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Sample records for cestode taenia solium

  1. Molecular cloning of Taenia solium genomic DNA and characterization of taeniid cestodes by DNA analysis.

    Rishi, A K; McManus, D P

    1988-08-01

    Total DNAs, isolated from a range of taeniid cestodes (Taenia solium, T. saginata, T. pisiformis, T. crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. ovis, T. multiceps and T. taeniaeformis), have been subjected to restriction enzyme digestion, Southern transfer and hybridization analysis using cloned fragments of the ribosomal RNA gene of Schistosoma mansoni. Substantial inter-specific genetic differences have been revealed on the basis of characteristic hybridization patterns for each of the taeniid cestode species. Furthermore, a random genomic DNA library has been constructed in the vector plasmid pAT153 using DNA extracted from a pig isolate (Indian origin) of T. solium. A panel of taeniid cestode DNAs including DNA from Echinococcus granulosus, has been used in conjunction with hybridization and restriction enzyme analysis to identify in the library a single recombinant plasmid with a T. solium-specific insert (coded pTS10) and two recombinant plasmids with T. solium inserts having selective specificities for T. solium and T. ovis (coded pTS17) and T. solium, T. saginata, T. ovis and T. multiceps (coded pTS28). These recombinant plasmids and the cloned fragments of the ribosomal RNA gene of S. mansoni have been used in restriction endonuclease, Southern transfer and hybridization analysis to detect intra-specific genetic variation in cysticerci of T. solium from India, Mexico and Zimbabwe. In addition, pTS10 and pTS17 have been used in a simple dot-blot assay to distinguish T. solium from T. saginata. PMID:2845336

  2. Taenia solium cysticercosis

    García, Héctor H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Evans, Carlton A.W.; Gilman, Robert H

    2003-01-01

    The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more contr...

  3. Taenia saginata and Taenia solium: reciprocal models.

    Harrison, L J; Parkhouse, R M

    1989-01-01

    Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are of such close taxonomic relationship that each can be regarded as a model for the other. In these particular species the only available hosts are either humans or large domesticated animals. This has imposed severe safety and/or economic restrictions on the extent of the experimental work which could be attempted. Furthermore, there is a limit to the relevance of work with less closely related species such as Taenia ovis, Taenia taeniaeformis and Taenia pisiformis with their differing host species, larval forms and locations within the intermediate host tissue. However, the application of both monoclonal antibody based and modern molecular biological techniques to the T. solium and T. saginata systems does much to overcome or circumvent some of the problems. Thus advances made in the analysis, diagnosis or immuno-prophylaxis of one of these species are at least potentially both of direct and immediate or indirect benefit to the work on the other species. PMID:2488993

  4. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Ana Flisser; Marshall W Lightowlers

    2001-01-01

    Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, health education has been...

  5. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Flisser Ana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, health education has been shown to be highly effective since people become aware of the importance of human and porcine cysticercosis and the possibility of eliminating it. Nevertheless it has to be implemented by knowledgeable people. On the other hand, the life cycle can be controlled by avoiding swine cysticercosis. This review describes the studies performed to vaccinate pigs against T. solium and indicate that short time perspectives are very encouraging for the production of an optimal vaccine.

  6. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria Vang; Laranjo-Gonzàlez, Minerva; Smit, Suzanne; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is...

  7. In vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium.

    Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Rolfe, Rick A; Velásquez Guzmán, Jeanette C; Farfán Salazar, Marilú J; Verástegui Pimentel, Manuela R; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilmanl, Robert H; Strugnell, Richard A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2006-04-01

    Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits, sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Activated oncospheres of T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium were incubated in vitro in culture medium, test serum, and a source of complement, and oncosphere killing was assessed after 10 days of culture. In vitro oncosphere killing reflected the presence of specific antibody, and the oncosphere-killing assay typically indicated immunity to the homologous parasite that had been determined in vivo. This study describes the first reliable oncosphere-killing assays for T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium. These assays will be used for further research into the optimization of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis. PMID:16729683

  8. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Rural Pigs of Northern Peru

    Jayashi, César M.; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Marshall W Lightowlers; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine ...

  9. Multiple genotypes of Taenia solium--ramifications for diagnosis, treatment and control.

    Ito, Akira; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Sato, Marcello O; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Ikejima, Takashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Afonso, Sonia M S; Ortiz, Washington Benitez; Plancarte, Agustin; Zoli, Andre; Geerts, Stanny; Craig, Philip S

    2003-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium, isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that the two phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia formed a single cluster, whereas those from Latin America combined with those from Africa to form an additional cluster. It was estimated that these two genotypes emerged approximately 4-8 x 10(5) years ago. These results together with recent study of the ancient of human taeniid cestodes emerged several MYA in Africa, historical data on swine domestication, distribution of pigs and colonization patterns suggest that T. solium was introduced recently into Latin America and Africa from different regions of Europe during the colonial age, which started 500 years ago, and that T. solium of another origin independently spread in Asian countries, perhaps from China. Why did not T. solium of European origin invade or spread into Asia during the colonial age? Analysis of T. solium distribution must include other Taenia species, especially T. saginata and T. asiatica, which can not be differentiated from each other morphologically. BESS T-base analysis for differentiation of all human Taenia species including the two genotypes of T. solium, and T. saginata and T. asiatica has also been characterized. BESS T-base analysis differentiates African isolates from Latin American isolates as well but more samples should be analyzed for obtaining conclusive evidence for the latter. Serological analysis of cyst fluid of T. solium cysticerci obtained in China and Indonesia and from Mozambique and Ecuador indicates geographical differences in their banding patterns. These differences are discussed in the light of possible differences in pathology of T. solium worldwide. As it has been speculated that the ancient T. solium emerged several million years ago in Africa, it is necessary to analyze more isolates from Africa. Such working hypothesis may be evaluated combined with symptomatology and serology when we get additional DNA data from such areas, since there are some varieties of manifestation of neurocysticercosis with or without subcutaneous cysticercosis and of antigens of cyst fluid of T. solium from Asia and from Africa and/or America. Transfer of techniques of molecular identification and sero- and immuno-diagnoses between researchers and technicians from endemic countries using their own materials should be promoted with the aim of better international cooperation for the control of cysticercosis. PMID:12781383

  10. Occurrence of Taenia solium and Cysticercosis in Man in Egypt

    Basem; R. N. Abdo; Sayed, Amal S. M.; Asmaa A.A. Hussein,Mohsen; I. Arafa

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem. In Egypt Taenia solium/ human cysticercosis is rare. Therefore, this study aims to survey the occurrence of T. solium and cysticercosis in human in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were collected from 425 patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, who attended some hospitals in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were examined by both direct smear method and simple gravity sedimen...

  11. Nested PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Taenia solium Taeniasis?

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P.; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Sterling, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was devel...

  12. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia

    Pablo Maravilla; Aldo Valera; Valeria Souza; Mario Martinez-Gordillo; Ana Flisser

    2003-01-01

    Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobi...

  13. State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica

    Flisser, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeni...

  14. Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovere...

  15. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts

    Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E, Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

  16. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts

    Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E., Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

  17. Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States

    2012-04-20

    Dr. Seth O’Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  18. Occurrence of Taenia solium and Cysticercosis in Man in Egypt

    Basem

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem. In Egypt Taenia solium/ human cysticercosis is rare. Therefore, this study aims to survey the occurrence of T. solium and cysticercosis in human in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were collected from 425 patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, who attended some hospitals in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were examined by both direct smear method and simple gravity sedimentation technique. Ninety two serum samples were collected randomly from the patients. IgG antibodies against Taenia solium and its cysticerci (Cysticercus cellulose were detected in human serum by using ELISA. The occurrence of T. solium among 425 examined patients in the present work was 0.7% by using sedimentation stool examination technique. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium/cysticercosis in humans in Assiut and Sohage Governorates was 6.5% by using ELISA test. A great variation in the ecological distribution of Taenia solium/Cysticercosis in human was detected between Assiut and Sohage Governorates (8.1% & 3.33% respectively. Higher seroprevalence was detected in women (8.5% than men (3.0%. There was positive correlation between the age of the patient and the infection rate which was 5.3% in the age group below 20 years, 5.5% in the age group 20-40 years and 11.1% in the age group above 40 years. Results obtained in this study reveal that cysticercosis is prevalent among man in the examined areas. Public health education is considered the key factor for control of cysticercosis. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 57-60

  19. Epidemiology of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in western Kenya

    Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic helminth which is thought to be one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium cysticercosis infections in pigs and humans and human taeniasis were diagnosed using antigen-capture ELISAs. The parasite was found to be endemic in the study site, with cysticercosis being detected by HP10 Ag-ELISA in 6.6% of human samples (95% C.I. 5.6-7.8%) and 17.2% (95% C.I. 10.2-26.4%) of porcine samples. Human taeniasis was detecte...

  20. Immunocharacterization of Taenia solium oncosphere and metacestode antigens.

    Garcia-Allan, C; Martínez, N; Flisser, A; Aluja, A; Allan, J C; Craig, P S

    1996-12-01

    A partial immunocharacterization of oncosphere and metacestode antigens of Taenia solium was carried out and compared to antigens from other taeniid species. The results indicated that T. solium metacestode antigen contained epitopes cross reactive with rabbit anti-sera to adult and oncospheral stages of the parasite. Oncospheres, however, consisted largely of stage specific antigens. Western blot analysis indicated that T. solium and T. pisiformis shared several oncospheral antigens; however, this was not the case with T. solium and T. hydatigena. Western blot analysis showed a time-related increase in the number of molecules recognized by antibodies to T. solium oncosphere and metacestode antigens in pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. Oncosphere specific antibodies were detected in pig sera one month after experimental infection whereas antibodies to cystic stage antigens were not present until the 3rd to 5th month post infection. Sera from neurocysticercotic patients as well as naturally infected cysticercotic pigs recognized high molecular weight antigens in the oncospheres. PMID:8960224

  1. Corticosteroid Withdrawal Precipitates Perilesional Edema around Calcified Taenia solium Cysts

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This sug...

  2. The disease burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Cameroon

    Praet, N; Speybroeck, N.; Manzanedo, R.; Berkvens, D; Nforninwe, D. N.; Zoli, A.; Quet, F.; Preux, P. M.; Carabin, H; Geerts, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the present study was undertaken to calculate the impact of this neglected zoonosis. Methods ...

  3. Taenia solium cysticerci synthesize androgens and estrogens in vitro.

    Valdéz, R A; Jiménez, P; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Romano, M C

    2006-04-01

    Cysticerci from Taenia solium develop in the pig muscle and cause severe diseases in humans. Here we report on the capacity of T. solium cysticerci to synthesize sex steroid hormones. T. solium cysticerci were dissected from infected pork meat. Parasites were incubated for different periods in culture media plus antibiotics and tritiated steroid precursors. Blanks and parasite culture media were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. In some experiments, the scoleces were incubated separately. Results showed that T. solium cysticerci transform [(3)H]androstenedione to [(3)H]testosterone in a time-dependent manner. The production was confirmed in two different solvent systems. The incubation with [(3)H]testosterone yielded only small amounts of [(3)H]androstenedione. The recrystallization procedure further demonstrated that the metabolite identified by TLC was testosterone. The isolated scoleces incubated in the presence of [(3)H]androstenedione yielded [(3)H]testosterone and small quantities of [(3)H]17beta-estradiol. The results reported here demonstrate that T. solium cysticerci have the capacity to synthesize steroid hormones. PMID:16416116

  4. Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T.; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Waikagul, Jitra; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Muennoo, Chatree; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello O.; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2007-01-01

    We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identified T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

  5. Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Galileo Escobedo; M. Isabel Palacios-Arreola; Alfonso Olivos; Lorena López-Griego; Jorge Morales-Montor

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effec...

  6. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were...... investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs......The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts...

  7. The effect of gamma radiation on the cysticeri of Taenia Solium

    Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day +24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

  8. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens

    Gauci, Charles G.; Jayashi, César M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lackenby, Julia; Marshall W Lightowlers

    2012-01-01

    ? Experimental Taenia solium challenge of piglets vaccinated with recombinant antigens. ? Protection of piglets immunized with the TSOL16 recombinant antigen. ? Assessment of antibody responses in pigs vaccinated with recombinant antigens.

  9. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria Vang

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly documented however there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs with NCC. On the contrary, among the scientific community it is believed that pigs with...... NCC are asymptomatic. The aim of our study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to number and distribution of cysts in brains of these naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected pigs were videotaped for 14...... days using close circuit television cameras. At the end of the recording period, the pigs were slaughtered and the brains were dissected, cysts counted and their location noted. During recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Seizures occurred on random days and their...

  10. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto; Assane, Younus; Dorny, Pierre; Magnussen, Pascal; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials and...

  11. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  12. Using electronic technology for Taenia solium education: educating the educators.

    Sanchez, Ana L; Fairfield, Tony

    2003-06-01

    In Taenia solium endemic areas, intervention programs include a variety of actions aimed to improve sanitary infrastructure and environment, pig husbandry conditions, detection and treatment of tapeworm carries and cysticercosis cases, among others. For a successful long-term effect, these actions must be associated with community participation and health education programs. Prior to designing/conducting health education programs tailored to specific populations, individuals involved in delivering education, as well as other professionals, students, and community leaders, must be well prepared, their knowledge increased, updated or strengthened. Educators must first be well educated to convey clear and accurate messages. Current electronic technology provides invaluable resources for teaching and learning. Learners using electronic materials benefit from a dynamic, non-linear and flexible interaction that can render long lasting effects compared to traditional passive methods. Electronic resources also provide the capability of producing one standardized template, versatile enough to be adapted, translated, modified, and updated. In this presentation, we introduce our preliminary work on the first interactive media presentation on T. solium which will hopefully, soon, become an interactive tutorial that could be utilized in health education in both developing and developed countries. PMID:12781392

  13. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease. PMID:26320098

  14. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  15. Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen.

    Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Gilman, Robert H; Farfán, Marilú J; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W

    2007-12-01

    Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 kDa protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 kDa, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). PMID:17850901

  16. Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.

    Chapman, A.; Vallejo, V.; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D.; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

    1995-01-01

    Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. ...

  17. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  18. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Leifsson, Páll S.; Johansen, Maria Vang

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to...... that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  19. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez; Lucía Jiménez; Abraham Landa

    2011-01-01

    Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assa...

  20. Multiple genotypes of Taenia solium - ramifications for diagnosis, treatment and control

    ITO, A.; Yamasaki, H.; Nakao, M.; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Sato, M. O.; Nakaya, K.; Margono, S. S.; Ikejima, T; Kassuku, A.A.; Afonso, S. M. S.; Benitez Ortiz, W.; Plancarte, A; Zoli, A.; Geerts, S.

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium, isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that the two phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia f...

  1. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja , Alberto; Assane, Younus; Dorny, Pierre; Magnussen, Pascal; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data on human and porcine cysticercosis were collected from 2008 to 2009 in Angonia district, and made available for burden assessment. Study subjects were 1723 persons and...

  2. Study and Ranking of Determinants of Taenia solium Infections by Classification Tree Models

    Kabemba E. Mwape; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importan...

  3. Efectos en el desarrollo del metacestodo de Taenia solium inducidos por dosis bajas de radiación gamma

    Fernando Iván Flores Pérez; Aline S de Aluja; José Juan Martínez Maya

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de controlar la teniasis (cisticercosis) se efectuó este estudio en el que se evaluaron los efectos que induce la radiación gamma en el metacestodo de Taenia solium (T. solium) en la evaginación in vitro y en el desarrollo de T. solium en el modelo del hámster. Los parásitos se obtuvieron de varios cerdos infectados y se irradiaron con 0.2 y 0.3 kGy. La viabilidad de los metacestodos se evaluó mediante la prueba de evaginación in vitro y la inoculación en hámsteres do...

  4. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

    Sri S. Margono

    2012-01-01

    Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %), Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %), Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%). Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra) and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali...

  5. Genetic Vaccination against Murine Cysticercosis by Using a Plasmid Vector Carrying Taenia solium Paramyosin

    Solís, Carlos F.; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lugo-Martínez, Verónica H.; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2005-01-01

    A plasmid vector carrying the immunoprotective amino-terminal fragment of Taenia solium paramyosin (VW2-1) was designed for genetic vaccination studies. Mice that were genetically immunized with VW2-1 and challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci showed 43 to 48% reductions in the parasite burden, values which were similar to values obtained previously when the recombinant protein was used.

  6. Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies.

    Nascimento, E.; Tavares, C A; Lopes, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody...

  7. Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR Specific discrimination between Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by one step PCR assay and duplex-PCR

    Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga Jardim; Guido Fontgalland Coelho Linhares; Fernando Araripe Gonçalves Torres; José Luiz de Barros Araújo; Silvia Minharro Barbosa

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso n° AB020399 para T. saginata e n° AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer gené...

  8. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is...

  9. Solitary Neurocysticercosis Case Caused by Asian Genotype of Taenia solium Confirmed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; MATSUNAGA, Shigeo; Yamamura, Koji; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kawamura, Shunji; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2004-01-01

    A Japanese woman presenting with neurologic symptoms was presumptively diagnosed with neurocysticercosis based on imaging findings. Hooklets in the scolex of the resected lesion were not confirmed through histopathological observation. However, the illness was confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis to be a solitary neurocysticercosis case caused by the Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

  10. Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.

    Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

    1995-05-01

    Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

  11. Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.

    Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-?-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships. PMID:22657393

  12. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear.METHODS: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis...

  13. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    Coral Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benítez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies...

  14. Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa

    Zoli, A.; Shey-Njila, O.; Assana, E; Nguekam, J. P.; Dorny, P.; Brandt, J.; Geerts, S.

    2003-01-01

    In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and human taeniosis is quite high (20.5 and 8.6%, respectively). Surprisingly, however, no cases of human cysticercosis have been...

  15. Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesquisados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose.

  16. Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata

    Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter; Fernando Dias de Ávila Pires

    2000-01-01

    No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva...

  17. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990-2011

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and cli...

  18. Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador

    Cruz, M.; Davis, A; Dixon, H.; Pawlowski, Z. S.; Proano, J.

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; Aline S de Aluja; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is...

  20. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control and elimination through community-based interventions

    Carabin, Hélène; Traoré, Aminata A

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium was declared potentially eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1992. Yet, very few well-designed community-based randomized controlled trials have been conducted to measure the effectiveness of alternative control strategies. Most strategies have been tested in pre-post intervention designs in very few communities, often without a control group. The only two community-based randomized controlled trials suggest that an educational program alone or ...

  1. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G; Van den Bossche, P.; De Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabriël, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and hous...

  2. Serological Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Use of Recombinant Antigens from Taenia solium Cysticerci

    Hubert, Kerstin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Michault, Alain; Frosch, Matthias; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A.

    1999-01-01

    A Taenia solium metacestode cDNA expression library in the lambda ZAPII vector was screened with pooled sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. Sixty primary clones were identified and shown to belong to two classes. The clones NC-3 and NC-9 did not reveal any significant homologies to sequences deposited in the databases and were further characterized. Both recombinant antigens were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins and applied for serolog...

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the zoonotic pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveys have shown cysticercosis in pigs to be highly prevalent in multiple foci in Tanzania, and a hospital-based study in the northern highlands indicated neurocysticercosis as an important cause of epileptic seizures in humans. We present here a cross-sectional community-based survey on the prevalence and risk factors of human cysticercos...

  4. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade

  5. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection endemic in many developing countries, with humans as the definitive host (taeniosis) and pigs and humans as the intermediate hosts (cysticercosis). When humans act as the intermediate host, the result can be neurocysticercosis, which is associated with acquired epilepsy, considerable morbidity and even mortality. In Africa, most studies have been carried out in pigs with little or no data in humans available. In this human study, c...

  6. Taenia solium Cysticercosis Hotspots Surrounding Tapeworm Carriers: Clustering on Human Seroprevalence but Not on Seizures

    Lescano, Andres G.; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H; Villaran, Manuel V; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, common in areas with limited sanitation or with migration from these populations. The adult parasite is hosted in the human intestine and releases large numbers of eggs with the feces. Human beings sometimes ingest eggs due to poor hygiene, and then eggs sometimes lodge on the brain and after a few years can cause intense headaches and seizures. During a study in seven rural communities in Peru, individuals exposed to ...

  7. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4 %) and 37.6 % (95 % CI 29.3-45.9 %), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region. PMID:26581436

  8. Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata

    Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle.Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great socioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

  9. Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium / Spliced leader gene cloning from expression library of Taenia solium cysticerci

    Oswgladys, Garrido; Dayana, Requena; Carlos, Flores Angulo; Teresa, Gárate; Elizabeth, Ferrer.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis es una enfermedad causada por el estadio larvario (cisticerco) de Taenia solium. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se ve limitado por la disponibilidad de antígenos del parásito, donde una alternativa sería la clonación de genes codificantes de antígenos. En T. solium, al igual que en [...] otros parásitos, ocurre un mecanismo alternativo en el procesamiento de algunos ARNm, denominado trans-splicing, en el cual una pequeña molécula de ARN conocida como Spliced Leader (SL) es añadida al extremo 5´ de una molécula de pre-ARNm, formando diferentes ARNm maduros que contienen un extremo 5´ común. Debido a las limitaciones que presenta el diagnóstico, además del interés en el estudio de este mecanismo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue clonar moléculas que utilizan este procesamiento posttranscripcional. Para ello, se realizó un cribado mediante PCR a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticerco de T. solium utilizando como cebador directo TSSL-DW2 y como reverso ZAP-3´UP que hibridan con la secuencia SL y con la del vector, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron productos de ADNc de diferentes tamaños, que fueron clonados en un plásmido de mantenimiento (pGEM-Teasy). Posteriormente, mediante PCR de colonias se verificó la presencia de los insertos y se estimó su tamaño, obteniendo un total de 56 clones de tamaño variable (150-1200 pb). Este diseño permitió la identificación de genes de T. solium que utilizan el mecanismo de trans-splicing; y además de ser una estrategia fácil para clonar moléculas completas, abre camino para futuras investigaciones enfocadas en el diagnóstico de cisticercosis. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus). The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing [...] of some mRNAs called trans-splicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL) is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this posttranscriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-T-easy). The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp). This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

  10. Use of Taenia crassiceps Cysticercus Antigen Preparations for Detection of Antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)

    Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Peralta, Regina Helena; Vaz, Adelaide José; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; José Mauro PERALTA

    2002-01-01

    Antigen extracts obtained from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and from fractions purified by affinity chromatography with the lectin concanavalin A and the glycoprotein antigen separated by electrophoresis were used for the detection of Taenia solium anticysticercus antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity obtained for all antigens were 100% in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with good reproducibility. Using immunoblotting of the three antigens, low-molecular-mass pe...

  11. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium

    Pajuelo, Mónica J.; Eguiluz, María; Dahlstrom, Eric; Requena, David; Guzmán, Frank; Ramirez, Manuel; Sheen, Patricia; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Cama, Vitaliano; Anzick, Sarah; Bruno, Dan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Wilkins, Patricia; Nash, Theodore; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Porcella, Steve; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen. Methods For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples. Results The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome) T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt) were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites. Conclusions/Significance The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a significant step towards the understanding the biology of the parasite. We report here a set of T. solium polymorphic microsatellite markers that appear promising for genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:26697878

  12. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent infectivity of metacestodes of Taenia solium in pork

    The importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis in humans and of cysticercosis in pigs in Mexico is briefly described. With the objective of interrupting the life-cycle of Taenia solium, the effect of gamma irradiation of the metacesdote was studied. Larvae were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 0.7 and 4 to 11 kGy. Doses of 6.5 kGy and higher killed all larvae, as judged by 100% failure to evaginate. When larvae irradiated with 7 kGy were fed to hamsters, no taeniae developed in their intestines. Doses of 0.5 and 0.7 kGy did not affect the capacity to evaginate, but inhibited infectivity. Twenty hamsters were each fed five larvae irradiated with 0.7 kGy, and 17 stunted taeniae were recovered ten days later, non after 30 days. Ten hamsters were each fed five larvae, each irradiated with 0.5 kGy; one worm was recovered ten days later, none after 30 days. Individual differences in susceptibility of hamsters were registered and alo differences in infectivity of metacestodes of different pigs. The results are discussed and more research is recommended to establish the minimum effective dose of irradiation to prevent the growth of T. solium in humans. (author). 9 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Jorge Morales-Montor; Martín García-Varela; Pedro Ostoa-Saloma; Olivia Tania Hernández-Hernández; Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo; Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a ...

  14. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    Gleyce Alves Machado; Heliana Batista Oliveira; Margareth Leitao Gennari-Cardoso; Jose Roberto Mineo; Julia Maria Costa-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 6...

  15. Serologic Diagnosis of Human Taenia solium Cysticercosis by Using Recombinant and Synthetic Antigens in QuickELISA™

    Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Hancock, Kathy; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Kovalenko, Victor A.; Levin, Andrew; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lin, Sehching; Scheel, Christina M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important component in the control and elimination of cysticercosis and taeniasis. New detection assays using recombinant and synthetic antigens originating from the lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) of T. solium cysticerci were developed in a QuickELISA™ format. We analyzed a panel of 474 serum samples composed of 108 serum samples from donors with two or more viable cysts, 252 serum samples from persons with other parasitic infection...

  16. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Leifsson, Páll S.; Johansen, Maria Vang

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to...... of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis...... that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  17. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Johansen, Maria Vang

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were...

  18. cystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis due to limited information about its transmission and validation of intervention tools. To address this gap, we developed cystiSim, an...

  19. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Páll S.; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a...

  20. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear...

  1. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures. PMID:26341468

  2. In Vitro Effects of Albendazole Sulfoxide and Praziquantel against Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps Cysts

    Palomares, Francisca; Palencia, Guadalupe; Pérez, Rodolfo; González-Esquivel, Dinora; Castro, Nelly; Cook, Helgi Jung

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the minimum exposure times of prazicuantel (PZQ) and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) required for their activities against Taenia cysts in vitro as well as the 50 and 99% effective concentrations. The results showed that although the effects of both drugs are time and concentration dependent, ABZSO acts much slower and is less potent than PZQ.

  3. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Galileo Escobedo, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Paul Nava-Luna, Alfonso Olivos, Armando Pérez-Torres, Sonia Leon-Cabrera, J.C. Carrero, Jorge Morales-Montor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  4. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  5. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Jorge Morales-Montor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR, since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite.

