-01

247

Retarded gastric acid secretion in rats infected with larval Taenia taeniaeformis.  

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The influence of hepatic larval Taenia taeniaeformis infection on gastric acid secretory activity and gastric mucosal integrity was investigated. After 12 weeks of infection with 2,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs, the gastric pH values of control and infected rats were 4.1+/-0.6 (mean +/- SD) and 8.4+/-0.2, respectively. There was no difference in the basal acid secretion between control (1.7+/-0.7 micro Eq.H(+)/15 min) and infected (1.9+/-0.3) rats. However, infected rats failed to respond to histamine stimulation, the maximum acid output level being 2.8+/-0.4 in the infected rats, compared to 12.9+/-3.3 in control rats. Larval T. taeniaeformis infection resulted in the suppression of gastric acid secretion leading to hypergastrinemia. PMID:12172822

Oku, Y; Yamanouchi, T; Matsuda, K; Abella, J A C; Ooi, H K; Ohtsubo, R; Goto, Y; Kamiya, M

2002-09-01

248

Taenia saginata a rare cause of acute cholangitis: a case report.  

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Parasitic infestations of the galdbladder and biliary tract are quite rare. Taenia saginata is an intestinal helmint and patients harbouring adult T.saginata tapeworms are mostly asymptomatic and discharge only fecal proglottids. In some cases there might be nonspecific symptoms like vomiting, nausea, epigastric pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Tenia saginata is a also rare cause of ileus, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis. We report a case of acute cholangitis caused by T. saginata presenting with fever, nausea, vomiting, jaundice and right upper quadrant pain. Although parasites are not an uncommon cause of cholangitis especially in diseaseendemic areas like the Far East, this is not true for T. saginata causing acute cholangitis. PMID:23340150

Uygur-Bayramiçli, O; Ak, O; Dabak, R; Demirhan, G; Ozer, S

2012-01-01

249

MONTHWISE PREV ALENCE OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL TREMATODES, CESTODES AND NEMATODES INFECTING DAMANI SHEEP AND GOATS IN DISTRICT D.I.KHAN  

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Full Text Available During this study 48 positive gastro-intestinal tracts each of sheep and goats were examined to determine the month wise prevalence of trematodes, cestodes and nematodes. Trematodes infection was 16.66% both in sheep and goats in May whereas in June, July and August it increased to 25% in sheep and similar increase was recorded in June and July .in goats which dropped to 8.33% in August. Cestodal infections in sheep and goats showed highest record in June 33.33% and August 41.16% respectively. Nematodal infections in sheep showed the lowest rec9rds in June 41.66% which increased in July 50%. May 58.33% and August 58.33%. In goats the lowest records were observed in June 41.66% with an equal increase in May and August i.e. 50%.

Najeeb-ur-Rehman and Akhtar Ali

2001-02-01

250

Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

S. Mukaratirwa

2010-09-01

251

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

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...Indications for use . Removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis . (2) Cats —(i...Indications for use . Removal of feline cestodes D . caninum and T . taeniaeformis . (3)...

2010-04-01

252

Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the diphyllidean cestode Echinobothrium euterpes (Neifar, Tyler and Euzet 2001) Tyler 2006, a parasite of the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos.  

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Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of Echinobothrium euterpes are described by means of transmission electron microscopy, including cytochemical analysis for glycogen. Materials were obtained from a common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos caught in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia). Spermiogenesis in E. euterpes is characterized by the orthogonal development of two unequal flagella followed by the flagellar rotation and the proximodistal fusion of these flagella with the median cytoplasmic process. The most interesting pattern characterizing the diphyllidean cestodes is the presence of a triangular body constituted by fines and dense granules without visible striation and assimilated at the striated rootlets. This pattern, only related in the Diphyllidea cestodes may be a synapomorphy of this order. Spermiogenesis is also characterized by the presence of a very short flagellum (around 1 ?m long), observed in all the stages of spermiogenesis. This type of flagellum has never been commented in the diphyllidean cestodes and should be considered as an evolved character in this group. In the latest stage of spermiogenesis, this short axoneme probably degenerates. Thus, the mature spermatozoon of E. euterpes possesses only one axoneme of 9?+?"1" trepaxonematan pattern. It also exhibits a single helical electron-dense crested body, a spiraled nucleus, few parallel cortical microtubules, and ?-glycogen granules. Similitudes and differences between spermatozoa of diphyllideans are discussed. PMID:21416171

Marigo, Adji Mama; Eira, Catarina; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi

2011-09-01

253

21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.  

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...cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus...licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats —(i) Amount...cats under 5 pounds, 0.2 milliliter (11.4...Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (iii)...

2010-04-01

254

Spatial and temporal changes in prevalence of a cloacal cestode in wintering waterfowl along the Gulf Coast of Texas.  

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The cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops is one of the most common helminths of waterfowl. We investigated the effect of this parasite on the body condition of wintering waterfowl populations and compared prevalence among age-sex classes, over time and between habitat types on the upper Gulf Coast of Texas (USA) from October 1986-February 2000. Greater than 9,500 birds of 25 waterfowl species were examined for the parasite. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) in body condition between birds with and without the parasite. Average prevalence was lowest for geese (mean = 3.7%) versus 21 to 71% in duck species. Average prevalence was similar (P = 0.81) between diving ducks (mean = 46.9%) and puddle ducks (mean = 43.9%). Prevalence varied among age-sex classes and was related to sex rather than age. Variation among age-sex classes suggests differences in diet between sexes of duck species on the wintering grounds. There was no evidence for declining prevalence over the wintering period. Prevalence differed (P megalops for diving ducks and increasing prevalence for puddle ducks. The increasing trend for puddle ducks may indicate declining habitat conditions resulting in increased exposure to the intermediate ostracod host. PMID:12685079

Haukos, David A; Neaville, Jim

2003-01-01

255

Genetic differentiation in populations of the cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) as revealed by eight microsatellite markers.  

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The genetic structure of populations of the fish cestode, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi collected from Bailianhe Reservoir (BLH), Changshou (CSH) and Liangzi (LZH) Lakes was investigated by using 8 microsatellite loci. A total of 108 adult worms were genotyped at each of the 8 loci. For the 3 populations, the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.38 to 5.5, and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.432 to 0.559. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was from 0.384 to 0.492. The significant Fis values indicated non-random mating within LZH and BLH populations. On the other hand, when samples were further classified into subpopulations at the level of host fish species, no or little heterozygote deficiency was detected at most loci, showing that cross-fertilization, predominantly, but not exclusively, must have occurred within the subpopulations. Microsatellite markers also revealed an unexpected high level of genetic differentiation, as measured by R(st) and N(m) values or by delta(u)2 genetic distance among subpopulations from different hosts. Factors influencing the population genetic structure and the parasite host specificity are discussed. PMID:12793654

Luo, H Y; Nie, P; Zhang, Y A; Yao, W J; Wang, G T

2003-05-01

256

Vaccination against cysticercosis and hydatid disease.  

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Infections with the larval stages of taeniid cestode parasites cause substantial human morbidity as well as economic losses in domestic livestock species. Despite ongoing efforts around the world, few countries have been able substantially to reduce or eradicate these infections through the use of anthelmintics and lifestyle changes. Vaccines offer an additional potential tool to assist with the control of parasite transmission. Here, Marshall Lightowlers and colleagues review the substantial progress that has been made towards developing practical vaccines against hydatid disease in sheep and cysticercosis in sheep and cattle. Recombinant antigens have been used to induce more than 90% protection against challenge infections. Such success in animals encourages investigation of the potential use of vaccines in humans to prevent hydatid disease arising from infection with Echinococcus granulosus and cysticercosis from infection with Taenia solium. PMID:10782077

Lightowlers, M W; Flisser, A; Gauci, C G; Heath, D D; Jensen, O; Rolfe, R

2000-05-01

257

An unusual case of cycticercosis of the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles.  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm, especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larvae become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, the vitreous humor, or other tissues. We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles that presented as a swelling of the tendoachilles. Upon Fine Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC that were conducted preoperatively, the possibility of villonodular synovitis was identified. However, the cysticercosis diagnosis was confirmed later after an excisional biopsy was performed. We could find no reports in the literature concerning an occurrence of cysticercosis in the tendon sheath of tendoachilles.

