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Sample records for cestode taenia solium

  1. Immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, N.; Dorny, P.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the central nervous system by larvae of Taenia solium, is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries. This cestode is a public health problem in most developing countries where pigs are raised and its occurrence is strongly associated with poverty. The development of immunodiagnostic tools has contributed to our knowledge on the importance of this parasite by enabling seroepidemiological surveys and community-based studies to be conducted. Here, we ...

  2. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Flisser; Marshall W, Lightowlers.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment [...] aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, health education has been shown to be highly effective since people become aware of the importance of human and porcine cysticercosis and the possibility of eliminating it. Nevertheless it has to be implemented by knowledgeable people. On the other hand, the life cycle can be controlled by avoiding swine cysticercosis. This review describes the studies performed to vaccinate pigs against T. solium and indicate that short time perspectives are very encouraging for the production of an optimal vaccine.

  3. TSOL18 vaccine antigen of Taenia solium: development of monoclonal antibodies and field testing of the vaccine in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    ASSANA, E

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibod...

  4. Genetic characterization of the Asian Taenia, a newly described taeniid cestode of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J; McManus, D P

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiologic pattern of taeniasis in Southeast Asia have indicated the existence of a third form of human Taenia, distinguishable from Taenia saginata and T. solium. Originally termed Taiwan Taenia, and first described in Taiwanese aboriginals, this newly recognized taeniid is now generally referred to as Asian Taenia since it has since been recorded in a number of other Asian countries. Here we have used a genetic yardstick approach to determine whether the Asian Taenia should most appropriately be considered as a new, distinct species or as a subspecies, strain, or variant of T. saginata, which previous studies have shown it closely resembles. Sequence variation in the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes of a range of taeniid cestodes and the COI and rDNA internal transcribed spacer I polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern differences in the Asian Taenia, T. saginata, and T. solium were used as markers of genetic identity. The PCR-RFLP approaches proved useful for rapid and unambiguous discrimination of Asian Taenia from the other two human species, whereas the mitochondrial and nuclear sequence comparisons indicate that the Asian Taenia is much more closely related to T. saginata than recognized taeniid species are to each other. The results support earlier conclusions that the Asian Taenia is a genetically distinct entity but is closely related to T. saginata, and suggest that its taxonomic classification as a subspecies or strain of T. saginata is more appropriate than formal designation as a new species. The very close relationship between Asian Taenia and T. saginata has public health implications in that the Asian form is unlikely to be an important cause of human cysticercosis because T. saginata cysticercosis, if it occurs at all in humans, is an extremely rare phenomenon. PMID:7905720

  5. Nested PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Taenia solium Taeniasis?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H.; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P.; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Sterling, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was devel...

  6. Antibody responses to the host-protective Taenia solium oncosphere protein TSOL18 in pigs are directed against conformational epitopes

    OpenAIRE

    Assana, E.; Gauci, C. G.; Kyngdon, C. T.; Zoli, A. P.; Dorny, P.; Geerts, S.; Lightowlers, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    TSOL18 is a recombinant protein that has been shown in repeated experimental trials to be capable of protecting pigs against challenge infection with the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in an in vitro culture and it is believed that antibody and complement-mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. Investigations were undertaken to characterize whether ...

  7. Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-20

    Dr. Seth Oâ??Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  8. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E., Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

  9. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E, Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

  10. Occurrence of Taenia solium and Cysticercosis in Man in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem. In Egypt Taenia solium/ human cysticercosis is rare. Therefore, this study aims to survey the occurrence of T. solium and cysticercosis in human in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were collected from 425 patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, who attended some hospitals in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were examined by both direct smear method and simple gravity sedimentation technique. Ninety two serum samples were collected randomly from the patients. IgG antibodies against Taenia solium and its cysticerci (Cysticercus cellulose were detected in human serum by using ELISA. The occurrence of T. solium among 425 examined patients in the present work was 0.7% by using sedimentation stool examination technique. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium/cysticercosis in humans in Assiut and Sohage Governorates was 6.5% by using ELISA test. A great variation in the ecological distribution of Taenia solium/Cysticercosis in human was detected between Assiut and Sohage Governorates (8.1% & 3.33% respectively. Higher seroprevalence was detected in women (8.5% than men (3.0%. There was positive correlation between the age of the patient and the infection rate which was 5.3% in the age group below 20 years, 5.5% in the age group 20-40 years and 11.1% in the age group above 40 years. Results obtained in this study reveal that cysticercosis is prevalent among man in the examined areas. Public health education is considered the key factor for control of cysticercosis. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 57-60

  11. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Maravilla; Aldo, Valera; Valeria, Souza; Mario, Martinez-Gordillo; Ana, Flisser.

    1049-10-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH show [...] ed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

  12. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Maravilla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

  13. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:24962350

  14. Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3' foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3' e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3' e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3' para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (ndegrees AB020399 e ndegrees AB020395. As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa.

  15. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  16. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2007-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or ‘recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs. It is concluded that mass-treatment can result in a short term dramatic reduction in prevalence, whereas interventions targeting interruption of the life cycle lead to long-term reduction in prevalence.

  17. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto; Assane, Younus; Dorny, Pierre; Magnussen, Pascal; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data on human and porcine cysticercosis were collected from 2008 to 2009 in Angonia district, and made available for burden assessment. Study subjects were 1723 persons and...

  18. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium

  19. Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR / Specific discrimination between Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by one step PCR assay and duplex-PCR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga, Jardim; Guido Fontgalland Coelho, Linhares; Fernando Araripe Gonçalves, Torres; José Luiz de Barros, Araújo; Silvia Minharro, Barbosa.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso [...] n° AB020399 para T. saginata e n° AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt) de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (n° AB020399 e n° AB020395). As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa. Abstract in english This study was conducted to evaluate a protocol and to select novel primers for the species-specific identification of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by PCR and duplex-PCR assays. Sequences of the LSU rRNA gene of taenids were obtained from the GenBank (T. saginata access n° AB020399 and T. soliu [...] m access n° AB020395). The sequences were aligned and then used for primer design. The generic primer TBR3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') was selected from a conserved region. The T. saginata specific primer TBR-4 (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') as well as T. solium specific primers TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') and TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') were selected from different semi-conserved regions. The selected sequences were examined in for similarities with other organisms through the GenBank Blast procedure and experimentally by PCR using total DNA (tDNA) extracted from cysticerci and proglottids from both parasites. The primer pair TBR-3/TBR-4 amplified specific fragments of 328 bp from T. saginata tDNA. The pairs TBR-3/TBR5 and TBR-3/TBR-6 amplified, respectively, the expected and specific fragments of 310bp and 286bp from the T. solium tDNA. Sequencing of the amplicons followed by comparison to GenBank reference sequences confirmed the identities of the PCR products. The detection sensitivity was equivalent to 1fg of T. solium tDNA and 0,2fg of T. saginata tDNA. The combination of primers TBR-3/TBR-4 and TBR3/TBR-6 and the size of amplicons allowed the establishment of a duplex-PCR assay to detect T. saginata and T. solium DNA. No cross reaction was observed with any combination of primers in reactions with tDNA of the parasites Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana and Moniezia expansa, nether from the hosts tDNA Homo sapie

  20. Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples / Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Gisele Cristina, Arruda; Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius, Quagliato; Qláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesqui [...] sados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from [...] 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  1. Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle.Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great socioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

  2. Antígenos de larva de Taenia solium em ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina / Taenia solium metacestode antigens in ELISA for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.L., Monteiro; P.S.A., Pinto; J.H.P., Salcedo; J.V., Araújo; W.L.M., Santos; P.R., Cecon.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados alguns parâmetros inerentes ao ELISA, por meio de ensaios de reatividade de soros-controle positivos e negativos para a cisticercose bovina com relação a três tipos de antígenos de larva de Taenia solium: total, de escólex e de membrana. As concentrações de antígeno de 0,25; 0,5; 1; [...] 2 e 4µg por orifício, e as diluições de soro de 1:25, 1:50, 1:100 e 1:200, foram os parâmetros que menos influenciaram no desempenho do teste. A substância bloqueadora, o leite desnatado e as diluições de conjugado, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 e 1:5.000, representaram os melhores indicadores de desempenho do teste. Concluiu-se que essa combinação de critérios deve ser considerada no diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina, em atividades de rotina ou de padronização do referido teste, considerando os três antígenos de larva de T. solium estudados. Abstract in english Some parameters of ELISA were evaluated using positive and negative bovine sera for cysticercosis and three types of antigens of Taenia solium larvae: total, scolex and membrane. The antigen concentrations (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4µg/well) and the serum dilutions (1:25, 1:50, 1:100 and 1:200) were the [...] parameters that influenced less the test performance; while blocking substance, skimmed milk, and conjugate dilutions, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 and 1:5.000 were the best indexes of the test performance. It was concluded that this combination of criteria should be considered in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, in routine diagnosis and for the ELISA test standardization.

  3. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. Chapter 3 reports the investigations that were undertaken to characterise whether the principal antibody specificities raised by TSOL18 in pigs were against linear or conformational determinants. TSOL18 was expressed in two truncated forms representing either the amino terminal portion or the carboxy terminal portion, with the two truncations overlapping in sequence by 25 amino acids. The original protein (designated TSOL18N— and the two truncations (TSOL18N—-1 and TSOL18N—-2 were used in inhibition ELISA to determine their ability to inhibit the binding of protective pig antibodies to TSOL18. TSOL18N— was shown to be capable of completely inhibiting the binding of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies to TSOL18N— in ELISA. However, neither TSOL18N—-1 nor TSOL18N—-2, either alone or combined, was capable of inhibiting any detectable amount of reactivity of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies with TSOL18N—. It is concluded that the dominant antibody specificities, and likely the host-protective specificities, of TSOL18 are conformational epitopes. Chapter 4 describes the development of an antibody detection test for the specific diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. A fraction with a major band of 14 kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid (CF of T. solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration was purified using an anion exchange column on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3 was carried out in an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3 using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense or Sarcoptes

  4. Evidence for high seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in individuals from three rural communities in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; Cabrera, Zully; Rojas, Glenda; Lares, Maria; Vera, Andez; de Noya, Belkis Alarcon; Fernandez, Iris; Romero, Haidee Urdaneta; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Cortez, Milagros M

    2003-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken in 1998 to evaluate levels of Taenia solium cysticercosis in 3 rural Venezuelan communities. Infection with viable metacestodes was diagnosed with a trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects a secreted product of viable parasites. Anti-metacestode antibodies were assayed by ELISA using T. solium vesicular fluid as antigen. A total of 1254 sera was collected from 3 communities (Canoabo, Sanare, and Rio Tocuyo) where previous studies had suggested the presence of T. solium. Our results demonstrate an unusually high seroprevalence of cysticercosis, indicating an attendant risk of transmitting the disease to other areas. The seroprevalence of infection with viable cysts, as indicated by detection of circulating parasite antigen, was 9.1% in Canoabo, 6.1% in Sanare, and 5.7% in Rio Tocuyo. The corresponding frequency of antibodies to T. solium cyst antigens was 36.5% in Canoabo, 36.5% in Sanare, and 4% in Rio Tocuyo. As these communities are probably representative of many others in Venezuela, T. solium cysticercosis may be a significant public health problem and more work is certainly indicated. An important finding was that local knowledge of the disease and its transmission do not necessarily guarantee diminished disease prevalence, indicating a lack of appropriate vigilance towards disease control. PMID:15307416

  5. Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium / Spliced leader gene cloning from expression library of Taenia solium cysticerci

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswgladys, Garrido; Dayana, Requena; Carlos, Flores Angulo; Teresa, Gárate; Elizabeth, Ferrer.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis es una enfermedad causada por el estadio larvario (cisticerco) de Taenia solium. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se ve limitado por la disponibilidad de antígenos del parásito, donde una alternativa sería la clonación de genes codificantes de antígenos. En T. solium, al igual que en [...] otros parásitos, ocurre un mecanismo alternativo en el procesamiento de algunos ARNm, denominado trans-splicing, en el cual una pequeña molécula de ARN conocida como Spliced Leader (SL) es añadida al extremo 5´ de una molécula de pre-ARNm, formando diferentes ARNm maduros que contienen un extremo 5´ común. Debido a las limitaciones que presenta el diagnóstico, además del interés en el estudio de este mecanismo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue clonar moléculas que utilizan este procesamiento posttranscripcional. Para ello, se realizó un cribado mediante PCR a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticerco de T. solium utilizando como cebador directo TSSL-DW2 y como reverso ZAP-3´UP que hibridan con la secuencia SL y con la del vector, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron productos de ADNc de diferentes tamaños, que fueron clonados en un plásmido de mantenimiento (pGEM-Teasy). Posteriormente, mediante PCR de colonias se verificó la presencia de los insertos y se estimó su tamaño, obteniendo un total de 56 clones de tamaño variable (150-1200 pb). Este diseño permitió la identificación de genes de T. solium que utilizan el mecanismo de trans-splicing; y además de ser una estrategia fácil para clonar moléculas completas, abre camino para futuras investigaciones enfocadas en el diagnóstico de cisticercosis. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus). The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing [...] of some mRNAs called trans-splicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL) is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this posttranscriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-T-easy). The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp). This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

  6. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear. METHODS: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence. RESULTS: The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

  7. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme. PMID:25017127

  8. Determinación por medio de marcadores moleculares SSCP y RAPD de la diversidad genética en la especie Taenia solium en Colombia / DETERMINATION BY SSCP AND RAPD OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN Taenia solium ESPECIES, MAIN CAUSATIVE AGENT OF TENIOSIS AND CYSTICERCOSIS IN COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCELA, FERNÁNDEZ; AMALIA, MUÑOZ; MAURICIO, CORREDOR.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando las técnicas moleculares de SSCP y RAPD se pudo evidenciar rápida y claramente la variabilidad genética en Colombia de larvas del céstodo Taenia solium analizando fragmentos de genes de ADN mitocondrial y fragmentos aleatorios de ADN nuclear. El ADN estudiado se obtuvo de ocho aislados de [...] cisticercos de cerdo provenientes de tres departamentos de Colombia: Antioquia, Nariño y Sucre. Los fragmentos obtenidos por PCR de los genes NADH deshidrogenasa 1 (ND1) y citocromo oxidasa c subunidad I (COI) al ser denaturados y analizados en geles no denaturantes de acrilamida, mostraron al menos tres patrones diferentes por cada gen analizado, verificando que estos genes conservados mitocondriales son polimórficos en T. solium colombiana. Por otra parte, los cebadores decaméricos de RAPD produjeron patrones polimórficos, corroboraron la diversidad genética entre los diferentes aislamientos analizados Abstract in english SSCP and RAPD techniques were performed in order to detect the genetic variability of Taenia solium cestode, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. The DNA was extracted from eight different cysts isolated of pigs originated from three distant Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Nariño and [...] Sucre. Gene fragments corresponding to NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) were amplified by PCR using total DNA from individual cysts and later run on non denaturing SSCP acrylamide gels. Three different patterns were obtained by SSCP for both genes indicating that ND1 and COI mitochondrial genes are polymorphic in Colombian T. solium species. COI patterns were more polymorphic, related to the geographical origin. Furthermore, RAPD decameric primers showed a nuclear polymorphic DNA, that corroborates the genetic diversity between this isolates

  9. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

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    Galileo Escobedo, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Paul Nava-Luna, Alfonso Olivos, Armando Pérez-Torres, Sonia Leon-Cabrera, J.C. Carrero, Jorge Morales-Montor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  10. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data on human and porcine cysticercosis were collected from 2008 to 2009 in Angonia district, and made available for burden assessment. Study subjects were 1723 persons and 661 pigs. Methods included a questionnaire survey, Ag-ELISA detection of human and porcine cysticercosis and human brain computer tomography. All data were compiled in the software for statistical analysis ‘R’. To estimate the DALYs lost due to neurocysticercosis – associated epilepsy and headache a DALY calculator was used. To estimate the total costs a cost analysis model was used. Results: Approximately 5% and 0.8% of the total population of Angonia district was estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and headache, respectively. Around two thirds of the diseased population never received any treatment. The estimates were based on reported prevalence of epilepsy and headache of 15.6% and 30.9%, respectively. Among people with reported epilepsy, 42.5% had NCC. The number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis corresponded to 35% of the total pig population. The estimated average number of DALYs lost due to NCC associated epilepsy and headache was 12.1 per thousand persons per year. The total annual costs due to T. solium cysticercosis were estimated at 1.3 million Euro of which 87% were costs linked to human cysticercosis and 13% were due to pig production losses. The annual monetary burden per case of NCC-associated epilepsy amounted at 51.0 Euro. Conclusions: Twelve DALYs per thousand persons per year and a cost of more than one million Euro per year makes T. solium cysticercosis a serious public health and agricultural threat for Angonia district.

  11. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública.

  12. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes / Duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Antonio, Gomez-Puerta; Maria Teresa, Lopez-Urbina; Hector Hugo, Garcia; Armando Emiliano, Gonzalez.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes como portador dos ovos de T. solium. Cem besouros foram distribuídos em cinco caixas de polietileno, contendo um grama de fezes bovina misturada à proglotes grávidas de T. solium [...] trituradas. Após 24 horas, cada grupo de besouros foi transferido para uma caixa limpa e, a cada três dias, cinco besouros foram dissecados para determinar a contagem e viabilidade dos ovos nos intestinos de cada besouro. Ovos de T. solium foram detectados no sistema digestivo até 39 dias (13° dia da amostragem de 20), observando-se uma redução gradativa do número e viabilidade dos ovos, até 36 dias após a infecção. A viabilidade dos ovos foi de 40% após 24 horas da infecção, com uma média de 11 ovos por cada besouro. Besouros coprófagos têm potencial para contribuírem na dispersão dos ovos de T. solium em áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglo [...] ttids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P

  13. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hermes, Escalante A; Obed, Huamanchay C; Kelly, Davelois A.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES) de [...] T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba), y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control). La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the immunochromatography assay for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) by coproantigen detection. Materials and methods: IgG anti-T. solium excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens were produced in rabbits and IgG anti-rabbit IgG, in Capra hircu [...] s "goat". A portion of the anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens was conjugated with colloidal gold. Immunochromatography was performed in nitrocellulose paper strips in which two transversal bands with capture antibodies were fixed. The first band had rabbit anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens (test band), and the second band had goat IgG anti-rabbit IgG (control band). The assay was assessed using a pool of three culture media samples with E/S antigens from T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum and of Anisakis simplex larvae, as well a by a pool of three faecal samples from non-infected hamsters, from hamsters infected with H. nana, and from a pool comprising seven hamsters infected with T. solium. Results: Immunochromatography detected T. solium antigens in media samples with T. solium E/S antigens and in stool samples from hamsters infected with T. solium by staining of the test band. Negative results were obtained with culture media samples with E/S antigens from other helminths and in pooled stool samples from hamsters infected with H. nana as well as from non-infected animals. In all strips used the control band got stained. Conclusions: The immunocromatography assay is able to detect T. solium antigens, both in culture media and in stools from infected hamsters, but its sensitivity and specificity should be tested in human fecal samples for diagnosing Tenia infections through coproantigen detection.

  14. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Maria Aparecida, Souza; Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira, Pena; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Lísia Gomes Martins de, Moura; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), B [...] ahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p

  15. Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria

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    Moses Gweba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

  16. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

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    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  17. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E; Townes, John M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H; Stauffer, William M

    2012-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by central nervous system infection by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown. We tested stored serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Migrant Serum Bank for antibodies against T. solium cysts by using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Seroprevalence was high among all 4 populations tested: refugees from Burma (23.2%), Lao People's Democratic Republic (18.3%), Bhutan (22.8%), and Burundi (25.8%). Clinicians caring for refugee populations should suspect NCC in patients with seizure, chronic headache, or unexplained neurologic manifestations. Improved understanding of the prevalence of epilepsy and other associated diseases among refugees could guide recommendations for their evaluation and treatment before, during, and after resettlement. PMID:22377408

  18. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  19. Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Armando Zepeda-Rodríguez; Araceli Ferrer; Olivia Reynoso-Ducoing; Fortoul, Teresa I.

    2011-01-01

    No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos, ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usado...

  20. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico

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    Vázquez-Flores Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  1. High prevalence of Taenia solium cysticerosis in a village community of Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kanobana, K.; Praet, N.; Kabwe, C.; Dorny, P.; Lukanu, P.; Madinga, J.; Mitashi, P.; Verwijs, M.; Lutumba, P.; Polman, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis results from tissue infection with the larval stage of the pig tapeworm Taenia solium. Infection of the brain may cause neurocysticercosis, the most frequent cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. Information on human cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is scarce and outdated. We believe this is the first reported study on human cysticercosis and epilepsy in a village community of DRC. The proportion of villagers seropositive by ELISA for T. soli...

  2. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; Armando E. González; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classifi...

  3. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

  4. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

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    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  5. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771?bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3?h and lost it in 24?h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1?h and lost activity completely in 24?h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at ?70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12?kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts. PMID:26090410

  6. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88?µM and 1.9?s(-1); 45?µM and 12.6?s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3?µM and 0.96?s(-1); 4?µM and 1.62?s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I???=?3.25, 2.29?nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I???=?5.6, 25.4?nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase in T. solium, as has been described for very few other platyhelminths. PMID:25541385

  7. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  8. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  9. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction. PMID:25761936

  10. Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs

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    Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez, Carlos Larralde, Julio Morales, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

  11. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista de, Oliveira; Margareth Leitao, Gennari-Cardoso; Jose Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis ( [...] NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound ) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound ) and aqueous (AJ unbound ) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

  12. Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium

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    Oswgladys Garrido

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus. The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing of some mRNAs called transsplicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this post-transcriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-Teasy. The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp. This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis

  13. Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Soares

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim se mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração, língua ou masseter. Não se observou correlação entre concentração de anticorpos e número de cisticercos identificados.Blood samples from seven swines infected with eggs of Taenia solium, were collected weekly during a period of 140 days. The ELISA was carried out in serum, using antigen from Cysticercus cellulosae scolex (Es-Tso. The antibody levels for all animals significantly increased and maintained constant from the 21th day post-infection to the end of the experiment. The sensitivity of the ELISA test averaged between 87.5% and 100%. At the necropsy, 238 cysticerci were identified. Six swines presented at least one cysticercus in one of the organs: heart, tongue or masseter. No correlation between concentration of antibodies and number of identified cysticerci at necropsy, was observed.