  6. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. Chapter 3 reports the investigations that were undertaken to characterise whether the principal antibody specificities raised by TSOL18 in pigs were against linear or conformational determinants. TSOL18 was expressed in two truncated forms representing either the amino terminal portion or the carboxy terminal portion, with the two truncations overlapping in sequence by 25 amino acids. The original protein (designated TSOL18N— and the two truncations (TSOL18N—-1 and TSOL18N—-2 were used in inhibition ELISA to determine their ability to inhibit the binding of protective pig antibodies to TSOL18. TSOL18N— was shown to be capable of completely inhibiting the binding of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies to TSOL18N— in ELISA. However, neither TSOL18N—-1 nor TSOL18N—-2, either alone or combined, was capable of inhibiting any detectable amount of reactivity of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies with TSOL18N—. It is concluded that the dominant antibody specificities, and likely the host-protective specificities, of TSOL18 are conformational epitopes. Chapter 4 describes the development of an antibody detection test for the specific diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. A fraction with a major band of 14 kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid (CF of T. solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration was purified using an anion exchange column on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3 was carried out in an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3 using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense or Sarcoptes scabiei, and with serum samples of rabbits hyper-immunised with cyst fluid of T. hydatigena or T. solium. Analysis of the specificity of the F3 showed that serum samples of pigs infected with other parasites did not recognise this antigen. Cross-reaction with T. hydatigena occurred in ELISA using CF as antigen, but the F3 antigen fraction was not recognized by the rabbit hyper-immune serum against T. hydatigena. Evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Ab-ELISA-F3 was done by a non-parametric Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis using serum samples from Zambian and Cameroonian village pigs. The results from the ROC analysis yielded a low diagnostic value (area under ROC curve= 0.48 with the sera from the Zambian pigs while a relatively high diagnostic value was obtained with the sera from Cameroonian pigs (area under ROC curve= 0.78. In Chapter 5 the efficacy of the TSOL18 vaccine is assessed under field conditions in the Mayo-Danay district. Two hundred and forty 2-3 month old piglets belonging to 114 individual households were involved in the study. In each household one or more pairs of piglets were included, with one animal of each pair being vaccinated and the other acting as a non-vaccinated control. Vaccinated animals received two initial immunizations intramuscularly in the neck one month apart with 200μg TSOL18 plus 5mg Quil A. At the time of the second immunization both vaccinated and control animals received an oral dose of 30mg/kg oxfendazole. Vaccinated animals received a third immunization approximately 3 months after the first immunization. Antibody responses to the vaccine were assessed at different time intervals by ELISA. Necropsies were undertaken when the pigs were approximately 12 months of age. All parasites were counted in half of the body musculature and in the brain. Two hundred and twelve animals were available for necropsy at the end of the trial (110 vaccinated; 102 controls. Viable T. solium cysticerci were identified in 20 control pigs (prevalence 19.6%, including 14 animals that had estimated total body burdens of > 1000 cysticerci. No cysticerci were found in any of the vaccinated animals indicating that the vaccine provided a very high level of protection (P< 0.0001 against naturally acquired infection with T. solium in pigs. Combined application of TSOL18 vaccination and a single oxfendazole treatment in pigs is a simple and relatively sustainable procedure that has the potential to control T. solium transmission in endemic areas and, indirectly, reduce the number of new cases of neurocysticercosis in humans. In chapter 6, the similarity of the antibody responses of pigs and mice to TSOL18 antigen is highlighted. Four IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb were produced against the conformational epitopes of TSOL18. It was shown that pig antisera inhibit the binding of these MoAbs in a competition ELISA, indicating that pig and mouse antibodies against TSOL18 vaccine react with the same conformational epitopes. For this reason, monoclonal antibodies raised in mice immunized with TSOL18 could be a valuable source of antibodies for further characterisation of the host-protective epitopes of the vaccine. A monoclonal antibody-based inhibitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mi-ELISA was developed. Serum samples of TSOL18-vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs were used. In all the vaccinated and protected pigs screened at necropsy, anti-TSOL18 antibodies inhibited the binding of a monoclonal antibody (Mab25D12C1 specific to the conformational epitopes of TSOL18 antigen, suggesting an immune response that correlates with protection. This result was in agreement with the results obtained in an indirect ELISA, which showed that all the vaccinated and protected pigs had developed antibodies to the TSOL18 vaccine. In chapter 7 the efficacy of the TSOL18 vaccine is compared with that of other vaccines, which are currently being tested under field conditions. Recommendations are made for implementing a vaccination programme in Cameroon. Future research activities are suggested to improve our knowledge on the duration of the immunity of the vaccine and various other aspects of the vaccine production and delivery.

  7. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium

  8. Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR

    Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga; Linhares Guido Fontgalland Coelho; Torres Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; Araújo José Luiz de Barros; Barbosa Silvia Minharro

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer ...

  9. An epidemiological study of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural population in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Carrique-Mas, J; Iihoshi, N; Widdowson, M A; Roca, Y; Morales, G; Quiroga, J; Cejas, F; Caihuara, M; Ibarra, R; Edelsten, M

    2001-12-21

    A survey of 100 rural households in a village in the Chaco region of Bolivia revealed a serious problem of Taenia solium cysticercosis, with a seroprevalence of 99/447 (22%) in humans and 102/273 (37%) in pigs. Risk factors for humans were being in older age groups, absence of sanitary facilities, poor formal education and inability to recognise infected pork. Significant risk indicators were a history of seizures and the reported elimination of worms in the faeces. Risk factors for pigs were being in older age groups and absence of sanitary facilities in the owner's house. The proportion of households with evidence of human cysticercosis was similar for those who owned pigs (48%) and those that did not (55%). This unexpected finding was attributed to the high overall prevalence of cysticercosis in pigs and the probability that everyone, regardless of pig-ownership, had ample opportunity to become infected in such communities. The main recommendation for reducing the prevalence of human cysticercosis was to provide more effective education campaigns, aimed at preventing both T. solium infection and cysticercosis. PMID:11700180

  10. Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria

    Moses Gweba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

  11. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  12. Use of expressed sequence tags as an alternative approach for the identification of Taenia solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins

    Victor, Bjorn; Dorny, Pierre; Kanobana, Kirezi; Polman, Katja; Lindh, Johan; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic helminth infection mainly found in rural regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In endemic areas, diagnosis of cysticercosis largely depends on serology, but these methods have their drawbacks and require improvement. This implies better knowledge of the proteins secreted and excreted by the parasite. In a previous study, we used a custom protein database containing protein sequences from related helminths to identify T. soli...

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Magnetic Immunochromatographic Test To Detect Taenia solium, Which Causes Taeniasis and Neurocysticercosis in Humans?

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2010-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic ...

  14. Comparative evaluation of purified Taenia solium glycoproteins and crude metacestode extracts by immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of human T. solium cysticercosis.

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Allan, J C; Fletes, C; Sutisna, I P; Kapti, I N; Craig, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A lentil-lectin purified glycoprotein (LL-Gp) and a crude saline extract of Taenia solium metacestodes were compared for the immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis by immunoblotting. The LL-Gp preparation was 95% sensitive for antibodies against a range of seven antigens with molecular masses of 50 to 13 kDa, whereas the sensitivity of the crude saline extract for the detection of antibodies against two major polypeptide molecules (26 and 8 kDa) was 91%. Specificity was 100% with both sets of...

  15. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  16. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  17. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal

  18. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Taenia solium cysticerci using Open Reading Frame ESTs (ORESTES

    Tyler Kevin M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed.

  20. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction. PMID:25761936

  1. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    Gleyce Alves Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114 partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC. Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound and aqueous (AJ unbound fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

  2. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schoo...

  3. Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Rueda, Daniel; López, César; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderón, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by det...

  4. Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR

    Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3' foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3' e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3' e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3' para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (ndegrees AB020399 e ndegrees AB020395. As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa.

  5. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants for the occurrence of infections, while exposure was mostly related to environmental factors which varied from community to community. PMID:26147942

  6. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage-specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti-cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt-TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO-K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt-TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt?TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H-thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt-TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (Pcysticercosis. PMID:25738605

  7. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Teresa Montenegro; Robert H. Gilman; Rosa Castillo; Victor Tsang; Joy Brandt; Angela Guevara; Hernan Sanabria; Manuela Verastegui; Charles Sterling; Elba Miranda

    1994-01-01

    Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), ...

  8. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  9. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Methodology/Principal Findings Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Significance Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC. PMID:26658257

  10. Efecto de diferentes temperaturas (calor y frío en carne de cerdo sobre la viabilidad del metacestodo de Taenia solium

    Gabriela Nava Balderas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En muchas áreas rurales de México se consume la carne de cerdo infectada con el metacestodo de Taenia solium debido a la falta de inspección sanitaria de los animales que matan en forma clandestina o domiciliaria. Como consecuencia, la teniasis- cisticercosis constituye un problema importante de salud, tanto para la población humana que padece de teniasis y de neurocisticercosis, como para la producción porcina por las pérdidas económicas para el país. Con el objetivo de recomendar un método simple y efectivo a las amas de casa en zonas rurales y marginadas, para la destrucción de los metacestodos, se expusieron trozos de 4 cm de grosor, de carne de cerdo infectada con cisticercos, a diferentes temperaturas y durante diferentes tiempos de cocción. Se realizaron pruebas de evaginación e inoculación en hámsteres con las larvas tratadas. Con base en los resultados se recomienda la cocción de la carne infectada en trozos pequeños (4 cm de grosor durante 15 minutos, o la congelación a 0ºC por 96 horas; o bien la congelación a -20ºC durante 48 horas, esta última resulta impráctica en medios rurales. La cocción y la congelación a 0°C en un refrigerador doméstico, se recomiendan como procedimiento sencillo en áreas marginales para evitar el crecimiento de T. solium en el humano, de esa manera se rompe el ciclo del parásito.

  11. Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden

    Andréia Bartachini Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140 the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests for antibody (Ab detection and for antigen (Ag detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB, using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP as Ag, five (71% and six (86% animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.. The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

  12. [Evaluation of epidemiological situation of cestode infections in Poland in the years 1997-2006 on the basis of data from san-epid stations].

    Waloch, Maria; Sobolewska, Alicja; Dzbeński, Tadeusz H

    2010-01-01

    Between 1997-2006, 3,523 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 2,748 were caused by Taenia saginata, 41 by T. solium, 533 by Taenia species, 20 by Hymenolepis nana, 5 by Hymenolepis diminuta, 11 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 3 by Dipylidium caninum. Moreover, 350 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 8 cases of cysticercosis were also registered. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:21473070

  13. Purification and ultrastructural localization of surface glycoproteins of Taenia solium (Cestoda) cysticerci.

    Landa, A; Merchant, M T; Willms, K; Laclette, J P

    1994-04-01

    A glycoprotein-enriched fraction was obtained by Concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography from a crude extract of T. solium cysticerci. The six most prominent glycoproteins with molecular sizes of 180, 103, 96, 68, 55 and 45 kDa were purified by electro-elution from polyacrylamide gel slices. Ultrastructural localization assays using hyperimmune rabbit sera to each glycoprotein, demonstrated their presence on the tegumentary surface of the bladder wall of T. solium cysticerci. Similar studies showed that the 180 kDa glycoprotein is also present on the surface of the T. solium and T. saginata adult worms, as well as in T. saginata, T. pisiformis and T. crassiceps cysticerci. The 55 kDa glycoprotein, which is one of the most abundant on the cyst surface, was found to correspond to the heavy chain of pig IgG by Western blotting. PMID:8026905

  14. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory. PMID:26470970

  15. Production of monoclonal antibodies anti-Taenia crassiceps cysticerci with cross-reactivity with Taenia solium antigens

    ESPÍNDOLA Noeli M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the production of the potential monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs using BALB/c mice immunized with vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra (T. crassiceps antigen. Immune sera presented anti-VF-Tcra (<20kD IgG and IgM antibodies with cross-reactivity with T. solium (Tso antigen (8-12, 14, and 18 kD. After cell fusion, we selected 33 anti-Tcra and anti-Tso reactive IgM-clones and 53 anti-Tcra specific IgG-clones, 5 of them also recognizing Tso antigens. Two clones identified the 8-14 and 18kD peptides of VF-Tcra.

  16. Seroprevalence to the antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis among residents of three villages in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study

    Carabin, H; Millogo, A.; Praet, N; Hounton, S; Tarnagda, Z; Ganaba, R; Dorny, P.; Nitiéma, P.; Cowan, L. D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is limited published information on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in West Africa. The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis antigens in residents of three villages in Burkina Faso. Methods/Principal Findings: Three villages were selected: The village of Batondo, selected to represent villages where pigs are allowed to roam freely; the village of Pabre, selected to represent villages where pigs are usually confined; a...

  17. Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis.

  18. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin; Pondja , Alberto; Ngowi, Helena; Assane , Yunus; Kimbi, Eliakunda; Magnussen, Pascal; Mejer, Helena; Braae, Uffe Christian; Trevisan, Chiara; Saarnak, Christopher; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-01-01

    Pig-keeping and pork consumption have increased significantly in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past decade. A high and increasing prevalence of epilepsy in ESA, without a clear etiology, and an increase in cases of porcine cysticercosis have been noted in the region. Two Danida-funded projects have addressed the problem, first by assessing the prevalence, risks and impacts of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs in Mozambique and Tanzania from 2006-2009, an...

  19. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24865274

  20. Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador

    Luis Escalante

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 % of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 % were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years and in the oldest (51-60 years group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

  1. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. PMID:25837784

  2. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Hector Palafox-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht, which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg, were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  3. Characterization of the 8-Kilodalton Antigens of Taenia solium Metacestodes and Evaluation of Their Use in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis

    Hancock, Kathy; Khan, Azra; Williams, Fatima B.; Yushak, Melinda L.; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Noh, John; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western blot for cysticercosis, which uses lentil lectin purified glycoprotein (LLGP) antigens extracted from the metacestode of Taenia solium, has been the “gold standard” serodiagnostic assay since it was first described in 1989. We report that the diagnostic antigens at 14, 18, and 21 kDa, as well as some larger disulfide-bonded antigens, are actually all members of a very closely related family of proteins, the 8-kDa antigens. The genes for 18 unique, mature proteins have been identif...

  4. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps

    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública.

  5. Kitchen waste as pig feed sustains transmission of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mbeya, Tanzania

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, F.P.; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    the two districts Mbeya and Mbozi, Tanzania. Study households were identified based on participation in a previous study investigating porcine cysticercosis prevalence at multiple time points, and allocated into cases or controls based on porcine cysticercosis presence or absence, respectively. This...... 5.98, CI: 1.33- 43.02) compared to an enclosed latrine, and feeding potato peels to pigs (P=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Logistic analysis including management indicated pigs kept in elevated pens (p=0.049, OR 5.33, CI: 1.08-32.27) and on earthen floors (P=0.041, OR 9.87, CI: 1.......29-114.55) compared to cemented floors, were more likely to be infected. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs, or whether the contamination is from the water used, or from dirty hands, in the process of peeling the potatoes, need to be confirmed. The results obtained in this study are strengthened...

  6. Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    Armandina Garza; David J. Tweardy; Joel Weinstock; Balaji Viswanathan; Prema Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1...

  7. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. PMID:26342625

  8. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México

    Sonia Vázquez-Flores

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  9. Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm

    Javier R Ambrosio; Armando Zepeda-Rodríguez; Araceli Ferrer; Olivia Reynoso-Ducoing; Fortoul, Teresa I.

    2011-01-01

    No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos, ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tr...

  10. Neurocysticercosis: detection of IgG, IgA and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and saliva samples by ELISA with Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps antigens

    BUENO EDNÉIA CASAGRANDA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We assayed samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, serum and saliva from patients with neurocysticercoses, control group and individuals with other parasitoses, by ELISA with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra and Taenia solium total antigen (Tso for the detection of antibodies. The sensitivity for IgG-Tcra was 100% for CSF and serum, and 32.0% for saliva; and for IgG-Tso 100% for CSF, 80.0% for serum and 24.% for saliva. Specificity was 100% for CSF and 80.0% for serum with both antigens, and 100% for saliva with Tcra and 87.5% with Tso. The sensitivity and specificity for IgA-Tcra was, respectively, 40.0% and 100% for CSF, 36.0% and 97.1% for serum, and 4.0% and 90.0% for saliva. IgE detection showed 24.0% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity for serum, with no detection in CSF samples. The search for antibodies revealed the presence of IgG > IgA > IgE in CSF, serum and saliva samples, with IgG being present in all phases of the disease, while IgA/IgE were more frequent in the inactive form.

  11. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  12. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  13. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995

    Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

  14. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  15. Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm

    Javier R Ambrosio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos, ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología.There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental taeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

  16. The Asian Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; V. Fuentes, Màrius

    2000-01-01

    In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stag...

  17. Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage

    Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p<0.05. After 24 hours, the lowest evagination occurred at -10ºC in spicy meat and at 37ºC in hot sausage (p<0.05. At boiling temperature there was no evagination after 10 minutes (p<0.05. In spicy meat, adding salt caused the most significant reduction; in hot sausage, thyme caused the most significant reduction (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Meat with metacestodes should not be eaten, yet, it is being sold and used to prepare spicy meats. Adding spices can hide the metacestode, thus, adequate cooking of these meat products is necessary. These meats may be consumed at least four days after its preparation and spicy meat after a minimum of four days of refrigeration.

  18. [Cestode infections in Poland in 2009].

    Waloch, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2009, 26 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 20 were caused by Taenia saginata, 4 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 1 by Hymenolepis diminuta. Moreover, 23 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. PMID:21913477

  19. Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

    Nancy León

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisticercosis (NCC. Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis.

  20. Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan

    Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming tria...

  1. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T. saginata-\\ike worms from Taiwan and classical T.saginata, differences have been detected in DNA hybridization patterns.

  2. Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis

    Galán-Puchades, M. Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V.

    2013-01-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asia...

  3. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2014-01-01

    variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of Taenia hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers a...

  4. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  5. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-01-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when hum...

  6. Taenia spp.: 18S rDNA microsatellites for molecular systematic diagnosis.

    Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Martinez, E; Valladares, B; Feliu, C

    2005-06-01

    The 18S rDNA gene of adult worms of Taenia parva found in Genetta genetta in the Iberian Peninsula and larval stages of T. pisiformis from the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the 18S rDNA gene of T. parva (1768 bp) and T. pisiformis (1760 bp) are reported for the first time (GenBank accession nos. AJ555167-AJ555168 and AJ555169-AJ555170, respectively). In 168 alignment positions microsatellites in the 18S rDNA of both taxa were detected for the first time (TGC in T. parva and TGCT in T. pisiformis) and differences in their sequences with different repetition numbers were observed. The use of nucleotide sequences of this gene in the resolution of systematic problems in cestodes is discussed with reference to the systematic status of Taenia spp. and mainly in human taeniids such as T. solium, T. saginata, and Asian human isolates of Taenia. PMID:15946391

  7. Transient transgenesis of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps

    Moguel, Bárbara; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Bobes, Raúl J.; Julio C. Carrero; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús; Díaz-Hernández, Martha E.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Juan P. Laclette

    2015-01-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). Infestation of the human brain, also known as neurocysticercosis, is the most common parasite disease of the central nervous system worldwide. Significant advances in the understanding of the disease have been achieved using the Taenia crassiceps murine model. We describe here a successful transfection protocol of T. crassiceps cysticerci as the first step to approach a number of currently i...

  8. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction ...

  9. Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological sp...

  10. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  11. [Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes LINNE 1758) in south Sachsen-Anhalt--1: Cestodes].

    Pfeiffer, F; Kuschfeldt, S; Stoye, M

    1997-10-01

    Between January 1993 and November 1994 a total of 1300 red foxes from the administrative districts Halle and Dessau were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes. Echinococcus multilocularis-infections were detected in only 4 of 1300 (0.3%) foxes. Furthermore the following cestodes were found: Mesocestoides spp. (54.1%), Taenia crassiceps (17.7%), Taenia polyacantha (11.9%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (0.2%), Taenia serialis (0.15%), Taenia pisiformis (0.15%), not determinable taeniids (9.2%), Dipylidium caninum (0.2%) and Hymenolepis spp. (0.08%). PMID:9445786

  12. The nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a source of phylogenetic information in the genus Taenia.

    Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Li; Ni, Xingwei; Guo, Aijiang; Li, Hongmin; Zheng, Yadong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Jia, Wanzhong

    2013-03-01

    Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia. PMID:23183704

  13. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Maravilla Pablo; Avila-Ramirez Guillermina; Garcia-Cortes Ramon; Jimenez-Gonzalez Diego E; Garza-Rodriguez Adriana; Toral-Bastida Elizabeth; Flisser Ana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rab...

  14. Assessment of a computer-based Taenia solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and their attitudes towards the program

    Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    1800-01-01

    knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group...... discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health – and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½ hours individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall...... and knowledge regarding specific aspects was significantly improved in most aspects immediately after and two weeks after the health education. The focus group discussions showed positive attitudes towards the program and the study subjects found ‘The Vicious Worm’ efficient, simple, and appealing...

  15. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-01-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of ...

  16. Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    Armandina Garza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP, a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 within granulomas in T. crassiceps-infected wild type (WT mice and mice deficient in SP-precursor (SPP or the SP-receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1. Granuloma volumes of infected SPP- and NK1-knockout mice were reduced by 31 and 36%, respectively, compared to WT mice (P<.05 for both and produced up to 5-fold less IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 protein. Thus, SP signaling contributes to granuloma development and proinflammatory cytokine production in T. crassiceps infection and suggests a potential role for this mediator in human cystercercosis.

  17. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    Alberto N. Peón; Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profi...

  18. Antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci used in complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    Garcia, E.; Ordoñez, G; Sotelo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis are scarce and difficult to obtain. We studied the reliability of antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci as a substitute for those from T. solium in three diagnostic tests: complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot (immunoblot). Precision rates of the three tests of 93, 99, and 96%, respectively, were found. Cysticerci from T. crassiceps can be easily obtained in large quantities...

  19. NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).

    Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

    1999-12-01

    Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae. PMID:10961852

  20. Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.

    Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

    1988-06-01

    Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

  1. Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Kore...

  2. A survey of taeniid cestodes in farm dogs in mid-Wales.

    Jones, A; Walters, T M

    1992-04-01

    In 1983-1988, dogs on 315 farms in Powys, mid-Wales, were purged once with arecoline acetarsol and the faecal purges were examined for cestodes. A few dogs were examined by autopsy. Ninety-seven farms had at least one infected dog, and cestodes were found in 161 of the 882 dogs examined. The ovine strain of Echinococcus granulosus was found in 41 dogs on 25 farms. Taenia hydatigena, T. pisiformis, T. multiceps, T. serialis, T. ovis and Dipylidium caninum were recovered from 85, 35, 15, 3, 19 and 29 dogs respectively. The results are compared with those of previous surveys in Powys and in other regions of Wales. PMID:1417204

  3. First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938 in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran

    BA Zaheri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the ces­todes as Taenia acinonyxi.

  4. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

  5. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

    McManus Donald P; Parkhouse Michael RE; Harrison Leslie JS; García Maria; Ferrer Elizabeth; Bailo Begoña; González Luis M; Gárate Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HD...

  6. Effective protection induced by three different versions of the porcine S3Pvac anticysticercosis vaccine against rabbit experimental Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.

    Betancourt, Miguel Angel; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Hernández, Marisela; Bobes, Raúl J; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Beatriz; Fragoso, Gladis; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Aguilar, Liliana; Flores-Peréz, Iván

    2012-04-01

    In an effort to develop an effective and affordable oral vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis, the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine was expressed in papaya calli. Taenia pisiformis experimental rabbit cysticercosis was used as a model to compare the efficacy of the oral vaccine vs. the injectable S3Pvac-synthetic and S3Pvac-phage versions. Oral S3Pvac-papaya significantly reduced the expected number of hepatic lesions and peritoneal cysticerci to a similar extent than the injectable vaccines. This study reports for the first time an effective oral vaccine against T. pisiformis cysticercosis, possibly useful against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22349522

  7. TAENIA CRASSICEPS WFU CYSTICERCI SYNTHESIZE GLUCOCORTICOIDS IN VITRO: METYRAPONE REGULATES THE STEROID PRODUCTION.

    Romano, Marta C.; Kaethe Willms

    2011-01-01

    Marta C. Romano, Ricardo A. Valdez, Lorena Hinojosa, Kaethe Willms. Dpto. Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias, Cinvestav, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000, México D.F.; Depto. de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, México 04510, D.F. We have demonstrated the ability of cysticerci to synthesize steroid hormones in vitro (Valdez et al, 2006; Jimenez, et al, 2006) and that Taenia solium (T.s) and Taenia crassiceps WFU (T.c WFU) tapeworms and cysticerci have a functional...

  8. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

  9. A defined antigen for the serodiagnosis of Taenia ovis infections in dogs.

    Ralston, M J; Heath, D D

    1995-06-01

    The evaginated scolex of Taenia ovis secretes an antigen complex into defined culture medium that has been used to develop a cestode-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We now describe an immunoblot test for antibodies to T. ovis based on the recognition of a 94-kDa antigen band in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile of T. ovis scolex secretions. The test was specific for cestode infections in dogs and was 82% sensitive for the recognition of T. ovis infections. Affinity-purified antibody uniquely recognizing this 94-kDa band was used to screen a cDNA expression library constructed utilizing mRNA from newly evaginated T. ovis scoleces. The cDNA from putative positive bacteriophage were subcloned into the plasmid pGEX and expressed as fusion proteins with schistosome glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The expressed fusion proteins were purified using glutathione-agarose beads. The recombinant parasite antigen was either eluted as a fusion protein with GST or cleaved from GST using a restriction protease. Some dog sera reacted with the GST molecule. However, the recombinant cleaved antigen from 1 clone, T. ovis 40, showed 42% sensitivity and 100% specificity for cestodes in an ELISA using test sera from dogs monospecifically infected with T. ovis and preabsorbed with bacteria. Some sera from dogs monospecifically infected with other cestode species (Taenia pisiformis, 30%; Taenia hydatigena, 30%; Echinococcus granulosus, 20%) reacted with the cloned antigen. PMID:7776128

  10. On an imported case of Taenia saginata.

    Galán Puchades, María Teresa

    2016-02-01

    La carta al editor se refiere a un artículo recientemente apararecido en la revista titulado "Taenia saginata: an imported case". En mi contribución aporto información sobre el tema de la taeniasis humana ya que en el artículo solo se menciona a T. saginata y T. solium como las causantes de tal enfermedad parasitaria, siendo que son 3 y no 2 las especies que la originan. La tercera especie es Taenia asiatica, cuya morfología es la misma que T. saginata por lo que tan solo por métodos moleculares pueden ser distinguidas ambas especies. Es importante distinguir entre ambas ya que la fuente de infección para el ser humano es distinta (ganado vacuno en el caso de T. saginata y cerdo en el caso de T. asiatica). Y lo que es mas importante, T. saginata no produce cisticercosis humana, mientras que aún no se sabe si T. asiatica es capaz de producir esta, a veces, fatal enfermedad, por la fase larvaria del parásito (cisticerco). PMID:26838497

  11. Occurrence and biochemical characteristics of cestode lymphocyte mitogens.

    Judson, D G; Dixon, J B; Skerritt, G C

    1987-02-01

    The cestodes Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. hydatigena, Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniezia expansa and Anoplocephala perfoliata all produced substances that stimulated thymidine incorporation by whole blood lymphocyte cultures. This mitogenic activity was demonstrated in metacestode cyst fluids, live protoscoleces and scoleces, parasite culture supernatants, and extracts of adult parasites. T. multiceps metacestode cyst fluid mitogen adhered to, but would not pass through, cellulose dialysis tubing. This adherence was reduced or prevented by D-glucose and by proteins. The mitogen was weakly anionic. With Sephadex G75 gel filtration, its elution volume was greatly decreased when the elution buffer contained 0.5 M D-glucose. Mitogenic activity was protease resistant and could be separated by gel filtration from all the cyst fluid proteins. PMID:3822512

  12. The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

  13. Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature cestode infections in dogs.