Sharat Agarwal

2010-04-01

258

Multiple cysticerci as an unusual cause of mesenteric lymph node enlargement: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cysticercosis is a disease caused by infestation with the larval stage of the intestinal cestode Taenia solium. The parasite usually localizes to subcutaneous tissues and muscles causing palpable or visible nodules, to the brain leading to epileptic attacks, and to the eyes with visible nodules leading to blindness and atrophy. Case presentation Here we present the case of a 15-year-old girl who was incidentally detected as having mesenteric lymph node enlargement caused by multiple cysticerci. This is the second case report of lymph node enlargement due to cysticercus infestation. Conclusion This rare mode of presentation of cysticercus infestation highlights the importance of parasites as a cause of treatable lymph node enlargement.

Mohan Harsh

2008-06-01

259

Development of a Taenia ovis transmission model and an assessment of control strategies.  

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The metacestode stage of the tapeworm, Taenia ovis, causes cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep, which can result in the condemnation of the entire carcass. In recent years, Canadian farms have seen a marked increase in the number of condemnations due to T. ovis. Mathematical transmission models provide a useful tool for predicting parasite transmission and for evaluating the efficacy of potential control options. To date, no model has been developed exclusively for T. ovis. In the work described here, a compartmental, deterministic transmission model was developed to better understand the transmission dynamics of T. ovis on Canadian sheep farms. The model was intended to be practical, and represent the transmission of infection burdens in lambs that result in carcass condemnation, or transmission to canids. All transmission parameters were obtained from the literature or, when unavailable, expert opinion. The model incorporated each stage of the parasite lifecycle using the most probable transmission route on Canadian sheep farms; including definitive host (guard dogs), intermediate host (pastured lambs), and environment. Based on literature, the model performed as expected, and provided a reasonable estimate of parasite prevalence in lambs. In addition, modeling allowed the efficacy of potential control options to be evaluated and compared. Model simulations suggested that infection risk in market lambs could be eliminated through the regular treatment of guardian dogs every fifth week with an appropriate cestocide, or through eliminating carcass consumption by guardian dogs. PMID:23993638

DeWolf, Bradley D; Poljak, Zvonimir; Peregrine, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Menzies, Paula I

2013-11-15

260

Localisation of three host-protective oncospheral antigens of Taenia ovis.  

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Immunohistochemistry, confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling were used to determine the localisation of the host-protective antigens To16, To18 and To45W in Taenia ovis oncospheres. During maturation of the adult tapeworm the antigens were initially seen as diffuse staining in the developing oncospheres but in mature oncospheres four distinct cells stained positively for the antigens. Confocal fluorescence microscopy using different fluorophores revealed that each of the antigens co-localises within the same cells in the oncosphere. No surface localisation was seen in non-activated or recently activated parasites. Immunogold labelling of non-activated oncosphere sections viewed in transmission electron microscopy revealed labelling of bilateral cells, however the identities of these cells was unclear due to deficiencies in the current level of understanding of oncosphere ultrastructure. Localisation of all the antigens changed dramatically after oncospheres were activated in vitro with each of the antigens being dispersed more generally throughout the parasite parenchyma. During development of the parasites in in vitro culture, surface localisation of the proteins was seen in parasites after 3 or more days in culture. All three antigens were found to be completely absent in parasites by 15 days of culture. The location of the host-protective antigens suggests that initially the invading oncospheres are not susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody and complement mediated attack, but that as the parasites mature, the host-protective antigens come to be associated with the parasite's surface, rendering them susceptible to immune attack. PMID:19883651

Jabbar, Abdul; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Walduck, Anna K; McCowan, Christina; Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes  

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Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-?. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

2010-01-01

262

Taenia saginata derived synthetic peptides with potential for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.  

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Immunity in Taeniids is predominantly antibody mediated and thus many serological immuno-determinants will have potential in both protection and diagnosis. The antigenicity of six peptides derived from four potentially protective molecules cloned from a Taenia saginata oncospheres cDNA library have been evaluated as targets for the specific diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. The six peptides consist of: two peptides (HP6-2 and HP6-3) derived from the sequence of the 18 kDa surface/secreted oncospheral adhesion antigen identified by McAb-HP6, two peptides (Ts45W-1 and Ts45W-5) derived from the sequence of the T. saginata homologue of the T. ovis 45W protective gene family, one peptide (TS45S-10) derived from a T. saginata sequence with significant similarity to the T. ovis 45S protective antigen, and one peptide (TEG-1) derived from the sequence of the T. saginata homologue of Echinococcus spp. main surface protein. Longitudinal studies indicate that T. saginata infected cattle respond to all six peptides by 3-4 weeks post-infection and that the antibody levels remain high for at least 12 weeks post-infection. As protection against Taeniid parasites is predominantly antibody mediated, some of these six peptides may be of value as immuno-prophylactic tools and hence also in assays to determine resistance to infection with the parasite. For diagnosis, on the other hand, only three peptides (HP6-2, TEG-1 and Ts45S-10) performed with the necessary sensitivity and specificity to determine exposure to infection with T. saginata, and now merit an exhaustive evaluation prior to employment as routine diagnostic tools. PMID:12523981

Ferrer, E; Benitez, L; Foster-Cuevas, M; Bryce, D; Wamae, L W; Onyango-Abuje, J A; Garate, T; Harrison, L J S; Parkhouse, R M E

2003-01-20

263

The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.  

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Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

2014-04-01

264

Functional model for calcium mobilization in the depolarized isolated guinea-pig taenia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The muscular response to pharmacological agents is directly dependent on intracellular ionic calcium (Ca2+) and is modulated by membrane permeability and cation-binding to subcellular organelles. The isometric contraction of the ventral guinea-pig taenia coli was registered in a bath with a Rich KCl-Ringer in the absence of Ca2+ and sodium (Na+) with or without EDTA or Sammarium (Sm3+). Our experimental sequence was based on alternate succession between the concentration-response-curves or decay-curves procedure to acetylcholine and barium (Ba2+) in the same preparation. It was found that a contracture elicited by barium ion was not significantly affected by inclusion of EDTA (.01 mM) or Sm3+ (.06 mM). Also, prior exposure of the depolarized muscle to acetylcholine did not affect the barium response. However, prior exposure of the muscle to acetylcholine sensitized the barium-induced contracture to the inhibitory actions of EDTA and Sm3+. Prior exposure of the muscle to barium ions strongly reduced the mechanical response to acetylcholine. In addition, tension recorded during an acetylcholine decay curve was observed to be reduced by EDTA and Sm3+, although some degree of tension could be elicited by acetylcholine even after the depolarized muscle had been exposed to EDTA or Sm3+ up to 70 min. The suggestion is put forward that barium ions mobilize intracellular stores of calcium which may be restored from calcium pools that are mobilized by acetylcholine, EDTA and Sm3+. Acetylcholine would be able to mobilize calcium ions from a firmly bound membrane store and additional less firmly bound membrane stores.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3129626

Pavan, C G; Turrin, M Q

1987-11-01

265

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.  

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The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons. PMID:23298567

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-09-01

266

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

2013-01-01

267

Failure to protect calves against Taenia saginata using antigens prepared from in vitro cultivation of the larval stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calves were vaccinated intramuscularly against the tapeworm Taenia saginata using excretory/secretory (ES) antigens from short and long term periods of in vitro cultivation of the larval stage of the parasite, four weeks before challenge with 5000 T saginata onchospheres. Neither immunisation regime employed afforded significant protection against challenge. It was considered that this may have been due to a reduction in concentration of, or detrimental effects to, potential immunogens during vaccine production. Elucidation of the nature of the protective ES antigens necessary for standardization of the technique has yet to be achieved in helminths. PMID:7255898

Mitchell, G B; Armour, J

1980-11-01

268

Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

1989-01-31

269

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

Youn, Heejeong

2009-10-01

270

Disease: H01047 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Full Text Available H01047 Cysticercosis Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is endemic in many poorer countries of La ... ates on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management . Annu Rev Med 51:187-206 (2000) ...