  14. Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

  15. Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae / Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.A., Soares; M.R.M., Silva; M.D., Poleti; A.A.M., Maia.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso) de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim s [...] e mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração, língua ou masseter. Não se observou correlação entre concentração de anticorpos e número de cisticercos identificados. Abstract in english Blood samples from seven swines infected with eggs of Taenia solium, were collected weekly during a period of 140 days. The ELISA was carried out in serum, using antigen from Cysticercus cellulosae scolex (Es-Tso). The antibody levels for all animals significantly increased and maintained constant f [...] rom the 21th day post-infection to the end of the experiment. The sensitivity of the ELISA test averaged between 87.5% and 100%. At the necropsy, 238 cysticerci were identified. Six swines presented at least one cysticercus in one of the organs: heart, tongue or masseter. No correlation between concentration of antibodies and number of identified cysticerci at necropsy, was observed.

  16. Efecto de diferentes temperaturas (calor y frío) en carne de cerdo sobre la viabilidad del metacestodo de Taenia solium / Effect of different temperatures (freezing and boiling) in pork on the viability of metacestodes of Taenia solium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Nava Balderas; Ada Nelly, Martínez Villalobos; Aline S., de Aluja.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En muchas áreas rurales de México se consume la carne de cerdo infectada con el metacestodo de Taenia solium debido a la falta de inspección sanitaria de los animales que matan en forma clandestina o domiciliaria. Como consecuencia, la teniasis- cisticercosis constituye un problema importante de sal [...] ud, tanto para la población humana que padece de teniasis y de neurocisticercosis, como para la producción porcina por las pérdidas económicas para el país. Con el objetivo de recomendar un método simple y efectivo a las amas de casa en zonas rurales y marginadas, para la destrucción de los metacestodos, se expusieron trozos de 4 cm de grosor, de carne de cerdo infectada con cisticercos, a diferentes temperaturas y durante diferentes tiempos de cocción. Se realizaron pruebas de evaginación e inoculación en hámsteres con las larvas tratadas. Con base en los resultados se recomienda la cocción de la carne infectada en trozos pequeños (4 cm de grosor) durante 15 minutos, o la congelación a 0°C por 96 horas; o bien la congelación a -20°C durante 48 horas, esta última resulta impráctica en medios rurales. La cocción y la congelación a 0°C en un refrigerador doméstico, se recomiendan como procedimiento sencillo en áreas marginales para evitar el crecimiento de T. solium en el humano, de esa manera se rompe el ciclo del parásito. Abstract in english In many rural areas of Mexico, pork infected with Taenia solium is still being consumed, mainly because of the domiciliary slaughter of animals in villages where meat inspection does not exist. It follows that taeniasis cysticercosis continues to be an important health problem both for humans who su [...] ffer from taeniasis and neurocysticercosis and for pork producers due to the economic losses involved. In order to recommend a simple and effective method for housekeepers in rural zones to inactivate the metacestodes, infected pork cut in slices of 4 cm thickness was exposed to different temperatures and periods of time. Evagination trials were done and hamsters were infected with the treated larvae. The results show that metacestodes in pieces of pork of 4 cm thickness are innocuous after boiling them for 15 minutes or freezing them at 0° C for 96 hours or for 48 hours at -20° C, but the latter is not feasible in a rural environment. Boiling or freezing at 0° C in a domestic refrigerator is recommended as a simple procedure in marginated areas to avoid the growth of Taenia solium in human beings and thus interrupt the cycle of the parasite.

  17. Pacientes neurológicos del noroeste del Perú con serología positiva por Western Blot a la larva de Taenia solium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hermes, Escalante A; Firdusi, Pereda V; Manuel, Sánchez C; Hans, Schulz C; Patricia, Torres L; Kelly, Davelois A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de pacientes con sintomatología neurológica de la zona noroeste del Perú que presentan serología positiva por Western Blot a la larva de Taenia solium. Material y Métodos: El estudio se realizó en 3515 pacientes de cero a noventa años de edad y de ambos sexos con [...] sintomatología neurológica, procedentes de los departamentos de Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Ancash, La Libertad y algunas poblaciones de la zona selvática (5 a 10° LS; 77 a 82° LO). Dichos pacientes fueron atendidos en consultorios privados y en los servicios de Neurología de los Hospitales Belén y Regional de Trujillo desde enero de 1997 hasta diciembre de 2000. De cada uno de los pacientes se obtuvo una muestra sanguínea, cuyo suero fue procesado por la técnica de Western Blot, la cual tiene una sensibilidad de 91% y una especificidad de 100%. Resultados: Se detectó serología positiva en 562 pacientes, la cual representa una prevalencia de 16%, siendo el sexo masculino el que presentó mayor porcentaje (58,4%). Los grupos etáreos con mayor frecuencia de serología positiva fueron los de 41 a 50 años (18,7%) y 31 a 40 años (17,4%). Los mayores porcentajes de serología positiva se obtuvo en pacientes procedentes de Piura y Lambayeque. Conclusiones: Los pacientes estudiados presentan una alta frecuencia de serología positiva a la larva de T. solium. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the frequency of patients presenting with neurological symptoms in Northwestern Peru who have positive Western Blot serology to Taenia solium larvae. Material and Methods: The study was performed in 3515 patients, from zero to ninety years old and from both sexes, who present [...] ed with neurological symptoms. Patients came from Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Ancash, and La Libertad departments, as well as from certain areas in the jungle (5 to 10º southern latitude; 77 to 82º western longitude). Those patients were taken care of in private offices and in Neurology services in Belen and Regional hospitals in Trujillo, from January 1997 to December 2000. A blood sample was obtained from all patients, and the sera were processed using the Western Blot technique, which has 91% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Results: Positive serological Western Blot tests were detected in 562 patients, representing 16 per cent prevalence, and the infection was more frequent in males (58.4%). Age groups more frequently found to have positive serological tests were those form 41 to 50 years old (18.7%), and those from 31 to 40 years old (17.4%). The maximum percentages for positive serological tests were obtained in patients from Piura and Lambayeque. Conclusions: Patients studied show a high frequency of positive serology for Taenia solium larvae.

  18. Hacia el desarrollo de una vacuna en contra de la cisticercosis porcina basada en la paramiosina de Taenia solium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos F., Solís; José, Vázquez Talavera; Juan Pedro, Laclette.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La paramiosina de Taenia solium (TPmy) es un antígeno inmunodominante de la cisticercosis humana y porcina. Se trata de una proteína de 100 kDa con una estructura alfa-hélice superenrollada asociada al músculo y a estructuras tegumentarias del cisticerco. La TPmy tiene la propiedad de unirse al C1q [...] e inhibir la cascada del complemento. La TPmy probablemente se une al C1q a través sus dominios tipo colágena y podría estar relacionada con una estrategia parasitaria para modular la respuesta inmune del huésped. En el hombre y en el ratón, la respuesta inmune humoral en contra de la TPmy está preferentemente dirigida hacia el extremo carboxilo terminal mientras que el extremo amino terminal de la TPmy induce una respuesta protectora celular de tipo Th1. Ensayos de protección en el modelo murino de cisticercosis en ratones inmunizados con fragmentos recombinantes de TPmy revelaron que el extremo amino terminal induce alrededor de 60% de protección en contra de un reto intraperitoneal con cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Ensayos preliminares de protección por inmunización génica revelaron que el extremo amino terminal de la TPmy clonado en un vector plasmídico con un promotor de citomegalovirus induce alrededor de 79% de protección, junto con plásmidos para la expresión de IL-12, sugiriendo que este tipo de inmunización con TPmy puede resultar en el desarrollo de una vacuna eficaz y económica en contra de la cisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium paramyosin (TPmy) is a prominent 100 kDa antigen in human and porcine cysticercosis. TPmy is an ?-helical coiled coil protein present in muscle and tegumentary structures of T. solium cysticerci. TPmy has the property of binding C1q resulting in inhibition of the complement cascade. TP [...] my probably binds C1q through its collagen-like domains and could be involved in a parasite strategy to modulate host immune response. Humoral immune response against TPmy is preferentially directed against carboxyl terminal end in humans and mice, whereas amino terminal end of TPmy preferentially induces a Th1-related cellular immune response. Protection studies in murine model of cysticercosis showed that the amino terminal end fragment of TPmy induces approximately 60% protection against an i.p. challenge with Taenia crassiceps cysts when mice are immunized with recombinant fragments of TPmy. Initial protection studies using genetic immunization showed that amino terminal end fragment of TPmy cloned into a plasmid expression vector with a cytomegalovirus promoter, together with IL-12-expressing plasmids induced 79% protection, suggesting that this kind of TPmy-immunization might result in development of a cost-effective vaccine against cysticercosis.

  19. Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; García, Héctor Hugo; Rodríguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

  20. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage?specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti?cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt?TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO?K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt?TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt?TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H?thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt?TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un?optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis. PMID:25738605

  1. Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium / Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier R, Ambrosio; Armando, Zepeda-Rodríguez; Araceli, Ferrer; Olivia, Reynoso-Ducoing; Teresa I, Fortoul.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos [...] , ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología. Abstract in english There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental t [...] aeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

  2. Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier R Ambrosio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos, ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología.There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental taeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

  3. Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia Bartachini, Gomes; Killarney Ataíde, Soares; Ednéia Casagrande, Bueno; Noeli Maria, Espindola; Alberto Hiroshi, Iha; Antônio Augusto Mendes, Maia; Regina Helena Saramargo, Peralta; Adelaide José, Vaz.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140) the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into [...] thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for antibody (Ab) detection and for antigen (Ag) detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB), using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag) or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP) as Ag, five (71%) and six (86%) animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP) allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.). The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

  4. Efecto de diferentes temperaturas (calor y frío en carne de cerdo sobre la viabilidad del metacestodo de Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nava Balderas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En muchas áreas rurales de México se consume la carne de cerdo infectada con el metacestodo de Taenia solium debido a la falta de inspección sanitaria de los animales que matan en forma clandestina o domiciliaria. Como consecuencia, la teniasis- cisticercosis constituye un problema importante de salud, tanto para la población humana que padece de teniasis y de neurocisticercosis, como para la producción porcina por las pérdidas económicas para el país. Con el objetivo de recomendar un método simple y efectivo a las amas de casa en zonas rurales y marginadas, para la destrucción de los metacestodos, se expusieron trozos de 4 cm de grosor, de carne de cerdo infectada con cisticercos, a diferentes temperaturas y durante diferentes tiempos de cocción. Se realizaron pruebas de evaginación e inoculación en hámsteres con las larvas tratadas. Con base en los resultados se recomienda la cocción de la carne infectada en trozos pequeños (4 cm de grosor durante 15 minutos, o la congelación a 0ºC por 96 horas; o bien la congelación a -20ºC durante 48 horas, esta última resulta impráctica en medios rurales. La cocción y la congelación a 0°C en un refrigerador doméstico, se recomiendan como procedimiento sencillo en áreas marginales para evitar el crecimiento de T. solium en el humano, de esa manera se rompe el ciclo del parásito.

  5. Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Bartachini Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140 the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests for antibody (Ab detection and for antigen (Ag detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB, using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP as Ag, five (71% and six (86% animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.. The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

  6. Peptide epitopes of the Taenia solium antigen Ts8B2 are immunodominant in human and porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; Martínez-Escribano, José Angel; Barderas, María Eugenia González; González, Luis Miguel; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Ts8B2 is a gene which encodes for a member of the Taenia solium metacestode 8kDa antigen family. Since the Ts8B2-GST recombinant protein compares very favourably with other diagnostic antigens, and in order to study the antigenic nature and structure of this molecule, the Ts8B2 was expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The diagnostic potential of the recombinant Ts8B2 proteins was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using a collection of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with clinically defined neurocysticercosis (NCC), and also sera from T. solium infected pigs. Despite the predicted glycosylation of the Ts8B2-Bac recombinant protein, there was very little difference in assay sensitivity/specificity when the Ts8B2 reagent was expressed in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic systems, suggesting that peptidic Ts8B2 epitopes are immunodominant in porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis. Conveniently, production of recombinant Ts8B2 in Escherichia coli is economical and facile, making it a feasible and practical choice as a diagnostic reagent for use in endemic areas. The Ts8B2 ELISA is particularly useful for the diagnosis of active as opposed to inactive cases of NCC and conduct of the assay is also facilitated by the fact that assay sensitivity is significantly greater when serum as opposed to CSF samples are employed. PMID:19712705

  7. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p

  8. Production of monoclonal antibodies anti-Taenia crassiceps cysticerci with cross-reactivity with Taenia solium antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPÍNDOLA Noeli M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the production of the potential monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs using BALB/c mice immunized with vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra (T. crassiceps antigen. Immune sera presented anti-VF-Tcra (<20kD IgG and IgM antibodies with cross-reactivity with T. solium (Tso antigen (8-12, 14, and 18 kD. After cell fusion, we selected 33 anti-Tcra and anti-Tso reactive IgM-clones and 53 anti-Tcra specific IgG-clones, 5 of them also recognizing Tso antigens. Two clones identified the 8-14 and 18kD peptides of VF-Tcra.

  9. Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis.

  10. Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo / Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ma Isabel, Rivera-Guerrero; Leticia, Sánchez-Rueda; Elvia, Rodríguez-Bataz; Ada Nelly, Martínez-Villalobos; José Juan, Martínez-Maya.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atza [...] coaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a) temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b) temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c) ebullición (97 ºC) de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous [...] University), Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada) and hot sausage (chorizo). Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a) room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b) temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c) boiling (97ºC) from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p

  11. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Iudici Neto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoenzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00. Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imunoenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0,95 a 1,00. O antígeno bruto de escolex poderá ser empregado na triagem sorológica enquanto a proteína de 100, 95 ou 26kDa nos testes confirmatórios dos casos positivos de NC.

  12. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci / Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francesco, Iudici Neto; Geraldo, Pianetti-Filho; Ricardo Nascimento, Araújo; Evaldo, Nascimento.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imu [...] noenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0,95 a 1,00). O antígeno bruto de escolex poderá ser empregado na triagem sorológica enquanto a proteína de 100, 95 ou 26kDa nos testes confirmatórios dos casos positivos de NC. Abstract in english Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoe [...] nzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00). Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.

  13. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin

    Pig-keeping and pork consumption have increased significantly in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past decade. A high and increasing prevalence of epilepsy in ESA, without a clear etiology, and an increase in cases of porcine cysticercosis have been noted in the region. Two Danida-funded projects have addressed the problem, first by assessing the prevalence, risks and impacts of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs in Mozambique and Tanzania from 2006-2009, and, through an on-going project, by trying to develop sustainable solutions for control of the disease. The study areas include Tete province, western Mozambique and Mbeya region, southern Tanzania. The prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in the area was found to be between 31-35% in pigs and 15-18% in humans based on an Ag-ELISA. In addition 45% of the human population was found to be Ab-positive for cysticercosis. Among a subgroup of the participants in Mozambique, 72% (77/107 Ag-positive) compared to 18% (8/44 Ag-negative) were having abnormal CT-scans suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Epilepsy was, in both countries, very common and strongly associated with stigmatization. Risk factors for T. solium infections included poor pig husbandry practices especially free ranging of pigs, open defecation, age of pigs, pork cooking practices, lack of meat inspection, and lack of knowledge regarding transmission of the disease. The on-going project focuses on health education and proper pig management as means to control not only T. solium cysticercosis, but also African swine fever, another serious constraint for improving the livelihood of smallholder pig producers in the region.

  14. Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Escalante; Edwin C., Rowland; Malcolm R., Powell.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 sho [...] wed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 %) of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 %) were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years) and in the oldest (51-60 years) group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

  15. Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Escalante

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 % of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 % were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years and in the oldest (51-60 years group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

  16. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were examined 1, 4 and 8 weeks after oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment. As controls, half of the pigs received no treatment. Lesions were graded 0-V according to their inflammatory response, based on viability of the parasite, the degree and type of cellular response as well as deposition of collagen. Comparison of the degree of inflammatory response was made between treated and un-treated groups showing a significant difference in the mean grade of inflammatory response between 1 and 8 weeks after OFZ treatment. The OFZ treated pigs were further divided into 4 cyst intensity groups. The group with the highest cyst intensity had the lowest mean grade of inflammatory response and the group with the lowest cyst intensity had the highest mean grade of inflammatory response. Thus the present study supports the hypothesis that the time needed for the body to clear the cysts depends on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at the time of treatment.

  17. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico / La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia, Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto, Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana, Flisser; Peter M., Schantz.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaro [...] n los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed [...] by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  18. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vázquez-Flores

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  19. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hector, Palafox-Fonseca; Gerardo, Zuniga; Raul Jose, Bobes; Tzipe, Govezensky; Daniel, Pinero; Laura, Texco-Martinez; Agnes, Fleury; Jefferson, Proano; Graciela, Cardenas; Marisela, Hernandez; Edda, Sciutto; Gladis, Fragoso.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and huma [...] n-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  20. Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p<0.05. After 24 hours, the lowest evagination occurred at -10ºC in spicy meat and at 37ºC in hot sausage (p<0.05. At boiling temperature there was no evagination after 10 minutes (p<0.05. In spicy meat, adding salt caused the most significant reduction; in hot sausage, thyme caused the most significant reduction (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Meat with metacestodes should not be eaten, yet, it is being sold and used to prepare spicy meats. Adding spices can hide the metacestode, thus, adequate cooking of these meat products is necessary. These meats may be consumed at least four days after its preparation and spicy meat after a minimum of four days of refrigeration.

  1. Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  2. Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  3. Taenia solium metacestode immunodominant peptides recognized by IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum paired samples from patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Leandro Pajuaba de, Moura; Vinicius Paulino da, Costa; Marcelo Simão, Ferreira; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test if serological distinction between patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis (NCC), could be accomplished by the recognition of immunodominant peptides in total saline antigenic extract of Taenia solium metacestodes by IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid [...] (CSF) and serum paired samples. CSF and serum samples of 10 each, active NCC patients, inactive NCC, and individuals with other neurological disorders, were used to recognize the antigenic peptides by western blot (WB). In the active NCC the 28-32 and 39-42 kDa peptides were more frequently detected in CSF than in sera (p 80 kDa) for diagnosis of NCC. The final conclusions were that the difference between active and inactive NCC may be done with the detection of peptides only in the CSF samples and that the 47-52, 64-68, and 70 kDa bands may be included as specific markers for active NCC when detected in CSF samples by WB using total saline extract of T. solium metacestode.

  4. Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Landa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

  5. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general community and their impacts in improving behaviours facilitating disease transmission. PMID:25719902

  6. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 / Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisângela de Paula, SILVEIRA-LACERDA; Eleuza Rodrigues, MACHADO; Sílvio César de Freitas, ARANTES; Julia Maria, COSTA-CRUZ.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo [...] teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%), Tupaciguara (5,0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8%) e Uberlândia (4,7%). Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população. Abstract in english Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence an [...] tibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%), Tupaciguara (5.0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8%) and Uberlândia (4.7%). The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.

  7. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

  8. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  9. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control. PMID:18440704

  10. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil Anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium em amostras de soro de habitantes da região centro-oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana B. de Oliveira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p Um total de 354 amostras de soro de habitantes que freqüentaram o Laboratório Clínico em Catalão, Goiás, na região centro-oeste do Brasil, foram colhidas no período de junho a agosto de 2002. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta e enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA com o objetivo de detectar anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium. As amostras reativas e inconclusivas foram testadas pelo Western blotting (WB. Considerando WB como reação confirmatória, a freqüência de anticorpos nas amostras de soro da população estudada foi 11,3% (IC: 5,09 - 17,51. As bandas imunodominantes mais frequentemente reconhecidas no WB foram 64-68 kDa (97,5% e 47-52 kDa (80%. A porcentagem de soropositividade para cisticercose foi significativamente maior nos indivíduos que residiam em áreas sem sistema de esgoto (p < 0,0001. Concluiu-se que os resultados indicam uma provável situação de endemicidade para cisticercose nesta população, reforçando a urgente necessidade de medidas de controle e prevenção que devem ser implantadas pelo serviço de saúde pública local.

  11. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil / Anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium em amostras de soro de habitantes da região centro-oeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heliana B. de, Oliveira; Rosângela M., Rodrigues; Ivanildes S. C., Barcelos; Luciana P., Silva; Julia M., Costa-Cruz.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 354 amostras de soro de habitantes que freqüentaram o Laboratório Clínico em Catalão, Goiás, na região centro-oeste do Brasil, foram colhidas no período de junho a agosto de 2002. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta e enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E [...] LISA) com o objetivo de detectar anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium. As amostras reativas e inconclusivas foram testadas pelo Western blotting (WB). Considerando WB como reação confirmatória, a freqüência de anticorpos nas amostras de soro da população estudada foi 11,3% (IC: 5,09 - 17,51). As bandas imunodominantes mais frequentemente reconhecidas no WB foram 64-68 kDa (97,5%) e 47-52 kDa (80%). A porcentagem de soropositividade para cisticercose foi significativamente maior nos indivíduos que residiam em áreas sem sistema de esgoto (p Abstract in english A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay i [...] n order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB). Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51). The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5%) and 47-52 kDa (80%). The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p

  12. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  13. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose. MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA. RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose.