    Schroeder, Iris; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schimmel, Annette; Deplazes, Peter; Kok, Dawid J; Schnyder, Manuela; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against intestinal cestodes was investigated in four randomised, blinded placebo-controlled dose confirmation studies in dogs experimentally infected with Echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis and in dogs naturally infected with Dipylidium caninum or Taenia spp. The tablets were used at the minimum recommended dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight. The studies demonstrated 100% efficacy against mature and immature E. granulosus and E. multilocularis and mature Taenia spp. and D. caninum. Additionally, one of the studies demonstrated non-interference of emodepside with the efficacy of praziquantel against D. caninum. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and effective against mature and immature stages of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis and mature stages of Taenia spp. and D. caninum. PMID:19575223

  14. Characterisation of taeniid cestode species by PCR-RFLP of ITS2 ribosomal DNA.

    Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    1995-03-01

    Seven species of taeniid cestode (Echinococcus granulosus. E. multilocularis, Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis, T. pisiformis, T. multiceps and T. serialis) were characterised using a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP). The second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was amplified from various geographical isolates of each of the seven species, digested separately with four restriction endonucleases and the fragments were separated by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR-RFLP produced characteristic patterns for each taeniid species examined. No variation in RFLP patterns was observed among different isolates of E. multilocularis and the species of Taenia, but distinct intraspecific variation was detected in E. granulosus. The present study indicates the usefulness of the PCR-RFLP of ITS2 for systematic, epidemiological and diagnostic purposes. PMID:7785524

  15. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments. PMID:21787386

  16. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  17. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere. PMID:21980787

  18. Scanning electron microscope and histological studies of rare triradiate forms of Taenia pisiformis from dogs in Cairo.

    Rashed, R M; Lewis, J W; Whitfield, P J

    1992-04-01

    Of 5,404 domestic dogs examined for normal and abnormal Taenia pisiformis in Cairo, Egypt, one dog contained 3 triradiate specimens while 3,569 harboured one or more normal cestodes. The study revealed a ratio of one triradiate to 5,620 normal adult worms in the parasite population and a prevalence of 0.02% for the triradiate forms. Polyradiate forms are far less common in this large survey than has been indicated in previous reports. PMID:1578153

  19. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  20. The cestodes of foxhounds and foxes in Powys, mid-Wales.

    Jones, A; Walters, T M

    1992-04-01

    Cestodes were found in 129 of 875 foxhounds from 20 packs in Powys, mid-Wales, examined by purging in 1983-1988, in the following order of prevalence: Taenia hydatigena in 57 hounds (6.51%), Echinococcus granulosus in 27 (3.09%), Dipylidium caninum in 25 (2.86%), T. ovis in 14 (1.60%), T. pisiformis in 10 (1.14%), T. serialis in five (0.57%) and T. multiceps in four (0.46%). Of 197 foxes examined by autopsy, 22 harboured cestodes: two (1.02%) had E. granulosus, nine (4.57%) T. polyacantha, eight (4.06%) T. pisiformis, two (1.02%) T. serialis, one (0.51%) D. caninum and one (0.51%) Mesocestoides sp. This is the first definite report of T. polyacantha in British foxes. The results are compared with those of previous surveys in Powys and in other parts of Wales, and the reasons for changes in prevalence are discussed. PMID:1417205

  1. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-01-01

    in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen...... infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating......, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a...

  2. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-01-01

    , eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a...... seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a...

  3. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States

    O’Neal, Seth E.; Townes, John M; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H; Stauffer, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection caused by a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas of the human body. Sometimes, these parasites can get into the infected patient’s brain and lead to epilepsy or other neurologic disorders. Cysticercosis is most common in developing countries that have poor sanitation and where pigs feed on human waste; however, cases in the United States are increasing. A recent study found that many refugees who settle in the United States, including those from Bu...

  4. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin; Pondja, Alberto; Ngowi, Helena; Assane, Yunus; Kimbi, Eliakunda; Magnussen, Pascal; Mejer, Helena; Braae, Uffe Christian; Trevisan, Chiara; Saarnak, Christopher; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    Pig-keeping and pork consumption have increased significantly in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past decade. A high and increasing prevalence of epilepsy in ESA, without a clear etiology, and an increase in cases of porcine cysticercosis have been noted in the region. Two Danida-fun...

  5. First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia

    Kataranovski Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

  6. Unusual colonoscopy finding: Taenia saginata proglottid

    Patel, Nayan M; Tatar, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Infection with tapeworms is a major problem in many parts of the world. Patients may be asymptomatic or have a significant morbidity depending on the species. Infection with Taenia species is sometimes found by expulsion of eggs or proglottids in stool. Species specific diagnosis of Taenia is difficult, but possible. We present a case of Taenia saginata incidentally discovered, and risk factors for transmission, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment.

  7. Inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis: estudio comparativo de extractos antigénicos de Cysticercus cellulosae y Taenia crassiceps

    Nineth Rossi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron diferentes extractos antigénicos de Taenia solium y de Taenia crassiceps en la detección de anticuerpos en pacientes con neurocisticercosis, con el objetivo de seleccionar antígenos inmunorrelevantes para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis por medio del ensayo inmunoenzimático e immunoblotting. El fluido vesicular de T. crassiceps mostró ser más sensible (100 % y específico (86 %. Por medio del immunoblotting se observó también, que este extracto fue el más sensible y específico. Dentro del perfil proteico del antígeno, la banda mayormente reconocida por el suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo de pacientes con neurocisticercosis fue la de 18 kDa. El fluido vesicular de la T. crassiceps por su alta sensibilidad y especificidad y por su facilidad de obtención en condiciones controladas de laboratorio, representa una alternativa en la optimización del diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis en el suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo y en la sustitución de los antígenos de T. solium.Different antigenic extracts of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps were evaluated in connection with the detection of antibodies in patients with neurocysticercosis aimed at selecting immunorelevant antigens for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by means of the immunoenzimatic assay and immunoblotting. The vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps proved to be more sensitive (100% and specific (86%. On using the immunoblotting technique it was also observed that this extract was the most sensitive and specific. Within the protein profile of the antigen the band of 18 kDa was mostly recognized by the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis. The vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps represents an alternative in the optimization of the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid and in the substitution of T. solium antigens due to its high sensitivity and specificity and to its easy obtention under controlled laboratory conditions.

  8. Molecular characterization of enolase gene from Taenia multiceps.

    Li, W H; Qu, Z G; Zhang, N Z; Yue, L; Jia, W Z; Luo, J X; Yin, H; Fu, B Q

    2015-10-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite with its larval stage, known as Coenurus cerebralis, mainly encysts in the central nervous system of sheep and other livestocks. Enolase is a key glycolytic enzyme and represents multifunction in most organisms. In the present study, a 1617bp full-length cDNA encoding enolase was cloned from T. multiceps and designated as TmENO. A putative encoded protein of 433 amino acid residues that exhibited high similarity to helminth parasites. The recombinant TmENO protein (rTmENO) showed the catalytic and plasminogen-binding characteristics after the TmENO was subcloned and expressed in the pET30a(+) vector. The TmENO gene was transcribed during the adult and larval stages and was also identified in both cyst fluid and as a component of the adult worms and the metacestode by western blot analysis. Taken together, our results will facilitate further structural characterization for TmENO and new potential control strategies for T. multiceps. PMID:26412520

  9. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0.998, p = 0.02). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in pigs was significantly correlated with gender and breeding status of the pig (OR = 10.35 for breeding sows compared to boars, p = 0.01), and the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (OR = 1.04, p = 0.004). These results highlight the role of multiple socio-economic, behavioural and environmental factors in Taenia spp. transmission patterns. Environmental contamination with Taenia spp. eggs is a key issue, with landscape factors influencing presence of Taenia spp. antigens in both pigs and humans. PMID:26641459

  10. Priorities for research and control of cestode zoonoses in Asia.

    Xiao, Ning; Yao, Jia-Wen; Ding, Wei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Globally, cestode zoonoses cause serious public health problems, particularly in Asia. Among all neglected zoonotic diseases, cestode zoonoses account for over 75% of global disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. An international symposium on cestode zoonoses research and control was held in Shanghai, China between 28th and 30th October 2012 in order to establish joint efforts to study and research effective approaches to control these zoonoses. It brought together 96 scientists from the Asian region and beyond to exchange ideas, report on progress, make a gap analysis, and distill prioritizing settings with a focus on the Asian region. Key objectives of this international symposium were to agree on solutions to accelerate progress towards decreasing transmission, and human mortality and morbidity caused by the three major cestode zoonoses (cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, and cysticercosis); to critically assess the potential to control these diseases; to establish a research and validation agenda on existing and new approaches; and to report on novel tools for the study and control of cestode zoonoses. PMID:23915395

  11. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the larval tetraphyllideans and trypanorhynchs lacking evaginated tentacles and other key diagnostic features.

  12. Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens

    BRAGAZZA Lúcia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of flubendazole paste against nematodes and cestodes in dogs and cats.

    Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; Van der Flaes, L

    1985-12-01

    Small dogs and cats, naturally infected with nematodes and cestodes, were used in a critical test under laboratory conditions to determine the palatability and efficacy of flubendazole as a past formulation. Subsequently, a control test in dogs was conducted under field conditions. A 4.4% past formulation was given at a dosage of 22 mg/kg of body weight once a day for 2 or 3 consecutive days. In a critical test in dogs, the efficacy against Toxocara canis was 97.4% after a 2-day administration and 100% after 3 days. Toxascaris leonina seemed to be the most susceptible worm species, since either 2 or 3 treatments were 100% active. The efficacy against Uncinaria stenocephala was 97.5% after 2 treatments; the same dose level for 3 days improved the efficacy to 100%. The efficacy was 100% for the removal of Trichuris vulpis after a daily dosage for 2 days and 96.7% after 3 days. One of 2 dogs infected with Taenia pisiformis was cleared of the infection after a 2-day treatment, and 3 of 4 dogs were cleared after a 3-day regimen. All cats were cleared of Toxocara cati after 2 or 3 days of treatment. One of 2 cats infected with Hydatigera taeniaeformis was cleared of the infection after a 2-day treatment; a 3-day treatment in 7 cats was 100% effective. The results in the laboratory test in dogs were confirmed under field conditions by a control test, based on the reduction of eggs per gram of feces count after treatment. The paste formulation was well accepted by all dogs and cats without any side effects. PMID:4083589

  14. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥ 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections. PMID:24703071

  15. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    Deplazes Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9% than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%. Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE. Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter.

  16. Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

    César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

  17. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Trematodes and cestodes.

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased international travel for vacation, work, and medical missions and immigration into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. It has been estimated that 20% to 70% of international travelers suffer from some travel-related health problem. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on cutaneous diseases caused by helminth infections. Part I of the review focused on nematode infections; part II will focus on trematode and cestode infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568338

  18. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  19. Expression of the Tpanxb1 gene from Taenia pisiformis and its potential diagnostic value by dot-ELISA.

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Wu, Xuhang; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Mei; Chen, Zuqin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2014-04-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in rabbits that results in economic losses. To date, there has been limited information available on the early detection of infection by this parasite. This study describes a dot-ELISA method based on an autologous antigen annexin B1 (Tpanxb1). Its potential for serodiagnosis of rabbit cysticercosis was also evaluated. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tpanxb1 (rTpanxb1) protein could be specifically recognized by rabbit anti-sera. In serum trials, the antibodies could be detected by dot-ELISA using rTpanxb1 at 14 days post-infection. The positive response was present for up to 49 days post-infection. Based on the necropsy results of 169 rabbit samples, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-ELISA were 94.55% and 92.86%, respectively. This study provides a foundation for studying the immunological function of annexin and its application to control Taenia cestodes. PMID:24325657

  20. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs...

  1. Assessing the ability of two specific, immunodominant Taenia solium antigens to differentiate non-infected from cysticercotic subjects

    Yuliet Marcela Diaz; Ada Nelly Martínez

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human and porcine cysticercosis are infectious diseases associated to poverty and poor sanitary conditions. Cysticercosis is a severe public health issue and causes great economic losses at the rustic pork rearing industry in Mexico and other developing countries. Many variables can influence the current Immunodiagnostic methods and alter the assay sensitivity and specificity. This has prevented the development of a suitable diagnostic test for a highly specific diagnosis. O...

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms...

  3. Assessing the ability of two specific, immunodominant Taenia solium antigens to differentiate non-infected from cysticercotic subjects

    Yuliet Marcela Diaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human and porcine cysticercosis are infectious diseases associated to poverty and poor sanitary conditions. Cysticercosis is a severe public health issue and causes great economic losses at the rustic pork rearing industry in Mexico and other developing countries. Many variables can influence the current Immunodiagnostic methods and alter the assay sensitivity and specificity. This has prevented the development of a suitable diagnostic test for a highly specific diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This work is aimed to find recombinant antigens or derivative peptides suitable to develop a more sensitive and specific diagnostic test for human and porcine cysticercosis. METHODS: Based on the amino acid sequence of two antigens identified in a previous study as specific for porcine cysticercosis (annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent kinase, peptides with the highest antigenicity rates were identified by bioinformatic tools. These peptides were evaluated for their suitability as antigen source in a cysticercosis ELISA, using serum samples from cysticercotic and non-cysticercotic pigs as antibody source. Additionally, the coding sequences for the selected antigens were cloned in a prokaryotic system to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of the entire protein. RESULTS: Seven peptides with the highest antigenic index for annexin B1 and 12 peptides for cAMP-dependent kinase were selected. A series of ELISA experiments led us to identify those peptides that were most recognized by antibodies in pig serum samples. For annexin B1, 3 peptides out of 7 showed higher recognition, while 5 out of 12 peptides showed higher recognition for cAMP-dependent kinase. The cloning, expression, and purification of the recombinant proteins annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent kinase were also performed. CONCLUSIONS: The antigens evaluated in this work, annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent kinase include linear peptides which might be good candidates to be used in a diagnostic test for cysticercosis.

  4. The epidemiology of Taenia pisiformis infections in domestic dogs in Cairo.

    Rashed, R M; Whitfield, P J; Lewis, J W

    1991-12-01

    The epidemiology of Taenia pisiformis infections in domestic dogs in Cairo, Egypt. Over 5000 street dogs humanely killed in a culling programme organized by the Egyptian Ministry of the Interior in the winter of 1986 and the spring of 1987 have been utilized to examine the final host epidemiology of the cestode Taenia pisiformis in Cairo. In the winter months the prevalence of infection was 63.4% and the mean intensity 2.82 per dog: by the spring of 1987 these values had risen to 70.8% and 3.78 respectively. These parasite burdens probably represent the highest infection levels with T. pisiformis yet described from urban dog populations anywhere in the world. The dispersion of T. pisiformis within the street dog population was assessed and found to be significantly aggregated and well described by a negative binomial model of overdispersion (variance/mean ratio: 5.16, coefficient k = 0.795). A separate analysis was carried out of infection in each of 18 circumscribed regional areas of Cairo which revealed considerable area-to-area differences with mean intensities varying between 1.62 and 6.54 and prevalences between 43.3% and 91.2%. The size structure of the winter and spring worm samples were very similar with about 45% of worms less than 35 cm in length, about 35% between 35 and 59 cm, about 20% between 60 and 100 cm and less than 5% greater than 100 cm in length. The epidemiological factors which lead to high T. pisiformis infection levels in Cairo dogs have been considered and the consumption of discarded rabbit offal containing Cysticercus pisiformis by street dogs is regarded as a crucial mode of transmission. PMID:1765671

  5. Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Jia, Wanzhong; Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Ni, Xingwei; Dyachenko, Viktor; Li, Hongmin; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2012-09-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (?69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank. PMID:22569565

  6. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: Implications for aquatic food webs

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, C.; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A.; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes ...

  7. Effects of nitroscanate on adult Taenia pisiformis in dogs with experimentally induced infections.

    Bowman, D D; Lin, D S; Johnson, R C; Lynn, R C; Hepler, D I; Stansfield, D G

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-four specific-pathogen-free Beagles were each given 50 cysticerci of Taenia pisiformis that had been harvested from experimentally infected rabbits. Quantitative fecal egg counts and fecal screening for recovery of passed segments were performed on postinoculation days 56 through 70. Twenty-three of 24 dogs fed cysticerci developed patent infections. The 23 dogs with patent infections were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and treated with nitroscanate or a placebo 60 days after inoculation. Egg counts in the treated dogs had markedly decreased by the second day after treatment, and by the sixth day after treatment, segments were not found in the feces of any of the treated animals. The control dogs continued to pass eggs and segments in their feces throughout the 9 days after treatment. The dogs were euthanatized and necropsied 70 days after being inoculated. At necropsy, the mean number of scolices recovered from control dogs was 24.6, the mean number of scolices recovered from treated dogs was 0.25. Worms recovered from the control dogs were intact, gravid cestodes. Efficacy of treatment with nitroscanate at a mean dosage of 56 mg/kg of body weight was 98.9%. PMID:1835326

  8. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata

    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido à desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais levemente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1 anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata e (2 antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas. A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina.

  9. Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation

    Suhail Yaqoob Hakeem; Arshad Rashid; Suhail Khuroo; Rajandeep Singh Bali

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation.

  10. Evaluación de cisticerco de taenia crassiceps como antígeno sustituto para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

    Sonia Agudelo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis (NCC se requiere de extractos antigénicos obtenidos de los cisticercos de Taenia solium (T.so, lo cual presenta dificultades técnicas por la difícil consecución de cerdos naturalmente infectados (1. Sin embargo, los extractos antigénicos obtenidos de Taenia crassiceps (T.cra muestran una alta homología con los de T.so, brindando ventajas en la producción de antígenos para implementar en técnicas serológicas (2,3. Nuestro grupo ha venido trabajando en la búsqueda de alternativas para el diagnóstico serológico de cisticercosis humana y porcina en
    Colombia y en el establecimiento de un modelo animal de fácil mantenimiento que permita la obtención de cisticercos a gran escala.

     

     

  11. Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and in EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Paraná-Brazil

    João Carlos Minozzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC, the cerebral presence of Taenia solium metacestode (Cysticercus cellulosae, is responsible for neurological disorders worldwide. In order to validate an immunodiagnosis for public-health patients in the State of Parana-Brazil, crude antigen of Taenia crassicepsmetacestode (Cysticercus longicollis was used as an alternative heterologous antigen to be used in ELISA and in electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB for active and inactive NCC diagnosis. Indirect ELISA was able to discriminate between active and inactive samples and presented high specificity and sensitivity. Any immunodominant band was able to distinguish the NCC stages, although the EITB showed 100% specificity. The immunological results proved to be an important auxiliary toll for NCC diagnosis, mainly for public-health systems in developing countries, where either the neuroimage techniques are not accessible or the resources are scarce.Neurocisticercose (NCC, causada pela presença do metacestódeo do parasito Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae no sistema nervoso central, é uma doença mundialmente conhecida como responsável por distúrbios neurológicos. Com o objetivo de validar um imunodiagnóstico para pacientes da rede pública do estado do Paraná-Brasil, o extrato bruto do metacestódeo de T. crassiceps (C. longicollis foi produzido e utilizado como antígeno heterólogo para o diagnóstico de NCC ativa e inativa utilizando-se ELISA e eletroimunotransferência (EITB. O ensaio de ELISA indireto foi capaz de discriminar a forma ativa e inativa da NCC, apresentando alta especificidade e sensibilidade. Ao se utilizar EITB, nenhuma proteína foi imunodominante de forma a distinguir os diferentes estágios da NCC, embora o ensaio tenha tido 100% de especificidade. Os resultados mostram que os ensaios imunológicos podem ser uma ferramenta auxiliar importante para o diagnóstico da NCC, principalmente para o sistema público de saúde, cujo diagnóstico por imagem não é acessível ou cujos recursos financeiros são escassos.

  12. CEREBRAL CYSTICERCOSIS BY TAENIA CRASSICEPS IN A DOMESTIC CAT

    Carnivorous domestic mammals occasionally become atypical intermediate hosts of taeniid tapeworms. In cases of intermittent relapsing neurological disease in cats, cerebral cysticercosis e. g., by Taenia crassiceps may be considered. Significantly this case represents the first record of neurocystic...

  13. TAENIA TAPEWORMS: THEIR BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND SOCIOECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE

    A biological context for understanding human pathogens and parasites emanates from evolutionary studies among tapeworms of the genus Taenia. Human taeniasis and cysticercosis represent archaic associations and remain significant challenges for socioeconomic development, public health and food safet...

  14. THE WILD RODENT Akodon azarae (CRICETIDAE: SIGMODONTINAE AS INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Taenia taeniaeformis (CESTODA: CYCLOPHYLLIDEA ON POULTRY FARMS OF CENTRAL ARGENTINA

    Mariela H. Miño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo informa la presencia de estrobilocercos de Taenia taeniaeformis en el roedor Akodon azarae. Un total de 289 roedores pertenecientes a las especies A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens y Mus musculus fueron capturados en granjas avícolas del centro de Argentina. Todos los roedores fueron examinados en busca de parásitos. Sólo A. azarae presentó quistes de cestodes en el hígado. Los valores de prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia media de la infestación fueron 8.33%, 2.09 y 0.17, respectivamente, y no se observó ninguna diferencia entre los sexos de los roedores infectados. Se concluye que A. azarae es susceptible de infectarse con T. taeniaeformis cuando frecuenta hábitats domésticos y peridomésticos, ya que en ambientes naturales nunca fue registrada su presencia en estos roedores. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que T. taeniaeformis mantiene tres tipos diferentes de ciclos de vida en el área estudiada: 1 un ciclo doméstico entre Rattus norvegicus y mascotas (perros y gatos, ya que R. norvegicus ha sido encontrada parasitada en las granjas; 2 otro ciclo doméstico entre A. azarae y mascotas cuando estas últimas se acercan a los alambrados de las granjas; y 3 un ciclo silvestre entre A. azarae y Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae, ya que se ha observado en el área de estudio que A. azarae es predado por este felino en cuyas heces se han encontrado huevos de Taenia sp.

  15. The prevalence and epidemiology of cestodes in dogs in Clwyd, Wales. II. Hunting dogs.

    Stallbaumer, M

    1987-02-01

    Studies of a foxhound pack and gundog kennel in Clwyd, Wales showed 47 of 162 foxhounds (29%) and six of 25 gundogs (24%) to be infested with cestodes. Taeniia species were found in both groups, T. hydatigena being most common. Echinococcus granulosus and Dipylidium caninum were found in hounds only. The husbandry of the dogs was investigated and close relationships were found between diet, worming procedures and cestode infestation. These dogs play an important role in disseminating cestode eggs in the environment. Recommendations for control of the problem are made. Foxhounds and other hunting dogs play a particularly important role in the life-cycle of cestodes because their diet frequently includes uncooked carcasses and because they hunt over large areas of countryside, facilitating the widespread dissemination of infective eggs. PMID:3675042

  16. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn ?-helix, a five stranded ?-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution. PMID:25853513

  17. Imunitas Protektif Mencit Terhadap Cairan Kista Taenia saginata (PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY OF MICE AGAINST CYST FLUID OF TAENIA SAGINATA)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan; I Made Dwinata; I Made Damriyasa; Ida Bagus Made Oka; Kadek Swastika; Luh Dewi Anggreni; Nyoman Mantik Astawa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine immune response of mice against vaccines derived fromcyst fluid of Taenia saginata. The study was conducted using four BALB/c mice aged 6 weeks as experimentalanimals. All experimental animals were vaccinated intra peritoneal with Taenia saginata cyst fluidemulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. Immune response in the mice was determined by detecting antibodiesusing ELISA and by the presence of lymphocytes through evaluation of blood smear. The results showe...

  18. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, h...

  19. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    Mukaratirwa, S. (Samson); T. Hove

    2009-01-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

  20. Cysticercosis Involving Muscle of Mastication: A Review and Report of Two Cases

    Sarbjeet Singh; Sreenivasan, V.; Kanika Garg; Nikhel Dev Wazir; Jaspal Singh Rajput; Pawandeep Sandhu Virk

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the parasitic cestode, Taenia solium. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours) without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature...

  1. Cysticercosis of masseter

    B Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a cestodic paratise. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The most commonly infested body organs include subcutaneous tissues, brain and skeletal muscles. It is interesting to note that oral lesion of cysticercosis is a rare event. Here we report an isolated lesion of cysticercosis in the masseter muscle.

  2. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    2010-04-01

    ... cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii)...

  3. Digeneans and cestodes parasitic in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Threskiornithidae) from Argentina.

    Digiani, M C

    2000-01-01

    Some digeneans and cestodes parasitic in a population of the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot) from Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are presented. The digeneans Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909), Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819), Ascocotyle (Leighia) hadra Ostrowski de Nuñez, 1992 and Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 from the intestine; Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi, 1803) from the cloaca; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899) from the bile ducts and the cestode Hymenolepis megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) from the cloaca, were recorded. The discovery of D. egregia, P. ovatus, A. heterolecithodes and P. nanum constitute new host and/or new geographical records. Adults of A. (L.) hadra, previously described in experimental definitive hosts, are first reported from a naturally infected bird. Hymenolepis megalops, a cestode of Anseriformes is first reported from Ciconiiformes. PMID:11104147

  4. Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship

    Evaldo Nascimento

    1982-01-01

    Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obta...

  5. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION

    M. B. Sonune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

  6. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis

    Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has before been found only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material.

  7. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis.

    Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-08-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  8. First case of human cerebral Taenia martis cysticercosis

    Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Alexander W. Pfaff; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has before been found only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material.

  9. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  10. COLONIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION: HISTORICAL AND COEVOLUTIONARY TRAJECTORIES AMONG CESTODES, CETACEANS AND PINNIPEDS

    Cestodes in marine mammals are represented by 2 archaic and phylogenetically disparate monophyletic taxa, the Diphyllobothriidae and the Tetrabothriidea. Origins and diversification for an array of genera and species among these characteristic assemblages in pinnipeds and cetaceans is linked to col...

  11. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands. PMID:23220358

  12. Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2009-01-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examination...

  13. Crude Antigen Cystisercus Taenia Saginata Isolat Bali untuk Deteksi Sistiserkosis pada Sapi

    Hertati Anriani Lubis; I Made Damriyasa; Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Taenia saginata cystisercus antigen for the detection of bovine cysticercosis. Taenia saginata cysticercus antigen was derived from local isolates, obtained from the experimental infection of Taenia saginata tape worms from Bali. The research was done by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) optimized by determining the optimal concentration of antigen, the optimal dilutions of serum and the optimal dilutions of conjugate. The results showed that ...

  14. Four Cases of Taenia saginata Infection with an Analysis of COX1 Gene

    Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S.; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-01-01

    Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case...

  15. Molecular Identification of Taenia Tapeworms by Cox1 Gene in Koh Kong, Cambodia

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Han, Eun-Taek; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Chhakda, Tep; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2011-01-01

    We collected fecal samples from 21 individuals infected with Taenia tapeworms in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia, and performed nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene and multiplex PCR on the eggs for DNA differential diagnosis of human Taenia tapeworms. Genomic DNA was extracted from the eggs of a minimum number of 10 isolated from fecal samples. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta7126F, Ts7313F, Tso7466F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay proved useful for differentially diagnosing Taenia soliu...