271

Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis  

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Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por análisis de titulación en bloque mostrando 100.0% de sensibilidad y 96.7% de especificidad. Los péptidos específicos para la cisticercosis en orden de frecuencia fueron: 72-68 kD (100%, 16-15 kD (77%, 39-36 kD (62%, 18-17 kD (54%, 21 kD (31%, 14 kD (23%, 25-23 kD (8%, y 20-19 kD (8%. Reacción cruzada (72-68 y 18-17 kD sólo se descubrió en una muestra (12.5% de cerdo con hidatidosis. Debido a sus altas tasas de desempeño, el inmunoblot debe ser útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de cisticercosis porcina y es más eficaz que otras pruebas empleadas para este propósito, como examen de la lengua, examen anatomopatológico y ELISA

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto

2001-01-01

272

Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis / Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino [...] con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por análisis de titulación en bloque mostrando 100.0% de sensibilidad y 96.7% de especificidad. Los péptidos específicos para la cisticercosis en orden de frecuencia fueron: 72-68 kD (100%), 16-15 kD (77%), 39-36 kD (62%), 18-17 kD (54%), 21 kD (31%), 14 kD (23%), 25-23 kD (8%), y 20-19 kD (8%). Reacción cruzada (72-68 y 18-17 kD) sólo se descubrió en una muestra (12.5%) de cerdo con hidatidosis. Debido a sus altas tasas de desempeño, el inmunoblot debe ser útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de cisticercosis porcina y es más eficaz que otras pruebas empleadas para este propósito, como examen de la lengua, examen anatomopatológico y ELISA Abstract in english [...

Paulo Sérgio, de Arruda Pinto; Adelaide José, Vaz; Paulo Mutuko, Nakamura; Pedro Manuel, Leal Germano.

273

Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis / Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino [...] con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por análisis de titulación en bloque mostrando 100.0% de sensibilidad y 96.7% de especificidad. Los péptidos específicos para la cisticercosis en orden de frecuencia fueron: 72-68 kD (100%), 16-15 kD (77%), 39-36 kD (62%), 18-17 kD (54%), 21 kD (31%), 14 kD (23%), 25-23 kD (8%), y 20-19 kD (8%). Reacción cruzada (72-68 y 18-17 kD) sólo se descubrió en una muestra (12.5%) de cerdo con hidatidosis. Debido a sus altas tasas de desempeño, el inmunoblot debe ser útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de cisticercosis porcina y es más eficaz que otras pruebas empleadas para este propósito, como examen de la lengua, examen anatomopatológico y ELISA Abstract in english [...

Paulo Sérgio, de Arruda Pinto; Adelaide José, Vaz; Paulo Mutuko, Nakamura; Pedro Manuel, Leal Germano.

2001-01-01

274

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

2014-01-01

275

Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA) after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba liv [...] ia), weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG); with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG); with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG); with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG), and with daily handling (naive group; NG). The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P

I., Brito; L.R.G., Britto; E.A.M., Ferrari.

2011-08-01

276

Partial reverse of the TCA cycle is enhanced in Taenia crassiceps experimental neurocysticercosis after in vivo treatment with anthelminthic drugs.  

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Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection and neglected disease of the central nervous system. It is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and seizures worldwide. Therefore, to study this important neglected disease, it is important to use experimental models. There is no report in the literature on how the parasite's metabolism reacts to antihelminthic treatment when it is still within the central nervous system of the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the energetic metabolism of cysticerci experimentally inoculated in the encephala of BALB/c mice after treatment with low dosages (not sufficient to kill the parasite) of albendazole (ABDZ) and praziquantel (PZQ). BALB/c mice were intracranially inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and, after 30 days, received treatment with low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ. After 24 h of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the cysticerci were removed and analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the organic acids related to the energetic metabolism of the parasite. The partial reverse of the TCA cycle was enhanced by the ABDZ and PZQ treatments both with the higher dosage, as the organic acids of this pathway were significantly increased when compared to the control group and to the other dosages. In conclusion, it was possible to detect the increase of this pathway in the parasites that were exposed to low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ, as it is a mechanism that would amplify the energy production in a hostile environment. PMID:24481905

de Almeida Leandro, Leticia; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

2014-04-01

277

Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis: lack of cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi and Taenia hydatigena.  

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A commercial coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis, based on the use of MM3 monoclonal antibody for antigen capture, was investigated for possible cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi, a trematode that commonly infects cattle and sheep grazing in fluke-infested pasture in Ireland. Histological sections of adult and immature Fasciola hepatica and P cervi were incubated with MM3 monoclonal antibody, and its binding to tissue-localised coproantigen was subsequently visualised by immunocytochemistry. In a related study, the soluble antigenic fractions derived from homogenates of P cervi adults and Taenia hydatigena metacestodes were tested for cross-reactivity with MM3 monoclonal antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA, using known F hepatica-positive and F hepatica-negative ovine faecal samples as natural controls. It was found that, while intense immunocytochemical labelling was located over the gastrodermis and gut contents of adult and immature F hepatica, sections of adult and immature P cervi were unlabelled. In the ELISA tests, the soluble fractions of F hepatica reacted strongly with MM3 monoclonal antibody, but those of P cervi and T hydatigena gave negative results. These findings support the specificity of the coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis in areas where paramphistomosis and cysticercosis are liable to occur singly or as coinfections with F hepatica. PMID:23077134

Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; Forster, F I; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2012-11-17

278

Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA) after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba liv [...] ia), weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG); with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG); with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG); with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG), and with daily handling (naive group; NG). The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P

I., Brito; L.R.G., Britto; E.A.M., Ferrari.

279

Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

2014-11-01

280

Cestodos de quirópteros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Perú / Cestodes of bats from the National Park Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Peru  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En septiembre 2006, en el Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, departamento de Tumbes, Perú; 39 individuos de murciélagos, pertenecientes a 16 especies fueron capturados. El análisis parasitológico determino que solo dos individuos de las especies Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae) y Noctilio lepo [...] rinus (Noctilionidae) estaban parasitados. Los cestodos fueron colectados del intestino delgado e identificados como Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae) y Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae). Atriotaenia hastati es un nuevo registro para el Perú y Vampirolepis sp. es registrado por primera vez en Tumbes y en un nuevo huésped, Noctilio leporinus. Abstract in english In September 2006, at Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, department of Tumbes, Peru, 39 individuals of bats belonging to 16 species were captured. Parasitological analysis determined that only two individuals of the species Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae) and Noctilio leporinus (Noctilionidae [...] ) were parasitized. The cestodes were collected from the small intestine and identified as Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae) and Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae). Atriotaenia hastati is a new record for Peru and Vampirolepis sp. is registered for the first time in Tumbes and a new host, Noctilio leporinus.

Marina, Vargas C.; Rosa, Martínez R.; Manuel, Tantaleán V..

 
 
 
 
281

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

2014-09-01

282

Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (pfipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent safety profile and demonstrated high levels of efficacy when administered once as topical solution to cats infected with nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:24703070

Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevi?ius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin

2014-04-28

283

Ploidy-dependent survival of progeny arising from crosses between natural allotriploid Cobitis females and diploid C. taenia males (Pisces, Cobitidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Crosses between 21 triploid hybrid Cobitis females and 19 C. taenia (2n = 48) males led to viable progeny; whereas no embryonic development was observed in crosses with tetraploid males (4n = 98). The ploidy status of 491 progenies randomly selected with flow cytometry (316) or chromosome analysis (175) revealed an average of 55.2 % triploids and 44.8 % tetraploids, but the ratio of 3n versus 4n fish did change during development. In the first 2 days after hatching, approximately 65.1 % of tetraploid larvae were observed. Their number decreased significantly to 30.8 and 6.2 % on average during 2-5 and 10-15 months of life, respectively. The karyotype of tetraploid progeny (4n = 98) included 3n = 74 chromosomes of the parental female and n = 24 of C. taenia male. The number of tetraploid progeny indicated indirectly that about 66 % of eggs from 3n females were fertilized with C. taenia. The rest of the eggs developed clonally via gynogenesis or hemiclonally via hybridogenesis into triploids of the same karyotype structure as parental females. We have documented for the first time that (at least under experimental conditions) tetraploids are commonly formed, but are less viable than triploids, and a ratio similar to what is found under natural conditions is finally attained. The current explanation concerning the ploidy and karyotype structure of the progeny confirms that the eggs of 3n Cobitis females are not only capable of maintaining all chromosomes but are also capable of incorporating the sperm genome, thus creating the potential to produce tetraploids. PMID:25055887

Juchno, Dorota; Jab?o?ska, Olga; Boro?, Alicja; Kujawa, Roman; Leska, Anna; Grabowska, Anna; Nynca, Anna; Swigo?ska, Sylwia; Król, Magdalena; Spóz, Aneta; Laskowska, Natalia; Lao, Mi?osz

2014-08-01

284

Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by detecting live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA  

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Full Text Available An ante mortem antigen-ELISA-based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n = 24 and naturally (n = 25 infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in naturally infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificial infections it was above 14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves, and 1 and 2 live cysticerci in naturally infected steers, escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harbouring dead cysticerci gave negative reactions in the assay as was the case in non-infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially infected calves (r = 0.798, n = 24 ; P < 0.05 and naturally infected steers (r = 0.631, n = 25 ; P < 0.05. These results clearly show the potential effectiveness of ante mortem monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in cattle. Its value lies in the diagnosis of infection in cattle as a screening test in a herd, rather than as a diagnostic test at the individual level, due to false positive and negative reactions. In a herd of heavily infected cattle, the assay may, however, provide for individual diagnosis. Nevertheless, more work is recommended to increase its sensitivity so as to be able to diagnose light infections consistently in the field.