  14. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin) for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) / Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina) para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina) de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose [...] . MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas) e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias) foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA). RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography) from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHO [...] D: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders) and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons) were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  15. The Asian Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gala?n-puchades, Maria Teresa; V Fuentes, Ma?rius

    2000-01-01

    In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stag...

  16. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

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    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T. saginata-\\ike worms from Taiwan and classical T.saginata, differences have been detected in DNA hybridization patterns.

  17. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe seasonal variations in sero-prevalence of antigen ELISA positive porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. Methods A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys was carried out in Mbeya Region, Tanzania; the first two six months apart (March/April 2012 and October/November 2012) and the last eight months later (July/August 2013). Venous blood was collected from pigs in 22 villages and analysed using Ag-ELISA. Results In each survey between 800–1000 serum samples were collected. The first survey revealed a cysticercosis sero-prevalence of 15% (n = 822, 95% CI: 13-18%). The sero-prevalence had significantly increased to 24% (p < 0.001, ?2-test, n = 812, 95% CI: 21-27%) at the time of the 6 month follow-up. At 14-months the sero-prevalence had dropped to 20% (p = 0.053, ?2-test, n = 998, 95% CI: 18-23%). Overall, this was a reduction in sero-prevalence compared with a study conducted in 2007 in the same area, where 31% (186/600) of pigs were found positive. Conclusion Confined pigs did not have a lower sero-prevalence compared to free roaming pigs in any of the three surveys. Several factors may have contributed to the observed fluctuations such as African swine fever or seasonal variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of Taenia hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to beelucidated.

  18. The Asian Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M T; Fuentes, M V

    2000-03-01

    In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stage in humans or not. The arguments proposed by those authors who consider it unlikely that the Asian Taenia causes human cysticercosis are: (a) its molecular similarities with T. saginata; (b) the absence of cases of human cysticercosis in populations where the Asian adult is highly prevalent; and (c) the unsupporting results derived from an experimental infestation study. These three arguments are debated, although bearing in mind that at present there is still no clear scientific data to support that human cysticercosis can be caused by the Asian Taenia. PMID:10743352

  19. Cysticercosis Immunodiagnosis Using 18- and 14-Kilodalton Proteins from Taenia crassiceps Cysticercus Antigens Obtained by Immunoaffinity Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Espíndola, Noeli Maria; Iha, Alberto Hiroshi; Fernandes, Irene; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; MACHADO Luís dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antônio; Mendes Maia, Antônio Augusto; PERALTA José Mauro; Adelaide José VAZ

    2005-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci were produced and showed cross-reactivity with a 14-kDa protein from T. solium and with 18- and 14-kDa proteins from T. crassiceps. These MAbs and antibodies from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) reacted with 18- and 14-kDa T. crassiceps proteins purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using a Sepharose column coupled with MAbs (anti-excretory/secre...

  20. First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938 in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Zaheri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the ces­todes as Taenia acinonyxi.

  1. Immunoinformatics prediction of linear epitopes from Taenia solium TSOL18

    OpenAIRE

    Zimic, Mirko; Gutie?rrez, Andre?s Hazaet; Gilman, Robert Hugh; Lo?pez, Ce?sar; Quiliano, Miguel; Evangelista, Wilfredo; Gonzales, Armando; Garci?a, He?ctor Hugo; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a public health problem in several developing countries. The oncosphere protein TSOL18 is the most immunogenic and protective antigen ever reported against porcine cysticercosis, although no specific epitope has been identified to account for these properties. Recent evidence suggests that protection might be associated with conformational epitopes. Linear epitopes from TSOL18 were computationally predicted and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection against porc...

  2. Inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis: estudio comparativo de extractos antigénicos de Cysticercus cellulosae y Taenia crassiceps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nineth, Rossi; Ivan, Rivas; Manuel, Hernández; Haideé, Urdaneta.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron diferentes extractos antigénicos de Taenia solium y de Taenia crassiceps en la detección de anticuerpos en pacientes con neurocisticercosis, con el objetivo de seleccionar antígenos inmunorrelevantes para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis por medio del ensayo inmunoenzimático e im [...] munoblotting. El fluido vesicular de T. crassiceps mostró ser más sensible (100 %) y específico (86 %). Por medio del immunoblotting se observó también, que este extracto fue el más sensible y específico. Dentro del perfil proteico del antígeno, la banda mayormente reconocida por el suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo de pacientes con neurocisticercosis fue la de 18 kDa. El fluido vesicular de la T. crassiceps por su alta sensibilidad y especificidad y por su facilidad de obtención en condiciones controladas de laboratorio, representa una alternativa en la optimización del diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis en el suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo y en la sustitución de los antígenos de T. solium. Abstract in english Different antigenic extracts of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps were evaluated in connection with the detection of antibodies in patients with neurocysticercosis aimed at selecting immunorelevant antigens for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by means of the immunoenzimatic assay and immunoblo [...] tting. The vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps proved to be more sensitive (100%) and specific (86%). On using the immunoblotting technique it was also observed that this extract was the most sensitive and specific. Within the protein profile of the antigen the band of 18 kDa was mostly recognized by the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis. The vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps represents an alternative in the optimization of the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid and in the substitution of T. solium antigens due to its high sensitivity and specificity and to its easy obtention under controlled laboratory conditions.

  3. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  4. Cestode infections in animals: immunological diagnosis and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, M W

    1990-06-01

    Cestode infections in animals are important because several species are zoonotic, causing cysticercosis and hydatidosis in man, and because of the economic losses incurred due to infections in livestock. Information on immunological diagnosis of and vaccination against cestode infection is restricted almost exclusively to the taeniid cestodes in which two groups of mammalian hosts are concerned: the intermediate host infected with the larval parasite and the definitive host infected with the adult tapeworm parasite. Research towards developing serological tests for the diagnosis of larval cestode infection in animals has been largely unsuccessful. Substantial problems remain, due to the frequent existence of multiple infections with different taeniid species and antigenic crossreactivity between these related parasites, and the low level of specific antibody response to infection. Problems with poor specificity and sensitivity of traditional serological tests for cysticercosis and hydatidosis have prevented the development of any practical test for ante-mortem diagnosis of infection. A recent new approach to the diagnosis of Taenia saginata infection by detecting circulating parasite antigen offers some prospect for the development of a practical diagnostic test for cysticercosis in cattle. The effectiveness of the arecoline purge for detection of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs has been reduced by the widespread availability of praziquantel. A serological method for diagnosis of E. granulosus in dogs has been developed which offers equivalent or superior diagnostic sensitivity compared with arecoline purge. This test should provide a valuable tool in hydatid control campaigns for the diagnosis of existing or recent past infections in dogs. Substantial progress has been made towards developing a practical vaccine for the prevention of T. ovis infection in sheep. An antigen derived from the parasite egg has been identified and produced in Escherichia coli using recombinant DNA techniques. The vaccine, which protects sheep against challenge infection with T. ovis, is the first highly effective defined antigen vaccine against any parasite infection of man or animals. Commercial development of this vaccine is in progress. The success achieved with the T. ovis vaccine augurs well for the rapid development of other recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis caused by other taeniid species and against hydatidosis in animals. PMID:2132691

  5. Vitellogenesis of diphyllobothriidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneva, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-03-01

    The recently erected cestode order Diphyllobothriidea is unique among all tapeworm orders in that its species infect all major groups of tetrapods, including man. In the present paper, the vitellogenesis of representatives of all three currently recognized families of this order was evaluated, based on ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and cytochemical (detection of glycogen) observations. Vitelline follicles of all taxa studied, i.e. Cephalochlamys namaquensis from clawed frogs (Xenopus), Duthiersia expansa from monitors (Varanus) and Schistocephalus solidus that matures in fish-eating birds, contain vitelline cells at various stages of development and interstitial cells. Developing vitellocytes are characterized by the presence of mitochondria, granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes involved in the synthesis of shell globules and formation of shell globule clusters. Mature vitellocytes contain lipids and glycogen in different proportions. The most significant differences among the three diphyllobothriidean families were found in the presence or absence of lamellar bodies. Variations of vitelline clusters morphology and types of lipid droplets are described and discussed in relation to the presumed evolutionary history of diphyllobothriideans, which belong to the most basal cestode groups. PMID:25641503

  6. Intraventricular Taenia solium Cysts Presenting with Bruns Syndrome and Indications for Emergent Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahani, Lokesh; Garnes, Natalie Dailey; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-06-01

    Bruns syndrome is an unusual phenomenon, characterized by attacks of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head. The presumptive cause of Bruns syndrome is a mobile deformable intraventricular mass leading to an episodic obstructive hydrocephalus. Intraventricular tumors have been associated with Bruns syndrome; however, few cases of intraventricular neurocysticercosis have been reported to present with Bruns syndrome. We report the first series of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis presenting with Bruns syndrome in the United States and review the other published cases where surgery was indicated. PMID:25870426

  7. Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis / Fração hidrofóbica de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata, ao contrário da fração hidrofílica, contém marcadores imunodominantes para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose humana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia de Assunção, Gonçalves; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista, Oliveira; Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco, Rezende; José Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando que antígenos alternativos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NC) continua sendo um desafio devido ao aumento da dificuldade em se obter parasitas de suínos naturalmente infectados, para a preparação do antígeno homólogo de Taenia solium, o objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi avaliar frações detergente (D) e aquosa (A), do extrato salino de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata para diagnóstico da NC. MÉTODOS: Bovinos, naturalmente infectados com Taenia saginata, procedentes da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram obtidos de frigoríficos e abatidos de acordo com a técnica de inspeção recomendada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal. As frações D e A foram obtidas utilizando Triton X-114 (TX-114). Amostras de soro foram obtidas de 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de NC, 45 com diagnóstico de outras doenças parasitárias e 30 de indivíduos aparentemente normais. Níveis de IgG foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Imunoblotting. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste ELISA foram 95% e 73,3%, quando utilizado o extrato salino, 95% e 82,6% para fração D, e 65% e 61,3% para a fração A, respectivamente. O ensaio Imunoblotting confirmou os resultados do teste ELISA, sendo a fração D mais eficiente que os outros extratos, observando-se que o componente 70-68kDa se comportou como imunodominante para os pacientes com NC. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados demonstraram que a fração D de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata obtida com TX-114 pode ser utilizada como fração antigênica heteróloga pelo Imunoblotting para o diagnóstico sorológico da NC humana, considerando sua habilidade para selecionar antígenos imunodominantes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

  8. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines / Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvana de Cassia, Paulan; Rutilia Marisela Hernandes, Gonzales; Laura Adalid, Peralta; Josy Campanha, Vicentini-Oliveira; Germano Francisco, Biondi; Edda Sciuto, Conde; Robert Michael Evans, Parkhouse; Caris Maroni, Nunes.

    2013-06-25

    Full Text Available A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido á desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais lev [...] emente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1) anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata) e (2) antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas). A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina. Abstract in english Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typ [...] ically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  9. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido à desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais levemente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1 anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata e (2 antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas. A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina.

  10. Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-01-01

    Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, ...

  11. Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and in EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Paraná-Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Carlos, Minozzo; Juliana de, Moura; Sérgio Monteiro, Almeida; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

    1127-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocisticercose (NCC), causada pela presença do metacestódeo do parasito Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae) no sistema nervoso central, é uma doença mundialmente conhecida como responsável por distúrbios neurológicos. Com o objetivo de validar um imunodiagnóstico para pacientes da rede pública [...] do estado do Paraná-Brasil, o extrato bruto do metacestódeo de T. crassiceps (C. longicollis) foi produzido e utilizado como antígeno heterólogo para o diagnóstico de NCC ativa e inativa utilizando-se ELISA e eletroimunotransferência (EITB). O ensaio de ELISA indireto foi capaz de discriminar a forma ativa e inativa da NCC, apresentando alta especificidade e sensibilidade. Ao se utilizar EITB, nenhuma proteína foi imunodominante de forma a distinguir os diferentes estágios da NCC, embora o ensaio tenha tido 100% de especificidade. Os resultados mostram que os ensaios imunológicos podem ser uma ferramenta auxiliar importante para o diagnóstico da NCC, principalmente para o sistema público de saúde, cujo diagnóstico por imagem não é acessível ou cujos recursos financeiros são escassos. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the cerebral presence of Taenia solium metacestode (Cysticercus cellulosae), is responsible for neurological disorders worldwide. In order to validate an immunodiagnosis for public-health patients in the State of Parana-Brazil, crude antigen of Taenia crassicepsmetacestode [...] (Cysticercus longicollis) was used as an alternative heterologous antigen to be used in ELISA and in electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) for active and inactive NCC diagnosis. Indirect ELISA was able to discriminate between active and inactive samples and presented high specificity and sensitivity. Any immunodominant band was able to distinguish the NCC stages, although the EITB showed 100% specificity. The immunological results proved to be an important auxiliary toll for NCC diagnosis, mainly for public-health systems in developing countries, where either the neuroimage techniques are not accessible or the resources are scarce.

  12. The trypanorhynch cestode fauna of Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Beveridge, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Borneo is considered a centre for biodiversity in both the terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, information on the diversity of parasites and trypanorhynch cestodes infecting sharks and rays in particular is rather limited at present. During a large-scale study focusing on the parasite diversity of elasmobranchs from Malaysian and Indonesian Borneo a total of 520 spiral intestines of elasmobranchs were collected during seven years of extensive sampling. Trypanorhynch cestodes were discovered in 163 specimens belonging to 43 different elasmobranch species (i.e. 17 species of sharks and 26 species of rays). Overall, 50 species of trypanorhynchs were recovered from the hosts' spiral intestines, some of which represented new species and genera that have been subsequently described. Numerous new host records are added for previously described species. Of the 50 trypanorhynch species present in waters off Borneo 30 (= 60%) were recovered from rays, while 20 species (= 40%) were found in sharks. The geographical distribution of these cestode species was dominated by taxa that occur in the Indo-west Pacific (= 30%) followed by species endemic to Borneo (= 28%). Nine species (= 18%) are found both in Borneo and Australia or have a cosmopolitan distribution. The present study also assessed the host specificity for 16 species belonging to three prominent trypanorhynch genera recovered from elasmobranchs from Borneo (i.e. Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994, Prochristianella Dollfus, 1946 and Parachristianella Dollfus, 1946). Most species (= 63%) were euryxenous utilizing hosts from different orders or even classes, with only a single species (i.e. Dollfusiella imparispinis Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013) being oioxenous utilizing a single host species. The remaining species (= 31%) were mesostenoxenous utilizing different host species from a single genus. The least host specific taxa were the three representatives of Parachristianella and Prochristianella clarkeae Beveridge, 1990. PMID:25543722

  13. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

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    Deplazes Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9% than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%. Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE. Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter.

  14. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  15. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPorcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe seasonal variations in sero-prevalence of antigen ELISA positive porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area.MethodsA longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys was carried out in Mbeya Region, Tanzania; the first two six months apart (March/April 2012 and October/November 2012) and the last eight months later (July/August 2013). Venous blood was collected from pigs in 22 villages and analysed using Ag-ELISA.ResultsIn each survey between 800¿1000 serum samples were collected. The first survey revealed a cysticercosis sero-prevalence of 15% (n¿=¿822, 95%CI: 13-18%). The sero-prevalence had significantly increased to 24% (p¿<¿0.001, ¿2-test, n¿=¿812, 95%CI: 21-27%) at the time of the 6 month follow up. At 14-months the sero-prevalence had dropped to 20% (p¿=¿0.053, ¿2-test, n¿=¿998, 95%CI: 18-23%). Overall, this was a reduction in sero-prevalence compared with a study conducted in 2007 in the same area, where 31% (186/600) of pigs were found positive.ConclusionConfined pigs did not have a lower sero-prevalence compared to free roaming pigs in any of the three surveys. Several factors may have contributed to the observed fluctuations such as African swine fever or seasonal variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of T. hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to be elucidated.

  16. Trypanorhynch Cestodes of Commercial Fishes from Northeast Brazilian Coastal Waters

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    Palm Harry W

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A large scale investigation on trypanorhynch cestode infestation of tropical marine fishes was carried out along the Northeast Brazilian coast in the summer of 1991 and 1993. A total of 798 fish specimens belonging to 57 species and 30 families were examined. Metacestodes of 11 different trypanorhynchs were found: Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Dasyrhynchus giganteus, Grillotia sp., Nybelinia edwinlintoni, N. indica, N. senegalensis, Nybelinia c.f. lingualis, Otobothrium cysticum, Pseudolacistorhynchus noodti, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum and Pterobothrium kingstoni. Scanning electron microscopy was used to clarify details of the tentacular armature of some species. Rose-thorn shaped hooklets, regularly arranged like microtriches, are described from the bothridial surface of N. edwinlintoni. Of the 57 fish species, 15 harboured trypanorhynch cestodes. Of these the mullid Pseudupeneus maculatus was the most heavily infested fish species, harbouring 5 different trypanorhynch species. P. noodti in P. maculatus had the highest prevalence (87% and intensity (maximum = 63 of infestation. C. gracilis was the parasite with the lowest host-specificity. It could be isolated from 10 fish species. The cestode fauna of the Northeast Brazilian coast appears to be similar to that of the West African coast. Five of the trypanorhynch cestodes found during this study are common to both localities. The two single cases of intra musculature infestation in Citharichthys spilopterus and Haemulon aurolineatum by trypanorhynch cestodes indicate that marketability of the investigated commercially exploited fish species is inconsequential.

  17. Trypanorhynch Cestodes of Commercial Fishes from Northeast Brazilian Coastal Waters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harry W, Palm.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A large scale investigation on trypanorhynch cestode infestation of tropical marine fishes was carried out along the Northeast Brazilian coast in the summer of 1991 and 1993. A total of 798 fish specimens belonging to 57 species and 30 families were examined. Metacestodes of 11 different trypanorhyn [...] chs were found: Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Dasyrhynchus giganteus, Grillotia sp., Nybelinia edwinlintoni, N. indica, N. senegalensis, Nybelinia c.f. lingualis, Otobothrium cysticum, Pseudolacistorhynchus noodti, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum and Pterobothrium kingstoni. Scanning electron microscopy was used to clarify details of the tentacular armature of some species. Rose-thorn shaped hooklets, regularly arranged like microtriches, are described from the bothridial surface of N. edwinlintoni. Of the 57 fish species, 15 harboured trypanorhynch cestodes. Of these the mullid Pseudupeneus maculatus was the most heavily infested fish species, harbouring 5 different trypanorhynch species. P. noodti in P. maculatus had the highest prevalence (87%) and intensity (maximum = 63) of infestation. C. gracilis was the parasite with the lowest host-specificity. It could be isolated from 10 fish species. The cestode fauna of the Northeast Brazilian coast appears to be similar to that of the West African coast. Five of the trypanorhynch cestodes found during this study are common to both localities. The two single cases of intra musculature infestation in Citharichthys spilopterus and Haemulon aurolineatum by trypanorhynch cestodes indicate that marketability of the investigated commercially exploited fish species is inconsequential.

  18. Red and transparent brine shrimps (Artemia parthenogenetica): a comparative study of their cestode infections

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Nikolov, P.N.; Vasileva, G.P.; Andy J. Green

    2006-01-01

    Although the red colour of brine shrimps has previously been supposed to be associated with cestode parasitism, no evidence has been provided that red and transparent brine shrimps differ in their role for cestode circulation. We compared the cestode infections in 100 red and 100 transparent Artemia parthenogenetica collected from the Odiel salt pans in Spain. Seven cestode species were recorded in red, and only four of them were recorded in transparent brine shrimps. The red brine shrimps we...

  19. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the larval tetraphyllideans and trypanorhynchs lacking evaginated tentacles and other key diagnostic features.

  20. Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Nascimento

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obtained from rats infected 2,5 months earlier with viable eggs. The humoral immunological response of cats and rats was detected in the second week after infection and the peaks of circulating antibodies occurred in the fourth and fifth weeks, respectively.