  16. Hyperparasitism by helminths: new records of cestodes and nematodes in proteocephalid cestodes from South American siluriform fishes Hiperparasitismo por helmintos: novas ocorrências de cestóides e nematóides em cestóides proteocefalídeos de peixes siluriformes da América do Sul

    Amilcar Arandas Rego

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalid cestode hyperparasite are reported from numerous proteocephalids occurring in pimelodid fishes in different regions of Brazil. In addition, three specimens of a nematode hyperparasite are reported from the proteocephalid cestode Choanoscolex abscissus from the pimelodid fish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in Brazil. Previous records of cestode and nematode hyperparasite of cestode are listed, and the possible identities of the Brazilian records are discussed.Cestóides hiperparasitos são descritos de espécies de proteocefalídeos, que ocorrem em peixes pimelodídeos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Referimos ainda, a ocorrência de nematóide hiperparasito em espécimes de Choanoscolex abscissus, do peixe pimelodídeo, Pseudoplatystoma carruscans. São citadas as referências anteriores de cestóides e nematóides hiperparasitos, e discutida a possível identificação dos mesmos.

  17. Human infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years.

    Wright, E.P.; Jain, S.

    1984-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old woman with a history of infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years is described. The patients repeatedly denied eating raw or inadequately cooked beef. Despite many attempts using different taenicides during those years, the patient continued to pass tapeworm segments until niclosamide was administered. Eighteen months after treatment with niclosamide the patient remains symptom-free.

  18. Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship

    Evaldo Nascimento

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obtained from rats infected 2,5 months earlier with viable eggs. The humoral immunological response of cats and rats was detected in the second week after infection and the peaks of circulating antibodies occurred in the fourth and fifth weeks, respectively.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03777-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available Contig-U03777-1 no gap 653 1 1653565 1652912 MINUS 2 2 U03777 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Show C ... .. 48 2e-05 2 ( EL741937 ) LV0233070 Taenia solium UNAM -cd2_larva Taenia sol... 46 3e-05 2 ( EL742321 ) LV ... 0240016 Taenia solium UNAM -cd2_larva Taenia sol... 46 3e-05 2 ( EL748013 ) LV ... 0332035 Taenia solium UNAM -cd2_larva Taenia sol... 46 3e-05 2 ( EL743142 ) LV ... 0252043 Taenia solium UNAM -cd2_larva Taenia sol... 46 3e-05 2 ( EC745387 ) PS ...

  20. In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    14C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

  1. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  2. Cysticercosis

    Cysticercosis is an infection by a parasite called Taenia solium ( T. solium ), a pork tapeworm that creates ... Cysticercosis is caused by swallowing eggs from T. solium , which are found in contaminated food. Autoinfection is ...

  3. Comparative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia pisiformis cyst fluid antigens by hyperimmune rabbit sera.

    Liu, D; Rickard, M D; Lightowlers, M W

    1992-07-01

    Cyst fluid antigens of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T pisiformis were examined by electrophoresis using homologous and heterologous hyperimmune rabbit sera to these antigens. While arc 5 forming antibodies were identified in sera from rabbits immunised with E granulosus and T hydatigena cyst fluids, antibodies responsible for forming precipitating antigen B band were detected in rabbit antisera to E granulosus, T hydatigena and T pisiformis antigens. T hydatigena cyst fluid appears to contain antigen similar to E granulosus antigen 5 and probably antigen B while T pisiformis cyst fluid has mainly an antigen close to hydatid antigen B. PMID:1410812

  4. Cestodes of the Brown-banded Bamboo Shark Chiloscyllium punctatum (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscylliidae from the Gulf of Thailand

    Watchariya PURIVIROJKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of cestode parasites were collected from 120 brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected from Chon Buri province, in the Gulf of Thailand. All fish specimens were found to be infected with cestodes. Eight species in 4 genera of cestodes were recorded, Caulopatera pagei, Orectolobicestus tyleri, Spiniloculus mavensis, Yorkeria hilli, Y. kelleyae, Y. saliputium, Y. yubodohensis and Y. chonburiensis. In this study, 3,834 specimens of cestodes were found in C. punctatum of which 1,539 specimens (40.14 % were Yorkeria spp. O. tyleri (51.41 % with Y. chonburiensis the lowest (0.05 %. The prevalence of the cestode infection was highest in August (61.9 parasites per fish followed by October (57.9 parasites per fish and July (57.6 parasites per fish, whereas infection was lowest in February (21.6 parasites per fish. O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. hilli, Y. kelleyae and Y. yubodohensis were found in all seasons. Five species; C. pagei, O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. saliputium and Y. yubodohensis were the first records in Thailand.

  5. Specificity of scolex and oncosphere antigens for the serological diagnosis of taeniid cestode infections in dogs.

    Jenkins, D J; Rickard, M D

    1986-02-01

    Groups of dogs raised free of helminths were monospecifically infected with the common nematodes Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis. Serums from these dogs, and a group of dogs of unknown history but infected with Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum, had levels of antibody to their homologous nematode antigens readily detectable by ELISA. No cross-reactions were apparent when these serums were tested by ELISA using oncosphere antigens of Taenia hydatigena, T. pisiformis and T. ovis, scolex excretory/secretory antigens of T. hydatigena, T. pisiformis and Echinococcus granulosus or protoscolex antigen of E. granulosus. PMID:2421704

  6. A rare case of gangrenous appendicitis by eggs of Taenia species

    Indranil CHAKRABARTI; Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Bandopadhyay, Arghya; N K Das

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis and Taeniasis continue to be a major public health burden in the developing countries like India. Humans are the only definitive hosts infected by ingestion of eggs of Taenia species. Appendicular Taeniasis is rare with few isolated case reports during the past 30 years. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old female patient from Nepal who presented with acute pain abdomen, was operated and diagnosed as suffering from gangrenous appendicitis caused by eggs of Taenia species.

  7. Influence of Intestinal Cestodes on the Blood Picture of the Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan

    Nasreen Gill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed to determined the changes in the blood picture of the brown rats Rattus norvegicus naturally infected with intestinal cestodes. The results are based on the examination of 82 brown rats captured at random from Hyderabad city and its adjacent areas. Blood profiling of cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana infected male and female rats showed significantly lower values of Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb concentration, Haematocrit (Hct, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC as compared to their control (non-infected rats of both sexes. The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV value for infected male and female rats was found significantly higher than those of their control rats. A significantly higher Total Leukocyte Count (TLC in male and female infected rats was noted as against the non-infected (control rats of both sexes. The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC revealed significant increase in absolute number of each type of cell in cestode infected male and female rats. However, lymphocyte and basophil counts recorded from male infected rats were similar to the counts of their control rats. Conspicuous changes in the blood picture of cestode infected male and female rats indicate host-parasite interaction as well as the triggering of defense mechanism in the host against infection.

  8. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species

    Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, R.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2002), s. 171-182. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cestodes * parasites of birds * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2002

  9. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  10. Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru

    Hector H. Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrollado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación.Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a series of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

  11. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene. PMID:25687521

  12. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  13. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  14. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice

    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.

  15. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece. PMID:26688203

  16. [Infection of Mice with Normal Immune Function by Taenia asiatica].

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Chen, Li-hong; Mo, Xing-ze; Yu, Yue-sheng

    2015-08-01

    The Taenia asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min, 6 min and 8 mins were subcutaneously injected into mice with normal immune function(groups Al-A3 respectively, n=20 in each) and mice with immunosuppression (groups B1-B3, n=20 in each). All groups of mice began to show body discomfort on day 5 after infection and develop lumps on the back about on day 15. In groups Al-A3, animal death occurred during days 7-15, with a same survival rate of 95.0%(19/20) and infection rate of 89.4%(17/19), 73.6%(14/19) and 47.3%(9/19) respectively. In groups B1-B3, animal death occurred during days 7-50, with survival rate of 60%(13/20), 55%(11/20)and 55%(11/20) and infection rate of 76.9% (10/13), 54.5% (6/11) and 45.4% (5/11) respectively. After the scolex of cysticercus was evaginated with 15% pig bile, four suckers, an apparent rostellum and two distinct hook-like puncta structures were seen. These results indicate that mice with normal immune function can be used as a replacement of immunosuppressive mice to establish a T. asiatica oncosphere infection model. In addition, the T. asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min have the strongest infection ability. PMID:26672229

  17. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos

    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade.

  18. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf

    Ogunremi, Oladele; MacDonald, Garry; Scandrett, Brad; Geerts, Stanny; Brandt, Jef

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle.

  19. Influence of Intestinal Cestodes on the Blood Picture of the Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan

    Nasreen Gill; Azra A. Shaikh; M. Munif. Khan; M.Saleh Memon

    2007-01-01

    Present study was performed to determined the changes in the blood picture of the brown rats Rattus norvegicus naturally infected with intestinal cestodes. The results are based on the examination of 82 brown rats captured at random from Hyderabad city and its adjacent areas. Blood profiling of cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana) infected male and female rats showed significantly lower values of Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Haematocrit (Hct), ...

  20. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene,eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturallyacquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A.; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J.; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, epri-nomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestodeinfections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats wereselected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection withat least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (twostudies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, ca...

  1. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    D.M. Pfukenyi; A.L. Willingham; S. Mukaratirwa; J. Monrad

    2007-01-01

    Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal e...

  2. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against two rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis microstoma in vitro.

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, Ann; Behnke, J M

    2014-03-17

    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 ?M, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 ?M, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected. PMID:24462509

  3. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    Sánchez, Marta I; Pons, Inès; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J

    2016-03-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur. PMID:26938743

  4. Infection levels of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta in rat populations from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Hancke, D; Suárez, O V

    2016-03-01

    Ecological studies on zoonotic parasites are crucial for the design and implementation of effective measures to prevent parasite transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors such as season, landscape unit, rat sex and rat body length, affecting the abundance of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta, a parasite of synanthropic rats, within an urban environment. A parasitological survey was undertaken on 169 rats from landscape units such as shantytowns, parklands, industrial-residential areas and scrap-metal yards in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 21.3%, although the occurrence of this species in rats was not homogeneous. The abundance of H. diminuta, using a zero-inflated negative binomial model, was correlated with rat body length. In shantytowns, abundance levels were higher than other landscape units, largely due to differences in individual environmental characteristics and rat assemblages. The populations of arthropod intermediate hosts could be subjected to seasonal fluctuations and the degree of urbanization. Shantytowns are overcrowded urban marginal settlements with most inhabitants living in precarious conditions and supporting large populations of rats, thereby increasing the risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:25869333

  5. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps

    Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the “survival of the fattest” principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur. PMID:26938743

  6. Knowledge and Practices Related to T. solium Cysticercosis -Taeniasis among Smallholder Farmers in Selected Villages in Kilolo District in Iringa Region in Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    A.F. Maridadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding farmers/community knowledge and practices towards T. solium Cysticercosis- Taeniasis is key for successful eradication strategy. This study was carried out in three selected villages in T. solium endemic areas in Southern highlands of Tanzania namely Kihesamgagao, Masege and Lulanzi from Kilolo district in Iringa region. The study aimed at determining farmers’ knowledge on T. solium Cysticercosis- Taeniasis, including life-cycle of the parasite and practices related to the infection as well as factors influencing farmers’ knowledge on life- cycle of the parasite in the study area. The study was a crosssectional survey involved 80 randomly selected households with 45 households being pig keepers and 35 being non- pig keepers. Three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs, one in each village were also conducted to gather some qualitative information for the study. Quantitative data were analyzed for descriptive statistics such as percentages, as well as for inferential statistics i.e. ,Chi-square tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results from this study indicated substantial proportion of respondents were aware of the problems in their area that can be linked to T. solium infections. The most known problem was Porcine Cysticercosis (75%, followed by Tapeworm in human (Taeniasis (31.2% and Epilespy (20%, indicating T. solium infections to be a serious problem in the area. Despite significant portion of the respondents were aware of T. solium related infections in their area, however, there was still a noticeable proportion of respondents (32.5% who didn’t have a proper knowledge on life cycle of T. solium, a situation fueled practices that encourage spread of T. solium infections. Fifteen percent of the surveyed households had no latrines and nearly two- third of pig keepers practiced free range or semi- indoor pig rearing system, practices which allows pig to have access to human faeces and hence continued life-cycle of the parasite. Furthermore, findings from this study indicated that most pig farmers (69% slaughter their pigs at home in which meat inspection is rarely done or non-existent. Main source of pork meat by majority of respondents was local brew bars/shops where it is served as fried meat and consumed on the spot. It was revealed during Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that pork meat in local brew bars is sometimes saved undercooked if no close supervision of a frying process, practice which predisposes consumers to the risk of T. solium infections. Several socio- demographic factors were noted to have influence on knowledge on life cycle of T. solium by framers. Male and older respondents/farmers, being from other ethnic groups other than Hehe, as well as more educated farmers were more likely to have a proper knowledge of life-cycle of T. solium than their counterpart. Based on these findings it was recommended that more education to farmers and a community as whole on T. solium infections and its control is needed in the area. For the T. solium eradication strategy/campaigns in the study area to be effective it should put special emphasis on female, younger and less educated farmers, as well as Hehe; that is the less knowledgeable groups.

  7. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad M; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangtfer tarandus). Mus...

  8. Experimental single and trickle infections of cattle with Taenia saginata: Studies of immunodiagnosis

    Bøgh, H.O.; Grønvold, J.; Maeda, G.E.; Nansen, P.; Lind, Peter; Ilsøe, B.; Henriksen, S.A.; Geerts, S.

    1996-01-01

    Two groups of 12 calves were given either a single infection dose of 30,000 Taenia saginata eggs (group A) or trickle infected with 12 x 2500 T saginata eggs (group B). The calves were killed 16, 22 or 54 weeks after infection and the numbers of viable and dead parasites were counted by slicing...

  9. Simulating strategies for control of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis.

    R.E. HARRIS; Revfeim, K. J.; Heath, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A deterministic model to compare various control strategies for parasites having two hosts is presented. When applied to Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis, the model shows that maximum progress would be achieved when both the definitive and the intermediate host are treated simultaneously. This type of model may prove of value in studies on the control of other two-host parasites.

  10. Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany

    Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela; Holzmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing.

  11. Myostimulating Effect of Sesamum Radiatum Aqueous Leaf Extract in Isolated Guinea-Pig Taenia Caeci Contractile Activity

    André B. Konan; Augustin K. Amonkan; Ahui, Marie-Louise B; Bouafou, Guy-Marcel K; Kouakou, Léandre K; Kpahé, Fidèle Z; Datté, Jacques Y

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried to examine the effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Sesamum radiatum, a laxative plant on the contractile activity of Taenia caeci, an intestinal smooth muscle. Strips of Taenia caeci were rapidly removed from guinea-pig and were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath with Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the Taenia caeci strips were recorded by using a strain gauge. S. radiatum aqueous leaf extract (ESera) is a...

  12. Sterilisation of cysticerci with gamma radiation

    Cysticerci of Taenia solium and of Taenia saginata were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 0,2 - 1,4 kGy. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of nine days in T. solium and after six days in T. saginata. Some cysticerci of T. solium treated with low doses (0,2 - 0,8 kGy) evaginated 24 days after treatment but no T. saginata cysticerci evaginated after 15 days. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 0,2 - 1,2 kGy are as infective to golden hamsters as untreated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely and are excreted or digested from Day +12 onwards. Such tapeworms do not grow but are resorbed and finally consist of only a scolex. It appears that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells to divide and the cells do not recover from this treatment. Carcasses lightly infested with cysticercosis could be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to low doses (0,2 - 0,6 kGy) of gamma radiation

  13. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

  14. Effects of phosphorothioate analogues of ATP, ADP and AMP on guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder.

    Burnstock, G.; Cusack, N. J.; Meldrum, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorothioate analogues of ATP, ADP and AMP were tested on the guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder. The Rp diastereoisomers of the phosphorothioate analogues, ATP-alpha-S and ADP-alpha-S were respectively 7 and 3 times more effective than the Sp diastereoisomers in causing relaxation of the taenia coli. No stereoselectivity was observed for the diastereoisomers of ATP-beta-S. In guinea-pig bladder, no stereoselectivity was observed for any of the phosphorothioate analogues. These re...

  15. Investigation of Antigenic Specificity against Cysticercus tenuicollis Cyst Fluid Antigen in Dogs Experimentally Infected with Taenia hydatigena

    KARA, Murat

    2005-01-01

    Antigenic specificity was investigated in dogs experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Cysticercus tenuicollis cysts from sheep were given to the puppies in the experimental group. Experimental infection was achieved in the animals of the experimental group at 11-13 weeks, and infected animals were necropsied and mature Taenia hydatigena worms were collected. Antigen was prepared from the fluids of C. tenuicollis. Sera from both experimental and con...

  16. Analysis of codon usage pattern in Taenia saginata based on a transcriptome dataset

    Yang, Xing; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Codon usage bias is an important evolutionary feature in a genome and has been widely documented in many genomes. Analysis of codon usage bias has significance for mRNA translation, design of transgenes, new gene discovery, and studies of molecular biology and evolution, etc. However, the information about synonymous codon usage pattern of T. saginata genome remains unclear. T. saginata is a food-borne zoonotic cestode which infects approximataely 50 million humans worldwide, and c...

  17. Population dynamics of cestode, Circumonchobothrium shindei (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea Carus, 1863) in the freshwater eel, Mastacembelus armatus Lacépède, 1800 from River Godavari, Rajahmundry.

    Vankara, Anu Prasanna; Vijayalakshmi, C

    2015-06-01

    The freshwater eel, Mastacembelus armatus Lacépède, 1800 is often found infected with adults and larval plerocercoids of the cestode, Circumonchobothrium shindei. The population dynamics of C. shindei was studied in the freshwater eel, M. armatus during September 2005 to August 2007 from Godavari River, Rajahmundry. A total of 494 eels were examined; 184 (37.24 %) were infected with this cestode. Infection intensity ranged from 1 to 13 for C. shindei and their plerocercoids. C. shindei occupy the position of secondary species in community structure of metazoan parasites of M. armatus, with mean intensity, mean abundance and index of infection (2.5 ± 1.22; 1.1 ± 1.45 and 0.57 respectively). The present investigation deals with monthly population dynamics of C. shindei in M. armatus which summarizes percentage of prevalence, intensity, abundance and index of infection. Medium sized fish depicted more infection with this cestode and female fish illustrates comparatively higher infection rate than male fish. PMID:26064020

  18. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically wer...

  19. Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea

    When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

  20. Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM (Netherlands); Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM (Netherlands); Osano, Odipo [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Hoitinga, Leo [Department of Earth Surface Process and Materials, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kraak, Michiel H.S., E-mail: M.H.S.Kraak@uva.nl [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya)

    2010-03-01

    When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

  1. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Differentiation and Rapid Detection of Taenia Species▿

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infe...

  2. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez; Irma Rivera-Montoya; Roberto Cárdenas-Arreola; Liborio Morán; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS). Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D) symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A...

  3. Verapamil does not block the spastic response of Praziquantel on the larvae of Taenia pisiformis.

    Martínez Zedillo, G; Hoyo Badillo, C; Amezcua, J; González Barranco, D

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes that the previous addition of Verapamil does not block the spastic response to Praziquantel (Pz) in larvae of Taenia pisiformis kept in vitro, where opposite results were found in the literature using mammalian tissue. It is possible that Pz stimulates other Ca++ transport channels not sensitive to Verapamil action and promotes Ca++ liberation from calcareous corpuscles stimulating phospholipase C of the tegument surface generating inositol triphosphate. These hypotheses require experimental approaches to define the exact mechanism of action. PMID:1308797

  4. Genetic Variation of Taenia Pisiformis Collected from Sichuan, China, Based on the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene

    Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Mole...

  5. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment. PMID:25120032

  6. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict; Wendy, Harrison; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages in Mbozi and Mbeya district, Tanzania. SAC recei...

  7. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict; Wendy, Harrison; Lekule, F.P.; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases in the general population on the copro-antigen (Ag) prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages in ...

  8. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey

    Çeliksöz, Ali; Aciöz, Mehmet; Değerli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, Çetin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis wa...

  9. Preliminary report on the development of irradiated Taenia saginata oncospheres in calves

    Various batches of a suspension of Taenia sagitata eggs irradiated with either 20,000r, 30,000r, or 50,000r, were administered to calves aged 4 days to 2 months. Control calves received non-irradiated eggs. Cysts were recovered from all the calves except those which received eggs irradiated with 50,000r. Growth of the larvae from eggs irradiated with 20,000r and 30,000r was arrested early in life and degeneration ensued. The percentage of degenerate cysts was significantly greater (P<0.001) in the calves that received irradiated eggs than in the control animals. (author)

  10. Coproantigen detection for immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and taeniasis in dogs and humans.

    Allan, J C; Craig, P S; Garcia Noval, J; Mencos, F; Liu, D; Wang, Y; Wen, H; Zhou, P; Stringer, R; Rogan, M

    1992-04-01

    Three ELISA assays, based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of Taenia- and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen extract, was used in a time-course of T. pisiformis experimental infection in dogs. The assay was shown to be considerably more sensitive than microscopical detection of eggs in faeces. Antigen was present in faeces before patency and antigen levels were independent of T. pisiformis egg output. The second assay, involving a test for human taeniasis based on antibodies against T. solium, was applied in two field studies carried out in China and Guatemala. The test was highly specific, no false positive reactions occurred with human faecal samples and the test was capable of diagnosing individuals who would not have been detected by coproscopy or treatment to recover the tapeworm. A third assay was designed for E. granulosus and demonstrated 87.5% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity with samples from naturally and experimentally infected dogs with Echinococcus or Taenia infections. In both the human Taenia and canine Echinococcus studies antigen could be detected in faecal samples from infected hosts stored in 5% formalin for 6 months. Further refinements to these tests for field application are discussed. PMID:1594298

  11. Effect of leukotriene C4 on electromechanical activity and Ca2+ uptake in taenia coli

    The actions of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) on electromechanical activity and 45Ca2+ uptake in guinea pig taenia coli were investigated. The contractile action of LTC4 was abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. LTC4 concentrations eliciting a maximal contraction in normal medium produced no response in preparations depolarized with KCl. In single sucrose gap studies, LTC4 increased both the frequency of electrical spiking and tension. These effects were blocked by the dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel antagonist PY 108-068 and by the leukotriene receptor antagonist FPL 55712. In double sucrose gap experiments, LTC4 caused a small depolarization without measurable change in membrane conductivity; increased spontaneous electrical activity was again accompanied by an increase in tension. LTC4 caused a detectable increase in 45Ca2+ uptake only at extracellular Ca2+ concentrations less than 1 mM, and this was again inhibited by PY 108-068 or FPL 55712. It is concluded that the contractile effects of LTC4 in guinea pig taenia coli occur as a consequence of its ability to open voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, an effect that may occur independently of membrane depolarization

  12. Potential existence of a sylvatic cycle of Taenia ovis krabbei in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Flueck, Werner T; Jones, Arlene

    2006-02-18

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are consistent with Taenia ovis ovis or T. o. krabbei. Although it is not possible to differentiate between T. o. ovis and T. o. krabbei on morphological grounds with certainty, several biological characteristics indicate the cysticercus may belong to T. o. krabbei. Red deer have been reported to be refractory to T. o. ovis infection whereas other potential intermediate hosts like cattle, goats, pigs and sheep have been shown to be refractory to T. o. krabbei. Other native ungulates sympatric with red deer in Patagonia include Lama guanicoe and the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus). Possible or known definitive hosts include native felids like Puma concolor, Felis colocolo, F. guigna and canids like Dusicyon griseus, D. culpaeus, and domestic dogs. PMID:16289565

  13. Influence of thermal pollution on parasitocenoses structure in water reservoirs. [Incidence of cestodes and trematodes in fish, amphibians, birds, and invertebrates

    Pojmanska, T.

    1976-01-01

    Four species of fish, as well as invertebrates, amphibians, and birds, were collected from five lakes forming the cooling system of two electric power plants. Helminth parasites were collected from these animals. The numbers of some species of cestodes and trematodes were distinctly greater in heated lakes, while the numbers of other species were distinctly lower. The significance of direct and indirect effects of temperature on parasites is discussed. (HLW)

  14. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  15. Protein Spesifik Cairan Kista Cysticercus bovis pada Sapi Bali yang Diinfeksi dengan Taenia saginata (SPECIFIC PROTEIN OF CYSTICERCUS BOVIS CYST FLUID ON BALI CATTLE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TAENIA SAGINATA

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercus bovis is the larval stage of Taenia saginata, the bovine tapeworm. The infection of thislarval in cattle musculature causes Bovine cysticercosis or Cysticercosis bovis.  Bovine cysticercosis is foundworldwide, but mostly in developing countries, where unhygienic conditions, poor cattle managementpractices, and the absence of meat inspection are common.  The adult Taenia infection in man is referredto as taeniasis.  Taenia saginata taeniasis is also found almost all over the world.  The prevalence ofTaenia saginata taeniasis has reported up to 27.5% in Gianyar Bali. In order to control the diseases,vaccination against the larvae stages in cattle of Taenia saginata may play an important role in controllingthe disease in the endemic regions.  The aims of the present study were to prepare and to investigate theimmunogenic protein as vaccine candidate for controlling  Cysticercus bovis infection in in Bali cattle.Cysticercus protein from the cyst fluid was firstly used to immunize mice and the mice sera were thencollected. Cysticercus proteins then analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.All cysticercus proteins were then visualized by Commasie blue staining. The proteins were also transferredonto nitrocellulose membrane and the immunogenic proteins were visualized by Western Blotting usingimmune sera raised in mice.  By Commasie blue staining, a total of 17 proteins were detected with themolecular weight of 14,86 kDa -122,40 kDa from the smallest to the largest. As many as 7 immunogenicproteins with the molecular weights of 16.81 kDa; 19.22 kDa; 20.98 kDa; 27.41 kDa; 34.02 kDa; 38.31 kDa;and 54.94kDa were detected.

  16. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    2010-04-01

    ... pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. Removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia... of feline cestodes D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis. (3) Limitations. For oral use only as a...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... milliliters (170.4 milligrams). (ii) Indications for use. For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum...) Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis....

  18. ?-Viniferin and resveratrol induced alteration in the activities of some energy metabolism related enzymes in the cestode parasite Raillietina echinobothrida.

    Roy, Bishnupada; Giri, Bikash Ranjan

    2016-02-01

    ?-Viniferin (AVF) and its monomer resveratrol (RESV) are natural phytostilbenes produced by several plants in response to injury or under the influence of pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Our earlier studies have revealed that both the compounds exert anthelmintic activity through alterations of cestode tegument and its associated enzymes. The present study investigates the effects of these phytochemicals on some energy metabolism related enzymes in the fowl tapeworm, Raillietina echinobothrida. The phytostilbenes AVF, RESV and the reference drug praziquantel (PZQ) were tested against some selected enzymes i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of R. echinobothrida. Exposure of the tapeworm to AVF, RESV and PZQ causes reduction in activity of PEPCK to the extent of 40.57/41.96, 24.58/23.75 and 41.11/13.47%, respectively, and LDH up to 48.95/16.25, 38.31/38.42 and 45.67/41.87%, respectively, at the time of paralysis. Whereas activity of MDH decreased by 34.22/37.7, 39.1/35.24 and 28.83/19.26%, respectively. Decrease in activities of LDH and MDH was also visible through histochemical observations. The results suggest that both the phytochemicals interfere with the energy transducing pathways by inhibiting the studied energy metabolism related enzymes of the parasite. PMID:26603215

  19. Biocomputational analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Raillietina echinobothrida, a cestode parasite, and its interaction with possible modulators.