W. Wanzala

2012-07-01

285

Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran  

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Full Text Available Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09% revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral organs. The coenuri, of variable sizes, were found mainly in the muscles of the thigh, shoulder and neck, and were less common in the abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Coenuri were also found in the diaphragm, tongue, intercostal muscles, lung, parotid area and tunica adventitia of the aorta in a goat with severe infection. The brains of slaughtered goats that had coenuri in their skeletal muscles were examined and coenuri were found in two specimens (8.69%. The coenuri were located in the occipital lobe, the anterior part of the right cerebrum and the parietal lobe of the left cerebrum. Histopathologically, coenuri in the brain caused pressure atrophy and liquefactive necrosis in the surrounding tissues, hyperaemia, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration, neuronophagia, satellitosis, diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis. Coenuri in the skeletal muscles caused degenerative and necrotic changes, hyalinisation and myositis. In the lung, tissues around the coenurus revealed atelectasis and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the present study, concurrent occurrence of coenuri in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles supports the hypothesis that C. cerebralis and C. gaigeri are different names for the metacestodes of the same species of tapeworm.

Reza Kheirandish

2012-11-01

286

Morphology meets molecules: a new genus and two new species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei, from South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two morphologically disparate undescribed species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei , from South Africa were included in a recent molecular phylogenetic study aimed at revising diphyllidean classification. From a molecular standpoint, these species were determined to be only distantly related to one another. One (originally referred to as Echinobothrium n. sp. 2) showed affinities with species of the batoid-parasitizing Echinobothrium sensu stricto and is described here as Echinobothrium marquesi n. sp. This species most closely resembles Echinobothrium joshuai, an affinity supported by the previous molecular study, but differs in the form of its "B" hooks and degree of overlap between bothria and cephalic peduncle. The other species (originally referred to as New genus n. sp. 1), although exhibiting the full complement of scolex armature, grouped among primarily shark-hosted genera, most of which lack or exhibit reduced scolex armatures. That unexpected result suggested that erection of a novel genus might be warranted, but morphological grounds supporting the action were not apparent at that time. The present study aimed to explore the morphology of this taxon in more detail. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed this taxon to be exceptional in that its lateral hooklets, which are arranged in 2 clusters like those of Echinobothrium and Coronocestus, are unique in being arranged in anterior and posterior rows, rather than in a single row. Andocadoncum n. gen. is erected, with Andocadoncum meganae n. sp. as its type, to accommodate this taxon. A minor adjustment to the existing hook formula by presenting counts for the anterior hooklets (a) separately from the posterior hooklets (b) readily accommodates this new form. Leucoraja wallacei is distinctive among skates in hosting 2 different genera of diphyllideans. In the context of the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, it appears that the presence of Andocadoncum n. gen. in this skate species may be the result of a host-switching event involving a weakly or unarmed shark-hosted taxon moving to a batoid-a shift that was likely accompanied by a return to the fully armed condition seen, for example, in other batoid-parasitizing members of the order. PMID:24451030

Abbott, Lauren McKenna; Caira, Janine N

2014-06-01

287

The role of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in the life cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in urban environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is the first report of subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis in urban areas of Mar de Cobo (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and to experimentally reproduce in domestic dogs the adult stage of this parasite. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae in the liver and peritoneal cavity of C. talarum were 64%, 15.3 and 9.8, respectively. Ten adults of T. taeniaeformis were obtained from experimentally infected dogs. Information about the role of subterranean rodents in the life cycle of this parasite is also given. The above mentioned data indicate that T. taeniaeformis is a frequent parasite of this species of rodents, at least within the study area. Also explanations for the high prevalence of larval forms of this parasite in C. talarum populations are given. PMID:15158554

Rossin, Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I; Denegri, Guillermo M

2004-06-10

288

[Detection of the larva of Taenia multilocularis in 2 voles (Microtus arvalis and Clethrionomys glareolus) in a focus of alveolar echinococcosis in the Massif Central (France)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Small wild rodents were collected and examined during 1983-1984 to investigate parasite-host relationships of Echinococcus multilocularis in one habitat suitable for red foxes of Auvergne (France). The natural infestation of the liver of two different voles, Microtus arvalis and Clethrionomys glareolus, by the larval stage of the cestode is recorded for the first time. In the both cases, the larvae were fully developed and numerous protoscolices were present with some calcareous corpuscules; the expansion of the larvae involved several hepatic lobes in Microtus and was restricted to a single lobe in Clethrionomys. Epidemiological consequences of the receptivity of the two hosts are not yet investigated in the field. However several species of voles inhabiting the same endemic area and which are receptive to the larval stage of alveolar echinococcosis should be a favourable factor of durability for the cestodiasis of the foxes; so the parasite is able of surviving the cyclic and considerable but not simultaneous fluctuations of the three populations of voles which are locally implicated in the zoonosis: M. arvalis, C. glareolus and Arvicola terrestris, by changing from one species to the others. PMID:6440675

Pétavy, A F; Deblock, S; Gilot, B

1984-01-01

289

A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms caus...

Roma?n, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-franc?a, A.

2000-01-01

290

Evaluation of a novel Dot-ELISA assay utilizing a recombinant protein for the effective diagnosis of Taenia pisiformis larval infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in domestic breeds of the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus that results in economic losses. At present, there is no convenient and effective method for the rapid detection of T. pisiformis larvae. Here, we developed and tested the efficacy of a Dot-ELISA assay for the diagnosis of T. pisiformis larval infections in rabbits, based on the expression of the recombinant fusion protein (rTp1) from the Tp1 gene. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to amplify the 3' ends of the Tp1 gene, based on the unigene similar to Ts1 gene (EU009656.1) which comes from transcriptome sequencing of T. pisiformis. The Tp1 gene was successfully amplified, cloned and expressed in BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tp1 protein is specifically recognized by rabbit T. pisiformis cysticercosis antisera. This purified recombinant fusion protein, rTp1, was probed by Dot-ELISA with sera from rabbits infected with T. pisiformis larvae and with other parasitic infections. Results showed that this Dot-ELISA assay had both high sensitivity (92.9-97.6%) and specificity (95.2-98.4%) to detect T. pisiformis larval infections. We also found very low levels of cross-reaction with other parasitic infections. This study has revealed that our novel Dot-ELISA assay utilizing the recombinant fusion protein, rTp1, has a strong potential for the effective diagnosis of T. pisiformis infections in rabbits. PMID:24909076

Chen, Lin; Yang, Deying; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-08-29