  1. Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

  2. Praziquantel treatment in trematode and cestode infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-03-01

    Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis, fasciolopsiasis, neodiplostomiasis, gymnophalloidiasis, taeniases, diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and cysticercosis. However, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infections are refractory to praziquantel, for which triclabendazole, an alternative drug, is necessary. In addition, larval cestode infections, particularly hydatid disease and sparganosis, are not successfully treated by praziquantel. The precise mechanism of action of praziquantel is still poorly understood. There are also emerging problems with praziquantel treatment, which include the appearance of drug resistance in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and possibly Schistosoma japonicum, along with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions against praziquantel treatment. To cope with and overcome these problems, combined use of drugs, i.e., praziquantel and other newly introduced compounds such as triclabendazole, artemisinins, and tribendimidine, is being tried. PMID:24265948

  3. Evidence for strategic egg production in a hermaphroditic cestode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, C; Strahm, D; Schärer, L

    1998-10-01

    The cestode Schistocephalus solidus is a simultaneous hermaphrodite that grows in 2 intermediate hosts and reproduces rapidly within a few days in the gut of a bird. Reproduction takes place by self- or cross-fertilization. Here, it was tested whether egg production differs between S. solidus that reproduce alone and those that are allowed to reproduce in pairs. Egg production in an in vitro system was found to depend on the cestodes' social situation. When kept alone, larger cestodes produced larger eggs. This was not so when kept in pairs--the difference between these 2 reproductive modes being highly significant in this respect. Further experiments revealed that, within the first 3 days, these hermaphrodites produced a larger total egg mass when kept alone than when kept in pairs. This was also reflected by the energy contents of the cestodes after this time-span: selfers had used up more energy than paired worms. Furthermore, S. solidus appeared to adjust its investment per egg depending on whether the offspring will be the result of self- or cross-fertilization. Selfers produced larger numbers of eggs, but these eggs were smaller and contained even smaller embryos per given egg size than eggs of potentially outbreeding cestodes. Selfed eggs reached lower hatching rates. Although this is to be expected from inbreeding depression it may also be an effect of the reduced maternal investment per egg. The observed phenotypic plasticity in the reproduction of S. solidus is discussed within 4 evolutionary frameworks: local mate competition adjusted for hermaphrodites, the hermaphrodite's dilemma, bet-hedging, and sib-competition. PMID:9820859

  4. / The wild rodent akodon azarae (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) on poultry farms of central Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariela H, Miño; Elba J, Rojas Herrera; Juliana, Notarnicola.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo informa la presencia de estrobilocercos de Taenia taeniaeformis en el roedor Akodon azarae. Un total de 289 roedores pertenecientes a las especies A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens y Mus musculus fueron capturados en granjas avícolas del centro de Argenti [...] na. Todos los roedores fueron examinados en busca de parásitos. Sólo A. azarae presentó quistes de cestodes en el hígado. Los valores de prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia media de la infestación fueron 8.33%, 2.09 y 0.17, respectivamente, y no se observó ninguna diferencia entre los sexos de los roedores infectados. Se concluye que A. azarae es susceptible de infectarse con T. taeniaeformis cuando frecuenta hábitats domésticos y peridomésticos, ya que en ambientes naturales nunca fue registrada su presencia en estos roedores. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que T. taeniaeformis mantiene tres tipos diferentes de ciclos de vida en el área estudiada: 1) un ciclo doméstico entre Rattus norvegicus y mascotas (perros y gatos), ya que R. norvegicus ha sido encontrada parasitada en las granjas; 2) otro ciclo doméstico entre A. azarae y mascotas cuando estas últimas se acercan a los alambrados de las granjas; y 3) un ciclo silvestre entre A. azarae y Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), ya que se ha observado en el área de estudio que A. azarae es predado por este felino en cuyas heces se han encontrado huevos de Taenia sp. Abstract in english This work reports strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis in the rodent Akodon azarae. A total of 289 rodents were captured on poultry farms in Central Argentina, belonging to the following species: A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Mus musculus. All rodents were e [...] xamined for parasites. Only A. azarae was parasitized with strobilocerci larvae. Prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of the infection in the liver were 8.33%, 2.09 and 0.17, respectively. No differences were observed between the sexes of the infected rodents. Since in natural environments no cysts were reported, A. azarae is susceptible to get infected with T. taeniaeformis when frequents domestic and peridomestic habitats. Taenia taeniaeformis may have three different life cycles in the studied area: 1) one domestic cycle between Rattus norvegicus and pets in the surrounding of the farms, since R. norvegicus was observed to be parasitized; 2) another domestic cycle between A. azarae and the pets when such pets come to the farm fences; and 3) a wild cycle between A. azarae and Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), since it was observed that A. azarae is preyed by this felid and their feces were found parasitized with eggs of Taenia sp. in the study area.

  5. THE WILD RODENT Akodon azarae (CRICETIDAE: SIGMODONTINAE AS INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Taenia taeniaeformis (CESTODA: CYCLOPHYLLIDEA ON POULTRY FARMS OF CENTRAL ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela H. Mi\\u00F1o

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo informa la presencia de estrobilocercos de Taenia taeniaeformis en el roedor Akodon azarae. Un total de 289 roedores pertenecientes a las especies A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens y Mus musculus fueron capturados en granjas avícolas del centro de Argentina. Todos los roedores fueron examinados en busca de parásitos. Sólo A. azarae presentó quistes de cestodes en el hígado. Los valores de prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia media de la infestación fueron 8.33%, 2.09 y 0.17, respectivamente, y no se observó ninguna diferencia entre los sexos de los roedores infectados. Se concluye que A. azarae es susceptible de infectarse con T. taeniaeformis cuando frecuenta hábitats domésticos y peridomésticos, ya que en ambientes naturales nunca fue registrada su presencia en estos roedores. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que T. taeniaeformis mantiene tres tipos diferentes de ciclos de vida en el área estudiada: 1 un ciclo doméstico entre Rattus norvegicus y mascotas (perros y gatos, ya que R. norvegicus ha sido encontrada parasitada en las granjas; 2 otro ciclo doméstico entre A. azarae y mascotas cuando estas últimas se acercan a los alambrados de las granjas; y 3 un ciclo silvestre entre A. azarae y Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae, ya que se ha observado en el área de estudio que A. azarae es predado por este felino en cuyas heces se han encontrado huevos de Taenia sp.

  6. Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens Frequência de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco na população de uma comunidade rural brasileira (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determinada por ELISA e imunoblot usando antígenos de Taenia crassiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia M. BRAGAZZA

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.Considerando o impacto na saúde pública gerado pela ocorrência da cisticercose, especialmente a forma neurológica, neurocisticercose (NC, foi estudada a freq??ência de positividade de anticorpos anti-cisticerco em amostras de soro de 1.863 habitantes do município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, situado a 80 Km de Ribeirão Preto, região considerada endêmica para a cisticercose. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste ELISA usando extrato antigênico de líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e as amostras reagentes e inconclusivas foram analisadas pelo imunoblot. Das 459 amostras submetidas ao imunoblot, 40 foram fortemente imunorreativas para os peptídeos imuno dominantes de 18 e 14kD. Considerando o uso do teste imunoblot como confirmatório, dada sua elevada especificidade, a soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-cisticerco foi de 2,1% na população estudada.

  7. Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens / Frequência de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco na população de uma comunidade rural brasileira (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determinada por ELISA e imunoblot usando antígenos de Taenia crassiceps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lúcia M., BRAGAZZA; Adelaide J., VAZ; Afonso D.C., PASSOS; Osvaldo M., TAKAYANAGUI; Paulo M., NAKAMURA; Noeli M., ESPÍNDOLA; Alessandra, PARDINI; Ednéia C., BUENO.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o impacto na saúde pública gerado pela ocorrência da cisticercose, especialmente a forma neurológica, neurocisticercose (NC), foi estudada a freqüência de positividade de anticorpos anti-cisticerco em amostras de soro de 1.863 habitantes do município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, situado [...] a 80 Km de Ribeirão Preto, região considerada endêmica para a cisticercose. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste ELISA usando extrato antigênico de líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e as amostras reagentes e inconclusivas foram analisadas pelo imunoblot. Das 459 amostras submetidas ao imunoblot, 40 foram fortemente imunorreativas para os peptídeos imuno dominantes de 18 e 14kD. Considerando o uso do teste imunoblot como confirmatório, dada sua elevada especificidade, a soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-cisticerco foi de 2,1% na população estudada. Abstract in english Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC), we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal distr [...] ict located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra). The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

  8. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

  9. Cestodes of the Brown-banded Bamboo Shark Chiloscyllium punctatum (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscylliidae) from the Gulf of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of cestode parasites were collected from 120 brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected from Chon Buri province, in the Gulf of Thailand. All fish specimens were found to be infected with cestodes. Eight species in 4 genera of cestodes were recorded, Caulopatera pagei, Orectolobicestus tyleri, Spiniloculus mavensis, Yorkeria hilli, Y. kelleyae, Y. saliputium, Y. yubodohensis and Y. chonburiensis. In this study, 3,834 specimens of cestodes were found in C. punctat...

  10. Out of Africa: origins of the Taenia tapeworms in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoberg, E. P.; Alkire, N. L.; Queiroz, A.; Jones, A.

    2001-01-01

    Phylogenetic and divergence date analyses indicate that the occurrence of Taenia tapeworms in humans pre-dates the development of agriculture, animal husbandry and domestication of cattle (Bos spp.) or swine (Sus scrofa). Taeniid tapeworms in Africa twice independently colonized hominids and the genus Homo prior to the origin of modern humans. Dietary and behavioural shifts, from herbivory to scavenging and carnivory, as early Homo entered the carnivore guild in the Pliocene/Pleistocene, were...

  11. Avian cestodes affect the behaviour of their intermediate host Artemia parthenogenetica: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Andy J. Green

    2007-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) is intermediate host for several cestode species whose final hosts are waterbirds. Previous field studies have shown that brine shrimps infected with cestodes have a bright red colour and are spatially segregated in the water column. However, the ethological mechanisms explaining such field observations are unknown. Changes in appearance and behaviour induced by trophically transmitted parasites have been shown to increase th...

  12. To avoid or eliminate: cestode infections in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, I T; Kurtz, J

    2002-04-01

    The outcome of a parasite infection is the result of the interaction between the host and the parasite. In the system we studied, there are 3 critical stages for the outcome of infection of the (intermediate) host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus, with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. During the establishment phase of the parasite, the host may firstly avoid ingesting the parasite and, secondly, may prevent the parasite from entering the body cavity and, thirdly, during the growth phase of the parasite, the host's immune system may eliminate the parasite from the body cavity. We were able to study the growth phase separately from the establishment phase. The establishment phase was influenced by characteristics of the host as well as characteristics of the parasites. Small copepods and males performed poorly; they were more often infected and had a lower survival. Parasites from different sib-groups differed in infectivity. During the growth phase some disappearance of parasites was observed. However, this could not be related to any of the studied characteristics of the host, and the sib-groups of parasites did not seem to differ in their likelihood to disappear. Instead, we suggest that disappearance of parasites, once they have entered the body cavity, may be due to intrinsic mortality of the parasites, independent of the host or the sib-group that the parasites belong to. This indicates that the crucial interactions between host and parasite determining the outcome of infection takes place in the short time-period between ingestion and penetration of the gut-wall. PMID:12003070

  13. Cestodes from Artemia parthenogenetica (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) in the Odiel Marshes, Spain: A systematic survey of cysticercoids

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Boyko B.; Sánchez, Marta I.; Andy J. Green; Nikolov, P.N.; Vasileva, G.P.; Mavrodieva, Radka S.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 3,300 specimens of brine shrimps Artemia parthenogenetica from the Odiel Marshes, Huelva Province, SW Spain, were studied during several seasons of 2002 and 2003 for the presence of cestode infections. Cysticercoids were found in 26.8% of brine shrimps. Eight cestode species were recorded, i.e., Hymenolepididae: Flamingolepis liguloides (adults parasitic in flamingos) with prevalence (P) 18.5%, mean intensity (MI) 1.48 and mean abundance (MA) 0.28; F. flamingo (adults parasitic in ...

  14. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Sonune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

  15. COLONIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION: HISTORICAL AND COEVOLUTIONARY TRAJECTORIES AMONG CESTODES, CETACEANS AND PINNIPEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestodes in marine mammals are represented by 2 archaic and phylogenetically disparate monophyletic taxa, the Diphyllobothriidae and the Tetrabothriidea. Origins and diversification for an array of genera and species among these characteristic assemblages in pinnipeds and cetaceans is linked to col...

  16. Segregation and co-occurrence of larval cestodes in freshwater fishes in the Bothnian Bay, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K I; Valtonen, E T

    1992-02-01

    Two autogenic (Triaenophorus crassus and T. nodulosus) and four allogenic (Diphyllobothrium latum, D. dendriticum, D. ditremum and Schistocephalus solidus) larval cestode species were found in 13 out of 31 fish species studied from the Bothnian Bay, NE Baltic. Gasterosteus aculeatus was the most heavily infected fish with 4 larval cestode species; for two of them (D. ditremum and S. solidus) the three-spined stickleback was found to be the required fish intermediate host. Among allogenic cestode species, those restricted to different definitive host species segregated their larval population in relation to the fish host, while, for example, D. ditremum and S. solidus, both maturing in fish-eating birds, had the highest percentage of co-occurrences. D. dendriticum, which had the widest range of definitive hosts, was found in the greatest number (8) of fish species and co-occurred with all other species found except T. crassus. The two autogenic species totally segregated their larval population from each other although they both require pike as definitive host. The ecological and evolutionary relationships behind the patterns found for larval cestodes are discussed. PMID:1614732

  17. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)author)

  18. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice / Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hidelberto, Matos-Silva; Bruno Pereira, Reciputti; Élbio Cândido de, Paula; André Luiz, Oliveira; Vânia Beatriz Lopes, Moura; Marina Clare, Vinaud; Milton Adriano Pelli, Oliveira; Ruy de Souza, Lino-Júnior.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC) com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialme [...] nte com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals wer [...] e intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.

  19. Ultrastructure of vitellogenesis and vitellocytes in the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax

    OpenAIRE

    Swiderski, Zdzislaw; Miquel Colomé, Jordi; Marigo, Adji Mama; Gibson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first TEM examination of vitellogenesis in the cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax and a member of a little-studied trypanorhynch family, the Aporhynchidae. The synthetic activity of vitellocytes plays two important functions in the developmental biology of cestodes: (1) their shell-globules serve in eggshell formation; and (2) their accumulated reserves of glycogen and lipids represent a food source for the developing embryo...

  20. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; Georgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boiko B.; Vasileva, Gergana G.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Andy J. Green

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were samp...

  1. The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V. Novikov

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% , Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% , Hymenolepis scutigera (54% , Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% , Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% , Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% , Choanotaenia hepatica (6% , Dilepis undula (2% and Polycercus sp. (2% .

  2. The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR). 1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael V., Novikov.

    Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae) cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaem [...] us fulvus (86% ), Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% ), Hymenolepis scutigera (54% ), Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% ), Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% ), Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% ), Choanotaenia hepatica (6% ), Dilepis undula (2% ) and Polycercus sp. (2% ).

  3. Review of tapeworms of rodents in the Republic of Buryatia, with emphasis on anoplocephalid cestodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitto Haukisalmi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of ca. 500 rodents [Microtus spp., Myodes spp., Cricetulus barabensis (Pallas, Apodemus peninsulae Thomas] from 14 localities in the Republic of Buryatia (Russian Federation revealed a minimum of 11 cestode species representing Anoplocephaloides Baer, 1923 s. str. (1 species, Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 s. l. (5 species, Catenotaenia Janicki, 1904 (2 species, Arostrilepis Mas-Coma & Tenora, 1997 (at least 2 species and Rodentolepis Spasskii, 1954 (1 species. At least 5 of these species are previously unknown. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Buryatian Paranoplocephala-species was defined by cytochrome oxidase I (COI sequences (mtDNA. The phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the status of Parandrya Gulyaev & Chechulin, 1996 as a junior synonym of Paranoplocephala s. l.. The species diversity of anoplocephalid cestodes was significantly lower in Buryatia and North-East Siberia (6-7 species than in Europe (17 species. The connections of the anoplocephalid fauna of Buryatia seem to be closer with Beringia (North-East Siberia and Alaska than with Europe. The present study demonstrated high spatial variation (patchiness among study sites in cestodes of Buryatian rodents, with the exception of the ubiquitous Arostrilepis horrida (von Linstow, 1901-complex.

  4. Delayed selfing in relation to the availability of a mating partner in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjørring, Solveig

    2004-11-01

    A hermaphroditic individual that prefers to outbreed but that has the potential of selfing faces a dilemma: in the absence of a partner, should it wait for one to arrive or should it produce offspring by selfing? Recent theory on this question suggests that the evolutionary solution is to find an optimal delay of reproduction that balances the potential benefit of outcrossing and the cost of delaying the onset of reproduction. Assuming that resources retained from breeding can be reallocated to future reproduction, isolated individuals, compared with individuals with available mates, are predicted to delay their age at first reproduction to wait for future outcrossing. Here, I present empirical support for this idea with experimental data from the hermaphroditic cestode Schistocephalus solidus. I show that individuals breeding alone delay their reproduction and initially produce their eggs at a slow rate relative to cestodes breeding in pairs. This delay is partly compensated for by a later higher egg production, although singly breeding cestodes still pay a cost of overall lower egg production. PMID:15612301

  5. Parasite-associated growth enhancement in a fish-cestode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, S A; Barber, I; Huntingford, F A

    2000-04-01

    Parasites impose an energetic cost upon their hosts, yet, paradoxically instances have been reported in which infection is associated with enhanced, rather than diminished, host growth rates. Field studies of these parasite effects are problematic, since the pre-infection condition of the hosts is generally unknown. Here, we describe a laboratory experiment in which the growth rate and body condition of 76 laboratory-reared three-spined stickleback fishes were examined before, during and after each fish was fed the infective stage of the parasitic cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Twenty-one of these fishes went on to become infected by the cestode. Fishes were individually housed and provided with an abundant food supply to eliminate the potentially masking effects of variable competitive ability. Infection occurred independently of fish gender, size, body condition or pre-exposure growth rate. After exposure to the cestode, infected fishes grew faster (excluding parasite weight) and maintained a similar or better body condition compared with uninfected fishes, despite developing enlarged spleens. The accelerated growth could not be explained by reduced gonadal development. This result, one of few demonstrations of parasite-associated growth enhancement in fishes, is discussed with respect to other such parasite systems. PMID:10821609

  6. In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

  7. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  8. Infection by the cestode parasite Schistocephalus sp. and effects on diet, body condition and survival of sculpins Cottus aleuticus and Cottus cognatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B S; Hilborn, R; Quinn, T P

    2015-05-01

    Sampling in Iliamna Lake, Alaska, U.S.A. revealed that a greater proportion of coastrange sculpins Cottus aleuticus were infected by the cestode Schistocephalus solidus than slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus (52 v. 23%), and infected C. aleuticus contained more cestodes than did C. cognatus (2·1 v. 1·3 per fish). Consumption of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka eggs (the primary diet item) was lower in fishes with cestodes, and a model based on cestode prevalence and age composition estimated higher rates of infection and parasite-associated mortality in C. aleuticus compared with C. cognatus. PMID:25809184

  9. Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

  10. Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

  11. Cestodes of the Brown-banded Bamboo Shark Chiloscyllium punctatum (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscylliidae from the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watchariya PURIVIROJKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of cestode parasites were collected from 120 brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected from Chon Buri province, in the Gulf of Thailand. All fish specimens were found to be infected with cestodes. Eight species in 4 genera of cestodes were recorded, Caulopatera pagei, Orectolobicestus tyleri, Spiniloculus mavensis, Yorkeria hilli, Y. kelleyae, Y. saliputium, Y. yubodohensis and Y. chonburiensis. In this study, 3,834 specimens of cestodes were found in C. punctatum of which 1,539 specimens (40.14 % were Yorkeria spp. O. tyleri (51.41 % with Y. chonburiensis the lowest (0.05 %. The prevalence of the cestode infection was highest in August (61.9 parasites per fish followed by October (57.9 parasites per fish and July (57.6 parasites per fish, whereas infection was lowest in February (21.6 parasites per fish. O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. hilli, Y. kelleyae and Y. yubodohensis were found in all seasons. Five species; C. pagei, O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. saliputium and Y. yubodohensis were the first records in Thailand.

  12. Multiple infections: relatedness and time between infections affect the establishment and growth of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its stickleback host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ilonka; Schjørring, Solveig

    2006-03-01

    We studied experimental double infections of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its stickleback host. In particular, we were interested in how two important components of the cestode's transmission success-establishment and growth within the fish host-were affected by the relatedness of the two parasites in a double exposure and by the timing of the two exposures, that is, whether they occurred simultaneously or sequentially. We found that male sticklebacks more often became infected (singly or doubly) if the two cestodes in the exposures were related, whereas female sticklebacks were more easily infected (singly or doubly) when exposed to two unrelated cestodes. Irrespective of the fish's gender, successful infections more often contained both cestodes when they were related. In sequential exposures with related as well as unrelated cestodes, the cestode in the later exposure survived better and also grew larger than the cestode from the first exposure, despite being one week younger. Our results emphasize that within-host dynamics and factors acting at this level can play an important role in determining a parasite's transmission success. PMID:16637505

  13. Cestodes in South American freshwater teleost fishes: keys to genera and brief description of species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilcar Arandas, Rego; James C, Chubb; Gilberto C, Pavanelli.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Keys to genera of cestodes in South American freshwater teleost fishes are provided, with diagnoses of genera and short descriptions of species. Two new genera are proposed, Chambriella gen.n. for Goezeella agostinhoi Pavanelli & Santos, 1992 and G paranaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989, and Brooksiella [...] gen.n. for Amphoteromorphus praeputialis Rego, Santos & Silva, 1974. Nomimoscolex magna Rego, Santos & Silva, 1974, previously species inquirenda, is transferred to the genus Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858. Goezeella nupeliensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 is considered a species inquirenda. Species and host lists are included.