    Dutta, Asim Kumar; Ramnath; Tandon, Veena; DAS, Bidyadhar

    2016-03-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) involved in gluconeogenesis in higher vertebrates opposedly plays a significant role in glucose oxidation of the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida. Considering the importance of the enzyme in the parasite and lack of its structural details, there exists an urgent need for understanding the molecular details and development of possible modulators. Hence, in this study, PEPCK gene was obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and various biocomputational analyses were performed. Homology model of the enzyme was generated, and docking simulations were executed with its substrate, co-factor, and modulators. Computer hits were generated after structure- and ligand-based screening using Discovery Studio 4.1 software; the predicted interactions were compared with those of the existing structural information of PEPCK. In order to evaluate the docking simulation results of the modulators, PEPCK gene was cloned and the overexpressed protein was purified for kinetic studies. Enzyme kinetics and in vitro studies revealed that out of the modulators tested, tetrahydropalmatine (THP) inhibited the enzyme with lowest inhibition constant value of 93 nm. Taking the results together, we conclude that THP could be a potential inhibitor for PEPCK in the parasite. PMID:26690489

  20. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-0261 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0261 Novel UN C UNKNOWN YM04_PARTE 0.031 29% ref|NP_659230.1| NADH dehydrogenase su ... bunit 2 [Taenia ... solium] dbj|BAC00839.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit ... 2 [Taenia ... solium] 6e-06 29% MVIFTLGAVVFSLGSLSSYIYITVIFFLGSLS ...

  1. The calcium antagonistic effects of cyproheptadine on contraction, membrane electrical events and calcium influx in the guinea-pig taenia coli

    Lowe, D. A.; Matthews, E. K.; Richardson, B P

    1981-01-01

    1 The ability of cyproheptadine (Cph) to inhibit membrane translocation of calcium in smooth muscle was investigated by studying the drug's action on contraction, electrical activity and calcium influx in the guinea-pig taenia coli.

  2. Effects of hydralazine and verapamil on phosphorylase activity and guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-monophosphate levels in guinea-pig taenia coli

    Diamond, Jack; Janis, Ronald A.

    1980-01-01

    1 The roles of guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and calcium in the relaxation produced by hydralazine and verapamil in potassium-depolarized guinea-pig taenia coli have been investigated.

  3. Consideraciones sobre el ciclo de Taenia saginata en humanos y bovinos de la provincia Villa Clara, Cuba (Considerations on the cycle of saginata Taenia in humans and bovines of the province Villa Clara, Cuba

    Dr. MV Pedro De la Fe Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el de conocer la situación del ciclo de Taenia saginata en la provincia Villa Clara. Se estudiaron los registros de matanza del matadero ¨Chichi Padrón¨ y se valoró la inspección postmortem a los bovinos faenados en este, además fueron analizadas las encuestas aplicadas a los humanos positivos a Taenia saginata desde 1998 hasta 2001. La mayor prevalencia de Cysticercus en bovinos y de casos humanos de Taenia saginata se detectaron en los municipios Manicaragua (0,60 % y 33, Placetas (0,53 % y 28 y Santa Clara (0,40 % y 26, resultados que difirieron estadísticamente (p<0.05 con los de los demás municipios de la provincia. El sistema de vigilancia postmortem en el matadero no garantiza la inocuidad de las carnes en cuanto a la cisticercosis. La teniosis es más prevalente en personas adultas y las ocupaciones más relacionadas fueron: amas de casa (56 %, gastronomía (8,3 %, matadero (2,3 % y campesinos (2,3 %, entre los síntomas más frecuentes estaban: dolor abdominal (70 %, nauseas (68 %, debilidad (36 %, descenso de peso (31 %, diarrea (28 %, nerviosismo (20 %, insomnio (18 % y anorexia (15 %. ABSTRACT.- The objective of the present work was the study of the general characteristics of the Taenia saginata life cycle in Villa Clara province. The slaughter registrations of the ¨Chichi Padrón¨ slaughterhouse was studied and was valued the postmortem inspection of bovines. Also, it was analyzed the humans positive to Taenia saginata from 1998 to 2001. The biggest Cysticercus prevalence in bovine and human cases number of Taenia saginata were detected in the municipalities Manicaragua (0,60% and 33, Placetas (0,53% and 28 and Santa Clara (0,40% and 26, results that differed statistically (p <0.05 with those of the other municipalities in the same province. The system of postmortem surveillance in the slaughterhouse doesn't guarantee the meats innocuousness from the Cysticercus viewpoint. The teniosis is more prevalent in adult people and the most related occupations were: housewives (56%, gastronomy (8,3%, slaughterhouse (2,3% and peasants (2,3%, among the most frequent symptoms they were: abdominal pain (70%, nausea (68%, weakness (36%, lost of weight (31%, diarrhea (28%, nervousness (20%, insomnia (18% and anorexy (15%.

  4. Inhibitory action of PPADS on relaxant responses to adenine nucleotides or electrical field stimulation in guinea-pig taenia coli and rat duodenum.

    Windscheif, U; Pfaff, O.; Ziganshin, A U; Hoyle, C. H.; Bäumert, H. G.; Mutschler, E.; Burnstock, G.; Lambrecht, G

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) on the relaxant response to adenine nucleotides was examined in the carbachol-contracted guinea-pig taenia coli and rat duodenum, two tissues possessing P2y-purinoceptors. In addition, in the taenia coli PPADS was investigated for its effect on relaxations evoked by adenosine, noradrenaline and electrical field stimulation. In order to assess the selectivity of PPADS between P2-purinoceptor blockade and ectonucleot...

  5. Comparative effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on contraction and 45Ca uptake in the smooth muscle of rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli.

    Karaki, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Urakawa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on muscle tension and 45Ca uptake activated in different ways were compared in rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli. In rabbit aorta, K-induced contraction was specifically inhibited by verapamil and noradrenaline-induced contraction by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K-induced and noradrenaline-induced contractions were inhibited by verapamil or by sodium nitroprusside also. In taenia, both K- and histamine-induced sust...

  6. Development of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in the spined loach, Cobitis taenia, and cross-species amplification in the related species C. elongatoides, C. taurica and C. tanaitica

    De Gelas, Koen; Janko, K; Volckaert, Filip; Charleroy, D., de; van Houdt, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Nine polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for the spined loach, Cobitis taenia (Teleostei: Cobitidae). The loci were validated using 50 individuals from a population in Belgium. Moderate to high levels of polymorphism were detected (two to 11 alleles). In addition, most markers amplified successfully in three closely related taxa that are known to hybridize with C. taenia: C. elongatoides, C. taurica and C. tanaitica. Some of the loci are most likely diagnostic among species. These ...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

    Fu Bao-Quan; Zhang Shao-Hua; Zhan Fang; Chen Hao-Tai; Shi Wan-Gui; Wang Yu-Chao; Zhu Xing-Quan; Guo Ai-Jiang; Yan Hong-Bin; Jia Wan-Zhong; Littlewood D Timothy J; Cai Xue-Peng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia sp...

  8. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO - OS CICLOS SILVÁTICOS E SINANTRÓPICOS DE ECHINOCOCCUS SPP., TAENIA SPP. E TOXOCARA SPP. EM PORTUGAL: DIAGNÓSTICO COPROLÓGICO E MOLECULAR EM CANÍDEOS - Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. e Toxocara spp. são parasitas importantes de canídeos domésticos e silvestres e agentes de zoonoses negligenciadas. Apesar da sua relevância em Saúde Pública, pouca informação existe acerca da prevalência em Portugal. Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico para compreender o papel que espécies de canídeos ...

  9. The influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental factors on Taenia spp. transmission in Western Kenya: evidence from a cross-sectional survey in humans and pigs

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J.S.; Fevre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of so...

  10. Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.

    Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis. PMID:24690153

  11. Identification and functional characterization of alpha-enolase from Taenia pisiformis metacestode.

    Zhang, Shaohua; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; You, Yanan; Hou, Junling; Wang, Qiuxia; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Enolase belongs to glycolytic enzymes with moonlighting functions. The role of enolase in Taenia species is still poorly understood. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding for Taenia pisiformis alpha-enolase (Tpeno) was cloned from larval parasites and soluble recombinant Tpeno protein (rTpeno) was produced. Western blot indicated that both rTpeno and the native protein in excretion-secretion antigens from the larvae were recognized by anti-rTpeno monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The primary structure of Tpeno showed the presence of a highly conserved catalytic site for substrate binding and an enolase signature motif. rTpeno enzymatic activities of catalyzing the reversible dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and vice versa were shown to be 30.71 ± 2.15 U/mg (2-PGA to PEP) and 11.29 ± 2.38 U/mg (PEP to 2-PGA), respectively. Far-Western blotting showed that rTpeno could bind to plasminogen, however its binding ability was inhibited by ?-aminocaproic acid (?ACA) in a competitive ELISA test. Plasminogen activation assay showed that plasminogen bound to rTpeno could be converted into active plasmin using host-derived activators. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence indicated that Tpeno was distributed in the bladder wall of the metacestode and the periphery of calcareous corpuscles. In addition, a vaccine trial showed that the enzyme could produce a 36.4% protection rate in vaccinated rabbits against experimental challenges from T. pisiformis eggs. These results suggest that Tpeno with multiple functions may play significant roles in the migration, growth, development and adaptation of T. pisiformis for survival in the host environment. PMID:25623259

  12. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits carbachol-induced contractile responses in ?-escin permeabilized guinea-pig taenia caecum.

    Denizalti, Merve; Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Bozkurt, T Emrah; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2011-05-11

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is an endogenous mediator producing a potent relaxation response in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscles. While ATP-sensitive potassium channels are mainly involved in this relaxant effect in vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism in other smooth muscles has not been revealed yet. In the present study, we investigated how H(2)S relaxes non-vascular smooth muscle by using intact and ?-escin permeabilized guinea-pig taenia caecum. In intact tissues, concentration-dependent relaxation response to H(2)S donor NaHS in carbachol-precontracted preparations did not change in the presence of a K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536, guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ, protein kinase A inhibitor KT-5720, protein kinase C inhibitor H-7, tetrodotoxin, apamin/charybdotoxin, NOS inhibitor L-NAME and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. We then studied how H(2)S affected carbachol- or Ca(2+)-induced contractions in permeabilized tissues. When Ca(2+) was clamped to a constant value (pCa6), a further contraction could be elicited by carbachol that was decreased by NaHS. This decrease in contraction was reversed by catalase but not by superoxide dismutase or N-acetyl cysteine. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase pump inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid, also decreased the carbachol-induced contraction that was further inhibited by NaHS. Mitochondrial proton pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide p-trifluromethoxyphenylhydrazone also decreased the carbachol-induced contraction but this was not additionally changed by NaHS. The carbachol-induced Ca(2+) sensitization, calcium concentration-response curves, IP(3)- and caffeine-induced contractions were not affected by NaHS. In conclusion, we propose that hydrogen peroxide and mitochondria may have a role in H(2)S-induced relaxation response in taenia caecum. PMID:21371473

  13. Toxicological profile of praziquantel, a new drug against cestode and schistosome infections, as compared to some other schistosomicides.

    Frohberg, H; Schulze Schencking, M

    1981-01-01

    2-Cyclohexylcarbonyl-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a] isoquinolin-4-one (praziquantel, EMBAY 8440, Biltricide), a new anthelminthic drug with activity against all species of schistosomes pathogenic to man, and against a wide range of cestodes, did not reveal any undesired pharmacodynamic effects. After oral administration praziquantel is quantitatively and rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted as a variety of metabolites predominantly via the kidneys by all species tested, including man. Its acute toxicity tested in rats, mice, rabbits and dogs is very low as compared with other schistosomicidal drugs. After repeated oral administration rats tolerated daily doses of up to 1000 mg/kg for four weeks, and dogs up to 180 mg/kg for thirteen weeks without any organ damage. In contrast to some other schistosomicidal drugs praziquantel did not disturb the whole reproductive process (up to F2-generation) in rats, nor did it reveal teratogenic effects in mice, rats and rabbits. In extensive mutagenicity trials performed in different European laboratories in a variety of test systems no induction of point mutations, nor of gene conversion, nor of DNA-repair, nor of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), nor of X-linked recessive lethals was detected. Besides, Salmonella tests with urines of praziquantel-treated mice, rats, healthy and Schistosoma-infected persons gave no indication of a mutagenic effect. In different in vivo mammalian assays praziquantel was not mutagenic either. In contrast to these findings other schistosomicidal drugs demonstrated mutagenic potential, in bacterial tests at least. According to the results available so far from carcinogenicity studies with oral doses of 100 and 250 mg praziquantel/kg, given once weekly to Syrian hamsters for 80 weeks and to rats for 104 weeks, there is no hint of a carcinogenic potential of praziquantel in small rodents, while hycanthone had cancerogenic effects in mice and niridazole was carcinogenic in mice, rats and Syrian hamsters. PMID:7195246

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in adult acanthocephalans and cestodes compared to their fish hosts and to established free-living bioindicators.

    Sures, B; Taraschewski, H; Siddall, R

    1997-09-01

    Intestinal helminths of fish caught from freshwater and brackish water biotopes throughout Europe were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for their heavy metal (Pb and Cd) levels. The metal concentrations of the parasites were compared to those of different organs (muscle, liver, intestine) of the fish hosts and to those detected in the whole bodies of the respective intermediate hosts. The three acanthocephalan species analysed contained very high amounts of Pb and Cd. The lead level of Pomphorhynchus laevis was up to 2700 times higher and the cadmium concentration was approximately 500 times higher than the muscle of chub, its host. Concurrent analysis of larval acanthocephalans in the crustacean intermediate host indicated that the bioconcentration of heavy metals by these parasites occurs only in the final host. In two species of cestodes accumulation of metals was also recorded although the degree of bioconcentration was somewhat lower. Nevertheless, Monobothrium wageneri contained 75 times more Pb and 43 times more Cd than the muscle of its host, the tench. In contrast, no bioconcentration of heavy metals was detected in the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus. It contained less lead than the muscle of its final host, the eel. In one biotope the concentration of 18 elements was compared between the whole soft tissues of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, the parasite Acanthocephalus lucii and its final host, perch. The acanthocephalan accumulated most of the elements to considerably higher concentrations than the zebra mussel, which has been considered an effective bioindicator of heavy metals. The sessile nature of the zebra mussel may allow a better identification of small-scale local differences in environmental heavy metal contamination. However, acanthocephalan parasites will provide an ecologically-important index of average exposure of their mobile fish host to biologically-available metals within its natural range. PMID:9802069

  15. An unusual case of cycticercosis of the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles.

    Sharat Agarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm, especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larvae become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, the vitreous humor, or other tissues. We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles that presented as a swelling of the tendoachilles. Upon Fine Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC that were conducted preoperatively, the possibility of villonodular synovitis was identified. However, the cysticercosis diagnosis was confirmed later after an excisional biopsy was performed. We could find no reports in the literature concerning an occurrence of cysticercosis in the tendon sheath of tendoachilles.

  16. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI Neurocisticercose: relação entre antígeno da Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano e ressonância magnética

    Ronaldo Abraham; José Antonio Livramento; Cláudia da Costa Leite; Alessandra Xavier Pardini; Adelaide José Vaz; Luís dos Ramos Machado

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). METHOD: Sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. RESULTS: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within th...

  17. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using ...

  18. First case of peritoneal cysticercosis in a non-human primate host (Macaca tonkeana) due to Taenia martis

    Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Chermette, René; Regnard, Pierrick; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Ferreira, Xavier; Sabou, Marcela; Alexander W. Pfaff; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections with larval stages (metacestodes) of a variety of taeniid species have been described in primates, including humans, with partial to severe clinical consequences. Taenia martis is a tapeworm of mustelids, and martens are mainly their definitive hosts in Central Europe. In the rodent intermediate host cysticerci develop in the pleural and peritoneal cavities. The present report describes a case of T. martis peritoneal cysticercosis in a Tonkean macaque. FINDINGS: An abd...

  19. The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, ...

  20. Acute intestinal obstruction due to taenia saginata infestation: a case report

    Soleimani A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Infection with Taenia saginata or taeniasis is an uncommon parasitic infection in Iran with a prevalence rate of 2-3% and it is more seen in the northern parts of the country. Epigastric pain, nervousness, dizziness, nausea and loss of appetite may be the only presenting symptoms but secondary appendicitis, acute intestinal obstruction and necrosis of the pancreas are its serious and rare complications."n"nCase presentation : A 62-year old woman was admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital with signs of acute abdomen. She had a past history of infection with hydatid cyst and its subsequent surgery, eight years ago. At the time of admission, she suffered from persistent abdominal pain and loss of appetite for two years. Despite having the epidemiological evidence of working along the banks of rivers contaminated with human sewage and working on farms fertilized with human waste and presence of signs hinting at the disease, parasitic infection had not been considered in its diagnosis."n"nConclusion: Although signs and symptoms of taeniasis are non-specific but a complete history, physical examination and detailed patient notes, especially by considering epidemiological factors, are very important to the early diagnosis of taeniasis. "n"nKeywords: Abdominal pain, beef tapeworm, cysticercosis, intestinal obstruction, taenia saginata, taeniasis.

  1. Taenia antigens detection in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis and its relationship with clinical activity of the disease Dosagem de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano em pacientes com neurocisticercose e sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença

    Ronaldo Abraham; Alessandra Xavier Pardini; Adelaide José Vaz; José Antonio Livramento; Luís dos Ramos Machado

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine the concentration of Taenia antigens in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurocysticercosis (NC); (2) to establish its relationship with clinical activity of the disease and with classical variables of CSF. METHOD: A CSF examination was performed in one sample from 36 patients with definitive diagnosis of NC, including: quantitative and cytomorphological study, biochemical tests, immunological reactions for cysticercosis and Taenia antigens. The antib...

  2. Relevant peptides of Taenia crassiceps for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by immunoblot

    L.F. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the limited knowledge about the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by immunoblot, the aim of this study was to assess the applicability of this test, identifying key peptides with diagnostic value. Immunoblot assays were performed using total larval antigen of Taenia crassiceps and 60 sera of positive bovines for cysticercosis (30 naturally and 30 experimentally infected with T. saginata eggs, 30 sera of negative bovines for cysticercosis and 30 sera of bovines with other diseases (fascioliasis, hydatidosis and tuberculosis. The peptides of greater diagnostic importance, in descending order of accuracy (%, were as follows: 6-8kDa (90.8%, 129-143kDa (74.2%, 99-105kDa (71.7% and 14-19kDa (71.1%. Cross-reactions, due to fascioliasis and hydatidosis, were observed in the four intervals of peptides highlighted. The results demonstrate that the total antigen of T. crassiceps has peptides with a high diagnostic potential; therefore, the immunoblot is useful in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

  3. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-α. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  4. [Subcutaneous Taenia crassiceps-cysticercosis in a dog with Cushing's syndrome].

    Nolte, A; Strube, C; Raue, K; Brämer, C; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2016-02-16

    A male, 12-year-old Cairn terrier suffering from Cushing's syndrome with two therapy-resistant inflammatory subcutaneous lesions was examined pathomorphologically and parasitologically. Within the subcutaneous tissue, there was a suppurative to necrotizing and histiocytic inflammation present with the formation of caverns. Intralesional whitish-grey cysts with a diameter of 1-4 mm were detected. Molecular investigations of the cysts confirmed the preliminary morphological identification as Cysticercus longicollis. The adenohypophysis showed an infiltrative growing carcinoma. Cysticercus longicollis is the metacestode of Taenia (T.) crassiceps, a tapeworm of foxes and coyotes. Small rodents are typical intermediate hosts, in which the metacestode develops within the body cavities as well as in the subcutis. Subcutaneous cysticercosis after infection with eggs of T. crassiceps is also described in different domestic animal species and in humans, who represent aberrant intermediate hosts. Immunosuppression due to Cushing's syndrome, probably caused by the tumor of the adenohypophysis, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the present case. PMID:26763526

  5. Genetic variation of Taenia pisiformis collected from Sichuan, China, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene.

    Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-08-01

    Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288

  6. Protection against Taenia pisiformis larval infection induced by a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine.

    Chen, L; Yang, D Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Huang, X; Fu, Y; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2014-01-01

    Taenia pisiformis larvae cause significant health problems to rabbits. At present, it is not known whether the recombinant antigen from the T. pisiformis oncosphere is able to confer protective immunity against T. pisiformis larval infection. The full-length cDNA was cloned into a pET32a (+) vector, and the recombinant protein was then expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. Vaccination with the purified rTpUbc2 coupled with QuilA was carried out in New Zealand rabbits to evaluate the immunoprotective effect against T. pisiformis infection. The full-length open reading frame of the TpUbc2 gene was 444 bp, and encoded a 16.63-kDa protein. Finally, rTpUbc2 was used to evaluate the ability to induce immunoprotective responses in rabbits. A 79.3-90.8% reduction (P 0.05). Our data support the use of rTpUbc2 as a potential candidate to develop a vaccine against T. pisiformis larvae. PMID:24615100

  7. Analysis of codon usage patterns in Taenia pisiformis through annotated transcriptome data.

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianfei; Yang, Deying; Nong, Xiang; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Huang, Xing; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-25

    Taenia pisiformis (Cestoidea; Cyclophyllidea; Taeniidae) tapeworms infect the small intestine of canids and felines, such as dogs and foxes. Synonymous codon usage in T. pisiformis was examined through 8118 reconstructed annotations of transcriptome sequences. The mean value of GC content for the reconstructed genes was 49.48%. Twenty-four codons were determined as "optimal codons". Approximately all translational optimal codons (except CGU) ended on G or C. The gene positions on the primary axis were strongly positively correlated with GC content at the third codon positions and GC content of individual genes. At the same time, the gene expression level assessed by the CAI, the hydrophobicity and aromaticity of encoded proteins were correlated with the GC content at the third codon positions and the effective number of codons (ENC), respectively. We infer that the gene expression level, the hydrophobicity and the aromaticity of the encoded proteins also influenced codon usage in T. pisiformis. Knowledge of the codon usage pattern in T. pisiformis can improve our understanding of the mechanisms of biased usage of synonymous codons and can help in selecting appropriate host expression systems for potential vaccine genes of T. pisiformis. PMID:23268345

  8. Cloning and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia pisiformis.

    Wang, Qiuxia; Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-05-01

    Rabbit cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, is a serious parasitic disease of rabbits. It was reported that some cysteine peptidases have potential roles in the pathogenesis of various parasitic infections. To investigate the biochemical characteristics and roles in the pathogenesis/host-invasion of cysteine peptidases, a cDNA sequence encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (TpCP) was cloned and identified from the T. pisiformis metacestodes. This sequence was 1220 bp in its length, which included a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding a 339 amino acid peptide. Multiple sequence alignments revealed a 28.9-88.5% similarity with cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other helminth parasites and mammals. The recombinant TpCP expressed in Escherichia coli did not show the proteolytic activity by zymography gel assay. However, the TpCP expressed in Pichia pastoris had typical biochemical activities that could hydrolyze rabbit immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin and fibronectin. Substrate studies indicated pronounced cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. This activity was sensitive to cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and immunohistochemistry results also indicated that TpCP was distributed as an intense positive reaction in the bladder wall. Our results gave us insights into future studies of TpCP's roles in the infection. PMID:23411373

  9. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  10. Taenia antigens detection in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis and its relationship with clinical activity of the disease Dosagem de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano em pacientes com neurocisticercose e sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: (1 To determine the concentration of Taenia antigens in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with neurocysticercosis (NC; (2 to establish its relationship with clinical activity of the disease and with classical variables of CSF. METHOD: A CSF examination was performed in one sample from 36 patients with definitive diagnosis of NC, including: quantitative and cytomorphological study, biochemical tests, immunological reactions for cysticercosis and Taenia antigens. The antibodies for antigens detection were obtained from the larval form of Taenia crassiceps, ORF strain. After intraperitoneal passage through female mice, a group of rabbits was immunized with vesicular fluid antigens. RESULTS: The Taenia antigen was detected in CSF from 17 patients (47.2%, especially in those patients with epileptic symptoms in the last 12 months. CONCLUSION: Taenia antigens presence in CSF have significant relationship with clinically active forms of NC, being a more sensitive marker than the classic eosinophil presence.OBJETIVO: (1 Determinar a concentração de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR em doentes com neurocisticercose; (2 estudar sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença e com as variáveis clássicas do LCR. MÉTODO: Em 36 pacientes com diagnóstico definido de neurocisticercose foi realizado exame do LCR, com estudo citológico e citomorfológico, exame bioquímico, reações imunológicas para cisticercose e detecção de antígenos de Taenia. Os anticorpos para detecção desses antígenos foram obtidos a partir da forma larvar da Taenia crassiceps, cepa ORF. Após a inoculação e proliferação intraperitoneal dessa forma larvária em ratas, foi imunizado um grupo de coelhos com seu líquido vesicular. RESULTADOS: Em 17 pacientes (47,2% foi detectado antígeno de Taenia, especialmente naqueles com manifestação epiléptica nos últimos 12 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A detecção de antígeno de Taenia guarda relação significativa com a vigência de formas clinicamente ativas, sendo, nestas formas, marcador mais sensível que a eosinofilorraquia.

  11. Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis

    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto; Adelaide José Vaz; Paulo Mutuko Nakamura; Pedro Manuel Leal Germano

    2001-01-01

    Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por an...

  12. Spasmogenic effect of the Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus Indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) on the Contractile Activity of Guinea-Pig Taenia Coli

    De Souza, A.; Aka, K J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica (AETI) was studied on the guinea pig taenia coli, due to its use for treatment of constipation in traditional medicines. AETI, at concentrations ranging from 10−8 mg/ml to 10−2 mg/ml, increased the spontaneous contractile activity of guinea pig taenia coli in a dose-dependent manner (EC50= 4×10−6 mg/ml). This activity was unaffected by atropine. In high K+, Ca2+-free solution containing EDTA, AETI as well as acetylcholine, used as a control, ...

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

    Fu Bao-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics.