291

Taenia taeniaeformis: early inflammatory response around developing metacestodes in the liver of resistant and susceptible mice I. Identification of leukocyte response with monoclonal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female BALB/cJ (resistant), C3H/HeJ (intermediate resistant), and C3H/HeDub (susceptible) inbred mice, 4-5 wk old, were infected with Taenia taeniaeformis. Liver sections were stained by an immunoperoxidase technique (avidin-biotin complex, ABC) for the differentiation antigens Lyt-1, Lyt-2, Mac-1, Mac-2, Mac-3, and B220. Binding of ABC to the cytoplasm of hepatocytes around the developing parasite was observed at 4 days postinfection (PI) in all 3 strains of mice, persisting in BALB/cJ and C3H/HeJ liver sections at 5 and 6 days PI, suggesting the presence of high concentrations of biotin, a fatty acid synthesis mediator. Two cell populations were labeled with B220 monoclonal antibodies: lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. At 4 days PI the number of labeled PMN cells peaked in infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice; however a low number of PMN cells were labeled in infected C3H/HeDub mice. Few lymphocytes bound the B220 antibody in either BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, or C3H/HeDub infected mice. The number of Mac-1+ cells detected in infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ liver sections were similar whereas fewer Mac-1+ cells were present in infected C3H/HeDub mice. Mac-2+ cells appeared in high numbers around the growing parasite at 5 and 6 days PI in the liver of C3H/HeDub mice, but not in the liver of BALB/cJ mice. Mac-3+ cells followed a similar pattern to that of the cell population defined by Mac-2. Few Lyt-1+ and Lyt-2+ cells were detected around the parasite site in the 3 strains of mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3309243

Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C

1987-10-01

292

Human cysticercosis and intestinal parasitism amongst the Ekari people of Irian Jaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A random sample of 242 people showed that 42 had palpable cysts of Taenia solium. Faecal examination recovered eggs of T. solium in seven (3%), while Trichuris (83%), Ascaris (83%), hookworms (76%), Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) and Strongyloides sp. (29%), Entamoeba histolytica (14%), Entamoeba coli (22%), Entamoeba hartmanni (7%), Entamoeba polecki (7%), Balantidium coli (9%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (21%) were the most common other intestinal parasites encountered. ELISA tests, using antigens prepared from adults and eggs of T. solium and from cysticerci of T. saginata were not very sensitive, the last diagnosing less than half of known positives while still retaining good specificity. PMID:3430662

Muller, R; Lillywhite, J; Bending, J J; Catford, J C

1987-12-01

293

Neurocysticercosis: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorph...

Del Brutto, Oscar H.

2012-01-01

294

Rattus norvegicus como indicador de la circulación de Capillaria hepatica y Taenia taeniaeformis en la Plaza Minorista de Medellín, Colombia / Rattus norvegicus as an indicator of circulation of Capillaria hepatica and Taenia taeniaeformis on a groceries trade center of Medellín, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Rattus norvegicus cumple un papel epidemiológico en el mantenimiento y dispersión de agentes zoonóticos bacterianos, virales y parasitarios de interés en salud pública. La presencia de infección por helmintos en especies Rattus cercanas a poblaciones expuestas en condiciones ambientale [...] s propicias, puede convertirse en un factor de riesgo de transmisión. Objetivo. Reportar la frecuencia de infección con Capillaria hepatica y formas larvarias de Taenia taeniaeformis en ratas silvestres (R. norvegicus) capturadas en una zona urbana de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se capturaron 254 ejemplares de R. norvegicus. Los hígados de 54 ejemplares que presentaron lesión hepática macroscópica durante la necropsia, fueron examinados por histopatología convencional. Resultados. La frecuencia de infección por C. hepatica fue de 20,1 % (51/254). Seis hígados fueron también positivos para larvas de T. taeniaeformis con una frecuencia de 2,4 % (6/254). Los hígados infestados con C. hepatica exhibían parásitos en el estadio adulto o juvenil y huevos ovalados con opérculos bipolares, asociados con hepatitis granulomatosa leve a moderada multifocal y acompañada por infiltrado leucocitario. Se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en resolución y fibrosis residual o calcificada que contenía huevos. Donde se encontraron cisticercos de T. taeniaeformis, el hallazgo más frecuente fueron quistes hepáticos que contenían larvas, y lesiones inflamatorias y fibróticas. Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que helmintos de potencial zoonótico circulan en R. norvegicus de ambientes urbanos. Debe investigarse la verdadera distribución de estos parásitos, para determinar el riesgo potencial que corren las poblaciones animales y humanas expuestas a adquirir este tipo de infecciones. Abstract in english Introduction. Rattus norvegicus, the Norway rat, plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and spread of several zoonotic bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens of public health interest. The presence of helminthic infections near susceptible human populations can, under appropriate environmental co [...] nditions, become a risk factor for their transmission. Objective. Frequencies of infection were reported for Capillaria hepatica and larval forms of Taenia taeniaeformis in wild rats (R. norvegicus) captured in an urban area. Materials and methods. Two hundred and fifty-four adult specimens of R. norvegicus were collected in an urban zone of Medellín, Colombia. The livers of 54 specimens that showed macroscopic hepatic lesions during necropsy were examined by conventional histopathology. Results. The frequency of infestation with C. hepatica was 20.1% (51/254). Six livers (2.4%) were also positive for larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Livers infested with C. hepatica exhibited adult or juvenile parasites and oval eggs with bipolar opercula, and were associated with mild to moderate multifocal granulomatous hepatitis with leucocyte infiltrate. Granulomatous lesions and calcified residual fibroses were found with eggs but without adult parasites. Those animals with cysticerci of T. taeniaeformis showed a high frequency of hepatic cysts containing larvae as well as inflammed and fibrotic lesions. Conclusion. Zoonotic helminths circulate at high frequency in R. norvegicus that occur in urban environments. Further research about the distribution of these parasites will determine the level of health threat they present for susceptible human and domestic animal populations.

Biviana Andrea, Duque; Diego, Aranzazu; Piedad, Agudelo-Flórez; Andrés F, Londoño; Víctor H, Quiroz; Juan D, Rodas.

295

Rattus norvegicus como indicador de la circulación de Capillaria hepatica y Taenia taeniaeformis en la Plaza Minorista de Medellín, Colombia / Rattus norvegicus as an indicator of circulation of Capillaria hepatica and Taenia taeniaeformis on a groceries trade center of Medellín, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Rattus norvegicus cumple un papel epidemiológico en el mantenimiento y dispersión de agentes zoonóticos bacterianos, virales y parasitarios de interés en salud pública. La presencia de infección por helmintos en especies Rattus cercanas a poblaciones expuestas en condiciones ambientale [...] s propicias, puede convertirse en un factor de riesgo de transmisión. Objetivo. Reportar la frecuencia de infección con Capillaria hepatica y formas larvarias de Taenia taeniaeformis en ratas silvestres (R. norvegicus) capturadas en una zona urbana de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se capturaron 254 ejemplares de R. norvegicus. Los hígados de 54 ejemplares que presentaron lesión hepática macroscópica durante la necropsia, fueron examinados por histopatología convencional. Resultados. La frecuencia de infección por C. hepatica fue de 20,1 % (51/254). Seis hígados fueron también positivos para larvas de T. taeniaeformis con una frecuencia de 2,4 % (6/254). Los hígados infestados con C. hepatica exhibían parásitos en el estadio adulto o juvenil y huevos ovalados con opérculos bipolares, asociados con hepatitis granulomatosa leve a moderada multifocal y acompañada por infiltrado leucocitario. Se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en resolución y fibrosis residual o calcificada que contenía huevos. Donde se encontraron cisticercos de T. taeniaeformis, el hallazgo más frecuente fueron quistes hepáticos que contenían larvas, y lesiones inflamatorias y fibróticas. Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que helmintos de potencial zoonótico circulan en R. norvegicus de ambientes urbanos. Debe investigarse la verdadera distribución de estos parásitos, para determinar el riesgo potencial que corren las poblaciones animales y humanas expuestas a adquirir este tipo de infecciones. Abstract in english Introduction. Rattus norvegicus, the Norway rat, plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and spread of several zoonotic bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens of public health interest. The presence of helminthic infections near susceptible human populations can, under appropriate environmental co [...] nditions, become a risk factor for their transmission. Objective. Frequencies of infection were reported for Capillaria hepatica and larval forms of Taenia taeniaeformis in wild rats (R. norvegicus) captured in an urban area. Materials and methods. Two hundred and fifty-four adult specimens of R. norvegicus were collected in an urban zone of Medellín, Colombia. The livers of 54 specimens that showed macroscopic hepatic lesions during necropsy were examined by conventional histopathology. Results. The frequency of infestation with C. hepatica was 20.1% (51/254). Six livers (2.4%) were also positive for larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Livers infested with C. hepatica exhibited adult or juvenile parasites and oval eggs with bipolar opercula, and were associated with mild to moderate multifocal granulomatous hepatitis with leucocyte infiltrate. Granulomatous lesions and calcified residual fibroses were found with eggs but without adult parasites. Those animals with cysticerci of T. taeniaeformis showed a high frequency of hepatic cysts containing larvae as well as inflammed and fibrotic lesions. Conclusion. Zoonotic helminths circulate at high frequency in R. norvegicus that occur in urban environments. Further research about the distribution of these parasites will determine the level of health threat they present for susceptible human and domestic animal populations.