  14. In vivo efficacy of the anthelmintic tribendimidine against the cestode Hymenolepis microstoma in a controlled laboratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Welz, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Harder, Achim

    2012-08-01

    Tribendimidine has been registered for the treatment of human soil transmitted helminthiases in China. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans it is an agonist of L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and therefore shares its mode of action with levamisole and pyrantel. Besides its broad spectrum of nematicidal efficacy, tribendimidine is efficacious against several trematodes and has been attributed to have anti-cestodal effects. However, there are few published data available for the latter. The efficacy of tribendimidine and its nematicidal metabolite deacylated amidantel against Hymenolepis microstoma were examined for their anti-cestodal potential. Doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight deacylated amidantel and 10, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg tribendimidine were administered orally on three consecutive days to mice experimentally infected with eight cysticercoids. Necropsy was performed and the worm burdens were determined one day after the last treatment. Furthermore, levamisole was used in combination with tribendimidine (100mg/kg levamisole plus 10 and 25mg/kg tribendimidine, respectively) and alone (50 and 100mg/kg) to investigate any possible interactions of the partner compounds against cestodes. Tribendimidine showed a very high efficacy at dosages of 50mg/kg or higher. Surprisingly, deacylated amidantel led to no reduction of the worm burden in any of the treatments. Combinations of levamisole with tribendimidine did not augment the effects of tribendimidine alone and as expected levamisole alone also showed no anti-cestodal activity. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time activity of tribendimidine against a cestode in a controlled laboratory study. Due to the excellent cure rates observed here, multiple tribendimidine treatments might be considered as useful scheme for treatments of cestode, nematode and trematode infections although this would significantly increase both costs and management efforts. Moreover, the differences between tribendimidine and deacylated amidantel indicate at least a strong difference in sensitivity of H. microstoma or a strong difference in drug availability. PMID:22487754

  15. Intestinal helminths of freshwater stingrays in southeastern Peru, and a new genus and two new species of cestode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyda, Florian B

    2008-06-01

    Helminths of the spiral intestine of neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae) were examined in Peru for the first time. The stingrays examined for helminths included Paratrygon aiereba, Potamotrygon motoro, and Potamotrygon cf. castexi. Present in P. aiereba were the cestodes Nandocestus guariticus (Marques, Brooks, and Lasso, 2001) n. gen. n. comb., Rhinebothrium copianullum n. sp., Rhinebothrium sp. 1, Rhinebothroides sp., Potamotrygonocestus cf. fitzgeraldae, and 1 species each of Cucullanus and Rhabdochona. Nandocestus n. gen. is erected to house N. guariticus, which is formally transferred from Anindobothrium Marques, Brooks, and Lasso, 2001. The new genus is unique among phyllobothriids in its possession of circummedullary vitelline follicles and a submarginal genital pore, in combination with bothridia with a single apical sucker and marginal bothridial loculi. The helminths of P. motoro included the cestodes Paraoncomegas araya, Acanthobothrium peruviense n. sp., Acanthobothrium cf. ramiroi, Rhinebothrium sp. 1, Rhinebothroides sp. 1, Potamotrygonocestus sp., the nematode Brevimulticaecum regoi, a species of Cucullanus, and a species of the digenean superfamily Diplostomoidea. The helminths of P. cf. castexi included the cestodes P. araya, N. guariticus n. gen. n. comb., Acanthobothrium cf. peruviense, Potamotrygonocestus sp., Rhinebothrium sp. 1, Rhinebothroides sp. 2, the nematode species Echinocephalus daileyi and B. regoi, 1 species each of Cucullanus, Rhabdochona, and Procamallanus, and a species of the digenean superfamily Hemiuroidea. All taxa were examined via light microscopy; the cestode taxa were also examined using scanning electron microscopy. Each helminth species recorded in this study is a first report from Peru. The study suggests that the diversity and host specificity of the cestodes in potamotrygonid stingrays may be greater than previously thought. The known numbers of genera and species of tetraphyllidean cestodes parasitizing neotropical freshwater stingrays are now 6 and 22, respectively. PMID:18605776

  16. Anastomotic esophageal leak due to Taenia saginata following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Baleela, Reem M.; Huessain, Mohamed Y.; Ahmed, Mohamed E.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 50-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower third of the esophagus underwent an esophagectomy via laparotomy and right thoracotomy. She developed a major anastomotic leak on the third postoperative day. The chest tube slipped out on the 10th postoperative day and a segment of Taenia saginata tapeworm came out through the tube drain site and was extracted. She was given praziquantel tablets treatment; after which the leakage dropped dramatically and ceased comple...

  17. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, R.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 52, ?. 3 (2002), s. 171-182. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cestodes * parasites of birds * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2002

  18. Cestode parasitism in invasive and native brine shrimps (Artemia spp.) as a possible factor promoting the rapid invasion of A. franciscana in the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Boyko B.; Sánchez, Marta I.; Vasileva, G.P.; Nikolov, P.N.; Andy J. Green

    2007-01-01

    Artemia franciscana is an invasive crustacean expanding its range in hypersaline wetlands in the Mediter- ranean region and replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. Native brine shrimps are known as intermediate hosts of cestodes; infected individuals exhibit changes in their behaviour and appearance, thus facilitating the parasite transmission to the avian hosts by predation. To assess whether invasive brine shrimps participate in the cestode life cycles to the same exte...

  19. Determinants of the prevalence of the cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops in teal wintering in the French Camargue

    OpenAIRE

    Andy J. Green; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fritz, Hervé; Guillemain, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Eurasian teal Anas crecca (n?=?46,581) were inspected during ringing operations for the presence of the hymenolepidid cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops between 1954 and 1971 while wintering in the Camargue, Southern France. These birds become infected when ingesting seed shrimps (Ostracoda) that act as intermediate hosts, largely while on migration across Western Europe. The prevalence ranged from 4% to 14% per year and increased significantly over time. This long-...

  20. Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch. PMID:25475253

  1. Copulation order, density cues and variance in fertilization success in a cestode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, D; Benesh, D P

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous hermaphrodites maximize their fitness by optimizing their investment into male or female functions. Allocation of resources to male function (tissues, traits, and/or behaviours increasing paternity) is predicted to increase as density, and the associated level of sperm competition, increases. We tested whether the simultaneous hermaphroditic cestode Schistocephalus solidus uses cues of potential partner densities in its fish intermediate host to improve its male reproductive success in the final host. We had two worms, one originating from a multiple infection in the fish intermediate host and one from a single infection, sequentially compete to fertilize the eggs of a third worm. The fertilization rates of the two competitors nearly always differed from the 50-50 null expectation, sometimes considerably, implying there was a 'winner' in each experimental competition. However, we did not find a significant effect of density in the fish host (single vs multiple) or mating order on paternity. Additional work will be needed to identify the traits and environmental conditions that explain the high variance in male reproductive success observed in this experiment. PMID:24560286

  2. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig in southern Brazil / Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato e Taenia hydatigena em suínos no sul do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danieli Urach, Monteiro; Sônia de Avila, Botton; Alexandre Alberto, Tonin; Karen Luisa, Haag; Germano, Musskopf; Maria Isabel, Azevedo; Carla, Weiblen; Tatiana Correa, Ribeiro; Mário Luiz de la, Rue.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, buscou-se identificar os agentes etiológicos de origem parasitária em cistos nas vísceras de suínos oriundos sa região centro/norte do sEstado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Cinquenta e oito cistos foram encontrados durante a inspeção veterinária em fígados de suínos abatidos entre jane [...] iro de 2008 a 2012. As amostras foram submetidas às análises macroscópicas e moleculares. Reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e alinhamento das sequências no BLAST (bases de dados do GenBank) foram utilizados na caracterização molecular das amostras. Das amostras analisadas, 10,3% (6/58) foram positivas para Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato e 56,9% (33/58) para Cysticercus tenuicollis. Evidenciou-se a ocorrência de larvas de E. granulosus sensu lato e Taenia hydatigena em rebanhos suínos na região centro/norte do RS. A presença de ambos os agentes é relevante devido às perdas econômicas para a indústria de carnes. Além disso, destaca-se que E. granulosus sensu lato possui importância zoonótica e pode contaminar os rebanhos suínos no sul do Brasil. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the parasitical etiologic agents of visceral cysts in pigs from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty-eight cysts were found in livers during veterinary inspection of swine slaughtered from January 2008 to 2012. Collected samples were subm [...] itted to macroscopic and molecular analyzes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and BLAST alignment of sequences was used to molecular characterization of the samples. By PCR 10.3% (6/58) of tested samples were positive for Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and 56.9% (33/58) for Cysticercus tenuicollis. In this study, it was verified the occurrence of larval forms of E. granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig herds from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The presence of both parasites is relevant due to the economic losses for the meat industry. Additionally, E. granulosus sensu lato has zoonotic importance and may be infecting pig herds in southern Brazil.

  3. Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis. PMID:24690153

  4. Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

    2014-03-01

    Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

  5. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO - OS CICLOS SILVÁTICOS E SINANTRÓPICOS DE ECHINOCOCCUS SPP., TAENIA SPP. E TOXOCARA SPP. EM PORTUGAL: DIAGNÓSTICO COPROLÓGICO E MOLECULAR EM CANÍDEOS - Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. e Toxocara spp. são parasitas importantes de canídeos domésticos e silvestres e agentes de zoonoses negligenciadas. Apesar da sua relevância em Saúde Pública, pouca informação existe acerca da prevalência em Portugal. Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico para compreender o papel que espécies de canídeos ...

  6. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Francisco; Sánchez, Marta I.; Green, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica) from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain), in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides) was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults) and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles). The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides) and colour change (for six cestode species) were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially.

  7. Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Sérgio Arruda Pinto; Adelaide José Vaz; Paulo Mutuko Nakamura; Pedro Manuel Leal Germano

    2001-01-01

    Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizad...

  8. Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

  9. The rise and fall of an epizootic of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus pungitii infecting the ninespine stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, David C; Ecke, Johanna K

    2012-02-01

    Epizootics of diphyllobothriidean cestodes appear to be simple, but deceptive similarity conceals the myriad ways in which these events are shaped by complex abiotic and biotic interactions. In Dog Bone Lake, Alaska, an epizootic of Schistocephalus pungitii infecting the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) was short-lived. Its duration, with a peak that lasted only 1 yr, was shorter than for previously documented epizootics in Schistocephalus solidus . The ability of the ninespine stickleback to sustain infections, which appears to be related to species-specific characteristics of the host, may have played an important role in shaping the epizootic. Moreover, the epizootic of S. pungitii was not coincident with those observed for S. solidus in earlier studies within this region, supporting the hypothesis that processes involved in epizootics largely reflect local (lake-level) influences on population dynamics of the parasite. The outbreak occurred at a time when the host population was not relatively dense, which is inconsistent with epidemiological theory and may be a consequence of the parasite's indirect life cycle. The variability of the unregulated and unstable epizootic events of diphyllobothriidean cestodes presents a challenge to understand the ecological and evolutionary factors influencing the prevalence of infections in host populations. PMID:21895527

  10. Reduction of egg size in natural populations of threespine stickleback infected with a cestode macroparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, David C; Baker, John A

    2003-02-01

    Manifestations of infectious disease may represent host adaptations to avoid or reduce the effects of infection on host fitness, parasite manipulations that benefit the pathogen's fitness, or nonadaptive side effects of parasitism. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Alaska and the cestode macroparasite Schistocephalus solidus provide an excellent system for study of the effects of parasitism on host egg size because females in populations there are capable of producing clutches of eggs in the face of substantial infection, contrary to the inhibition of reproduction that has been observed in other stickleback populations or other species of fish. A side effect resulting in reduction of mean ovummass among infected females was predicted based on the egg production process in female stickleback, the considerable energy and resource demands of S. solidus, and the chronic and progressive nature of the effects the macroparasite should have on the host fish. In each of 9 populations of G. aculeatus representing replicate natural experiments in lakes scattered across the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula of south-central Alaska and among all populations combined, the mean ovum mass of infected female fish is significantly reduced in comparison with that of uninfected females taken from the same population at the same time. Reduction in mean female egg mass ranged from 8 to 32% across all populations. To examine whether reduction in mean female ovum mass was a nonadaptive side effect or an adaptation, relatively large data sets from 2 of the populations were used. Mean ovum mass of infected females was predicted to decrease directly in relation to parasite index (PI) if the diminution in mean egg mass were the result of a nonadaptive side effect resulting from host nutrient loss. Alternatively, the absence of a relationship between PI and reduction in ovum mass is predicted if decreases in mean female ovum mass result from host or parasite adaptation (or both) because lightly infected hosts should show a response similar to that of heavily infected ones. In each of the 2 populations, there is a significant, negative relationship between mean female ovum mass and PI, demonstrating a correlation between the decrease in ovum mass and the level of infection. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reductions in mean female egg mass represent side effects of parasitism involving nutrient theft. Moreover, the proportional decline in egg mass with increasing PI apparently differed between the 2 populations, and there was no significant relationship between mean percent decrease in mean female ovum mass and mean PI across populations. These observations suggest that unknown ecological and evolutionary factors influence the degree of reduction in mean ovum mass in a population-specific manner. PMID:12659295

  11. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Ange?lica; Bobes, Raul J.; Herna?ndez, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, Rene?; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 o...

  12. Distribución y viabilidad de cisticercos de Taenia saginata en los cortes de carne de la canal de bovinos naturalmente infectados / Distribution and viability of cyticerci of Taenia saginata in meat cuts from naturally infected beef

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Cayo; G, Valenzuela; E, Paredes; V, Ruíz; C, Gallo.

    Full Text Available Se determinó la distribución anatómica y viabilidad de los cisticercos de Taenia saginata en bovinos naturalmente infectados, faenados en el sur de Chile. Los animales fueron inspeccionados post mórtem según los procedimientos chilenos oficiales en los puntos obligatorios: corazón, lengua, maseteros [...] , esófago, diafragma y superficie de canal. Se tomaron al azar 20 canales de bovinos diagnosticados positivos a la inspección, y sus mitades izquierdas fueron despostadas en los 33 cortes oficiales; éstos fueron completamente disecados en láminas de aproximadamente 0,5 cm de grosor, contabilizando el número de cisticercos encontrados por inspección visual en cada corte. Lesiones compatibles con cisticercos de Taenia saginata se encontraron a la inspección oficial en 148 bovinos (0,5% de prevalencia), encontrando 64,9% en corazón, 33,8% en músculos maseteros, 0,7% en esófago y 0,7% en la canal. Al examen histológico de las lesiones, se encontró que 82,9% eran cisticercos no viables (degenerados) y sólo 5,1% eran viables; 10,7% correspondieron a otros diagnósticos (principalmente miositis, seguido de miocarditis en corazón y actinobacilosis en lengua) y en 1,3% de los casos no se encontraron alteraciones. Se encontraron 14 lesiones compatibles con cisticercosis en las 20 canales positivas a cisticercos de Taenia saginata a la inspección; todas fueron confirmadas positivas al análisis histológico y todas eran quistes degenerados. Estos cisticercos estaban distribuidos en filete, tapapecho, asiento, ganso, plateada, asado de tira, posta negra, tapabarriga, posta de paleta y entraña. Se concluye que la posibilidad de encontrar cisticercos en cortes de carne es limitada, especialmente en animales infectados en forma leve, como sucede en Chile. Abstract in english The anatomical distribution and viability of cysticerci of Taenia saginata in naturally infected cattle slaughtered in southern Chile was determined. The cattle were inspected post mortem according to official chilean procedures, where mandatory inspection sites are: heart, tongue, masseter, oesopha [...] gus, diaphragm and superficial observation of the carcass. Twenty carcasses diagnosed as positive during inspection were chosen at random and their left half sides were separated into the 33 official meat cuts; these were completely dissected into approximately 0.5 cm thick slices and number of cysts determined by visual inspection. Lesions compatible with cysticerci of Taenia saginata were diagnosed according to official procedures in 148 cattle (0.5% prevalence) at mandatory sites, finding that 64.9% of them were located in heart, 33.8% in masseter muscles, 0.7% in oesophagus and 0.7% in the carcasses. At histological examination, 82.9% of the lesions were diagnosed as nonviable cysts and only 5.1% were viable; 10.7% corresponded to other diagnoses (mostly myositis and myocarditis, followed by schwannoma in heart and actynomycosis in tongue) and in 1.3% no alteration could be found. Fourteen cysts were found in the meat cuts of the 20 positive to cysticerci of Taenia saginata in carcasses, all were nonviable; cysts were found in tenderloin, point end brisket, rump heart, silverside, cube roll cover, ribs, topside, flanck meat, bolar and thin skirt. It is concluded that chances of finding cysticerci in meat cuts of cattle diagnosed positive to cysticerci of Taenia saginata at slaughter inspection is limited, especially when animals are infected in a mild form, as it happens in Chile.

  13. Effects of thymol on the electrical and mechanical properties of the guinea-pig taenia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Kuriyama, H.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of thymol (0·02-2 mM) on the electrical and mechanical activities of the smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig taenia coli were investigated with either micro-electrode or double sucrose gap methods. 1. Thymol, in a concentration of more than 0·03 mM, reduced the amplitude and maximum rate of rise of the spikes without any change of the membrane potential. When the concentration was increased to 0·3 mM, thymol completely blocked the spontaneous and evoked spike activities. In a concentration of more than 0·1 mM, thymol reduced the membrane resistance in proportion to the concentration without any change of the membrane potential. 2. Ionic mechanisms involved in the effects of thymol on the membrane resistance were investigated in various ionic environments. The results showed that in concentrations below 0·5 mM thymol might selectively increase the Cl-conductance of the membrane. Participations of Na and K ion in the effects of thymol on the membrane resistance could be eliminated. However, at more than 1 mM, thymol increased the membrane conductance non-selectively. Excess Ca in the external solution partly suppressed the action of thymol on the taenia coli. 3. Potentiation of the twitch tension was not observed on treatment with any concentration of thymol. 4. After pre-treatment with thymol (0·5 mM), isotonic K Krebs solution depolarized the membrane and reduced the membrane resistance as observed in the absence of thymol. However, thymol completely suppressed the K-induced contracture. 5. Application of excess Ca and acetylcholine during the maintained contracture evoked by isotonic K Krebs solution induced further development of the contracture. However, on pre-treatment with thymol, neither excess Ca nor acetylcholine could evoke a mechanical response in isotonic K Krebs solution. 6. The results obtained from the present experiments are discussed in relation to the roles of Ca on the smooth muscle cells. PMID:4818488

  14. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-?. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  15. The clearance of hidden cestode infection triggered by an independent activation of host defense in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Claus; Little, Tom J

    2004-12-01

    Parasites often elude effective recognition or attack (or both) by the host immune system, for example, though a tegument that possesses nonimmunogenic features. However, a general activation of host defense due to independent stimuli may increase immune activity to a level where such disguises are no longer effective, resulting in the clearance of an infection. We experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. To independently foster a general immune response a few days later, we cut the tips of spines in some fish and sham-treated other fish. Cutting spines significantly reduced the prevalence of the infection. The injury evoked a physiological reaction that helped to clear a hidden parasite infection. PMID:15715223

  16. An unusual case of cycticercosis of the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Agarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm, especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larvae become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, the vitreous humor, or other tissues. We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles that presented as a swelling of the tendoachilles. Upon Fine Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC that were conducted preoperatively, the possibility of villonodular synovitis was identified. However, the cysticercosis diagnosis was confirmed later after an excisional biopsy was performed. We could find no reports in the literature concerning an occurrence of cysticercosis in the tendon sheath of tendoachilles.

  17. Conservative management of neurocysticercosis in a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvey, S; Lu, K; Mukkamalla, S K; Anandi, P; Dumitriu, B; Kranick, S; Hammoud, D A; O'Connell, E; Oh, A L; Barrett, J; Mahanty, S; Battiwalla, M

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is common in developing countries but its occurrence and management in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. We report the case of an immigrant female patient who underwent a matched-related allogeneic HSCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was incidentally found to have a solitary viable neurocysticercosis lesion. However, despite severe immunosuppression, the size of the cyst did not increase. More importantly, restoration of the immune system did not induce significant inflammation or seizures. Subsequent follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of the neurocysticercosis lesion. Thus, in the setting of HSCT, an asymptomatic patient with a single neurocysticercosis lesion was successfully managed without the use of anthelmintics, steroids, or anti-epileptics. PMID:25850995

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Bao-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Taenia multiceps Isolates from Gansu Province, China by Sequencing of Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu; Fu, Bao Quan

    2013-01-01

    A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The res...

  20. Contractile and relaxant effects of phorbol ester in the intestinal smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsui, M.; Karaki, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Effects of phorbol esters on the cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) and muscle tension in the intestinal smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia caeci were examined. 2. 12-Deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate (DPB, 1 microM) did not change the [Ca2+]i and tension in resting muscle. 3. In high K(+)-stimulated muscle, 1 microM DPB transiently augmented the contraction and decreased [Ca2+]i. 12-Deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate 20-acetate (1 microM) and phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (1 microM) showed similar effects to ...

  1. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.