  14. Epidemiological updates and economic losses due to Taenia hydatigena in sheep from Sardinia, Italy.

    Scala, A; Pipia, A P; Dore, F; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Marrosu, R; Bandino, E; Carmona, C; Boufana, B; Varcasia, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Taenia hydatigena in sheep and dogs from Sardinia and the economic estimation of losses due to this metacestodosis in lambs. A total of 7781 Sarda breed lambs were examined at abattoirs for the detection of Cysticercus tenuicollis or necrotic-haemorrhagic tracks of their migration. Morphological and molecular identification of parasites was carried out. Individual faecal samples from 300 dogs were examined for copromicroscopic investigations and coproELISA assay. An overall prevalence of 14.6% for T. hydatigena cysticercosis was found in the examined lambs. In total, 10,807 parasitary tracks were found, with an abundance of 1.39 and an average intensity of 9.52. The molecular analysis of the isolates showed an overall pairwise nucleotide divergence for the CO1 and ND1 was of 0-3.1 and 0-3.3%, respectively. Low intra- and interspecific variation was recorded for C. tenuicollis isolates used in this study which suggested the absence of differentiation. Microscopic examination of dog faeces showed a total prevalence of 31.3% for endoparasites in the examined samples (94/300). Taeniid eggs were found in 8.3% of the dogs. The results of the monoclonal antibody ATH4 ELISA test showed a prevalence of 11% (33/300) for T. hydatigena coproantigens. The total economic costs related to cysticercosis amounted to almost € 330,000. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis in 14.6% of 30-40-day-old lambs highlights the high parasitic pressure by T. hydatigena in the territory of Sardinia, Italy. PMID:25968992

  15. Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.

    Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

    2010-10-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n = 10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n = 3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n = 3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n = 4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079

  16. Effect of leukotriene C4 on electromechanical activity and Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake in taenia coli

    Zschauer, A.; Matthews, E.K.; Richardson, B.P.

    1988-10-01

    The actions of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) on electromechanical activity and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake in guinea pig taenia coli were investigated. The contractile action of LTC4 was abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. LTC4 concentrations eliciting a maximal contraction in normal medium produced no response in preparations depolarized with KCl. In single sucrose gap studies, LTC4 increased both the frequency of electrical spiking and tension. These effects were blocked by the dihydropyridine Ca/sup 2 +/-channel antagonist PY 108-068 and by the leukotriene receptor antagonist FPL 55712. In double sucrose gap experiments, LTC4 caused a small depolarization without measurable change in membrane conductivity; increased spontaneous electrical activity was again accompanied by an increase in tension. LTC4 caused a detectable increase in /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake only at extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations less than 1 mM, and this was again inhibited by PY 108-068 or FPL 55712. It is concluded that the contractile effects of LTC4 in guinea pig taenia coli occur as a consequence of its ability to open voltage-sensitive Ca/sup 2 +/ channels, an effect that may occur independently of membrane depolarization.

  17. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, suppresses contraction and disrupts contractile filaments organization of skinned taenia cecum from guinea pig.

    Watanabe, Masaru; Yumoto, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Wang, Hon Hui; Katayama, Takeshi; Yoshiyama, Shinji; Black, Jason; Thatcher, Sean E; Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2010-05-01

    To explore the precise mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of blebbistatin, a potent inhibitor of myosin II, on smooth muscle contraction, we studied the blebbistatin effects on the mechanical properties and the structure of contractile filaments of skinned (cell membrane permeabilized) preparations from guinea pig taenia cecum. Blebbistatin at 10 microM or higher suppressed Ca(2+)-induced tension development at any given Ca(2+) concentration but had little effects on the Ca(2+)-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Blebbistatin also suppressed the 10 and 2.75 mM Mg(2+)-induced, "myosin light chain phosphorylation-independent" tension development at more than 10 microM. Furthermore, blebbistatin induced conformational change of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and disrupted arrangement of SMM and thin filaments, resulting in inhibition of actin-SMM interaction irrespective of activation with Ca(2+). In addition, blebbistatin partially inhibited Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of native actomyosin from guinea pig taenia cecum at around 10 microM. These results suggested that blebbistatin suppressed skinned smooth muscle contraction through disruption of structure of SMM by the agent. PMID:20164381

  18. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  19. Proširenost i morfološke zna?ajke cisti Cysticercus tenuicollis (cisticerci Taenia hydatigena) ovaca i koza u Iranu.

    RADFAR, Mohammad Hossein; Tajalli, Simin; Jalalzadeh, Mansooreh

    2005-01-01

    Istraživana je proširenost i morfologija larvalnih rostralnih kukica cisticerka Taenia hydatigena ovaca i koza u Iranu. Pregledano je 1336 ovaca i 1674 koze zaklane na klaonici u Kermanu na invaziju cistama Cysticercus tenuicollis. Ciste C. tenuicollis su na?ene u 172 ovce (12,87%) i 302 koze (18,40%) a razlika je bila zna?ajna (P

  20. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution. PMID:26349236

  1. Cloning and characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestode EgactI and EgactII actin gene promoters and their functional analysis in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line

    E.R.P. Gimba

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the structure and function of a promoter from a cestode. The ability of DNA fragments respectively encompassing the 935-bp and 524-bp regions upstream from the ATG codon from the EgactI and EgactII actin genes of Echinococcus granulosus to promote transcription was studied in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line. The results of transfection assays showed that both regions have strong promoter activity in these cells. The fragments were tested in both orientations and the 524-bp fragment of EgactII presented a bidirectional promoter activity. Deletion analysis of EgactI and EgactII promoters indicated the presence of regulatory regions containing putative silencer elements. These results indicate that both EgactI and EgactII promoters are functional and that the preliminary functional evaluation of E. granulosus and possibly of other cestode promoters can be performed in heterologous cell lines.

  2. Intestinal cestodes of poultry Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia Infundibulum infection in a commercial Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica farm in Apomu, Osun State, Nigeria

    O.W. Gamra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia infundibulum are important species of cosmopolitan cestodes of poultry occurring in the small intestine and transmitted by ants, houseflies and beetles. Ten moribund and fifteen carcasses of Japanese quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica with heavy intestinal tapeworm infection were brought to the post-mortem section of the department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. The farmer reported that there was sporadic mortality (11.2% on his farm as he has lost almost 112 birds of a total flock size of 1000 capacity within the space of two weeks as an average of 8 mortalities were recorded per day prior to the time of presentation. Postmortem examination revealed severe emaciation of the breast muscles and protrusion of the keel bone, as intestinal lumen of all the carcasses was severely filled with whitish worms measuring about 15cm-25cm in length as their anterior ends were firmly attached to the intestinal mucosal and dark red exudates (digested blood was seen. Histopathology reveals transverse section of worms associated with sloughing off, necrosis and degeneration of intestinal villi. The worms were confirmed to be Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida. This is the first recorded case of Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida infection in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in Nigeria. This report may be an alert of the possibility of on-going pathogenicity of these poultry cestodes in quails in Nigeria. We strongly encourage quail farmers to frequently change the birds' bedding and always keep it dry which can help to avoid infections because it shortens the survival of the gravid segments and the eggs. Also farmers should put up measures to avoid contamination of feed with ants, houseflies and beetles, and also prevent access of these intermediate hosts to birds as chemical control of flies, ants and termites in poultry houses is essential for the prevention of these pathogenic helminth infections. However, for both economic and ecologic reasons, outdoor use of insecticides should not be a routine practice.

  3. Susceptibility of Taenia saginata metacestodes to gamma irradiation and shelf-life extension of the treated meat

    Taenia saginata metacestodes from experimentally infected calves were irradiated at levels varying from 0.2 to 0.6 kGy. Human volunteers who infected themselves with the irradiated cysticerci showed that a minimum irradiation dose level of 0.3 kGy is required to inhibit the development into adult tapeworms. Irradiation of infected carcasses by 0.5 kGy to 0.6 kGy seems to be effective. The evagination reflex and the in vitro maintenance did not show any difference in behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated cysticerci. Even this relatively low irradiation dose produced a lower microbiological contamination in hygienically produced minced veal. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  4. Control of tapeworms by irradiation

    Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day + 24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the unirradiated cysticerci is 173,8 mm, while those resulting from cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

  5. A Novel Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Is Massively Expressed in Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells.

    Koziol, Uriel; Radio, Santiago; Smircich, Pablo; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Fernández, Cecilia; Brehm, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes. PMID:26133390

  6. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  7. Morphometric Analysis of Larval Rostellar Hooks in Taenia multiceps of Sheep in Iran and Its Association with Mitochondrial Gene Variability.

    Sima Rostami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present study were morphometric characterization of rostellar hooks of Taenia multiceps and to investigate the association of hook length variation and the variability within two mitochondrial genes of sheep isolates of the parasite.Up to 4500 sheep brains were examined for the presence of C. cerebralis. Biometric characters based on the larval rostellar hook size were measured for each individual isolate. Representative mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA gene sequences for each of the isolates were obtained from NCBI GenBank. Morphometric and genetic data were analyzed using cluster analysis, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and random effects model.One hundred and fourteen sheep (2.5% were found infected with the coenuri. The minimum and maximum number of scoleces per cyst was 40 and 550 respectively. Each scolex contained 22-27 hooks arranged in two rows of large and small hooks. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 158.9 and 112.1 μm, respectively. Using ICC, statistically significant clusters of different hook sizes were identified within the isolates. The length of the large and small hooks was significantly associated with the variability in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.Taenia multiceps, is a relatively important zoonotic infection in Iranian sheep with the prevalence rate of 2.5%. Hook length analysis revealed statistically significant difference among individual isolates. Associations between the rostellar hook length and variability in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA was documented.

  8. Taenia crassiceps – Plasmodium yoelii co-infection the outcome depends on the moment of the infection

    VICTOR HUGO SALAZAR-CASTAÑON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases. Mixed parasite infections are common in many parts of the world. Currently it has been suggested that immune response already present due to an in progress infection may influence the immune response to other infection. To test this we developed a murine model of co-infection with Taenia crassiceps (Tc and Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (Py17XL parasites. BALB/c mice are able to develop Th1 or Th2 immune responses at different times after Tc infection. Here we explored if time of co-infection and the profile of cytokines Th1 or Th2 in the in vivo environment of a Tc parasitized host modifies the outcome of lethal infection with Py. BALB/c mice were infected via intra peritoneal with Tc, and after 2 (Th1-response or 8 (Th2-response weeks mice were co-infected via intravenously with 1X10 3 Py parasitised red blood cells. Three control groups were considered, mice infected only with Py, mice infected with Tc (Tc2 or Tc8, and non-infected mice. The results shown that Py17XL infection was rapidly lethal in the BALB/c mice, 68% of Py-infected mice succumbed on from day 7, at to 11th day post infection, all mice died to severe anemia and cachexia; this was associated with low levels of IL-4 and IL-12 and high levels of TNF-? and IFN-?. In contrast, when mice were previously infected with Tc for 2 or 8 weeks before Py infection, mice were protected against the early death by Py. Interestingly, co-infection of 2 or 8 weeks with Tc had different effect on survival of mice co-infected with Py. When co-infection was performed at 2 weeks (Tc2, mice showed reduced mortality associated with a decrease in anemia. However, severe caquexia and splenomegaly was present due to the exacerbated inflammatory response (high levels of IL-1?, IL-12 and TNF-?. As a result, all mice from Tc2 co-infection died on day 18. Interestingly, mice co-infected at 8 weeks (Tc8, increased 30% their survival rate compared to mice from Tc2 co-infection, mice from Tc8 co-infection survived until day 30. These mice shown a reduction of severe pathology such as anemia, cachexia and splenomegaly, associated with a mixed profile of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-1?, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-? and reduced production of IFN-?. Thus, our data suggest that a mixed Th1/Th2 profile supports the resistance to Py17XL during co-infection with T. crassiceps. In addition, time previous infection and the profile of cytokines Th1 or Th2 in the T. crassiceps parasitized host altered disease of lethal infection with P. yoelii 17XL.

  9. The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2014-09-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

  10. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  11. Budding of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci In Vitro Is Promoted by Crowding in Addition to Hormonal, Stress, and Energy-Related Signals

    Pedro Ostoa-Saloma; Pedro Ostoa-Jacobo; Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez; Silvana Bazúa; Carlos Larralde

    2010-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts) reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1 ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in ...

  12. Changes in behavioural and physiological parameters associated with Taenia pisiformis infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that may improve early detection of sick rabbits

    Betancourt-Alonso, Miguel-Angel; ORIHUELA, Agustín; Aguirre, Virginio; Vázquez, Reyes; Flores-Pérez, Fernando-Iván

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to describe rabbits' early behavioral responses to illness, and its relation with physiological changes to help improve early detection of infection, particularly those induced by Taenia pisiformis in rabbits. Twenty adult female New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated in two groups, to determine whether changes in behavior and some physiological parameters can be induced in rabbits after a T. pisiformis infection. Infected animals were orally ino...

  13. Dicty_cDB: AFB390 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFB390 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 AFB390Z (Link to Original ... Q-like... 51 1e-05 AY515271_1( AY515271 |pid:none) Taenia ... solium cathepsin L-like cys... 50 2e-05 AB441815_1 ... ( AB441815 |pid:none) Taenia ... solium clp gene for catheps... 50 2e-05 protein up ...

  14. Neurocysticercosis in a 2-year-old boy infected at home

    Brutto, Oscar H. Del

    2012-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy presented with seizures and two parenchymal brain ring-enhancing lesions. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was confirmed by positive serology and response to albendazole therapy. The patients's mother was a Taenia solium carrier, who had most likely infected the child through the fecal-oral route. Household contacts should always be investigated in children with neurocysticercosis. Proper identification and treatment of Taenia solium carriers will reduce the risk of further sp...

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFG190 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFG190 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 AFG190Z (Link to Original ... protei... 51 1e-05 AY515271_1( AY515271 |pid:none) Taenia ... solium cathepsin L-like cys... 50 2e-05 AB441815_1 ... ( AB441815 |pid:none) Taenia ... solium clp gene for catheps... 50 2e-05 AB441816_1 ...

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHA290 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHA290 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 - (Link to Original site) ... beta mR... 37 0.16 AY515271_1( AY515271 |pid:none) Taenia ... solium cathepsin L-like cys... 37 0.20 AB441815_1( ... AB441815 |pid:none) Taenia ... solium clp gene for catheps... 37 0.20 AB441816_1( ...

  17. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Cowan, Linda D.; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium is an infection that is transmitted between pigs and humans. Humans may get infected with the larvae of Taenia solium, which results in cysticercosis, an infection common in pig farming communities where there is poor sanitation and free roaming pigs. Most published studies on this infection have included less participants covering a restricted geographic area, thereby resulting in a limited understanding of the important risk factors for infection. Our study aimed to examine im...

  18. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru

    Pray, Ian W.; Swanson, Dallas J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig’s roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs. PMID:27035825

  19. Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts

    Klug, Page E.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple host introductions to the same non-native environment have the potential to complete life cycles of parasites incidentally transported with them. Our goal was to identify a recently detected parasitic flatworm in the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on the remote Pacific island of Guam. We considered possible factors influencing parasite transmission, and tested for correlations between infection status and potential indicators of host fitness. We used genetic data from the parasite and information about the native ranges of other possible non-native hosts to hypothesize how it arrived on Guam and how its life cycle may be currently supported. Methods We identified the parasite by comparing larval morphology and mtDNA sequences with other Pseudophyllid tapeworms. We assessed probability of infection in individual snakes using logistic regression and examined different factors influencing presence of parasites in hosts. Results We identified the parasite as the pseudophyllid cestode Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, with all sampled worms from multiple snakes sharing a single mtDNA haplotype. Infection appears to be limited to the only freshwater watershed on the island, where infection prevalence was high (77.5%). Larger snakes had a higher probability of being infected, consistent with the chronic nature of such infections. While infection status was positively correlated with body condition, infected snakes tended to have lower intra-peritoneal fat body mass, potentially indicating a negative effect on energy stores. Conclusions We discovered that B. irregularis inhabiting a small area of forested habitat in a freshwater watershed on Guam are often infected by a novel parasite of Asian origin. While further work is needed, this species of Spirometra, itself a non-native species, likely depends on a suite of recently introduced hosts from different parts of the world to complete the life cycle. This baseline study provides little evidence of any effects on host fitness, but additional data are needed to more thoroughly explore the consequences of infection in this invasive snake population. PMID:26699614

  20. Disease: H01047 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available a HH, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH Cysticercosis of the central nervous system: how should it be managed? Curr Opi...tion of undercooked pork infected with cysticerci. Infection of the human nervous system by T. solium...s common than neurocysticercosis (occurring in 1-3% of all infections). Infectious disease Taen... (neurocysticercosis) causes acquired epilepsy and death. Ophthalmic cysticercosis is much les...H01047 Cysticercosis Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is endemic in many poorer countries

  1. The Financial Costs Associated with Porcine Cysticercosis and Epilepsy in Iringa Rural District

    Gamba Nkwengulila

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease that poses serious public health risk and significant economic losses in the pig industry. Human neurocysticercosis is recognized as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where T. solium is endemic. The monetary burden caused by T. solium cysticercosis condemned pigs and epilepsy is under-reported in Tanzania, Iringa rural district being no exception. The aim of the present study was to estimate the financial costs associ...

  2. A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MAP kinases (MAPK are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17β-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design.

  3. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity▿

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  4. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

  5. Surface-associated proteins and host IgG on early and late metacestode stages of Taenia pisiformis.

    Craig, P S

    1988-05-01

    125I-labelled proteins associated with the surface of the oncosphere and metacestode stages of Taenia pisiformis were investigated, together with the presence of host immunoglobulin G on the parasite surface. Rabbit IgG was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the acid washes (pH 3.0) of viable 3-week migratory metacestodes and 8-week mature cystic metacestodes from the liver and peritoneal cavity, respectively, of rabbits orally infected with eggs of T. pisiformis. However, specific anti-T. pisiformis IgG antibodies could not be detected in these washes using ELISA. When intact and washed hatch-activated oncospheres and 3-week and 8-week metacestode stages were iodinated with Bolton-Hunter 125I reagent and examined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, there appeared to be a marked loss and/or reduction of labelled proteins on the mature cystic metacestode compared to the oncosphere and 3-week juvenile metacestode stages. Six-week post-infection rabbit sera strongly immunoprecipitated a 43 kD iodinated protein from oncospheres together with others including a 65 kD polypeptide. Only the 65 kD polypeptide, which is the major iodinated protein on 3-week liver metacestodes, was immunoprecipitated from these juvenile or the mature metacestode stages. The results are discussed in relation to survival of metacestodes in the host, and as to how acquired resistance might result from both frequent egg challenge and concomitant immunity. PMID:3412783

  6. Alternative energy production pathways in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to a benzimidazole derivative (RCB20).

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; DA Costa, Tatiane Luiza; DE Castro, Ana Maria; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Ambrosio, Javier; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2016-04-01

    Biochemical studies of benzimidazole derivatives are important to determine their mode of action and activity against parasites. The lack of antihelminthic alternatives to treat parasitic infections and albendazole resistance cases make the search for new antiparasitary drugs of utmost importance. The 6-chloro-5-(1-naphthyloxy)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (RCB20) is a benzimidazole derivative with promising effect. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of RCB20 in the alternative energetic pathway of in vitro Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The parasites were in vitro exposed to 6·5 and 13 µ m of RCB20 and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO). The quantification of acetate, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, fumarate and propionate was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantification of urea, creatinine and total proteins was performed by spectrophotometry. The increase in β-hydroxybutyrate reflects the enhancement of the fatty acid oxidation in the treated groups. Volatile fatty acids secretion, acetate and propionate, was increased in the treated groups. The secretion mechanisms of the treated parasites were impaired due to organic acids increased concentrations in the cysticerci. It is possible to conclude that the metabolic effect on alternative energetic pathways is slightly increased in the parasites treated with RCB20 than the ones treated with ABZSO. PMID:26707797

  7. Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation

    I. Brito

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.

  8. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch

    Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

  9. Cloning and characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestode) EgactI and EgactII actin gene promoters and their functional analysis in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line

    E.R.P. Gimba; G. Chemale; S.S. Farias; Zaha, A

    2000-01-01

    We report here for the first time the structure and function of a promoter from a cestode. The ability of DNA fragments respectively encompassing the 935-bp and 524-bp regions upstream from the ATG codon from the EgactI and EgactII actin genes of Echinococcus granulosus to promote transcription was studied in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line. The results of transfection assays showed that both regions have strong promoter activity in these cells. The fragments were tested in both orientations and t...

  10. Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989) Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989)

    Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias; Maria Ivani P. Gonçalves da Silva; Ana Célia Steffen Mangini; Sylvia A. Gurgel Vellosa; Domingas M. A. G. Vieira Torres; Rita Maria da Silva; Adelaide José Vaz

    1991-01-01

    Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5%) casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16208-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available Contig-U16208-1 gap included 1669 3 4708732 4707063 MINUS 4 5 U16208 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ... y... 34 1.1 3 ( EL763314 ) AD0202014 Taenia solium UNAM -cd1_adult Taenia sol... 40 1.1 2 ( FL454055 ) 2473 ...

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16102-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available Contig-U16102-1 gap included 1480 2 5414348 5415745 PLUS 4 7 U16102 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 ... ... 50 0.24 1 ( EL742586 ) LV0244017 Taenia solium UNAM -cd2_larva Taenia sol... 50 0.24 1 ( DV741209 ) ID0 ...

  13. Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis

    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por análisis de titulación en bloque mostrando 100.0% de sensibilidad y 96.7% de especificidad. Los péptidos específicos para la cisticercosis en orden de frecuencia fueron: 72-68 kD (100%, 16-15 kD (77%, 39-36 kD (62%, 18-17 kD (54%, 21 kD (31%, 14 kD (23%, 25-23 kD (8%, y 20-19 kD (8%. Reacción cruzada (72-68 y 18-17 kD sólo se descubrió en una muestra (12.5% de cerdo con hidatidosis. Debido a sus altas tasas de desempeño, el inmunoblot debe ser útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de cisticercosis porcina y es más eficaz que otras pruebas empleadas para este propósito, como examen de la lengua, examen anatomopatológico y ELISA

  14. Activation of P1- and P2Y-purinoceptors by ADP-ribose in the guinea-pig taenia coli, but not of P2X-purinoceptors in the vas deferens.

    Hoyle, C. H.; Edwards, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The activity of adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose), a ribosylated purine nucleotide, was investigated on the carbachol-contracted taenia coli, a tissue possessing P1- (A2) and P2Y-purinoceptors and on the guinea-pig vas deferens which possesses P2X-purinoceptors. 2. In the vas deferens, where ATP (1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent contractions, ADP-ribose was without effect at concentrations up to 1 mM. 3. In the taenia coli, ADP-ribose (0.1 microM-1 mM) produced conce...

  15. Vitellogenesis of diphyllobothriidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes)

    Yoneva, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Bruňanská, M.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 3 (2015), s. 169-179. ISSN 1631-0691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Vitellogenesis * Ultrastructure * Cestoda * Diphyllobothriidea * Cephalochlamys namaquensis * Duthiersia expansa * Schistocephalus solidus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2014

  16. Bradykinin receptors in the guinea-pig taenia caeci are similar to proposed BK3 receptors in the guinea-pig trachea, and are blocked by HOE 140.

    Field, J L; Hall, J M; Morton, I. K.

    1992-01-01

    1. Bradykinin (BK) receptors of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were compared with those of the guinea-pig trachea, a preparation proposed to possess novel BK3 receptors. 2. Bradykinin-evoked contractile responses were unaffected in both preparations by the selective BK1 receptor antagonist [des-Arg9,Leu8]-BK (1 microM-10 microM). The BK2 receptor antagonists, D-Arg-[Hyp3,D-Phe7]-BK and D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-BK, both had low affinities (apparent pKB estimates less than 6) which did not diffe...

  17. Distribución y viabilidad de cisticercos de Taenia saginata en los cortes de carne de la canal de bovinos naturalmente infectados

    F Cayo; G. Valenzuela; E. PAREDES; V Ruíz; Gallo, C

    2013-01-01

    Se determinó la distribución anatómica y viabilidad de los cisticercos de Taenia saginata en bovinos naturalmente infectados, faenados en el sur de Chile. Los animales fueron inspeccionados post mórtem según los procedimientos chilenos oficiales en los puntos obligatorios: corazón, lengua, maseteros, esófago, diafragma y superficie de canal. Se tomaron al azar 20 canales de bovinos diagnosticados positivos a la inspección, y sus mitades izquierdas fueron despostadas en los 33 cortes oficiales...

  18. Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran

    Reza Kheirandish

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09% revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral organs. The coenuri, of variable sizes, were found mainly in the muscles of the thigh, shoulder and neck, and were less common in the abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Coenuri were also found in the diaphragm, tongue, intercostal muscles, lung, parotid area and tunica adventitia of the aorta in a goat with severe infection. The brains of slaughtered goats that had coenuri in their skeletal muscles were examined and coenuri were found in two specimens (8.69%. The coenuri were located in the occipital lobe, the anterior part of the right cerebrum and the parietal lobe of the left cerebrum. Histopathologically, coenuri in the brain caused pressure atrophy and liquefactive necrosis in the surrounding tissues, hyperaemia, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration, neuronophagia, satellitosis, diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis. Coenuri in the skeletal muscles caused degenerative and necrotic changes, hyalinisation and myositis. In the lung, tissues around the coenurus revealed atelectasis and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the present study, concurrent occurrence of coenuri in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles supports the hypothesis that C. cerebralis and C. gaigeri are different names for the metacestodes of the same species of tapeworm.

  19. Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj

    2013-01-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never fou...

  20. Budding of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci In Vitro Is Promoted by Crowding in Addition to Hormonal, Stress, and Energy-Related Signals

    Pedro Ostoa-Saloma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1 ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17ß-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments.

  1. Taeniasis and Cysticercosis as A Zoonotic Parasitic Disease

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasis is a parasitic disease caused by tapeworms from the genus Taenia, and infection with the larvae form of Taenia is called Cysticercosis. Some species of Taenia are zoonotic, and humans serve as the definitive host, the intermediate host or both. Humans are the definitive hosts for Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica, however, humans also act as an intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica. Animals, such as pigs, are the intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle are the intermediate host for T. saginata. Humans can be infected by taeniasis when they eat beef or pork that contains larvae (cysticercus. While, cysticercosis is transmitted via food or water contaminated with the eggs of Taenia spp. The transmission may also occur by autoinfection due to lack of hygiene. The diagnosis of taeniasis based on finding the eggs or proglotid in the human feces. For diagnosing cysticercosis in live animals can be done by tongue palpation to find the presence of cysts or nodules. Serological test may also help for diagnosing cysticercosis in humans or animals. Adult tapeworms in the intestine can be killed by anthelmintic and prevention of taeniasis can be conducted by avoiding raw or undercooked pork (T. solium and T. asiatica and beef (T. saginata. Besides that, to prevent the infection of T. solium, T. saginata or T. asiatica, pigs or cattle should not be exposed to human feces.

  2. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  3. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area o...

  4. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine

    Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E; Marshall W Lightowlers

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one contro...

  5. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  6. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  7. Present Situation and Problems of Cysticercosis in Animal in Bali and Papua

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan; Kadek Swastika; I Made Putra; Toni Wandra; Putu Sutisna; Munehiro Okamoto; Akira Ito

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis zoonotic parasitic disesase caused by Taenia solium larva, is a major public healthproblem. Cysticercosis results from the development of larval tapeworms in humans harboring adult T.solium or from ingesting soil containing eggs shed in the feces of humans, in areas where there are nolatrines. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts and pigs are the normal intermediate hosts. Clinicallythey are most serious when located in the central nervous system or in the eye where they per...