Biviana Andrea, Duque; Diego, Aranzazu; Piedad, Agudelo-Flórez; Andrés F, Londoño; Víctor H, Quiroz; Juan D, Rodas.

2012-12-01

296

Rattus norvegicus as an indicator of circulation of Capillaria hepatica and Taenia taeniaeformis on a groceries trade center of Medellín, Colombia Rattus norvegicus como indicador de la circulación de Capillaria hepatica y Taenia taeniaeformis en la Plaza Minorista de Medellín, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Rattus norvegicus plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and spread of some zoonotic bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens of public health interest. The presence of helminthic infections near to susceptible populations under appropriate environmental conditions might become a risk factor for their transmission.Objective. To report the frequency of infection with Capillaria hepatica and larval forms of Taenia taeniaeformis on wild rats (R. norvegicus, captured in an urban zone of Medellín.Materials and methods. 254 adult specimens of R. norvegicus were collected. The livers of 54 specimens that showed macroscopic hepatic lesions during necropsy were examined by conventional histopathology.Results. The frequency of infestation with C. hepatica was 20.1% (51/254. Six livers were also positive for larvae of T. taeniaeformis, a frequency of 2.4% (6/254. Livers infested with C. hepatica, exhibited adult or juvenile parasites, and oval eggs with bipolar opercula, associated with mild to moderate multifocal granulomatous hepatitis, accompanied by leukocitary infiltrate. We found also resolving granulomatous lesions without adult parasites and eggs and residual fibrosis or containing-eggs calcified lesions. On those animals that had cysticerci of T. taeniaeformis, the most frequent finding was the presence of hepatic cysts containing larvae and inflammatory and fibrotic lesions.Conclusion. These results indicate that potentially zoonotic helminths circulate in R. norvegicus in urban environments. The current study suggests that more research about the distribution of these parasites is required in order to determine whether this is a real or potential threat for human and animal susceptible populations.

Introducción. Rattus norvegicus cumple un papel epidemiológico en el mantenimiento y dispersión de agentes zoonóticos bacterianos, virales y parasitarios de interés en salud pública. La presencia de infección por helmintos en especies de Rattus cercanas a poblaciones susceptibles en condiciones ambientales propicias, puede convertirse en un factor de riesgo de transmisión.Objetivo. Reportar la frecuencia de infección con Capillaria hepatica y formas larvarias de Taenia taeniaeformis en ratas silvestres (R. norvegicus capturadas en una zona urbana de Medellín.Materiales y métodos. Se capturaron 254 ejemplares de R. norvegicus. Los hígados de 54 ejemplares que presentaron lesión hepática macroscópica durante la necropsia, fueron examinados por histopatología convencional.Resultados. La frecuencia de infección por C. hepatica fue de 20,1% (51/254. Seis hígados fueron también positivos para larvas de T. taeniaeformis con una frecuencia de 2,4% (6/254. Los hígados infestados con C. hepatica, exhibían parásitos en el estadío adulto o juvenil y huevos ovalados con opérculos bipolares, asociados con hepatitis granulomatosa leve a moderada multifocal y acompañada por infiltrado leucocitario. Se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en resolución y fibrosis residual o calcificadas conteniendo huevos. Donde se encontraron cisticercos de T. taeniaeformis, el hallazgo más frecuente fue quistes hepáticos que contenían  larvas y lesiones inflamatorias y fibróticas.Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que helmintos de potencial zoonótico circulan en R. norvegicus de ambientes urbanos. Debe investigarse la verdadera distribución de estos parásitos, para determinar el riesgo potencial que corren las poblaciones animales y humanas susceptibles de adquirir este tipo de infecciones.

Biviana Andrea Duque

2012-05-01

297

Vaccines for prevention of cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium infection is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of effective anthelmintics, the disease remains prevalent in many parts of the world and there is a need for new and improved measures for control of the infection. An effective vaccine to prevent infection in pigs, the parasite's natural intermediate host, would be a valuable new option to assist with T. solium control. Several approaches are being used currently towards the development of a T. solium vaccine and these approaches are reviewed briefly, with emphasis on the use of recombinant oncosphere antigens. Highly effective vaccines have been developed against cysticercosis in sheep and cattle caused by Taenia ovis and Taenia saginata, respectively. This success has encouraged the adoption of a similar strategy for T. solium. The recent finding that one oncosphere antigen, TSOL18, can induce complete protection against T. solium infection in pigs, highlights the potential for development of a practical vaccine. A vision is proposed for the development of a safe, effective, inexpensive vaccine for pigs, which can be administered in an edible form. Through an international collaborative effort, research is progressing towards the realisation of such a vaccine and its use to reduce the global burden of neurocysticercosis. PMID:12781387

Lightowlers, M W

2003-06-01

298

Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

2013-11-01

299

La cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y en el Ecuador (Porcine cysticercosis in Latin America and Ecuador)  

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Resumen.El presente trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de la cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y el Ecuador, donde el Cysticercus cellulosae (metacestodo de Taenia solium) es conocido vulgarmente como: “triquina”, “coscoja”, “alverjilla”, “quinua”, “grano” o “pepa”. Las fuentes de información provienen de artículos científicos publicados en revistas indexadas y de observaciones encontradas en de tesis de grado o trabajos científicos publicad...

Rodri?guez-hidalgo, Richar; Beni?tez-ortiz, Washington

2007-01-01

300

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de ELISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %. Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26% de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo, los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo. En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8% sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3% (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086. CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo.OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%. The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26% out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group, the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group. In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%, while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3% (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan Martínez-Maya

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

302

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

303

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

2003-04-01

304

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

2003-04-01

305

Cysteine metabolism in the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major pathways for cysteine catabolism in Hymenolepis diminuta have been investigated. The parasite has an active cystathionine-beta-synthase and, as in other tissues, this enzyme has a wide substrate specificity. However, the enzyme from H. diminuta differs significantly from the mammalian enzyme in showing a high serine sulphydrase activity and a high serine lyase activity. There was only low gamma-cystathionase activity in H. diminuta and again the enzyme showed a range of substrate specificities. Cysteine aminotransferase activity was readily demonstrated in the tapeworm, but there was no evidence for 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphotransferase activity. An oxidative pathway for cysteine catabolism in H. diminuta was shown by the presence of cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulphinate transaminase. The properties of the helminth cysteine dioxygenase were very similar to those of rat liver. H. diminuta was able to reduce cystine to cysteine via a glutathione-cysteine transhydrogenase system. PMID:3174234

Gomez-Bautista, M; Barrett, J

1988-08-01

306

Neuroparasitic Infections: Cestodes, Trematodes, and Protozoans  

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Parasitic infection of the nervous system can produce a variety of symptoms and signs. Because symptoms of infection are often mild or nonspecific, diagnosis can be difficult. Familiarity with basic epidemiological characteristics and distinguishing radiographic findings can increase the likelihood of detection and proper treatment of parasitic infection of the nervous system. This article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for some of the more common infections of ...

Walker, M. D.; Zunt, J. R.