  2. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  3. Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roukbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010, aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06% for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid. Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64, Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62, Gambusia affinis (female: 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51, Gambusia affinis(males: 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(. A

  4. The consequences of self-fertilization and outcrossing of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its second intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, M; Milinski, M

    2003-04-01

    Many hermaphroditic parasites reproduce by both cross-fertilization and self-fertilization. To understand the maintenance of such mixed mating systems it is necessary to compare the fitness consequences of the two reproductive modes. This has, however, almost never been done in the context of host-parasite coevolution. Here we show the consequences of outcrossing and selfing in an advanced life-stage of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus, i.e. in its second intermediate host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Each juvenile stickleback was simultaneously exposed to 2 experimentally infected copepods, one harbouring outcrossed the other selfed parasites. At 60 days p.i. parasites were removed from the fish's body cavity and, with microsatellite markers, assigned to either outcrossed or selfed origin. Prevalence was not significantly higher in outcrossed parasites. However, those fish that were infected contained significantly more out-crossed than selfed parasites. Thus the probability of a selfed parasite to progress in the life-cycle is reduced in the second intermediate host. Furthermore, we found that even the multiply infected fish increased in weight during the experiment. Nevertheless, total worm weight in multiply infected fish was significantly lower than in singly infected ones, which thus might be a parasite life-history strategy. PMID:12741516

  5. The infectivity, growth, and virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, C

    1997-09-01

    In an experiment to study the infectivity, growth and virulence of Schistocephalus solidus in their first intermediate host, copepods of the species Macrocyclops albidus were kept singly and exposed to up to 9 coracidia. Eleven or 14 days post-infection (p.i.) the presence and growth of the cestode larvae relative to survival, growth and reproduction of their host was determined. As expected, the probability of a copepod becoming infected increased with increasing numbers of parasites administered. However, the chances of a single coracidium establishing in a copepod also increased with increasing numbers of coracidia administered, which indicates that the parasites profit from a dilution effect of the host's defence. Copepod size or developmental stage had no significant effect on the infection, but 14 days p.i., constraining effects of copepod size on the growth of the parasites were apparent. Moreover, procercoids in multiple infections grew smaller and developed their cercomer at a smaller size than those in single infections. No significant effect of the parasite on host mortality was found within the observation period. However, growth between the 5th copepodid stage and adult stage was negatively affected by infection. An infection with S. solidus was also strongly linked with host reproduction: infected females were more likely to bear an egg sac at the end of the experiment than non-infected ones. These egg sacs, however, contained fewer eggs. PMID:9300470

  6. The "crowding effect" in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus: density-dependent effects on plerocercoid size and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, David C; Baker, John A; Martin, Hillery C

    2002-04-01

    The occurrence of the crowding effect was demonstrated in plerocercoids of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus infecting threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from Walby and Scout lakes, Alaska. Contrary to an earlier report, relatively large numbers of parasites (>3-4 plerocercoids) were observed to grow large enough in an intermediate host fish to become competent to infect and to mature in the definitive host under any of 3 assumed threshold values and 1 scenario of graded sizes for parasite competency. In Walby Lake, intensity and host body mass were significant predictors of mean plerocercoid mass per host, whereas intensity, host body mass, and combined parasite index were significant predictors in Scout Lake. Slopes of equations expressing the relationship between mean parasite mass and intensity for both lakes were less than 1, implying that processes other than or in combination with simple resource limitation might be producing the observed crowding effect. The causal mechanism for the crowding effect could include exploitative competition, interference competition, and host immune response. There were significant differences in infection between the two lakes, including different distributions of parasite intensities among hosts and different expressions of the crowding effect; however, an explanation of the differences awaits further investigation. PMID:12054002

  7. Susceptibility of Taenia saginata metacestodes to gamma irradiation and shelf-life extension of the treated meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taenia saginata metacestodes from experimentally infected calves were irradiated at levels varying from 0.2 to 0.6 kGy. Human volunteers who infected themselves with the irradiated cysticerci showed that a minimum irradiation dose level of 0.3 kGy is required to inhibit the development into adult tapeworms. Irradiation of infected carcasses by 0.5 kGy to 0.6 kGy seems to be effective. The evagination reflex and the in vitro maintenance did not show any difference in behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated cysticerci. Even this relatively low irradiation dose produced a lower microbiological contamination in hygienically produced minced veal. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  8. Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I., Brito; L.R.G., Britto; E.A.M., Ferrari.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA) after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba liv [...] ia), weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG); with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG); with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG); with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG), and with daily handling (naive group; NG). The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P

  9. Population dynamics in echinococcosis and cysticercosis: economic assessment of control strategies for Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia ovis and T. hydatigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, J R; Roberts, M G; Gemmell, M A; Best, S J

    1988-08-01

    An official control programme against Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena has been in operation in New Zealand for more than 28 years and against Taenia ovis for more than 18 years. This unique effort to control three metazoan parasites at the same time has led to a change from endemic to extinction status for E. granulosus but only a change from hyperendemic to endemic status for T. hydatigena and T. ovis. This has presented problems in determining the most cost-effective future control strategies. To facilitate this, a benefit/cost analysis of 20 options for the combined control of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and T. ovis in New Zealand was undertaken. This showed that for E. granulosus a future change from the current non-targeted to a targeted approach is strongly indicated. For T. ovis 6 options were cost-effective using a discount rate of 10%. These were (1) a targeted control package using a vaccine in the non-targeted attack phase; (2) a targeted control package using a larvicide in the attack phase; (3) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers a larvicide to sheep to be killed for dog food; (4) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers praziquantel every 6 weeks to dogs; (5) and (6) two options involving the discontinuation of control. Control of T. hydatigena was assumed to be an incidental outcome of the policies for the other two parasites. PMID:3140196

  10. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  11. Nucleotide pyrophosphatase antagonizes responses to adenosine 5'-triphosphate and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory nerve stimulation in the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Satchell, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The enzyme nucleotide pyrophosphatase converted adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP). In the isolated taenia coli of the guinea-pig it reduced the inhibitory responses to exogenously applied ATP. This could be explained on the basis that the ATP was rapidly converted to AMP which is less potent. The enzyme also reduced inhibitory responses to stimulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerves but failed to reduce inhibitory responses to either perivascular sy...

  12. Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis / Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sérgio, de Arruda Pinto; Adelaide José, Vaz; Paulo Mutuko, Nakamura; Pedro Manuel, Leal Germano.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino [...] con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por análisis de titulación en bloque mostrando 100.0% de sensibilidad y 96.7% de especificidad. Los péptidos específicos para la cisticercosis en orden de frecuencia fueron: 72-68 kD (100%), 16-15 kD (77%), 39-36 kD (62%), 18-17 kD (54%), 21 kD (31%), 14 kD (23%), 25-23 kD (8%), y 20-19 kD (8%). Reacción cruzada (72-68 y 18-17 kD) sólo se descubrió en una muestra (12.5%) de cerdo con hidatidosis. Debido a sus altas tasas de desempeño, el inmunoblot debe ser útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de cisticercosis porcina y es más eficaz que otras pruebas empleadas para este propósito, como examen de la lengua, examen anatomopatológico y ELISA Abstract in english [...

  13. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  14. Disease: H01047 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01047 Cysticercosis Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is endemic in many poorer countries of La ... ates on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management . Annu Rev Med 51:187-206 (2000) ...

  15. Taenia crassiceps: fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinaud, Marina Clare; Ferreira, Cirlane Silva; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto

    2009-07-01

    Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs. PMID:19348802

  16. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5?-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  17. Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brito

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.

  18. A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MAP kinases (MAPK are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17?-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17?-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design.

  19. Estimating the Non-Monetary Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Rachana; Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, He?le?ne; Proan?o, Jefferson V.; Flores-rivera, Jose; Corona, Teresa; Ivanek, Renata; Snowden, Karen F.; Flisser, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major public health problem caused by the larvae of the parasite Taenia solium. The condition occurs when humans ingest eggs of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which then develop into larvae in the central nervous system. The disease is predominantly found and considered important in Latin American, Asian, and African countries and is associated with a large social and economic burden. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the burden of NCC and there ...

  20. Actions of adenine dinucleotides in the guinea-pig taenia coli: NAD acts indirectly on P1-purinoceptors; NADP acts like a P2-purinoceptor agonist.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnstock, G; Hoyle, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The actions of the adenine dinucleotides beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) were examined on the carbachol-contracted taenia coli of the guinea-pig. Both were capable of inducing full relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner; NADP was 21.4 times more effective than NAD at EC50; the threshold for NADP was approximately 0.1 microM and for NAD approximately 1.0 microM. The P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophyllin...

  1. Suramin antagonizes responses to P2-purinoceptor agonists and purinergic nerve stimulation in the guinea-pig urinary bladder and taenia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, C. H.; Knight, G. E.; Burnstock, G.

    1990-01-01

    1. Suramin, an inhibitor of several types of ATPase, was investigated for its ability to antagonize responses mediated via P2X-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig urinary bladder and P2Y-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig taenia coli. 2. In isolated strips of bladder detrusor muscle, suramin (100 microM-1 mM) caused a non-competitive antagonism of responses to alpha, beta-methylene ATP with an estimated pA2 of approximately 4.7, and inhibited responses to stimulation of the intramural purinergic ner...

  2. Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy sources detected in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci after host treatment with antihelminthic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino Junior, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2012-05-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. The treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. The active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from T. crassiceps cysticerci removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with low dosages of albendazole (5.75 and 11.5mg/kg) or praziquantel (3.83 and 7.67 mg/kg). The beta-hydroxibutyrate production was higher by the larval stage cysticerci in all treated groups and the propionate production was higher in final stage cysticerci treated with 11.5mg/kg of albendazole when compared to the control group. The larval stages of cysticerci from the groups treated with 5.75 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 mg/kg of praziquantel produced more urea than the initial and final stages which indicate amino acids breakdown. We conclude that it was possible to detect the fatty acid oxidation and amino acids breakdown which indicate the use of alternative energy production sources as the used dosages only cause a partial blockage of the glucose uptake and leads to metabolic alterations in the cysticerci. The metabolic behavior observed after host treatment was different from former descriptions of the in vitro one which indicates great host-parasite interaction. PMID:22465501

  3. Preparation of single smooth muscle cells from guinea pig taenia coli by combinations of purified collagenase and papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, I; Yoshida, C; Kobayashi, M; Oyamada, H; Momose, K

    1987-09-01

    Procedures for isolation of single smooth muscle cells from taenia coli of guinea pigs have been developed. The preparation was performed with a combination of highly purified collagenase prepared by Amano Pharmaceutical Co. (Japan) and papain obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (Type III). This combination resulted in very high yield of the single cells (39.2 +/- 4.5 X 10(3) cells/mg tissue wet wt) and less cell debris. In the ordinary procedure, commercially available collagenase preparations contaminated with various peptidases have been used. With these enzyme preparations, however, the yield of single cells was dependent on the batch of the preparations, and a large amount of cell debris was contaminated. Combination of the highly purified collagenase and papain resulted in higher yields constantly. Cells, isolated with these enzymes in a medium consisting of 140 mM KCl, 1.0 mM MgCl2, 4.2 mM Hepes, and 5.6 mM glucose (pH 7.4), were spindle shaped. The length of the cells was 185.9 +/- 5.2 micron (n = 90) and the diameter was approximately 12.6 micron. The diameter was not dependent on the cell length. More than 80% of the single cells were viable when examined by trypan blue exclusion technique. Under the depolarized condition, cells remained viable longer because of lower energy consumption, and these cells were contracted by Ca dose dependently. The dose-response relationship was similar to that obtained with intact tissue. Because the cells are constantly available with higher yield, the preparation might be applicable for biochemical research such as ion flux. Details of cell properties under the physiological conditions are under investigation. PMID:3041121

  4. Mode of attachment and lesions associated with trypanorhynch cestodes in the gastrointestinal tracts of two species of sharks collected from coastal waters of Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucinska, J D; Caira, J N

    2006-07-01

    Lesions associated with two species of tapeworms within the digestive tract of wild-caught specimens of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, and the sicklefin weasel shark, Hemigaleus microstoma, from Malaysian Borneo are described. Portions of the glandular stomach and pyloric gut with parasites were removed and fixed in 10% formalin buffered in sea water. Whole mounts, histological sections of tissues with and without worms in situ, and scanning electron microscopy images of detached worms were examined. Both species of cestodes belonged to the trypanorhynch family Tentaculariidae. Heteronybelinia estigmena was found in large numbers parasitizing the pyloric gut of C. leucas; an unidentified tentaculariid was found in relatively small numbers in both the glandular stomach and pyloric gut of H. microstoma. Both species burrowed their scoleces deeply in the mucosa and attached via hooked tentacles and unciniform microtriches of the scolex. The lesions induced by the parasites were marked in both sharks and ranged from acute necrotizing to chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis. Regenerative hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelium were also present. The severity and character of pathology was causally linked to the intensity of infection, the attachment mode of the parasites, and to the anatomophysiological relationships within the gut of the host shark. PMID:16866923

  5. Excretory products of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, modulate in vitro responses of leukocytes from its specific host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsack, Jörn Peter; Gossens, Anabel; Franke, Frederik; Kurtz, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Helminth parasites have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate the immune system of their hosts. During infections of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus prominent immunological changes occur, presumably due to manipulative activity of the parasite. We hypothesise that excretory/secretory products of the parasite are involved in the manipulation of the stickleback's immune system and that this may depend on the individual parasite and its origin. We therefore produced S. solidus conditioned cell culture media (SSCM) with parasites from different origins (Norway, Spain and Germany) and exposed head kidney leukocytes (HKL) from un-infected sticklebacks in cell cultures to SSCM. After in vitro culture, HKL were subjected to differential cell counts (granulocytes/lymphocytes) by means of flow cytometry. Leukocyte sub-populations were analysed for cell viability and changes in cell morphology. The respiratory burst activity was measured with a luminescence assay. Exposure of HKL to SSCM induced an up-regulation of respiratory burst activity after already 1 h, which was still elevated at 24 h, but which was in some cases significantly down-regulated after 96 h. Respiratory burst was positively correlated with the number of live granulocytes in the culture, suggesting that the respiratory burst activity was changed by SSCM effects on granulocyte viability. After 1 h and 24 h of HKL culture, no lymphocyte responses to SSCM were detectable, but after 96 h lymphocyte viability was significantly decreased with SSCM from Spanish S. solidus. In these cultures, residual lymphocytes increased in size, suggesting that cell death and activation might have occurred in parallel. The highest respiratory burst activity was induced by SSCM from Spanish parasites, in particular when they were grown in sympatric sticklebacks. The in vitro HKL responses to SSCM depended on the individual parasite and its population of origin, suggesting that in vivo, S. solidus excretory products are regulated individually, possibly to balance the interplay of each individual host-parasite pair. PMID:24036333

  6. Proteocephalid cestode infection in tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) from Paraná River, São Paulo / Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), no Rio Paraná, São Paulo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Santos; K., Roumbedakis; N.G., Marengoni; H.K., Takahashi; F.D.A., Pimenta; C.M.R., Melo; M.L., Martins.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp., capturados mensalmente, entre agosto de 2000 e agosto de 2001, no rio Paraná, em Presidente Epitácio, SP. Um total de 128 espécimes foram analisados, dos quais 71 (55,6%) estavam parasitados por Proteocephalus macrophallus [...] (Diesing, 1850) e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935). A abundância e intensidade média total foram de 157,08 e 223,41, respectivamente. A maior prevalência (90%), juntamente com os maiores índices de abundância (1122,4) e intensidade média (1247,11) ocorreram no mês de fevereiro 2001, enquanto no mês de setembro 2000 não foram observados animais parasitados por cestóides. Não houve relação entre o sexo do hospedeiro e os índices parasitológicos. Abstract in english The occurrence of proteocephalid cestodes in tucunaré Cichla sp., captured monthly, between August 2000 and August 2001, in Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, SP, was evaluated. From 128 specimens, 71 (55.6%) were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Wo [...] odland, 1935). Total mean abundance and intensity were 157.08 and 223.41, respectively. The highest prevalence (90%) mean abundance (1,122.4) and intensity indexes (1,247.11) occurred in February 2001, while in September 2000 there were no observed animals infected by cestodes. No relationship between the sex of the host and parasitological indexes was found.

  7. Proteocephalid cestode infection in tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae from Paraná River, São Paulo Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, no Rio Paraná, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of proteocephalid cestodes in tucunaré Cichla sp., captured monthly, between August 2000 and August 2001, in Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, SP, was evaluated. From 128 specimens, 71 (55.6% were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935. Total mean abundance and intensity were 157.08 and 223.41, respectively. The highest prevalence (90% mean abundance (1,122.4 and intensity indexes (1,247.11 occurred in February 2001, while in September 2000 there were no observed animals infected by cestodes. No relationship between the sex of the host and parasitological indexes was found.Avaliou-se a ocorrência de cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp., capturados mensalmente, entre agosto de 2000 e agosto de 2001, no rio Paraná, em Presidente Epitácio, SP. Um total de 128 espécimes foram analisados, dos quais 71 (55,6% estavam parasitados por Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935. A abundância e intensidade média total foram de 157,08 e 223,41, respectivamente. A maior prevalência (90%, juntamente com os maiores índices de abundância (1122,4 e intensidade média (1247,11 ocorreram no mês de fevereiro 2001, enquanto no mês de setembro 2000 não foram observados animais parasitados por cestóides. Não houve relação entre o sexo do hospedeiro e os índices parasitológicos.

  8. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  9. Studies on isolated smooth muscle cells. IX. Application of papain for isolation of single smooth muscle cells from guinea-pig taenia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, M; Kobayashi, M; Oyamada, H; Kamishima, T; Yoshida, C; Ohata, H; Maruyama, I; Momose, K; Gomi, Y

    1987-02-01

    To prepare single smooth muscle cells from the taenia coli of guinea pig, the application of papain to the enzymatic solution was examined under two conditions: 1) the isolation in a modified Tyrode solution (containing 0.18 mM Ca2+: 0.18 mM Ca2+-Tyrode solution) and 2) the isolation in a high-K+ Tyrode solution (Na+ was replaced by K+, and Ca2+ was not added: high-K+ Tyrode solution). The presence of papain during collagenase digestion reduced contamination of broken cells and cell debris. In the case of the high-K+ Tyrode solution, papain increased the yield of single cells significantly. The cells were contracted in a dose-dependent manner by Ca2+ in the high-K+ Tyrode solution and by carbachol in 0.18 mM Ca2+-Tyrode solution; furthermore, the contractions were antagonized by verapamil and atropine, respectively. Treatment with papain did not affect cell sensitivity to the stimulants. Therefore, our results suggest that the addition of papain is useful for the isolation of single cells to investigate the physiological and pharmacological characteristics of smooth muscle. PMID:3682489

  10. Vitellogenesis in two spathebothriidean cestodes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Poddubnaya, L. G.; dezfuli, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 96, ?. 6 (2005), s. 390-397. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/1317 Grant ostatní: Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-04-48250; Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ultrastructure * vitellogenesis * Cestoda Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2005

  11. The cestode order Rhinebothriidea no longer family-less: A molecular phylogenetic investigation with erection of two new families and description of eight new species of Anthocephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    The spiral intestines of a total of 30 specimens of 14 species of batoids from around the world were examined for rhinebothriideans. These consisted of Taeniura grabata, Dasyatis margaritella, and Dasyatis sp. from Senegal, Dasyatis americana from Florida, Dasyatis dipterura and Dasyatis longa from México, Himantura jenkinsii, Himantura leoparda, Himantura uarnak 2, Urogymnus asperrimus 1, and Neotrygon kuhlii 4 from Australia, in addition to Himantura uarnacoides and Neotrygon kuhlii 1 from Borneo. Each of these hosted one or more species of Anthocephalum. Eleven of the cestode species were new to science; four represented described species. In addition, Urotrygon aspidura from Costa Rica hosted a species of Escherbothrium. Sufficient material was available for formal description of the following eight species of Anthocephalum: A. decrisantisorum n. sp., A. healyae n. sp., A. jensenae n. sp., A. mattisi n. sp., A. meadowsi n. sp., A. odonnellae n. sp., A. papefayi n. sp., and A. philruschi n. sp. These species differ from their nine described congeners in overall size, number of proglottids and marginal loculi, number and arrangement of testes, apical sucker size, arrangement and distribution of vitelline follicles particularly with respect in the post-poral field, and muscularity of the genital pore. The diagnosis of Anthocephalum is emended slightly to accommodate these new species. Material of four previously described Anthocephalum species, seven of the novel Anthocephalum species described here, 3 undescribed Anthocephalum species, and the species of Escherbothrium was preserved in 95% ethanol and partial 28S rDNA (D1-D3) and complete 18S rDNA sequence data were generated de novo. These data were combined with data from GenBank for Anthocephalum cf. centrurum (recognized as A. mattisi n. sp. below) and 29 species representing 12 other putative rhinebothriidean genera. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods were conducted using a total of five representatives of the Lecanicephalidea, Cathetocephalidea and "Tetraphyllidea" as outgroups. The analyses yielded trees that were largely congruent and that supported the existence of four major subgroups of rhinebothriideans. Family designations were established for each of these clades. Echeneibothriidae was elevated from subfamily to family level to accommodate the group consisting of Echeneibothrium and Pseudanthobothrium; this family is unique in retaining the apical organ (as a myzorhynchus) into adulthood. Rhinebothriidae was elevated from subfamily to family level to accommodate the group consisting of Rhabdotobothrium, Rhinebothrium, Rhinebothroides, Rhodobothrium, Scalithrium and Spongiobothrium. This family is distinctive in its lack of apical suckers and also of a definitive anterior/posterior orientation to the bothridia. Anthocephaliidae n. fam. was established to house Anthocephalum and taxa identified as New Genus 1, New Genus 2, and New Genus 4 by previous authors. The bothridia of its members exhibit a conspicuous anterior/posterior orientation signaled by the presence of an apical sucker. In addition, its members bear marginal loculi or one or more rows of facial loculi and vitelline follicles that are usually interrupted by the ovary. Escherbothriidae n. fam. was established to house Escherbothrium and the taxon identified as New Genus 3 by previous authors. It most closely resembles Anthocephaliidae but the facial loculi are arranged in columns anteriorly and rows posteriorly, rather than arranged in multiple rows or entirely lacking. A key to the families is also provided.  PMID:25660771

  12. Diagnosis of cysticercosis in endemic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, H. H.; Martinez, M.; Gilman, R.; Herrera, G.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Diaz, F.; Verastegui, M.; Gallo, C.; Porras, M.; Alvarado, M.; Naranjo, J.; Miranda, E.

    1991-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a frequent cause of neurological disease in developing countries. Specific diagnosis of cysticercosis is difficult. We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. 21 (12%) of 173 serum samples from these patients were EITB-positive. In contrast only 2 (1·5%) of 135 patients attending a...

  13. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre teníase em população do programa saúde da família no município de Uberaba, MG Epidemiologic survery of teniasis in health and family program in Uberaba, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Maria Esteves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito para avaliar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase em 100.144 indivíduos do Programa Saúde da Família. Foram identificados 185 (0,2% indivíduos com antecedentes de teníase. Destes, 112 (60,5% receberam tratamento com praziquantel. Em 97 (86,6% dos casos, houve eliminação de proglotes que corresponderam a Taenia saginata e Taenia solium em 36 (37,1% e 4 (4,1%, respectivamente.An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Program to evaluate some Epidemiologic aspects of teniasis. Previous history of passing proglottides was registered in 185(0.2% of them, and 112 (60.5% received praziquantel. After this 97 (86.6% passed proglottides characterized as Taenia Saginata and Taenia Solium in 36 (37.1% and 4 (4.1% respectively.