  8. Spatial Clustering of Porcine Cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    Ngowi, Helena A.; Kassuku, Ayub A.; Carabin, Hélène; Mlangwa, James E. D.; Mlozi, Malongo R.S.; Mbilinyi, Boniface P.; Willingham, Arve L.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium is a tapeworm that causes two different disease conditions. In its adult stage, it inhabits the small intestine of human, a condition known as taeniosis, which is characterised by mild symptoms including abdominal disconfort. In the larval stage, T. solium can infect humans and various animal species, mainly pigs, causing cysticercosis. Taeniosis is acquired through consumption of inadequately cooked infected meat, while cysticercosis is acquired through ingestion of tapeworm eg...

  9. A Taenia crassiceps factor induces apoptosis of spleen CD4+T cells and TFG-β and Foxp3 gene expression in mice.

    Zepeda, N; Tirado, R; Copitin, N; Solano, S; Fernández, A M; Tato, P; Molinari, J L

    2016-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a parasite substance produces structural pathology in the mouse spleen. A low-molecular-weight Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor (MF) isolated from the peritoneal fluid of female mice infected with T. crassiceps metacestodes induced pathological and immunological changes in mouse spleen cells in vivo. Electron microscopy and confocal microscopy revealed severe changes in the spleen histoarchitecture of T. crassiceps-infected and MF-treated mice. Apoptotic degenerated spleen cells were observed in the white and red pulps and were more conspicuous in the white pulp of the spleen from the T. crassiceps-infected mice than in that of the MF-treated mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the numbers of spleen CD4+T cells were significantly lower in both experimental groups than in control mice. The ex vivo expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and factor Foxp3 were significantly higher in splenocytes of the experimental mice than the basal expression observed in the control cells. These findings may have potential applications for a better understanding of the host-parasite relationship in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:25850927

  10. AcEST: BP918349 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU001_000112_E01 483 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000112_E01. BP918349 - Show ... 5418 Definition sp|P35418|MYSP_TAESO Paramyosin OS=Taenia ... solium Align length 85 Score (bit) 38.9 E-value 0. ... s: (bits) Value sp|P35418|MYSP_TAESO Paramyosin OS=Taenia ... solium GN=PMY PE=1 SV=2 39 0.012 sp|P35417|MYSP_EC ...

  11. Control of cysticercosis in Madagascar: beware of the pitfalls.

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina; Porphyre, Vincent; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    : Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of public health importance in areas where the disease is endemic, with significant economic impacts on human health and the swine industry. Several gaps remain in the epidemiology of the parasite and the strategies of control in developing countries. We detail the key factors to consider in Madagascar in terms of the porcine husbandry system, Taenia transmission cycle, and diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs, in order to better estimate the sanitary...

  12. Evaluation of a novel Dot-ELISA assay utilizing a recombinant protein for the effective diagnosis of Taenia pisiformis larval infections.

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Deying; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2014-08-29

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in domestic breeds of the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus that results in economic losses. At present, there is no convenient and effective method for the rapid detection of T. pisiformis larvae. Here, we developed and tested the efficacy of a Dot-ELISA assay for the diagnosis of T. pisiformis larval infections in rabbits, based on the expression of the recombinant fusion protein (rTp1) from the Tp1 gene. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to amplify the 3' ends of the Tp1 gene, based on the unigene similar to Ts1 gene (EU009656.1) which comes from transcriptome sequencing of T. pisiformis. The Tp1 gene was successfully amplified, cloned and expressed in BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tp1 protein is specifically recognized by rabbit T. pisiformis cysticercosis antisera. This purified recombinant fusion protein, rTp1, was probed by Dot-ELISA with sera from rabbits infected with T. pisiformis larvae and with other parasitic infections. Results showed that this Dot-ELISA assay had both high sensitivity (92.9-97.6%) and specificity (95.2-98.4%) to detect T. pisiformis larval infections. We also found very low levels of cross-reaction with other parasitic infections. This study has revealed that our novel Dot-ELISA assay utilizing the recombinant fusion protein, rTp1, has a strong potential for the effective diagnosis of T. pisiformis infections in rabbits. PMID:24909076

  13. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years, with a possible role of a grey wolf (Canis lupus) as definitive host

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi L.

    Taenia ovis krabbei has a semi-sylvatic life cycle with carnivore definitive hosts and cervid intermediate hosts. Cervids become infected by foraging on pasture contaminated with the eggs. Larval stages usually develop in heart and skeletal muscles causing pathological changes and severe illness1...

  14. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years, with a possible role of a grey wolf (Canis lupus) as definitive host

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia ovis krabbei is a parasite with a sylvatic life cycle in which carnivores are definitive hosts and Cervid are intermediate hosts. Foraging on pasture contaminated with eggs of T. o. krabbei is the primary cause of infection to Cervids, and the larval stages usually develop in heart and...

  15. Uma nova espécie de cestóide proteocefalídeo, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasita de Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes) (Pisces, Doradidae), do reservatório de Itaipu e rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil A New species of proteocephalidean cestode, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasite of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes) (Pisces, Doradidae) from Itaipu reservoir and Paraná river, Paraná, Brazil

    Gilberto C. Pavanelli; Marion H Machado; Ricardo M. Takemoto; Leonilda C dos Santos

    1994-01-01

    In the present paper the authors describe and illustrate a new species of proteocephalidean cestode, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasite of a freshwater siluriform fish (thorny catfish). Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1833), from the Itaipu Reservoir and Paraná River, in the region of Porto Rico. This is the first reference of a proteocephalid in this host. The values of prevalence and mean intensity of infection are given and the life cycle is discussed.

  16. Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico

    José Juan Martínez-Maya

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de ELISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %. Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26% de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo, los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo. En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8% sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3% (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086. CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo.OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%. The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26% out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group, the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group. In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%, while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3% (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

  17. Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes

    MARISA TORRES; CARLOS PEREZ; ERCIRA GALDAMEZ; MELVIN GABOR; CLAUDIO MIRANDA; XIMENA COFRE; PAULA TELLEZ

    2001-01-01

    Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothrium latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consu...

  18. Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Prevalence of Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the rural area of Viçosa-MG, Brazil

    Adriana Felix Iasbik; Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto; Paula Dias Bevilacqua; Luis Augusto Nero; Tatiane de Oliveira Santos; Adriano Groppo Felippe

    2010-01-01

    A teníase é uma doença que se manifesta no ser humano em decorrência da presença da forma adulta da Taenia sp., enquanto a cisticercose decorre da infecção pelo estágio larvar da Taenia sp. ou Taenia solium, no caso dos suínos e humanos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visando a determinar a prevalência de cisticercose em suínos e de teníase em 176 propriedades localizadas na zona rural de Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG). Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 226 suínos e fezes de 266 humanos, ...

  19. MRI and in vivo proton MR spectroscopy in a racemose cysticercal cyst of the brain

    Racemose cysticercal cyst is the subarachnoid manifestation of the larvae of Taenia solium. On MRI the cysts may resemble other cystic masses. We report the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) features of a case on in vivo proton spectroscopy and discuss its role in the diagnosis of intracranial cysts of parasitic aetiology. (orig.)

  20. Neurocysticercosis—a Parasitic Brain Infection

    2015-08-20

    Dr. Seth O’Neal discusses his article on the economic burden of neurocysticercosis, which is a brain infection caused by Taenia solium larval cysts.  Created: 8/20/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/20/2015.

  1. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    Understanding the factors contributing to the transmission of Taenia solium in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for control. This study aimed to elucidate factors concerning the transmission of porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys...

  2. MRI and in vivo proton MR spectroscopy in a racemose cysticercal cyst of the brain

    Jayakumar, P.N.; Chandrashekar, H.S.; Srikanth, S.G.; Guruprasad, A.S. [Departments of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, 560029, Bangalore (India); Devi, B.Indira [Department of Neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India); Shankar, S.K. [Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India)

    2004-01-01

    Racemose cysticercal cyst is the subarachnoid manifestation of the larvae of Taenia solium. On MRI the cysts may resemble other cystic masses. We report the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) features of a case on in vivo proton spectroscopy and discuss its role in the diagnosis of intracranial cysts of parasitic aetiology. (orig.)

  3. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  4. Public Health Implications of Cysticercosis Acquired in the United States

    2011-01-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Patricia Wilkins, a research microbiologist at CDC, discusses an infection caused by the larvae of taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.  Created: 1/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/6/2011.

  5. Acute Obstructive Hydrocephalus Due to Cysticercosis During Pregnancy

    Ronald M. Ramus; Mark Girson; Twickler, Diane M.; Wendel, George D.

    1994-01-01

    Background: Cysticercosis, due to the parasite Taenia solium, can involve any organ. When central nervous system infection occurs, signs and symptoms depend on the location of the cerebral lesions. Most patients develop seizures, focal symptoms, or headaches with nausea and vomiting.

  6. Solitary intramuscular cysticercosis-A report of two cases

    Sushma Ramraje; Varsha Bhatia; Aparajita Goel

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis, infestation with the encysted larval stage ofTaenia solium, is a major health problem in most countries ofLatin America, Asia, and Africa. It involves mainly the centralnervous system. Muscle involvement is also seen, althoughit usually remains asymptomatic. Solitary intramuscularcysticercosis, without involvement of central nervous systemis a rare entity. We present two cases of solitaryintramuscular cysticercosis, without any systemic orneurologic manifestations.

  7. Masseter muscle cysticercosis: a common disease with uncommon presentation

    Chaurasia, Rameshwar Nath; Jaiswal, Shalini; Gautam, Deepak; Mishra, Vijay Nath

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis in humans is caused by Taenia solium larvae infestation. Oral cysticercosis is a rare condition and is challenging to diagnose. We present a case of masseter cysticercosis in a young woman who presented with painful recurrent cheek swelling. Diagnosis confirmed it after neuroimaging and histopathological examination of the excised lesion from masseter muscle.

  8. Immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease: evaluation of antigens from hydatid cyst fluid and the vesicularfluid of Taenia crassiceps metacestode Inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis: evaluación de líquido hidático y de líquido vesicular de cisticerco de Taenia crassiceps

    Emilio Coltorti

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The specificity and sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA, presently used in South America areas where hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is endemic, was compared to two alternative EIA. One of these uses an hydatid antigen of different prepraration and the other vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps cisticerci (VFCC. The effect of previous neutralization in the serum sample of antibodies anti-normal ovine or murine sera and anti-phosphorylcholine on the diagnostic efficiency of these EIA was studied. The frequency of distribution of the titers obtained with normal sera, hydatid sera positive to DD5 test and hydatid sera negative to DD5 test in three EIA systems was analyzed. Results showed a significant decrease of sensitivity of the EIA using VFCC when compared to these EIA using hydatid antigens. This makes inconvenient the use of VFCC for the immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease. No significant differences between the two EIA using hydatid antigens were observed. SDS-PAGE analysis showed remarkable differences between the VFCC and the hydatid antigens composition and some differences among these latters probably due to manufacturing procedures.Se comparó la especificidad y sensibilidad del ensayo inmunoenzimático (EIE actualmente en uso en las áreas de Sudamérica donde la hidatidosis causada por Echinococcus granulosus es endémica, con dos versiones de EIE, una de las cuales emplea un antígeno hidatídico de diferente preparación y la otra líquido vesicular de cisticerco de Taenia crassiceps (LVCC. Se estudió también para ambos antígenos el efecto de la neutralización previa de los anticuerpos anticomponentes séricos ovinos o murinos, y antifosforilcolina sobre la eficiencia diagnóstica de los EIE. Se analizó la frecuencia de distribución de los títulos obtenidos en los tres sistemas de EIE frente a sueros normales, hidatídicos a la prueba de doble difusión arco 5 (DD5 e hidatídicos DD5 negativos. Los resultados mostraron una significativa disminución de sensibilidad del LVCC frente a los antígenos hidatídicos lo cual hace inconveniente su uso para inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los dos antígenos hidatídicos. El análisis por SDS-PAGE mostró una marcada diferencia de composición entre el LVCC y los antígenos hidatídicos, y algunas diferencias entre estos últimos posiblemente debidas a los procesos de preparación.

  9. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis: molecular approaches for specific diagnosis and parasite identification.

    McManus, D P; Garcia-Zepeda, E; Reid, A; Rishi, A K; Flisser, A

    1989-01-01

    The construction and antibody screening of Taenia solium cDNA libraries, generated in the Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda gt11, with the identification of clones putatively expressing antigen B, T. solium-specific and other antigens is described. Lysogens were produced from a number of selected clones and beta-galactosidase fusion peptides ranging in Mr of approximately 135,000-150,000 were demonstrated. These proteins were shown by immunoblotting to be reactive with a pool of sera from cysticercotic patients originally used in the cDNA library screening. We report a method whereby Taenia (T. saginata and T. pisiformis) eggs can be detected with high sensitivity in a specific DNA dot-blot hybridisation assay using total parasite DNA as probe. We show also that intra-specific DNA variability occurs in T. solium isolates obtained from different geographical areas and discuss the potential significance of this heterogeneity. PMID:2489006

  10. Results of toxicological studies on praziquantel.

    Frohberg, H

    1984-01-01

    Praziquantel (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1,2,3,6,7, 11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, EMBAY 8440, Biltricide) is an anthelminthic drug with activity against all species of schistosomes pathogenic to man and a wide range of cestodes, including the cysticerci of Taenia solium in human tissues and organs, also the CNS. Praziquantel does not reveal any undesired pharmacodynamic effects. After oral administration praziquantel is quantitatively and rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted as a variety of metabolites predominantly via the kidneys. The acute toxicity in rats, mice, rabbits and dogs is very low. Rats tolerated by oral administration doses of up to 1000 mg/kg repeated daily for four weeks, and dogs up to 180 mg/kg for 13 weeks without any organ damage. Praziquantel did not disturb reproduction in rats (up to F2-generation), nor did it reveal teratogenic effects in mice, rats and rabbits. In extensive mutagenicity trials performed by different laboratories worldwide, in a variety of test systems, no induction of point mutations, gene conversion, DNA-repair, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), or X-linked recessive lethals was detected. Besides, Salmonella tests with urines of praziquantel treated mice, rats, healthy and Schistosoma-infected persons gave no indication of a mutagenic effect. In different in vivo mammalian assays praziquantel not mutagenic either. Low toxicity of praziquantel was not mutagenic either. Low toxicity of praziquantel was demonstrated also in the combined chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests which were performed in rats and Syrian hamsters. In none of these species praziquantel exerted a carcinogenic action, and both doses were tolerated. PMID:6542381

  11. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy.

    Lightowlers, M W; Assana, E; Jayashi, C M; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M

    2015-11-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  12. Cysticercosis: Hooked by a Hooklet on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology—A Case Report

    Manav Sawhney; Shubhra Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval form of cestode T. solium. It has a worldwide distribution and is potentially harmful with variable clinical manifestations. The patient most commonly presents with subcutaneous and muscle involvement in the form of nodular lesions. The other most commonly involved sites include eye, brain, bladder wall, and heart. Cysticercosis can be diagnosed on serology, and radiologically but confirmatory diagnosis is based on histopathol...

  13. Ensaio clínico com mebendazole nas teníases

    Naftale Katz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram, tratados 31 pacientes com teníases pelo mebendazole. Utilizando-se os esquemas de 100 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias consecutivos, 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia por 2 e 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias, o percentual de cura foi de respectivamente 20,0, 72,7 e 90,0%. Não houve diferença significativa quando foram tratados pacientes com Taenia solium e Taenia saginata. A ausência de efeitos colaterais e a ampla atividade anti-helmíntica do mebendazole, recomendam seu uso também, como um novo agente tenicida.31 patients with Taenia have been treated with mebendazole. With the schedules of 100 mg, bid, for 4 consecutive days, 200 mg, bid for 2 and 200 mg, bid for 4, the percentages of cure were respectively, 20,0%, 72,7% and 90,0%. No significant difference could be observed when patients with Taenia solium and Taenia saginata were treated with the most active schedule. The absence of side effects and the extensive anti-helminthic activity of mebendazole highly recommend its use inclusive as a new taenicide agent

  14. AcEST: DK949273 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0005_I20 660 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0005_I20. 5' end seq ... =dc... 39 0.019 sp|P35418|MYSP_TAESO Paramyosin OS=Taenia ... solium GN=PMY PE=1 SV=2 39 0.024 sp|Q8T305|MYSP_TA ... ESA Paramyosin OS=Taenia ... saginata GN=PMY PE=2 SV=1 39 0.024 sp|P10587|MYH11 ...

  15. AcEST: BP915517 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU001_000072_E09 559 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000072_E09. BP915517 CL2726C ... Pas... 44 4e-04 sp|P35418|MYSP_TAESO Paramyosin OS=Taenia ... solium GN=PMY PE=1 SV=2 44 4e-04 sp|P29616|MYSC_CH ... sis... 43 0.001 sp|Q8T305|MYSP_TAESA Paramyosin OS=Taenia ... saginata GN=PMY PE=2 SV=1 43 0.001 sp|P53564|CUX1_ ...

  16. Ensaio clínico com mebendazole nas teníases

    Naftale Katz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram, tratados 31 pacientes com teníases pelo mebendazole. Utilizando-se os esquemas de 100 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias consecutivos, 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia por 2 e 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias, o percentual de cura foi de respectivamente 20,0, 72,7 e 90,0%. Não houve diferença significativa quando foram tratados pacientes com Taenia solium e Taenia saginata. A ausência de efeitos colaterais e a ampla atividade anti-helmíntica do mebendazole, recomendam seu uso também, como um novo agente tenicida.

  17. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  18. Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México

    Agnès Fleury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Considerando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México.

  19. A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle

    Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

  20. Conocimiento y prácticas sobre teniasis-cisticercosis en una comunidad colombiana

    Agudelo Flórez, Piedad; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Palacio, Luis Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar los conocimientos y prácticas sobre teniasis-cisticercosis y la frecuencia de anticuerpos contra Taenia solium en habitantes de la localidad de Andagoya, Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio cualitativo-cuantitativo. Las poblaciones de estudio fueron los criadores de cerdos y sus familias, población local y cerdos. Resultados La población tiene un conocimiento parcial del complejo teniasis-cisticercosis. Identifica la cisticercosis como una enfermedad sólo del cerdo y n...

  1. Frequency of depression among patients with neurocysticercosis Depressão em pacientes portadores de neurocisticercose

    Sergio Monteiro de Almeida; Solange Aparecida Gurjão

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of depression in patients with calcified NCC form. The study group consisted of 114 patients subdivided in four groups: NCC with epilepsy, NCC without epilepsy, epilepsy without NCC and chronic headache. METHOD: Depression was evaluated and quantified by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21). RESULTS: Percentage of patients with depr...

  2. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

    Niranjan Kumar,; Jadav Mehul; Bhupamani Das; J. B. Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Taenia solium, and Moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis), and red rose (Rosa hybrida) were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes. Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots. R...

  3. DISSEMINATED CYSTICERCOSIS WITH HUGE MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata; Sen Sumit

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may ...

  4. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions

    Fogang YF; Savadogo AA; Camara M; Toffa DH; Basse A; Sow AD; Ndiaye MM

    2015-01-01

    Yannick Fogoum Fogang, Abdoul Aziz Savadogo, Massaman Camara, Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Anna Basse, Adjaratou Djeynabou Sow, Mouhamadou Mansour Ndiaye Neurology Department, Fann Teaching Hospital, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal Abstract: Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be c...

  5. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  6. The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review

    Rahalkar, M.D.; Shetty, D.D.; Kelkar, A.B.; Kelkar, A.A.; Kinare, A.S.; Ambardekar, S.T

    2000-09-01

    Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

  7. Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis

    Singh N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male, presented with insidious onset, gradually progressive, burning paresthesia over the saddle area, sphincteric disturbance, impotence and paraparesis. Investigations revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the conus medullaris suggestive of neurocysticercosis . This was supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci. On treatment with steroids he showed marked improvement.

  8. The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review

    Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

  9. Estimating the Non-Monetary Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico

    Bhattarai, Rachana; Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, Hélène; Proaño, Jefferson V.; Flores-Rivera, Jose; Corona, Teresa; Ivanek, Renata; Snowden, Karen F.; Flisser, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major public health problem in many developing countries where health education, sanitation, and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. The condition occurs when humans ingest eggs of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which then develop into larvae in the central nervous system. Although NCC is endemic in many areas of the world and is associated with considerable socio-economic losses, the burden of NCC remains largely unknown. This study pro...

  10. The Vicious Worm - a cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena; Braae, Uffe Christian; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis implicates significant economic losses, both in pig production and its impact on human health causing severe headaches and seizures. Cysticercosis control strategies in developing countries have been limited by a lack of available intervention tools and poor socioe...

  11. Healthy pigs for healthy people. A cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mejer, Helena; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian

    2013-01-01

    Saarnak, C., M. V. Johansen, H. Mejer, C. Trevisan, and U. C. BraaePorcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis implicates significant economic losses, both in pig production and its impact on human health causing severe headaches and seizures. Cysticercosis control strategies in developing countries have bee...

  12. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  13. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    The Vicious Worm: A computer-based program advocating for prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis – a zoonotic tapeworm disease - widespread and emerging in many low income countries due to increased pork production and bad hygiene. Available at www.theviciousworm.org + Google Play...... extension officers) using videos, pictures and text. CITY concise information for key stakeholders and decision makers: a 2-page policy brief and information sheet....

  14. Unusual presentation of orbital cysticercosis-ptosis, diminution of vision and medial rectus weakness: a case report

    Taksande, Bharati; Jajoo, Ulhas; Yelwatkar, Samir; Ashish, Jaikishan

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the nervous system. The disease occurs when humans become the intermediate host in the life cycle of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food. The most common sites of involvement of cysticerci are soft tissue, eye and central nervous system. Unusual location of the cysts may result in uncommon manifestations. Ocular cysticercosis can involve both the intraocular and extra ocular muscle. Extra ocular muscle cysticercosis ...

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Cysticercosis—A Case Report

    Suchitha, S.; Vani, K.; R. Sunila; Manjunath, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium, is potentially a dangerous systemic disease with variable clinical manifestations. The disease most commonly involves subcutaneous and muscle tissues, followed by the eye and brain. Cysticercosis can be diagnosed by various radiologic means or by serology, both of which, however, are not definitive. Biopsy and histologic examination containing the cysticerci is the most definitive method of diagnosis. We report...

  16. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Bareilly, Northern India

    B. C. Saravanan; Manjunathachar, H. V.; Tewari, A. K.; GUPTA, S.C.; Karthik, K.; P Tamilmahan; Sudhakar, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs slaughtered at makeshift houses in Bareilly, Northern India. Materials and Methods: Local makeshift slaughter houses were visited weekly in Bareilly to explore the prevalence of the porcine cysticercosis in this area. 175 pigs were screened for cysticercosis and prevalence was correlated to age, sex and breed of pigs. Results: A total of 175 pigs were examined for cysticercosis out ...

  17. Isolated Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    Kanhere, Sujata; BHAGAT, Manish; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis is caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, larvae of a tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticercosis can involve any tissue in the body; the most common affected sites are central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, eyes, and muscles. A few cases of isolated intramuscular cysticercosis without any other tissue involvement have been reported in pediatric population. Here, we report a case of intramuscular cysticercosis diagnosed by ultrasonography in a 5.5 year-old boy who presented wi...

  18. DISSEMINATED CYSTICERCOSIS

    Nirmala; Latha

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cysticercosis is a systemic illness caused by disse mination of the larval form of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticerci may be found in almost any tissue. The most frequently reported locations are skin, skeletal mus cle, heart, eye, and the central nervous system . [1] FNAC and Biopsy of these lesions can show the larval structures and are diagnostic of cysticercosis. Identification of the parasitic cells give a important clue to the ...

  19. CYSTICERCOSIS IN THE ORAL CAVITY: A CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Prabhakar; Deepak Chakravarthy

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia Solium. A middle aged woman presented with a painless solitary nodular swelling on left lateral border of the tongue. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed only blood elements. Excision biopsy was done and sent for histopathological examination which revealed larvae of the pork tapeworm (Cysticercosis). Cysticercosis in human tissues is unusual. Oral cysticercosis, especially the involvement of tongue is very rare in...

  20. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    kulkarni, Pavan G.; Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise c...

  1. Lacrimal Sac Cysticercosis: A Rare Site for Manifestation

    Amita Raoot

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infestation caused by larval cysts (cysticercus cellulosae) of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, most commonly affects the central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the eye. Ocular adnexal infestation in cysticercosis can involve various sites within the eye like vitreous humor, subretinal tissue, extraocular muscle, and lacrimal gland. In this case report, a lump slightly below and medial to inner corner of eye, surgical...

  2. Cysticercosis of breast: a rare encounter

    Anuradha B; Bodhireddy SR; Sharrif; Moode B; Kasetty C; Brahmaiah J

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis is caused by larval stage of Taenia solium. Any organ or tissue may be involved, the most common being subcutaneous tissue and muscles. Breast is an unusual site for cysticercosis and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we report a case of cysticercosis of breast in a 36 year-old woman which mimicked a fibroadenoma. Though rare, cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lump.

  3. Comparison of ELISA and PCR assays for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.

    Ramahefarisoa, Rondro Mamitiana; Rakotondrazaka, Mahenintsoa; Jambou, Ronan; Carod, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease due to Taenia solium, which involves porcines as intermediate host. It is endemic in Madagascar, however minimal data has been reported concerning porcine cysticercosis prevalence. Lack of ante-mortem diagnostic tools renders the evaluation of its prevalence difficult. Tongue palpation is specific but has poor sensitivity. Serological tests detecting antigens or antibodies are sensitive to human cysticercosis and apt for diagnosis but are not yet considered...

  4. New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Luis A. Gomez-Puerta; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposu...

  5. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Rajkumar N Parwani; Tekade, Satyajitraje A.

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular ...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique

    Pondja , Alberto; Neves, Luis; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham Iii, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and incurs sizeable economic losses to pig production. Because data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique are scarce, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 11 villages in Angónia district, Tete province in northwestern Mozambique. Between September...

  7. Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection

    Sameer Rastogi; Pallak Arora; Parvathi Devi; Sartaj Singh Wazir; Shalini Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which wa...

  8. A rare case of disseminated cysticercosis

    Bothale, Kalpana A; Sadhana D Mahore; Maimoon, Sabiha A.

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a common tropical disease. One of the uncommon manifestations and a rare complication is its disseminated form (DCC). Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Human cysticercosis is caused by the dissemination of the embryo of Taenia solium in the intestine via the hepatoportal system to the tissues and organs of the body. The organs most commonly affected are the subcutaneous tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs, brain, eyes, liver,...

  9. Seroprevalensi Positif Sistiserkosis pada Babi Hutan di Kabupaten Way Kanan, Provinsi Lampung (POSITIVE SEROPREVALENCE OF WILD BOAR CYSTICERCOSIS IN WAY KANAN DISTRICT, LAMPUNG PROVINCE)

    Heri Yulianto; Fadjar Satrija; Denny Widaya Lukman; Mirnawati Sudarwanto4)

    2015-01-01

    Wild boar is also an intermediate host of Taenia solium, besides domestic pig which is the mainsource of Cysticercus infection in human. Cysticercosis in wild boar has not been reported in Indonesia.The aim of this study was to determine wild boar’s cysticercosis in Way Kanan District. One hundred serasamples consisting of 41 male wild boars and 59 female wild boars were collected. Eighty seven of boarscome from Banjit Subdistrict, while 13 of wild boars come from Blambangan Umpu Subdistrict ...