2005-01-01

307

Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil / Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em peixe introduzido, Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), no reservatório de Volta Grande, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avalia a variação nos índices parasitológicos de 114 espécimes de Cichla piquiti Kullander e Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infectados por duas espécies de proteocefalídeos (Cestoda) entre agosto de 1999 e junho de 2001 no reservatório de Volta Grande, MG, Brasil. A relação entre a parasitose [...] e os valores de pluviosidade e qualidade de água (pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio, clorofila, transparência e temperatura) é discutida. A prevalência de Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) foi 83,3%, intensidade média 110,8 e abundância média 100,7 durante todo o período. Prevalência de 100% foi observada em agosto e dezembro de 1999, abril e dezembro de 2000 e junho de 2001. As maiores intensidades médias foram 122,7 em outubro de 1999; 158,8 em dezembro de 1999; 96,4 em fevereiro de 2000; 400,7 em abril de 2000; 215,6 em outubro de 2000; e 136,4 em dezembro de 2000. Fatores abióticos podem favorecer o desenvolvimento de espécies que sustentam a alimentação do "tucunaré", mas, neste caso, não houve correlação (P > 0,05) entre os valores de prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média com a pluviosidade e qualidade de água no reservatório. Ao mesmo tempo, estes organismos podem constituir hospedeiros intermediários de cestóides. A relação entre o desenvolvimento da espécie hospedeira e a manifestação da parasitose no hospedeiro definitivo pode explicar a falta de correlação entre os índices parasitológicos e os fatores abióticos. A predação de pequenos peixes e o canibalismo descrito para o "tucunaré" explica a elevada prevalência e intensidade de infecção, favorecido pela condição exótica do hospedeiro no reservatório. Abstract in english This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis w [...] ith rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.

ML., Martins; J., Pereira Jr.; A., De Chambrier; MM., Yamashita.

2009-02-01

308

Helminths of foxes and other wild carnivores from rural areas in Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in Greece. Of the 314 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species Mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species Uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and Toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. Five cestode and three nematode species were reported from six wolves (CaniS lupus), together with one trematode, three cestode and four nematode species from five jackals (Canis aureus) and two cestode and three nematode species from four wild cats (Felis silvestris) examined. The species J. echinorhynchoides, Taenia crassiceps and Onicola canis and the genera Spirometra, Rictularia and Pachysentis are reported here for the first time in Greece. The results are discussed in the light of the feeding characteristics of wild carnivores in rural areas of Greece. PMID:9705680

Papdopoulos, H; Himonas, C; Papazahariadou, M; Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K

1997-09-01

309

Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes  

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Full Text Available Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothrium latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentosA clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

MARISA TORRES

2001-01-01

310

Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothriu [...] m latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentos Abstract in english A clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking [...] medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

MARISA, TORRES; CARLOS, PEREZ; ERCIRA, GALDAMEZ; MELVIN, GABOR; CLAUDIO, MIRANDA; XIMENA, COFRE; PAULA, TELLEZ.

311

Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothriu [...] m latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentos Abstract in english A clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking [...] medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

MARISA, TORRES; CARLOS, PEREZ; ERCIRA, GALDAMEZ; MELVIN, GABOR; CLAUDIO, MIRANDA; XIMENA, COFRE; PAULA, TELLEZ.

2001-01-01

312

THE CURRENT SITUATION OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasitic infections are highly prevalent in Indonesia, especially in rural areas, suburbs and slums of big cities. Twenty two species of protozoa and 32 species of helminths have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 16 species of intestinal protozoa, nine are constantly found in stool surveys, but only Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are real pathogens. Among the blood and tissue protozoa, the most important are the malaria parasites. The most frequently encountered and widely distributed species are Plasmodium falciparum, and P. vivax. P. malariae is at present more difficult to find, while P. ovale has been reported only from Flores, Timor and Irian Jaya. The non human parasites so far has not been diagnosed in human. Among the 80 species of Anopheline mosquitoes in Indonesia, 16 have been reconfirmed as vectors. Among the other tissue protozoa, Trichomonas vaginalis is frequenUy found in the Gynaecological clinic, while Toxolasma gondii is found only in special studies. Among the 13 species of intestinal nematodes, five are highly prevalent namely : Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is getting more difficult to find. Filariasis is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in certain areas. Both urban and rural Wuchereria bancrofti are prevalent, but B. malayi is causing more public health problems in rural areas. Both the human and the zoonotic type are prevalent. B. timori so far has been described only from the south eastern part of Indonesia. The filarial worms have different vectors and are therefore different in epidemiology and distribution. Non human filarial worms have not been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 12 species of Trematodes, only Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in Central Sulawesi, and recently an endemic area oiFasciolopsis buski was discovered in a restricted area in South Kalimantan. Echinostoma lindoense which was highly endemic in lake Lindu area has disappeared completely. Among the 8 species of Cestodes, Taenia saginata and T. solium with its cysticercus are found more often. While endemic in a few areas only, cases been reported from many places. Infections with other Cestodes have been reported occasionally. On the whole, parasitic infections in Indonesia have been decreasing. Some parasites which were prevalent in the older days, have dissappeared, and human infections with animal parasites have been reported occasionally because of the difficult diagnosis.

Sri Oemijati

2012-09-01

313

Cisticercosis cerebral: a propósito de un caso / Neurocysticercosis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la neurocisticercosis es una enfermedad parasitaria del sistema nervioso central causada por la forma larvaria del céstodo Taenia solium. Se adquiere debido a las malas condiciones de higiene y al fecalismo. Se identifica un caso complejo no habitual en Cuba, detectado en el cumplimiento [...] del programa integral de salud en Honduras. Objetivo: contribuir al conocimiento de enfermedades que son un problema de salud en centroamérica basados en la presentación de un caso. Caso clínico: se presenta un paciente con síndrome tumoral cerebral convulsivo que se atiende en el hospital regional de San Marcos de Ocotepeque en Honduras, se le realizó un estudio y se diagnosticó neurocisticercosis. Se trató y estabilizó pero quedó con las secuelas inherentes a la enfermedad. Conclusiones: en el paciente evaluado hubo manifestaciones clínicas que podían corresponder a varias enfermedades nosológicas, pero basados en estudios como la tomografía se pudo demostrar la enfermedad, a fin de evitar esta afección. Es importante la educación de las personas sobre sus hábitos higiénicos y alimentarios, pues las secuelas sobre el sistema nervioso central son permanentes y muchas veces si se diagnostican de forma tardía pueden traer graves consecuencias. Abstract in english Background: neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system caused by the cestode Taenia soliumin larval stage. It is acquired due to bad hygienic conditions and the ingestion of food with feces. A complex case, not frequent in Cuba, was detected and identified during the ful [...] fillment of the comprehensive health program in Honduras. Objective: to contribute to the awareness of some diseases which constitute a health problem in Central America, based on this case presentation. Clinical case: a patient with a convulsive brain tumor syndrome was attended at San Marcos Regional Hospital of Ocotopeque, Honduras. The patient underwent a study and was diagnosed with neurocysticercosis. The patient was treated and his condition became stable but he was left with the inherent aftereffects of the illness. Conclusions: the treated patient presented clinical manifestations that could correspond with several nosologic diseases, but based on studies like tomography the disease could be established in order to avoid this complaint. The education of the population about their hygienic practices and eating habits is important because the aftereffects of the disease in the central nervous system are permanent and sometimes, if it is diagnosed belatedly, may have very grave consequences.

Jorge Julián, Sánchez Fernández; Ana Lilia, Cabrera Menéndez.

314

Cisticercosis cerebral: a propósito de un caso / Neurocysticercosis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la neurocisticercosis es una enfermedad parasitaria del sistema nervioso central causada por la forma larvaria del céstodo Taenia solium. Se adquiere debido a las malas condiciones de higiene y al fecalismo. Se identifica un caso complejo no habitual en Cuba, detectado en el cumplimiento [...] del programa integral de salud en Honduras. Objetivo: contribuir al conocimiento de enfermedades que son un problema de salud en centroamérica basados en la presentación de un caso. Caso clínico: se presenta un paciente con síndrome tumoral cerebral convulsivo que se atiende en el hospital regional de San Marcos de Ocotepeque en Honduras, se le realizó un estudio y se diagnosticó neurocisticercosis. Se trató y estabilizó pero quedó con las secuelas inherentes a la enfermedad. Conclusiones: en el paciente evaluado hubo manifestaciones clínicas que podían corresponder a varias enfermedades nosológicas, pero basados en estudios como la tomografía se pudo demostrar la enfermedad, a fin de evitar esta afección. Es importante la educación de las personas sobre sus hábitos higiénicos y alimentarios, pues las secuelas sobre el sistema nervioso central son permanentes y muchas veces si se diagnostican de forma tardía pueden traer graves consecuencias. Abstract in english Background: neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system caused by the cestode Taenia soliumin larval stage. It is acquired due to bad hygienic conditions and the ingestion of food with feces. A complex case, not frequent in Cuba, was detected and identified during the ful [...] fillment of the comprehensive health program in Honduras. Objective: to contribute to the awareness of some diseases which constitute a health problem in Central America, based on this case presentation. Clinical case: a patient with a convulsive brain tumor syndrome was attended at San Marcos Regional Hospital of Ocotopeque, Honduras. The patient underwent a study and was diagnosed with neurocysticercosis. The patient was treated and his condition became stable but he was left with the inherent aftereffects of the illness. Conclusions: the treated patient presented clinical manifestations that could correspond with several nosologic diseases, but based on studies like tomography the disease could be established in order to avoid this complaint. The education of the population about their hygienic practices and eating habits is important because the aftereffects of the disease in the central nervous system are permanent and sometimes, if it is diagnosed belatedly, may have very grave consequences.