  14. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre teníase em população do programa saúde da família no município de Uberaba, MG / Epidemiologic survery of teniasis in health and family program in Uberaba, MG

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Maria, Esteves; Mario León, Silva-Vergara; Ângela C.F. Banzatto de, Carvalho.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito para avaliar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase em 100.144 indivíduos do Programa Saúde da Família. Foram identificados 185 (0,2%) indivíduos com antecedentes de teníase. Destes, 112 (60,5%) receberam tratamento com praziquantel. Em 97 (86,6%) dos casos, houve elimina [...] ção de proglotes que corresponderam a Taenia saginata e Taenia solium em 36 (37,1%) e 4 (4,1%), respectivamente. Abstract in english An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Program to evaluate some Epidemiologic aspects of teniasis. Previous history of passing proglottides was registered in 185(0.2%) of them, and 112 (60.5%) received praziquantel. After this 97 (86.6%) passed proglottides [...] characterized as Taenia Saginata and Taenia Solium in 36 (37.1%) and 4 (4.1%) respectively.

  15. Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose Evaluation of immunological tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa Werneck de Macedo; Regina Helena Saramago Peralta; Armando Cipriano; Maria Rosa Sarmento; Adelaide José Vaz; José Mauro Peralta

    2002-01-01

    Introdução: O diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NCC) deve ser feito pela associação de técnicas de imagem com métodos imunológicos sensíveis e específicos. Objetivos: Avaliar os métodos Elisa e Western blot (Wb), utilizando-se como antígeno extrato bruto salino da larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticercus cellulosae e Wb, empregando-se como antígeno cisticercos da Taenia crassiceps em amostras de soro, para o diagnóstico da NCC. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliadas amostras de soro...

  16. Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo Heloisa Werneck de; Peralta Regina Helena Saramago; Cipriano Armando; Sarmento Maria Rosa; Vaz Adelaide José; Peralta José Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Introdução: O diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NCC) deve ser feito pela associação de técnicas de imagem com métodos imunológicos sensíveis e específicos. Objetivos: Avaliar os métodos Elisa e Western blot (Wb), utilizando-se como antígeno extrato bruto salino da larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticercus cellulosae e Wb, empregando-se como antígeno cisticercos da Taenia crassiceps em amostras de soro, para o diagnóstico da NCC. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliadas amostras de soro...

  17. Diel vertical movements, and effects of infection by the cestode Schistocephalus solidus on daytime proximity of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus to the surface of a large Alaskan lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T P; Kendall, N W; Rich, H B; Chasco, B E

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a field study in Iliamna Lake, Alaska, to test the hypothesis that proximity of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus to the lake's surface during the daytime varies with macroparasitic cestode parasite Schistocephalus solidus infection in a manner consistent with enhanced vulnerability to avian predators. Extensive sampling in the lake and likelihood-based modeling revealed that sticklebacks displayed a diel vertical migration, being closer to the surface at night than during the evening and early morning. Additional sampling, also coupled with a likelihood-based modeling approach, showed that fish caught at the surface of the lake during the day were more often parasitized (76 vs. 65%), more heavily parasitized (26.8 vs. 22.7% of their body mass), and had larger individual parasites (0.24 vs. 0.20 g) than those caught at night. Parasite infection was related, non-linearly, to fish size, which also differed between day and night sampling at the surface. We performed statistical competitions among nested hierarchies of models that accounted for this effect of length. The most likely models indicated that fish captured during the day had greater parasite prevalence, higher parasite burdens, and larger parasites than did fish captured at night. Proximity to the surface during the day in this very clear lake would likely increase the vulnerability of sticklebacks to predation from birds, enabling completion of the parasite's lifecycle. PMID:21748321

  18. Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

  19. Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Martínez-Maya

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de ELISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %. Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26% de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo, los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo. En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8% sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3% (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086. CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo.OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%. The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26% out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group, the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group. In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%, while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3% (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

  20. Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Prevalence of Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the rural area of Viçosa-MG, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Felix Iasbik; Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto; Paula Dias Bevilacqua; Luis Augusto Nero; Tatiane Oliveira Santos; Adriano Groppo Felippe

    2010-01-01

    A teníase é uma doença que se manifesta no ser humano em decorrência da presença da forma adulta da Taenia sp., enquanto a cisticercose decorre da infecção pelo estágio larvar da Taenia sp. ou Taenia solium, no caso dos suínos e humanos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visando a determinar a prevalência de cisticercose em suínos e de teníase em 176 propriedades localizadas na zona rural de Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG). Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 226 suínos e fezes de 266 humanos, ...

  1. MRI and in vivo proton MR spectroscopy in a racemose cysticercal cyst of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, P.N.; Chandrashekar, H.S.; Srikanth, S.G.; Guruprasad, A.S. [Departments of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, 560029, Bangalore (India); Devi, B.Indira [Department of Neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India); Shankar, S.K. [Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India)

    2004-01-01

    Racemose cysticercal cyst is the subarachnoid manifestation of the larvae of Taenia solium. On MRI the cysts may resemble other cystic masses. We report the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) features of a case on in vivo proton spectroscopy and discuss its role in the diagnosis of intracranial cysts of parasitic aetiology. (orig.)

  2. Public Health Implications of Cysticercosis Acquired in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-01-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Patricia Wilkins, a research microbiologist at CDC, discusses an infection caused by the larvae of taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.  Created: 1/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/6/2011.

  3. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  4. Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh N; Verma R; Pankaj B; Misra S

    2003-01-01

    A 60-year-old male, presented with insidious onset, gradually progressive, burning paresthesia over the saddle area, sphincteric disturbance, impotence and paraparesis. Investigations revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the conus medullaris suggestive of neurocysticercosis . This was supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci. On treatment with steroids he showed marked improvement.

  5. HALLAZGO DE CESTODOS DE LA FAMILIA HYMENOLEPIDIDAE EN EL RATÓN ALGODONERO DEL SUR (Sigmodon hirsutus) EN HUILA, COLOMBIA / CESTODES OF HYMENOLEPIDIDAE FAMILY FOUND IN THE SOUTHERN COTTON RAT (Sigmodon hirsutus) IN HUILA, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. A, Santa-Sepúlveda; M. E, Pardo.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la fauna parasitológica de roedores silvestres constituye una clave importante para enfrentar situaciones de riesgo en salud pública, conservación y producción animal, debido al impacto que algunos de estos parásitos pueden producir en la salud de seres humanos, animales silvestres y a [...] nimales de producción y compañía. En mayo de 2011 se colectaron muestras de materia fecal de ratones silvestres en los municipios de Garzón y El Agrado (Huila, Colombia), con el fin de identificar, mediante evaluación coprológica, las especies de parásitos gastrointestinales presentes en roedores de dicha zona. Se capturaron siete ratones de la especie Sigmodon hirsutus, se tomaron muestras de materia fecal y los animales fueron liberados posteriormente. En las muestras se observaron huevos de la familia Hymenolepididae, con características morfológicas que los ubican en los géneros Hymenolepis o Rodentolepis. El hallazgo de estos parásitos en las heces de roedores silvestres en áreas de hábitat compartido con seres humanos sugiere un factor de riesgo zoonótico. Sin embargo, se requieren investigaciones adicionales que permitan establecer asociación entre el parasitismo gastrointestinal en humanos y la presencia de roedores en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The study of parasitological fauna of wild rodents constitutes a significant key to confront situations of risk on public health, conservation and animal production, due to the impact of some parasites on the health of humans, wildlife, farm animals and pets. Fecal samples of wild rodents were colle [...] cted in May 2011 in the area of Garzón and El Agrado, (Huila, Colombia) in order to identify, by parasitological examination, the species of gastrointestinal parasites found in rodents in this area. Seven mices of specie Sigmodon hirsutus, were trapped in order to take fecal samples. Animals were released after this procedure. Eggs of cestodes of the family Hymenolepididae with morphological characteristics of genera Hymenolepis or Rodentolepis were found in the samples. The finding of these parasites in the feces of wild rodents in areas of shared habitat with humans suggests a zoonotic risk factor, but it is necessary to carry out more researches on association between gastrointestinal parasitism in humans and presence of wild rodents in the area.

  6. Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARISA, TORRES; CARLOS, PEREZ; ERCIRA, GALDAMEZ; MELVIN, GABOR; CLAUDIO, MIRANDA; XIMENA, COFRE; PAULA, TELLEZ.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothriu [...] m latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentos Abstract in english A clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking [...] medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

  7. Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISA TORRES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothrium latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentosA clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

  8. ESTANDARIZACIÓN DE LA PRUEBA DE ELISA PARA EL INMUNODIAGNÓSTICO DE HIDATIDOSIS HUMANA EMPLEANDO ANTÍGENOS DE PRODUCCIÓN LOCAL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilcar A., Flores L.; Patricia, Rodriguez H..

    Full Text Available Se describe una prueba cualitativa. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) para el inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis. El ELISA fue estandarizado usando líquido hidatídico proveniente de quistes desarrollados naturalmente en hígado de oveja. El ELISA -HID fue usado como test de screening para detec [...] tar anticuerpos específicos anti IgC en muestras de sueros de 17 pacientes confirmados por cirugía; fueron empleadas como sueros controles positivos, 26 muestras de sueros de personas sanas y 9 sueros de pacientes con otras infecciones por cestodos u otras infecciones. Los resultados del test de ELISA- HID mostraron que el test tiene una sensibilidad y especificidad del 100 % y 96 % respectivamente. Nosotros observamos una relativa frecuencia de reacciones cruzadas con otras enfermedades parasitarias (cisticercosis). Estas reacciones cruzadas con otros cestodos pueden ser resueltos testando estos con pruebas más específicas complementarias como el Inmunobloting. No se encontró reacciones cruzadas con muestras de sueros de pacientes con Hymenolepis nana, T. cruzi y T. gondii. La excelente sensibilidad y especificidad del ELISA- HID hace que el test sea una importante herramienta de diagnóstico para detectar anticuerpos específicos contra la equinococosis, cuyos resultados positivos pueden ser valorados por test confirmatorios como el Inmunobloting. Abstract in english A quatitative enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the immunodiagnosis of hidatidosis is described. The ELISA was standardized using Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid antigen -ELISA obtained from Sheep Liver. (ELISA-HID) were used to screen for cyst hidatic-specific IgC antibidies in serum [...] samples from 17 patients with surgycally confirmed hydatic disease, 26 serum samples of patients healthy and 9 samples of serum from patients whit other cestode infections or with an another illess were used as controls. The sensitivity and specificity the ELISA -HID was 100% and 96% respectively. We observed relatively frequent cross-reactions with other parasitic diseases (cysticecosis). Cestode- related cross-reactivity can be resolved by the complementary use of Taenia solium cysticercosis-specitic immunoblotting. No cross reacction were noted in patients infected with Hymenolepis nana, T. cruzy and T. gondii. The excellent sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-HID make the assay a potentially usefull tool in screening for antibodies agains Equinococosis.

  9. Cisticercosis cerebral: a propósito de un caso / Neurocysticercosis: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Julián, Sánchez Fernández; Ana Lilia, Cabrera Menéndez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la neurocisticercosis es una enfermedad parasitaria del sistema nervioso central causada por la forma larvaria del céstodo Taenia solium. Se adquiere debido a las malas condiciones de higiene y al fecalismo. Se identifica un caso complejo no habitual en Cuba, detectado en el cumplimiento [...] del programa integral de salud en Honduras. Objetivo: contribuir al conocimiento de enfermedades que son un problema de salud en centroamérica basados en la presentación de un caso. Caso clínico: se presenta un paciente con síndrome tumoral cerebral convulsivo que se atiende en el hospital regional de San Marcos de Ocotepeque en Honduras, se le realizó un estudio y se diagnosticó neurocisticercosis. Se trató y estabilizó pero quedó con las secuelas inherentes a la enfermedad. Conclusiones: en el paciente evaluado hubo manifestaciones clínicas que podían corresponder a varias enfermedades nosológicas, pero basados en estudios como la tomografía se pudo demostrar la enfermedad, a fin de evitar esta afección. Es importante la educación de las personas sobre sus hábitos higiénicos y alimentarios, pues las secuelas sobre el sistema nervioso central son permanentes y muchas veces si se diagnostican de forma tardía pueden traer graves consecuencias. Abstract in english Background: neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system caused by the cestode Taenia soliumin larval stage. It is acquired due to bad hygienic conditions and the ingestion of food with feces. A complex case, not frequent in Cuba, was detected and identified during the ful [...] fillment of the comprehensive health program in Honduras. Objective: to contribute to the awareness of some diseases which constitute a health problem in Central America, based on this case presentation. Clinical case: a patient with a convulsive brain tumor syndrome was attended at San Marcos Regional Hospital of Ocotopeque, Honduras. The patient underwent a study and was diagnosed with neurocysticercosis. The patient was treated and his condition became stable but he was left with the inherent aftereffects of the illness. Conclusions: the treated patient presented clinical manifestations that could correspond with several nosologic diseases, but based on studies like tomography the disease could be established in order to avoid this complaint. The education of the population about their hygienic practices and eating habits is important because the aftereffects of the disease in the central nervous system are permanent and sometimes, if it is diagnosed belatedly, may have very grave consequences.

  10. Cysticercosis/taeniasis in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2004-01-01

    Three taeniid tapeworms infect humans in Asia and the Pacific: Taenia solim, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica. Although there is continuing debate about the definition of a new species, phylogenetic analyses of these parasites have provided multiple lines of evidence that T. asiatica is an independent species and the sister species of T. saginata. Here we review briefly the morphology, pathology, molecular biology, distribution and control options of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and comment on the potential role which dogs may play in the transmission of T. solium. Special attention is focused on Indonesia: taeniasis caused by T. asiatica in North Sumatra, taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium and taeniasis of T. saginata in Bali, and taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). Issues relating to the spread of taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by T. solium in Papua New Guinea are highlighted, since serological evidence suggests that cysticercosis occurs among the local residents. The use of modern techniques for detection of taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in humans, pigs and dogs, with the possible adoption of new control measures will provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and lead to improved control of zoonotic and simultaneously meat-borne disease transmission. PMID:15228810

  11. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em peixe introduzido, Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, no reservatório de Volta Grande, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Martins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999, 158.8 (December 1999, 96.4 (February 2000, 400.7 (April 2000, 215.6 (October 2000 and 136.4 (December 2000 were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05 between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.Este estudo avalia a variação nos índices parasitológicos de 114 espécimes de Cichla piquiti Kullander e Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infectados por duas espécies de proteocefalídeos (Cestoda entre agosto de 1999 e junho de 2001 no reservatório de Volta Grande, MG, Brasil. A relação entre a parasitose e os valores de pluviosidade e qualidade de água (pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio, clorofila, transparência e temperatura é discutida. A prevalência de Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 foi 83,3%, intensidade média 110,8 e abundância média 100,7 durante todo o período. Prevalência de 100% foi observada em agosto e dezembro de 1999, abril e dezembro de 2000 e junho de 2001. As maiores intensidades médias foram 122,7 em outubro de 1999; 158,8 em dezembro de 1999; 96,4 em fevereiro de 2000; 400,7 em abril de 2000; 215,6 em outubro de 2000; e 136,4 em dezembro de 2000. Fatores abióticos podem favorecer o desenvolvimento de espécies que sustentam a alimentação do "tucunaré", mas, neste caso, não houve correlação (P > 0,05 entre os valores de prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média com a pluviosidade e qualidade de água no reservatório. Ao mesmo tempo, estes organismos podem constituir hospedeiros intermediários de cestóides. A relação entre o desenvolvimento da espécie hospedeira e a manifestação da parasitose no hospedeiro definitivo pode explicar a falta de correlação entre os índices parasitológicos e os fatores abióticos. A predação de pequenos peixes e o canibalismo descrito para o "tucunaré" explica a elevada prevalência e intensidade de infecção, favorecido pela condição exótica do hospedeiro no reservatório.

  12. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil / Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em peixe introduzido, Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), no reservatório de Volta Grande, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ML., Martins; J., Pereira Jr.; A., De Chambrier; MM., Yamashita.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a variação nos índices parasitológicos de 114 espécimes de Cichla piquiti Kullander e Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infectados por duas espécies de proteocefalídeos (Cestoda) entre agosto de 1999 e junho de 2001 no reservatório de Volta Grande, MG, Brasil. A relação entre a parasitose [...] e os valores de pluviosidade e qualidade de água (pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio, clorofila, transparência e temperatura) é discutida. A prevalência de Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) foi 83,3%, intensidade média 110,8 e abundância média 100,7 durante todo o período. Prevalência de 100% foi observada em agosto e dezembro de 1999, abril e dezembro de 2000 e junho de 2001. As maiores intensidades médias foram 122,7 em outubro de 1999; 158,8 em dezembro de 1999; 96,4 em fevereiro de 2000; 400,7 em abril de 2000; 215,6 em outubro de 2000; e 136,4 em dezembro de 2000. Fatores abióticos podem favorecer o desenvolvimento de espécies que sustentam a alimentação do "tucunaré", mas, neste caso, não houve correlação (P > 0,05) entre os valores de prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média com a pluviosidade e qualidade de água no reservatório. Ao mesmo tempo, estes organismos podem constituir hospedeiros intermediários de cestóides. A relação entre o desenvolvimento da espécie hospedeira e a manifestação da parasitose no hospedeiro definitivo pode explicar a falta de correlação entre os índices parasitológicos e os fatores abióticos. A predação de pequenos peixes e o canibalismo descrito para o "tucunaré" explica a elevada prevalência e intensidade de infecção, favorecido pela condição exótica do hospedeiro no reservatório. Abstract in english This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis w [...] ith rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.

  13. UNUSUAL LOCATION OF CYSTICERCOSIS LESION PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis in humans is exclusively caused by larvae of T.solium which have predilection for skeletal muscle, eyes, and central nervous system. In literature head and neck manifestations of Cysticercosis is reported as soft tissue swellings at sub mental area, cheek as well as tongue 1 - 4 . Cysticercosis presenting as a nodule or mas s on neck is a very rare occurance 5 . The diagnosis was usually made on Histo pathologic examination. The ensuing clinical disorder is named after the organism at this larval stage, cysticercosis cellulose Larva of pork tapeworm Taenia solium

  14. Ensaio clínico com mebendazole nas teníases

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    Naftale Katz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram, tratados 31 pacientes com teníases pelo mebendazole. Utilizando-se os esquemas de 100 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias consecutivos, 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia por 2 e 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias, o percentual de cura foi de respectivamente 20,0, 72,7 e 90,0%. Não houve diferença significativa quando foram tratados pacientes com Taenia solium e Taenia saginata. A ausência de efeitos colaterais e a ampla atividade anti-helmíntica do mebendazole, recomendam seu uso também, como um novo agente tenicida.31 patients with Taenia have been treated with mebendazole. With the schedules of 100 mg, bid, for 4 consecutive days, 200 mg, bid for 2 and 200 mg, bid for 4, the percentages of cure were respectively, 20,0%, 72,7% and 90,0%. No significant difference could be observed when patients with Taenia solium and Taenia saginata were treated with the most active schedule. The absence of side effects and the extensive anti-helminthic activity of mebendazole highly recommend its use inclusive as a new taenicide agent

  15. Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico / La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agnès, Fleury; Edda, Sciutto; Carlos, Larralde.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Cons [...] iderando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México. Abstract in english In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been dev [...] eloped for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.

  16. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  17. Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Fleury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Considerando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México.

  18. Neurocisticercose nodular calcificada com sinais de reativação / Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Nunes Medina, Coeli; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Tiengo; Afonso Carlos da, Silva; José Otávio Meyer, Fernandes; Guilherme Carlos da, Silva; Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, Silva.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A neurocisticercose é uma doença caracterizada pelo envolvimento do sistema nervoso central pelo estágio larval intermediário do parasita Taenia solium. O processo de degeneração da larva e a reação inflamatória do organismo causam os sintomas clínicos. Relatamos a reativação clínica e radiológica d [...] e uma forma nodular calcificada e assintomática há mais de 20 anos. O tratamento antiparasitário mostrou boa resposta. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and r [...] adiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response.

  19. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Conlan, Jv; Sripa, B.; Attwood, S.; Newton, Pn

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic zoonoses are common and widely distributed in the Southeast Asian region. However, the interactions between parasites, hosts and vectors are influenced by environmental, socio-cultural and livestock production changes that impact on the distribution, prevalence and severity of disease. In this review we provide an update on new knowledge in the context of ongoing changes for the food-borne pig associated zoonoses Taenia solium and Trichinella spp., the food-borne trematodes Opisthor...

  20. Granuloma cytokines in murine cysticercosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, P; Atmar, R. L.; Lewis, D E; White, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the most common causes of seizures worldwide. The symptoms result from granulomatous inflammation associated with dying cyst forms of the parasite. Although the invasive larvae can be killed by immune serum plus complement, immunity to the cyst stage depends on a cellular response. This dichotomous immune response is reminiscent of the extremes of the immune response associated with T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine profiles. To character...

  1. Sequential Expression of the Neuropeptides Substance P and Somatostatin in Granulomas Associated with Murine Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Prema; White, A Clinton; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Thornby, John; David, Elliott; Weinstock, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system caused by Taenia solium, is a leading cause of seizures. Seizures associated with neurocysticercosis are caused mainly by the host inflammatory responses to dying parasites in the brain parenchyma. We previously demonstrated sequential expression of Th1 cytokines in early-stage granulomas, followed by expression of Th2 cytokines in later-stage granulomas in murine cysticercosis. However, the mechanism leading to thi...

  2. The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahalkar, M.D.; Shetty, D.D.; Kelkar, A.B.; Kelkar, A.A.; Kinare, A.S.; Ambardekar, S.T

    2000-09-01

    Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

  3. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  4. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses) e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    OpenAIRE

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio Rossi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100%...