  10. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda

    Gerald Zirintunda; Justine Ekou

    2015-01-01

    Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eas...

  11. Oral Cysticercosis: A Diagnostic Difficulty

    Joshi, Jaya; Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and ne...

  12. Cysticercosis Control: Bringing Advances to the Field

    SE O?Neal; Winthrop, K. L.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Progress towards Taenia solium control is evident in the development of new technologies and in increasing regional coordination, yet disease eradication remains unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, translation of research advances into functioning control programs is necessary to address the ongoing disease burden in endemic areas. Multiple screening assays, effective treatments for both human and porcine infection, and vaccines blocking transmission to pigs are currently available....

  13. Porcine Cysticercosis in Southeast Uganda: Seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro Districts

    Willingham, A. L.; Sikasunge, C S; Nsadha, Z; Waiswa, C.; E. M. Fèvre

    2009-01-01

    The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and humans. Human exposure is a function of the size of the animal reservoir of this zoonosis. This is the first field survey for porcine cysticercosis to investigate the prevalence of antigen-positive pigs across an entire rural district of south-east Uganda. In our ...

  14. CYSTICERCOSIS IN THE ORAL CAVITY: A CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Prabhakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia Solium. A middle aged woman presented with a painless solitary nodular swelling on left lateral border of the tongue. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed only blood elements. Excision biopsy was done and sent for histopathological examination which revealed larvae of the pork tapeworm (Cysticercosis. Cysticercosis in human tissues is unusual. Oral cysticercosis, especially the involvement of tongue is very rare in humans.

  15. Cysticercosis of breast: a rare encounter

    Anuradha B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human cysticercosis is caused by larval stage of Taenia solium. Any organ or tissue may be involved, the most common being subcutaneous tissue and muscles. Breast is an unusual site for cysticercosis and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we report a case of cysticercosis of breast in a 36 year-old woman which mimicked a fibroadenoma. Though rare, cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lump.

  16. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools

    RODRIGUEZ-HIDALGO, R; BENITEZ-ORTIZ, W; Praet, N; LR Saa; Vercruysse, J.; Brandt, J.; Dorny, P.

    2006-01-01

    Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could he collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether techni...

  17. IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR PORCINE CYSTICERCOSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

    Evans, Carlton A.W.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H; VERASTEGUI, MANUELA; Garcia, Hector H; CHAVERA, ALFONSO; PILCHER, JOY B.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    1997-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important cause of human disease in many developing countries. Porcine cysticercosis is a vital link in the transmission of this disease and impairs meat production. A treatment for porcine cysticercosis may be an effective way of preventing human disease that would also benefit pig farmers, facilitating control programs in disease-endemic regions. Previous research suggests that reinfection with cysticercosis or immunotherapy with cysticercal antigens may ca...

  18. Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic Of Congo

    Dorny, P.; C. Kabwe; K. Kirezi; K. Lukanu; Lutumba, P; Maketa, V; Matondo, P; Polman, K; Praet, N; Speybroeck, N.; Sumbu, J

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium eggs, is a zoonotic disease whose consequences can be severe especially in the cerebral localisation (neuorcysticercosis). Indeed, neurocysticercosis is the first cause of epilepsy amongst the infectious etiology group. Following the increase of epilepsy cases in Kinshasa and Bas-Congo, it was important to assess the fraction attributable to neurocysticercosis especially as data on cysticercosis in Democratic Republic Of Congo (DRC) dating from 1970...

  19. Sequential Expression of the Neuropeptides Substance P and Somatostatin in Granulomas Associated with Murine Cysticercosis

    Robinson, Prema; White, A Clinton; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Thornby, John; David, Elliott; Weinstock, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system caused by Taenia solium, is a leading cause of seizures. Seizures associated with neurocysticercosis are caused mainly by the host inflammatory responses to dying parasites in the brain parenchyma. We previously demonstrated sequential expression of Th1 cytokines in early-stage granulomas, followed by expression of Th2 cytokines in later-stage granulomas in murine cysticercosis. However, the mechanism leading to thi...

  20. Efficacy of Diverse Antiparasitic Treatments for Cysticercosis in the Pig Model

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Mercy G. Ramirez; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquan...

  1. Cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana no município de Barbalha, Ceará Porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis in municipal district of Barbalha, Ceará

    M.C. Silva; A.A. Cortez; A. Aquino-Cortez; Valente, M; Toniolli, R

    2007-01-01

    Em Barbalha, Ceará, foram realizados levantamentos de casos de cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana causadas por Taenia solium, e realizou-se uma pesquisa quanto aos sistemas de criação de suínos na região. De 85 suínos abatidos em abatedouro local 4,7% apresentavam cisticercose, a maioria dos cisticercos localizava-se na língua e coração. Entre 2001 e 2004, das 302 criações de suínos denunciadas à vigilância sanitária, 96,6% eram chiqueiros. A teníase, entre 1998 e 2003, co...

  2. Neurocysticercosis as a Cause of Epilepsy and Seizures in Two Community-Based Studies in a Cysticercosis-Endemic Region in Peru

    Moyano, Luz M.; Saito, Mayuko; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Olaya, Sandra; Ayvar, Viterbo; González, Isidro; Larrauri, Luis; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Llanos, Fernando; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease affecting more than 50 million people around the world. In many countries neurocysticercosis (NCC), a parasitic disease of the central nervous system, is a frequent cause of seizures and epilepsy. After a human ingests poorly cooked pork with cysts of the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larvae develops in the small intestine as an adult tapeworm. The tapeworm carrier becomes a source of infective eggs which are released with the stools and can infect humans or pigs w...

  3. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland. PMID:16870858

  4. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum (60.8%) and Fasciola hepatica (13.5%). PMID:23831108

  5. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoli?s, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles. PMID:19138449

  6. A NEW CESTODE DIPLOPYLIDIUM DHOKIENSIS (EUCESODA : DIPYLIDIDAE FROM FELIS DOMESTICUS

    P. S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It differs from all known species of the genus, with the characters like scolex medium, dome shaped, indistinctly marked off from the strobila, narrow anteriorly broad in the middle, scolex bears four suckers and rostellum, rostellar hooks are present in the rostellum, 47 in number. The mature proglottids are medium, broader than long with convex lateral margins, testes small, medium, oval 25-30 (27, cirrus pouch medium, Ovary medium, dumb-bell shaped, vagina is a thin tube situated posterior to the cirrus pouch, ootype small oval.

  7. Larvae of gryporhynchid cestodes (Cyclophyllidea) from fish: a review.

    Scholz, Tomás; Bray, Rodney A; Kuchta, Roman; Repová, Radmila

    2004-06-01

    Larvae (metacestodes) of tapeworms of the cyclophyllidean family Gryporhynchidae (previously included in the Dilepididae) occur in different internal organs of fresh- and brackish water fish (110 fish species of 27 families in 12 orders reported), which serve as the second intermediate hosts. The species composition, spectrum of fish hosts, sites of infection, and geographical distribution of gryporhynchids recorded from fish are reviewed here on the basis of literary data and examination of extensive material from helminthological collections. Metacestodes of the following genera have been found in fish: Amirthalingamia Bray, 1974 (1 species), Ascodilepis Guildal, 1960 (1), Cyclustera Fuhrmann, 1901 (4), Dendrouterina Fuhrmann, 1912 (1), Glossocercus Chandler, 1935 (3), Neogryporhynchus Baer et Bona, 1960 (1), Paradilepis Hsü, 1935 (5), Parvitaenia Burt, 1940 (2), and Valipora Linton, 1927 (3). However, most published records concern only three species, namely Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) from the intestinal lumen, Paradilepis scolecina (Rudolphi, 1819) from the liver and mesenteries, and Valipora campylancristrota (Wedl, 1855) from the gall bladder of cyprinids and other fish in the Palaearctic Region. Data on other species as well as reports from other regions are very scarce and almost no information is available from Australia, tropical Asia and South America. A recent study of gryporhynchid metacestodes from Mexico (Scholz and Salgado-Maldonado 2001), which reported 13 species, suggested that they may be more common than indicated by records in the literature. Although only a few cases of pathogenic influence of larvae on fish hosts have been reported, the veterinary importance of gryporhynchids remains to be assessed on the basis of more detailed studies. The data available indicate a strict host and site specificity of some species whereas others occur in a wide spectrum of fish hosts and are not strictly site-specific. Evaluation of Paradilepis larvae from the liver of salmonid fish from British Columbia, Canada, identified as P. simoni Rausch, 1949 by Ching (1982), has shown that they probably belong to two species, P. simoni and P. rugovaginosus Freeman, 1954. Metacestodes of the latter species and those of Cyclustera magna (Baer, 1959) from the intestinal wall of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) from Kenya are reported from fish for the first time. PMID:15357392

  8. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools

    R Rodriguez-Hidalgo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  9. Neurocysticercosis in Europe: Still a public health concern not only for imported cases.

    Fabiani, S; Bruschi, F

    2013-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a parasitic disease caused by the larvae of the cestode Taenia solium, is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the world and the leading cause of secondary epilepsy in Central and South America, East and South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. It is endemic in many low- and middle-income countries of the world. Due to increased travels and immigration, NCC may be diagnosed also in non-endemic areas. In fact, tapeworm carriers from endemic zones can transmit infection to other citizens or arrive already suffering NCC. This phenomenon, occurred first in USA during the last 30 years, has been also observed in Europe, as well as in Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan and Muslim countries of the Arab World. Actually, concerning Europe, although, in some areas only few cases have been described, nevertheless the prevalence of NCC may be considered increasing, especially in Spain and Portugal. We reviewed the literature on the burden of NCC in Europe, by a search of PubMed regarding papers from 1970 to present. We only considered on PubMed published and available papers in English, French, Italian, and Spanish, the languages understood by the authors. One hundred seventy six cases of NCC have been reported in seventeen European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom, and Croatia, Norway, Switzerland). A particular epidemic situation is present in Spain and Portugal. In fact, we collected data that show, in Spain, an increasing incidence both in immigrated patients and in those which were born in certain Spanish geographical areas and, in Portugal, prevalence similar to that observed in endemic areas. Globally, it is clear that as a result of increased migrations and travels from endemic regions, NCC is becoming an emerging public health problem in high-income countries, particularly affecting communities where hygiene conditions are poor and sub-sequentially the parasite can spread from human to human through eggs even in absence of a travel to the tropics. NCC is a preventable disease, it derives that it's important to acquire a great consciousness of the epidemiology and to implement accurate surveillance systems. PMID:23871891

  10. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs.

    Cabrera, Marta; Canova, Sergio; Rosenzvit, Mara; Guarnera, Eduardo

    2002-09-01

    The eggs from Echinococcus granulosus contaminate the environment spreading out the disease among the herbivorous. The differential diagnosis of the embriophores recovered from the soil is very difficult by morphologic and immunologic methods. In this paper we evaluate the EgO/DNA-IM1 for identification of E. granulosus oncosphere DNA and differentiation of eggs from other Taeniid. The positive result of the PCR technique shows an amplification fragment of the expected size (285 bp) corresponding to the partial sequence of the mitochondrial gene of the cytochrome oxidase CO1 from E. granulosus (391 bp). The fragment is not present in the DNA from Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata, Diphyll-obothrium latum, and Hymenolepis nana. It could be useful to rule out Taenia taeniformis, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, and Taenia crassiceps, which sequences do not belong to the primer. We concluded that the PCR amplification employing the EgO/DNA-IM1 primer set showed high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. PMID:12376028

  11. Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes

    MARISA TORRES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothrium latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentosA clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

  12. Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto; Delir Corrêa Gomes; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes; Cláudia Torres Gomes; Dely Noronha

    2004-01-01

    Helminth samples (n = 35) recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lilljeborg, 1873 (3) and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Thomas, 1901 (32), from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819), Vian...

  13. Estructura comunitaria de helmintos de perros vagabundos de San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Perú Community structure of helminths in stray dogs from San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru

    José O. Iannacone; Karina M. Cordova; Roberto V. Wong

    2001-01-01

    Thirty stray dogs Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 were collected in San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru, between January and March 1997 and necropsied for helminths. Three species were collected: the cestodes Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758) Railliet, 1892 and Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and the nematode Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) Stiles, 1905. Fifty per cent of the examined dogs showed one or two parasites. A total of 303 (0-116) helminths were recovered and the intensity of infecti...

  14. A real-time multiplex-nested PCR system for coprological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species.

    Dinkel, Anke; Kern, Selina; Brinker, Anja; Oehme, Rainer; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Giraudoux, Patrick; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 ?l total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive-tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. PMID:21327991

  15. Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.

    Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

    2009-10-01

    This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

  16. Prevalence and public health implications of Echinococcus granulosus in rural dogs in Eastern Nigeria.

    Okolo, M I

    1986-03-01

    Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in rural dogs in Eastern Nigeria was determined. Of the 182 dogs examined, 8 (4.4%) had Echinococcus granulosus infection. The number of Echinococcus granulosus recovered was 80, of which 16 (20%) were from faeces and 64 (80%) were derived from intestinal mucosa. Of the localities surveyed, Eke-Uke had the highest number of infected dogs, 13 out of 38 (34.3%). The females accounted for 94 out of 182 dogs (51.6%) examined, while 98 (53.8%) were males. E. granulosus was present in 7 out of 94 (7.4%) females and in 10 out of 98 (10.2%) males. Parts of the body of thd dogs (anal region, outside of the mouth and coat) examined were positive for taeniid ova. Other cestodes recovered were Taenia hydategina, Taenia ovis, and Taenia pisiformis. PMID:3759352

  17. Taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in individuals of a peasants' settlement (Teodoro Sampaio, Pontal of Paranapanema, SP, Brazil

    Prestes-Carneiro Luiz Euribel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in a population of a peasants' settlement, located at Teodoro Sampaio, state of São Paulo, Brazil (longitude 52degrees 36'12 ", latitude 22degrees 17'12 " a series of laboratory markers were determined. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a standardized questionnaire. To determine anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies, the samples were tested by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay using 18-and 14-kDa antigen proteins from vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Total IgE levels were determined by chemmiluminescence's assay and hemogram by flow cytometer flux counter. A total of 84 individuals, 5.9% presented anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in ELISA and 3.6% were strongly reactive in the 18/14 kDa immunoblotting confirmatory test. All of the individuals with positive antibodies showed elevated Total IgE levels. We conclude that the frequency of anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in this population is higher than other regions considered endemic in São Paulo. Thus, it is important to carry out surveys in Peasants' settlement areas with the objective of establishing public health measures for prevention and control of infectious diseases such as taeniosis-cysticercosis.

  18. Under seize: neurocysticercosis in an immigrant woman and review of a growing neglected disease.

    Bock, Meredith; Garcia, Hector H; Chin-Hong, Peter; Baxi, Sanjiv M

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a significantly neglected tropical disease and, with increasing globalisation, a notable emerging infection in the developed world. We describe a case of ventricular NCC in a 22-year-old Mexican-American woman with a history of seizures, who presented with 2 weeks of headaches and intermittent fevers progressing to altered mental status and vomiting. Initial imaging revealed a cystic mass at the posteroinferior aspect of the third ventricle superior to the aqueduct of Sylvius, calcifications scattered throughout the parenchyma, and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Initial laboratories were unrevealing and serum investigations for Taenia solium antibody were negative, but T. solium antibody was subsequently returned positive from cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights important issues regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NCC relevant to providers not only in areas with endemic disease but, importantly, in locales with diverse immigrant populations. PMID:26682841

  19. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania

    Komba, Erick V. G.; Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Ngowi, Helena A.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.; Mlangwa, James E.; Lekule, Faustin P.; Sikasunge, Chummy S.; Willingham Iii, Arve Lee; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in...... water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p<0.001) and ponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which imposes a major economical and public health burden to the smallholder pig farmers. The study also points to a number of...... important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium....

  20. Cysticercosis control: Bringing advances to the field

    SE O?Neal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress towards Taenia solium control is evident in the development of new technologies and in increasing regional coordination, yet disease eradication remains unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, translation of research advances into functioning control programs is necessary to address the ongoing disease burden in endemic areas. Multiple screening assays, effective treatments for both human and porcine infection, and vaccines blocking transmission to pigs are currently available. Strategies based on identification and treatment of T. solium adult tapeworms, as well as interventions that block cysticercosis acquisition in pigs have temporarily reduced transmission. Building on these successes with controlled community trials in varying endemic scenarios will drive progress towards regional elimination.

  1. Isolated orbital myocysticercosis in a Muslim boy

    Anita Thakur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orbital cysticercosis is secondary to an infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. We report a case of isolated orbital myocysticersosis in a four year old non pork eater boy who presented with sign and symptoms suggestive of mass lesion in superior orbit. He was managed with medical line of treatment and showed complete resolution of his symptoms. It becomes important to report this case because of unusual site of the cyst, young age of the patient and to highlight the importance of proper sanitary measures in preventing this disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2485-2487

  2. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    María Porfiria Barrón González; Ramón Gerardo Rodríguez Garza; Yadira Quiñones Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de...

  3. Spinal Neurocysticercosis: Case Report

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic illness of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of Taenia solium and its considered to be endemic in Latin America. Its diagnosis is based on imaging findings and epidemiological data; although its diagnosis can be made through the detection of specific IgG antibodies, these tests have limited availability in our environment. Central nervous system involvement is generally observed in the brain parenchyma, and less commonly in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space; only infrequently is reported to involve the structures within the spinal canal, in this article we review a case of a patient with spinal cysticercal involvement.

  4. DISSEMINATED CYSTICERCOSIS

    Nirmala

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cysticercosis is a systemic illness caused by disse mination of the larval form of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticerci may be found in almost any tissue. The most frequently reported locations are skin, skeletal mus cle, heart, eye, and the central nervous system . [1] FNAC and Biopsy of these lesions can show the larval structures and are diagnostic of cysticercosis. Identification of the parasitic cells give a important clue to the diagnosis of cysticercosis. We present this case of disseminated cysticercosis with ultrasonographic, cytology and histopathological correlation.

  5. An unusual case of acute painful calf swelling

    Chandrashekhar A Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis commonly involves central nervous system. Isolated involvement of skeletal muscles is rare. We have reported a case of cysticercosis herein presented as acute painful calf swelling, which is an extremely unusual presentation and, hence, a diagnostic challenge. The diagnosis was strongly suspected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The laboratory findings of peripheral eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test for IgG antibodies against Taenia solium further supported the diagnosis. Complete clinical recovery was seen after 6 weeks of oral therapy with albendazole.

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    Christina M. Coyle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article reviews the current literature on neurocysticercosis, including newer diagnostics and treatment developments.

  7. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis in Reunion island: comparison with computerized tomography scan

    Michault, A.; Coubes, P.; Laporte, J.P.; Bouillan-Linet, E.; Leroy, D.

    1988-03-01

    An immunoenzymologic (Elisa) serodiagnosis of cysticercosis is evaluated in 75 encephalic cysticercotic patients whose diagnosis of the disease and its progression is assessed by tomodensitometry. A Taenia solium antigen is used. Only Ig G are investigated. The sensibility of serodiagnosis is 85 % and specificity 87 % when there is a progression of the disease; no difference is noticed in the patients without any progression of the disease and in control normal subjects. This serodiagnosis of cysticercosis appears of value for the evaluation of the activity of the disease.

  8. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis in Reunion island: comparison with computerized tomography scan

    An immunoenzymologic (Elisa) serodiagnosis of cysticercosis is evaluated in 75 encephalic cysticercotic patients whose diagnosis of the disease and its progression is assessed by tomodensitometry. A Taenia solium antigen is used. Only Ig G are investigated. The sensibility of serodiagnosis is 85 % and specificity 87 % when there is a progression of the disease; no difference is noticed in the patients without any progression of the disease and in control normal subjects. This serodiagnosis of cysticercosis appears of value for the evaluation of the activity of the disease

  9. Disseminated cysticercosis with huge muscle hypertrophy

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may assume gross proportions. Morbidity is usually caused by the involvement of the central nervous system or the eyes.

  10. La cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y en el Ecuador (Porcine cysticercosis in Latin America and Ecuador)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington

    2007-01-01

    Resumen.El presente trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de la cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y el Ecuador, donde el Cysticercus cellulosae (metacestodo de Taenia solium) es conocido vulgarmente como: “triquina”, “coscoja”, “alverjilla”, “quinua”, “grano” o “pepa”. Las fuentes de información provienen de artículos científicos publicados en revistas indexadas y de observaciones encontradas en de tesis de grado o trabajos científicos publicados local e internacionalmente. ...

  11. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review

    Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  12. Isolated intramuscular cysticercosis: a case report.

    Kanhere, Sujata; Bhagat, Manish; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis is caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, larvae of a tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticercosis can involve any tissue in the body; the most common affected sites are central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, eyes, and muscles. A few cases of isolated intramuscular cysticercosis without any other tissue involvement have been reported in pediatric population. Here, we report a case of intramuscular cysticercosis diagnosed by ultrasonography in a 5.5 year-old boy who presented with the swellings over the calf and the scapular region, without any associated neurological or ocular involvement. The patient responded well to the course of steroids and Albendazole with complete resolution of both the swellings. PMID:26023298

  13. HUMAN PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN BALI : A REVIEW

    Putu Sutisna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections in humans in Bali are well documented, especially in the population who lived in rural areas. The most common infections are those of the soil-transmitted helminthiasis which are caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm showing prevalence rates of 40 - 95%, 25 - 90% and 20 - 70% respectively. Enterobius vermicularis prevalence rate has been reported to be 18 - 53%. Taenniasis prevalence rate has been documented to be 0.8 - 23% in some villages, where Taenia saginata was found to be more prevalent than Taenia solium, and this might be due to the eating habit of the Balinese people who consumed both pork and beef lawar. Malaria is still found in Bali especially in regions along the coasts of some regencies, although generally the infection rate is low. The prevalence rates of intestinal protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli have been occasionally reported in low percentages.

  14. Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose Evaluation of immunological tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis

    Heloisa Werneck de Macedo; Regina Helena Saramago Peralta; Armando Cipriano; Maria Rosa Sarmento; Adelaide José Vaz; José Mauro Peralta

    2002-01-01

    Introdução: O diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NCC) deve ser feito pela associação de técnicas de imagem com métodos imunológicos sensíveis e específicos. Objetivos: Avaliar os métodos Elisa e Western blot (Wb), utilizando-se como antígeno extrato bruto salino da larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticercus cellulosae e Wb, empregando-se como antígeno cisticercos da Taenia crassiceps em amostras de soro, para o diagnóstico da NCC. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliadas amostras de soro de 43 paciente...

  15. Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose

    Macedo Heloisa Werneck de; Peralta Regina Helena Saramago; Cipriano Armando; Sarmento Maria Rosa; Vaz Adelaide José; Peralta José Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Introdução: O diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NCC) deve ser feito pela associação de técnicas de imagem com métodos imunológicos sensíveis e específicos. Objetivos: Avaliar os métodos Elisa e Western blot (Wb), utilizando-se como antígeno extrato bruto salino da larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticercus cellulosae e Wb, empregando-se como antígeno cisticercos da Taenia crassiceps em amostras de soro, para o diagnóstico da NCC. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliadas amostras de soro de 43 paciente...

  16. Survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in Qinghai, China.

    Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2013-10-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes. PMID:23749034

  17. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  18. Integrative taxonomy at work: DNA barcoding of taeniids harboured by wild and domestic cats.

    Galimberti, A; Romano, D F; Genchi, M; Paoloni, D; Vercillo, F; Bizzarri, L; Sassera, D; Bandi, C; Genchi, C; Ragni, B; Casiraghi, M

    2012-05-01

    In modern taxonomy, DNA barcoding is particularly useful where biometric parameters are difficult to determine or useless owing to the poor quality of samples. These situations are frequent in parasitology. Here, we present an integrated study, based on both DNA barcoding and morphological analysis, on cestodes belonging to the genus Taenia, for which biodiversity is still largely underestimated. In particular, we characterized cestodes from Italian wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), free-ranging domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and hybrids populations. Adult taeniids were collected by post-mortem examinations of the hosts and morphologically identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. We produced cox1 barcode sequences for all the analysed specimens, and we compared them with reference sequences of individuals belonging to the genus Taenia retrieved from GenBank. In order to evaluate the performance of a DNA barcoding approach to discriminate these parasites, the strength of correlation between species identification based on classical morphology and the molecular divergence of cox1 sequences was measured. Our study provides clear evidence that DNA barcoding is highly efficient to reveal the presence of cryptic lineages within already-described taeniid species. Indeed, we detected three well-defined molecular lineages within the whole panel of specimens morphologically identified as T. taeniaeformis. Two of these molecular groups were already identified by other authors and should be ranked at species level. The third molecular group encompasses only samples collected in Italy during this study, and it represents a third candidate species, still morphologically undescribed. PMID:22233209

  19. Human cysticercosis and Indian scenario: a review

    Kashi Nath Prasad; Amit Prasad; Avantika Verma; Aloukick Kumar Singh

    2008-11-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium larva is a major public health problem, especially in the developing world and neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered to be the most common parasitic infestation of the central nervous system. NCC is identified as the single most common cause of community acquired active epilepsy; 26.3% to 53.8% active epilepsy cases in the developing world including India and Latin America are due to NCC. It is also becoming more common in the developed world because of increased migration of people with the disease or Taenia solium carriers and frequent travel to the endemic countries. It is estimated that three quarters of the estimated 50 million people with active epilepsy live in the poor countries of the world. Recent Indian studies using neuroimaging techniques suggest that the disease burden in India surpasses many other developing countries. Hence it is important to know the epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria so as to assess the disease burden and adopt interventional strategies for its control. Literature search was done for this review with special emphasis on Indian studies to create awareness about the disease in India, since cysticercosis is preventable and potentially eradicable.

  20. Diagnóstico laboratorial da neurocisticercose: revisão e perspectivas Laboratory diagnosis of neurocysticercosis: review and perspectives

    Silvia Yukari Togoro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A neurocisticercose é causada por Cysticercus cellulose, a forma larval de Taenia solium, quando este se aloja no sistema nervoso central. O seu diagnóstico é realizado com base em dados clínicos, epidemiológicos, demonstração do agente etiológico pelas técnicas de imagem e testes laboratoriais. No presente estudo, apresentamos uma revisão do diagnóstico laboratorial, com ênfase no desempenho dos testes para pesquisa de anticorpos específicos e detecção de antígenos circulantes, utilização de antígeno homólogo ou heterólogo, nativo e recombinante, bem como a aplicação de métodos moleculares.Neurocysticercosis is caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium, when it lodges in the central nervous system. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is based on clinical and epidemiological data, neuroimaging findings of etiological agent and serologic test results. Herein we present a review of clinical diagnosis, emphasizing test performance for specific antibody and antigen detection, the use of homologous or heterologous antigen, native and recombinant antigens as well as the application of molecular methods.