Jorge Julián, Sánchez Fernández; Ana Lilia, Cabrera Menéndez.

2014-02-01

315

Specific parasiticidal use of 2-benzamido-5-nitro-thiazole derivatives  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2-benazmido-5-nitro-thiazole derivatives disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,950,351 are effective against various species of cestodes: Taenia pisiformis, Dypilidium caninum, Echinococus granulosus and Moniezia expansa, and various species of nematodes: roundworms (Ancyslotoma spp.) and whipworms (Trichuris spp.).

1982-02-09

316

Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

2014-04-01

317

Cysticercus Antigens in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Neurocysticercosis  

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Antigens were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal sera of rabbit anti-Taenia solium cysticerci (anti-Tso) and anti- Taenia crassiceps cysticerci vesicular fluid (anti-Tcra or anti-Tcra <30 kDa). A group of NC patients (n = 174) were studied (NC), including 40 patients in different phases of the disease. ELISAs carried out with the anti-Tso, anti-Tcra, and anti-Tcra <30 kDa showed...

Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose?; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; Livramento, Jose? Anto?nio

2001-01-01

318

Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum (60.8%) and Fasciola hepatica (13.5%). PMID:23831108

Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

2013-09-01

319

Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

Gagandeep Singh

1997-09-01

320

Neurocisticercose nodular calcificada com sinais de reativação Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation  

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Full Text Available A neurocisticercose é uma doença caracterizada pelo envolvimento do sistema nervoso central pelo estágio larval intermediário do parasita Taenia solium. O processo de degeneração da larva e a reação inflamatória do organismo causam os sintomas clínicos. Relatamos a reativação clínica e radiológica de uma forma nodular calcificada e assintomática há mais de 20 anos. O tratamento antiparasitário mostrou boa resposta.Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response.

Gustavo Nunes Medina Coeli

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

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Full Text Available In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Considerando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México.

Agnès Fleury

2012-12-01

322

Neurocisticercose nodular calcificada com sinais de reativação / Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A neurocisticercose é uma doença caracterizada pelo envolvimento do sistema nervoso central pelo estágio larval intermediário do parasita Taenia solium. O processo de degeneração da larva e a reação inflamatória do organismo causam os sintomas clínicos. Relatamos a reativação clínica e radiológica d [...] e uma forma nodular calcificada e assintomática há mais de 20 anos. O tratamento antiparasitário mostrou boa resposta. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and r [...] adiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response.

Gustavo Nunes Medina, Coeli; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Tiengo; Afonso Carlos da, Silva; José Otávio Meyer, Fernandes; Guilherme Carlos da, Silva; Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, Silva.

2012-10-01

323

Bruns' syndrome and racemose neurocysticercosis: a case report Síndrome de Bruns e neurocisticercose racemosa: relato de caso  

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Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The parasite may infect the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). The clinical manifestations depend on load, type, size, location, stage of development of the cysticerci, and the host's immune response against the parasite. The racemose variety occurs in the ventricles or basal cisterns and is a malignant form. Mobile ventricular mass can produce episodic hydrocephalus on changing head...

Roberta Diehl Rodriquez; Denise Neme da Silva Crestani; José Otávio Dworzecki Soares; Paulo Roberto Franceshini; Ronnie Petersen Alves; Ricardo Zimerman; Nelson Ferreira; Liselotte Menke Barea

2012-01-01

324

Solitary intramuscular cysticercosis-A report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cysticercosis, infestation with the encysted larval stage ofTaenia solium, is a major health problem in most countries ofLatin America, Asia, and Africa. It involves mainly the centralnervous system. Muscle involvement is also seen, althoughit usually remains asymptomatic. Solitary intramuscularcysticercosis, without involvement of central nervous systemis a rare entity. We present two cases of solitaryintramuscular cysticercosis, without any systemic orneurologic manifestations.

Sushma Ramraje

2011-01-01

325

IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR PORCINE CYSTICERCOSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION OF HUMAN DISEASE  

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Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important cause of human disease in many developing countries. Porcine cysticercosis is a vital link in the transmission of this disease and impairs meat production. A treatment for porcine cysticercosis may be an effective way of preventing human disease that would also benefit pig farmers, facilitating control programs in disease-endemic regions. Previous research suggests that reinfection with cysticercosis or immunotherapy with cysticercal antigens may ca...

Evans, Carlton A. W.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Verastegui, Manuela; Garcia, Hector H.; Chavera, Alfonso; Pilcher, Joy B.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

1997-01-01

326

Frequency of depression among patients with neurocysticercosis Depressão em pacientes portadores de neurocisticercose  

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Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of depression in patients with calcified NCC form. The study group consisted of 114 patients subdivided in four groups: NCC with epilepsy, NCC without epilepsy, epilepsy without NCC and chronic headache. METHOD: Depression was evaluated and quantified by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21). RESULTS: Percentage of patients with depr...

Sergio Monteiro de Almeida; Solange Aparecida Gurjão

2010-01-01

327

Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens  

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Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC) is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes influence individual susceptibility t...

Eni Picchioni Bompeixe; Sonia Maria Correia Machado da Costa; Walter Oleschko Arruda; Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler

1999-01-01

328

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis  

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Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have...

Coyle, Christina M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2009-01-01

329

Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area? Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?  

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Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized me...

Gonc?alves-coe?lho, Thiago D.; Coe?lho, Matheus D. G.

1996-01-01

330

Neurocysticercosis.  

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Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Varied clinical manifestations occur, due to deposition of larvae of the parasite Taenia solium in cerebral parenchyma, meninges, spinal cord, muscles, eyes and skin. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis can be made with a fairly high degree of accuracy with the help of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Serological tests and histopathological examination of subcutaneous nodules provide addi...

Garg, R. K.

1998-01-01

331

Albendazole versus Praziquantel in the Treatment of Neurocysticercosis: A Meta-analysis of Comparative Trials  

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Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, when the larval form of the parasite lodges in the central nervous system. This disease is most commonly found among members of agricultural societies with poor sanitary conditions and economies based on breeding livestock (especially pigs) with low hygiene standards. It is a disease with long history in humans, and the usual therapeutic intervention was surgery until the development of antiparasitic cystici...

Matthaiou, Dimitrios K.; Panos, Georgios; Adamidi, Eleni S.; Falagas, Matthew E.

2008-01-01

332

Clinical Manifestations Associated with Neurocysticercosis: A Systematic Review  

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Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the brain with the flatworm Taenia solium which is normally transmitted between humans and pigs. Sometimes, humans can infect other humans and the larva of the parasite can go the brain, causing the disease neurocysticercosis. There has never been a systematic review of what clinical signs are found among people with neurocysticercosis. We conducted a thorough review of the literature to answer this question. We reviewed 1569 and 21 were of a sufficient q...

Carabin, He?le?ne; Ndimubanzi, Patrick Cyaga; Budke, Christine M.; Nguyen, Hai; Qian, Yingjun; Cowan, Linda Demetry; Stoner, Julie Ann; Rainwater, Elizabeth; Dickey, Mary

2011-01-01

333

Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

2012-09-15

334

Kirurgisk behandling af neurocysticerkose hos et 12-årigt barn  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a case of neurocysticercosis in a 12-year old refugee from Zambia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a solitary, ring enhancing cystic lesion located subcortically in the left parietal lobe. Despite extensive diagnostic workup it was not possible to rule out alternative differential diagnoses. Serological tests for neurocysticercosis came out negative. The lesion was removed en bloc using microsurgical technique. Subsequent histological examination revealed a thick-walled cyst containing a cysticercus identifiable as a Taenia solium.

Cortnum, SØren; Knudsen, Kristine Bach

2011-01-01