  5. Disseminated cutaneous cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis: A rare occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchidanand, S; Namitha, P.; Mallikarjuna, M; Nataraj, H. V.

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilater...

  6. Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male, presented with insidious onset, gradually progressive, burning paresthesia over the saddle area, sphincteric disturbance, impotence and paraparesis. Investigations revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the conus medullaris suggestive of neurocysticercosis . This was supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci. On treatment with steroids he showed marked improvement.

  7. A Systematic Review of the Frequency of Neurocyticercosis with a Focus on People with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ndimubanzi, Patrick C.; Carabin, He?le?ne; Budke, Christine M.; Nguyen, Hai; Qian, Ying-jun; Rainwater, Elizabeth; Dickey, Mary; Reynolds, Stephanie; Stoner, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the brain caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, which infects humans and pigs. There have been increasing case reports and epidemiological studies on this disease, but its global frequency has never been determined, partly due to the fact that blood tests are not very good for the diagnosis of NCC. We present here a systematic review of the literature on the frequency of NCC diagnosed with neuroimaging worldwide. Overall, 565 articles were ...

  8. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Neurocysticercosis: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Carabin, He?le?ne; Ndimubanzi, Patrick Cyaga; Budke, Christine M.; Nguyen, Hai; Qian, Yingjun; Cowan, Linda Demetry; Stoner, Julie Ann; Rainwater, Elizabeth; Dickey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the brain with the flatworm Taenia solium which is normally transmitted between humans and pigs. Sometimes, humans can infect other humans and the larva of the parasite can go the brain, causing the disease neurocysticercosis. There has never been a systematic review of what clinical signs are found among people with neurocysticercosis. We conducted a thorough review of the literature to answer this question. We reviewed 1569 and 21 were of a sufficient q...

  9. Current Consensus Guidelines for Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    García, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A. W.; Nash, Theodore E; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M.; White, A. Clinton; Botero, David; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Allan, James C.; Flisser, Ana; Correa, Dolores; Sarti, Elsa; Friedland, Jon S; Martinez, S. Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a common cause of epileptic seizures and other neurological morbidity in most developing countries. It is also an increasingly common diagnosis in industrialized countries because of immigration from areas where it is endemic. Its clinical manifestations are highly variable and depend on the number, stage, and size of the lesions and the host's immune response. In part due to this variability, major discrepancies exist in the treatment of neurocysticercosis...

  10. The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

  11. Frequency of depression among patients with neurocysticercosis Depressão em pacientes portadores de neurocisticercose

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Monteiro de Almeida; Solange Aparecida Gurjão

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of depression in patients with calcified NCC form. The study group consisted of 114 patients subdivided in four groups: NCC with epilepsy, NCC without epilepsy, epilepsy without NCC and chronic headache. METHOD: Depression was evaluated and quantified by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21). RESULTS: Percentage of patients with depr...

  12. Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae, of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites Aspectos da ecologia de cestóides proteocefalídeos parasitas de Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae do alto Rio Paraná, Brasil: II. Associações interespecíficas e distribuição gastrintestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. PAVANELLI

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78% were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935. The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.No período de março de 1992 a fevereiro de 1996 foram coletados 107 espécimes de Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 na planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná, sendo que 95 (88,78% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de cestóide proteocefalídeo. Foi coletado um total de 7.573 espécimes de parasitos (intensidade média de 79,71 parasitos/hospedeiro de quatro espécies diferentes: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 e Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935. As duas espécies mais prevalentes, S. maringaensis e P. itaipuensis, foram encontradas parasitando todo o trato gastrintestinal do Sorubim lima e Nupelia portoriquensis foi encontrado parasitando somente o intestino anterior e posterior do hospedeiro.

  13. Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae), of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites / Aspectos da ecologia de cestóides proteocefalídeos parasitas de Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae) do alto Rio Paraná, Brasil: II. Associações interespecíficas e distribuição gastrintestinal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. C., PAVANELLI; R. M., TAKEMOTO.

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available No período de março de 1992 a fevereiro de 1996 foram coletados 107 espécimes de Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) na planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná, sendo que 95 (88,78%) estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de cestóide proteocefalídeo. Foi coletado um total de 7.573 espéci [...] mes de parasitos (intensidade média de 79,71 parasitos/hospedeiro) de quatro espécies diferentes: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 e Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935). As duas espécies mais prevalentes, S. maringaensis e P. itaipuensis, foram encontradas parasitando todo o trato gastrintestinal do Sorubim lima e Nupelia portoriquensis foi encontrado parasitando somente o intestino anterior e posterior do hospedeiro. Abstract in english One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78%) were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens [...] of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host): Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935). The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.

  14. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Rodriguez-Hidalgo; W, Benitez-Ortiz; N, Praet; LR, Saa; J, Vercruysse; J, Brandt; P, Dorny.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspecte [...] d. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  15. Tear IgA-ELISA: a novel and sensitive method for diagnosis of ophthalmic cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Priyadarshi S; Parija, Subhash C; Sahu, Promod K

    2008-06-01

    For the first time, presence of locally secreted specific IgA antibodies in tear specimen from human with ophthalmic cysticercosis is documented in the present study. The ELISA using Taenia solium metacestode excretory secretory (ES) antigen demonstrated a diagnostic level of IgA antibodies in tears with 100% sensitivity (6 out of 6 confirmed cases of ophthalmic cysticercosis) whereas, 25 of 34 (73.52%) clinically suspected cases were diagnosed positive. The ELISA using T. solium metacestode somatic antigen detected a diagnostic titre of IgA antibody in tears with a sensitivity of 50% (3 out of 6 confirmed cases). The specificity of the tear IgAELISA using T. solium metacestode somatic and ES antigens is observed to be 94.87% and 92.3%, respectively. Overall in tears, the ELISA using T. solium metacestode ES antigens for detection of IgA antibodies shows a higher diagnostic efficiency (93.33%) compared to that using T. solium metacestode somatic antigen (88.88%). The sensitivities of the ELISA for detection of IgA antibodies in tears is observed to be higher than that for detection of IgG antibodies in serum using either somatic or ES antigens of the parasite. PMID:18462701

  16. Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto; Delir Corrêa Gomes; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes; Cláudia Torres Gomes; Dely Noronha

    2004-01-01

    Helminth samples (n = 35) recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lilljeborg, 1873 (3) and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Thomas, 1901 (32), from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819), Vian...

  17. Prevalencia de enteroparasitosis en una comunidad altoandina de la Provincia de Víctor Fajardo, Ayacucho, Perú

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milagros, Cabrera S; Manuela, Verástegui; Rufino, Cabrera.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron conocer la prevalencia y distribución de las enteroparasitosis y determinar la prevalencia de coproantígenos de Taenia solium en la comunidad andina de Huancapi, Provincia de Víctor Fajardo, Ayacucho, Perú. Estudio observacional, descriptivo-transversal realizado ent [...] re julio y setiembre del año 2000, por los métodos de Ritchie y Ziehl-Neelsen modificado para Cryptosporidium sp, se examinaron muestras de heces de 312 personas de la población general. Adicionalmente, se investigó la presencia de coproantígenos de T. solium por el método de ELISA. El 77,88% (243) fue positivo a uno o más enteroparásitos. La prevalencia para cada especie de protozoario fue: 66,99% para Entamoeba coli; 12,50% para Iodamoeba butschlii; 10,90% para Chilomastix mesnili y 10,57% para Giardia lamblia; para los helmintos fue: 4,49% para Ascaris lumbricoides; 3,52% para Hymenolepis nana y 1,28% para Trichuris trichiura. Se detectaron coproantígenos de T. solium en 3,52% de las muestras. Prevalecen los protozoarios comensales que indicarían deficiencias en los servicios sanitarios básicos, especialmente del agua de consumo doméstico. Huancapi es una nueva zona endémica para la infección por T. solium. Abstract in english The objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence and distribution of entero-parasitism and determine the prevalence of coproantigens of Taenia solium in the Andean community of Huancapi, Province of Víctor Fajardo, Ayacucho, Peru. In the observational, transversal-descriptive study carrie [...] d out between July and September 2000, by the Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen methods, modified by Cryptosporidium sp., samples of feces from 312 persons of the general population were examined. In addition, the presence of coproantigens of T. solium was investigated by the ELISA method. 77,88% (243) were positive to one or more entero-parasites. The prevalence for each protozoan specie is: 66,99% for Entamoeba coli; 12,50% for Iodamoeba butschlii; 10,90% for Chilomastix mesnili and 10,57% for Giardia lamblia; for the helminthes it was: 4,49% for Ascaris lumbricoides; 3,52% for Hymenolepis nana and 1,28% for Trichuris trichiura. Coproantigens of T. solium were detected in 3,52% of the samples. The prevailing commensal protozoan indicate that there are deficiencies in the basic sanitary services, particularly in water for domestic consumption. Huancapi is a new endemic zone for infection by T. solium.

  18. Taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in individuals of a peasants' settlement (Teodoro Sampaio, Pontal of Paranapanema, SP, Brazil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Euribel, Prestes-Carneiro; Selma de Bastos Zambeli de, Freitas; Sueli Cristina Schadeck, Zago; Nadia Araújo, Miguel; Oswaldo Bill, Primo; Alberto Hiroshi, Iha; Noeli Maria, Espíndola; Adelaide José, Vaz.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in a population of a peasants' settlement, located at Teodoro Sampaio, state of São Paulo, Brazil (longitude 52° 36'12 ", latitude 22° 17'12 ") a series of laboratory markers were determined. After signing an informed consent, participants ans [...] wered a standardized questionnaire. To determine anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies, the samples were tested by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay using 18-and 14-kDa antigen proteins from vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tcra). The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Total IgE levels were determined by chemmiluminescence's assay and hemogram by flow cytometer flux counter. A total of 84 individuals, 5.9% presented anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in ELISA and 3.6% were strongly reactive in the 18/14 kDa immunoblotting confirmatory test. All of the individuals with positive antibodies showed elevated Total IgE levels. We conclude that the frequency of anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in this population is higher than other regions considered endemic in São Paulo. Thus, it is important to carry out surveys in Peasants' settlement areas with the objective of establishing public health measures for prevention and control of infectious diseases such as taeniosis-cysticercosis.

  19. The problem of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri S. Margono

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The disease, caused by the adult and larva of Taenia solium, spread to the western part of Irian Jaya crossing the border of Indonesian to Papua New Guinea. Twenty local health centers reported 638 and 945 new cases with epileptic seizures in 1994 and 1995 respectively. Questionnaires were distributed to 31 respondents with results as follows: 83.9% were illiterate, 93.6% farmers and all of them sometimes ate not well-cooked pork; no other meat was consumed. In this area no healthy drinking water was available; also there was no sanitary facilities. Pigs were roaming around the houses, rarely the pigs were put behind fences. After international collaboration with several institutions, e.g with Asahikawa Medical College, Japan, 29 serum samples were examined by immunoblot with positive results for 67% of the cases suffering from epileptic seizures and 65% with subcutaneous nodules. Moving of people to other areas personal and environmental hygiene, the importance of pigs in the daily life of the community were important issues in maintaning the disease being caused by T.Solium in this area. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 110-4Keywords: Taenia solium, Irian Jaya, spreading, international collaboration

  20. Taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in individuals of a peasants' settlement (Teodoro Sampaio, Pontal of Paranapanema, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestes-Carneiro Luiz Euribel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in a population of a peasants' settlement, located at Teodoro Sampaio, state of São Paulo, Brazil (longitude 52degrees 36'12 ", latitude 22degrees 17'12 " a series of laboratory markers were determined. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a standardized questionnaire. To determine anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies, the samples were tested by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay using 18-and 14-kDa antigen proteins from vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Total IgE levels were determined by chemmiluminescence's assay and hemogram by flow cytometer flux counter. A total of 84 individuals, 5.9% presented anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in ELISA and 3.6% were strongly reactive in the 18/14 kDa immunoblotting confirmatory test. All of the individuals with positive antibodies showed elevated Total IgE levels. We conclude that the frequency of anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in this population is higher than other regions considered endemic in São Paulo. Thus, it is important to carry out surveys in Peasants' settlement areas with the objective of establishing public health measures for prevention and control of infectious diseases such as taeniosis-cysticercosis.

  1. Ensaio clínico com mebendazole nas teníases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naftale, Katz; Fábio, Zicker.

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram, tratados 31 pacientes com teníases pelo mebendazole. Utilizando-se os esquemas de 100 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias consecutivos, 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia por 2 e 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias, o percentual de cura foi de respectivamente 20,0, 72,7 e 90,0%. Não houve diferença si [...] gnificativa quando foram tratados pacientes com Taenia solium e Taenia saginata. A ausência de efeitos colaterais e a ampla atividade anti-helmíntica do mebendazole, recomendam seu uso também, como um novo agente tenicida. Abstract in english 31 patients with Taenia have been treated with mebendazole. With the schedules of 100 mg, bid, for 4 consecutive days, 200 mg, bid for 2 and 200 mg, bid for 4, the percentages of cure were respectively, 20,0%, 72,7% and 90,0%. No significant difference could be observed when patients with Taenia sol [...] ium and Taenia saginata were treated with the most active schedule. The absence of side effects and the extensive anti-helminthic activity of mebendazole highly recommend its use inclusive as a new taenicide agent

  2. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years, with a possible role of a grey wolf (Canis lupus) as definitive host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

    Taenia ovis krabbei has a semi-sylvatic life cycle with carnivore definitive hosts and cervid intermediate hosts. Cervids become infected by foraging on pasture contaminated with the eggs. Larval stages usually develop in heart and skeletal muscles causing pathological changes and severe illness1,2. Meat infected with T. o. krabbei entails no zoonotic risk, but for aesthetic reasons the infected meat is usually discarded3. Here, we report the reappearance of T. o. krabbei in a roe deer in Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were diagnosed after histology, morphology4 and sequencing of the cox1 gene5. Shortly after this discovery, a wolf died in a nearby locality, and worms of T. o. krabbei were recovered from its intestine. By phylogenetic analysis, the Danish roe deer and wolf isolates were clearly grouped together with other isolates of T. o. krabbei from wolves in Finnoscandinavia. In mainland Europe, T. o. krabbei is primarily a parasite of wolves6,7. The unexpected reappearance of a wolf in Denmark in 2012 after almost two decades of absence could be a mere coincidence, but may also explain the introduction of this parasite along with the wolf. Domestic dogs, on the other hand, could play a role in transmission of T. o. krabbei in the area, but this has yet to be tested. Deer infections with T. o. krabbei were previously reported in the German county that borders Denmark3, and may have spread from there. But it is also possible that deer infections were already present, but unnoticed, in other areas of Denmark. The helminth burden of invading animals is normally expected to decrease8. However, invading wolves can support their establishment in new areas by carrying worms of T. o. krabbei that cause severe illness in native deer that subsequently become prey to the wolves.

  3. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. These foodborne parasites reach the human beings through the consumption of raw infected food such as muscle tissues of different animal species (Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suishominis, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Opisthorchis felineus, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Trichinella spp.), or vegetables (Fasciola hepatica), and contaminated food and water resources (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., T. gondii, Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu, Echinococcus multilocularis, T. solium, Taenia multiceps). As a general role, the control strategies should be based on the education of the consumers, farmers and shepherds, the improvement of farming conditions, the improvement or the development of more sensitive methods to detect these parasites in slaughtered animals and in foodstuff, a control of sewage sludge on pastures and of drinking water resources, and the reduction of contacts between livestock and wild animals which frequently represent the most important reservoir of these pathogens. PMID:18693552

  4. Taxonomy and biology of proteocephalidean cestodes: current state and perspectives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 40, ?. 2 (2003), s. 65-75. ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Proteocephalidea * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

  5. Neurocisticercosis: un caso autóctono en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires / Neurocysticercosis: Report of an autochthonous case in Buenos Aires city

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samanta, Moroni; Guillermo, Moscatelli; Héctor, Freilij; Jaime, Altcheh.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis es la enfermedad parasitaria del sistema nervioso central provocada por la larva de Taenia solium, denominada Cysticercus cellulosae. Es una enfermedad universal, endémica en países de Latinoamérica y Asia. En 1993, en la provincia de Buenos Aires se comunicaron 11 casos de neu [...] rocisticercosis en pacientes adultos, 8 provenientes de Bolivia y 3 del interior de nuestro país. En la Argentina, los casos pediátricos comunicados son oriundos de países limítrofes o del interior del país. El propósito del presente artículo es presentar el primer caso pediátrico autóctono, con fuente de contagio local en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alertar sobre la posibilidad de que una región como ésta, ingrese dentro del área endémica, producto de los movimientos migratorios internos y externos, y del asentamiento de portadores de la parasitosis en el perímetro urbano. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a central nervous system disease caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larvae of Taenia solium. NC is found worldwide, and endemic in Latin America and Asia. In 1993, 11 adult patients with NC were reported in Buenos Aires, 8 from Bolivia and the rest from Argentina. Pedia [...] tric cases reported in Argentina have been from inner provinces or from rural areas. The purpose of the present article is to present the first autochthonous pediatric case, with local source of contagion in the city of Buenos Aires, and to alert regarding the possibility that the city become an endemic area, due to the migratory movements leading to establishment of asymptomatic carriers of Taenia solium in the urban area.

  6. Cysticercosis in epileptic patients of Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil Cisticercose em pacientes epilépticos de Mulungu do Morro - Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    IRENIO GOMES; MARIELZA VEIGA; DOLORES CORREA; ANTONIO MEZA-LUCAS; OLGA MATA; ROBERTO CARLOS GARCIA; ALEJANDRO OSORNIO; ROSÂNGELA RABELO; RITA LUCENA; AILTON MELO

    2000-01-01

    With the aim to study the magnitude of infection by the metacestode of Taenia solium in a population of epileptic patients in the arid region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, we examined 200 consecutive cases who attended an ambulatory clinic in the disctrict of Mulungu do Morro. Sixty-six of the patients had a diagnosis of epilepsy. From them 10 (15.2%) presented antibodies against a specific fraction of antigens in Western blot, and 4 (6.0%) had circulating parasite products, as tested by cap...

  7. Cysticercosis in epileptic patients of Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    GOMES IRENIO; VEIGA MARIELZA; CORREA DOLORES; MEZA-LUCAS ANTONIO; MATA OLGA; GARCIA ROBERTO CARLOS; OSORNIO ALEJANDRO; RABELO ROSÂNGELA; LUCENA RITA; MELO AILTON

    2000-01-01

    With the aim to study the magnitude of infection by the metacestode of Taenia solium in a population of epileptic patients in the arid region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, we examined 200 consecutive cases who attended an ambulatory clinic in the disctrict of Mulungu do Morro. Sixty-six of the patients had a diagnosis of epilepsy. From them 10 (15.2%) presented antibodies against a specific fraction of antigens in Western blot, and 4 (6.0%) had circulating parasite products, as tested by cap...

  8. Disseminated cysticercosis with huge muscle hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may assume gross proportions. Morbidity is usually caused by the involvement of the central nervous system or the eyes.

  9. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis in Reunion island: comparison with computerized tomography scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michault, A.; Coubes, P.; Laporte, J.P.; Bouillan-Linet, E.; Leroy, D.

    1988-03-01

    An immunoenzymologic (Elisa) serodiagnosis of cysticercosis is evaluated in 75 encephalic cysticercotic patients whose diagnosis of the disease and its progression is assessed by tomodensitometry. A Taenia solium antigen is used. Only Ig G are investigated. The sensibility of serodiagnosis is 85 % and specificity 87 % when there is a progression of the disease; no difference is noticed in the patients without any progression of the disease and in control normal subjects. This serodiagnosis of cysticercosis appears of value for the evaluation of the activity of the disease.

  10. Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizure using ELISA and immunoblot assay / Sorodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose em pacientes com crises epiléticas, por meio de ELISA e immunoblot

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria M.I., Ishida; Regina Helena S., Peralta; José. A., Livramento; Sumie, Hoshino-Shimizu; José M., Peralta; Adelaide J., Vaz.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de soro de 88 pacientes dos Estados de Santa Catarina e São Paulo, Brasil, com crises epilépticas e que se submeteram a exame de Tomografia Computadorizada (TC), foram examinadas para detecção de anticorpos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium por meio de ELISA e Immunoblot (IB) utilizando-se [...] os seguintes antígenos: extrato salino total de cisticercos de T. solium (Tso); líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra-vf) e glicoproteínas purificadas de cisticercos de T. crassiceps (Tcra-gp). Os resultados de ELISA com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp mostraram 95%, 90% e 80% de sensibilidade, respectivamente, e 68%, 85% e 93% de especificidade, respectivamente. No grupo de pacientes epilépticos, a positividade do ELISA foi 30%, 51% e 35% com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp, respectivamente. Considerando o IB como teste confirmatório, a positividade foi de 16% (14/88) no grupo total de pacientes epilépticos e 22% (12/54) no grupo de pacientes epilépticos com TC positiva e sinais clínicos compatíveis com neurocisticercose. Foi encontrada correlação estatística significativa entre os resultados de ELISA ou IB e a fase da doença com quaisquer dos antígenos utilizados (p Abstract in english Sera from 88 patients from Santa Catarina and São Paulo states of Brazil, with epileptic seizures who underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) were analyzed for the detection of antibodies to T. solium cysticercus by ELISA and Immunoblot (IB) with the following antigens: Taenia solium cysticercus [...] total saline (Tso), Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-vf) and T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-gp). ELISA carried out with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens showed 95%, 90% and 80% sensitivities, respectively, and 68%, 85% and 93% specificities, respectively. In the epileptic patients group, ELISA positivity was 30%, 51% and 35% with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens respectively. Considering the IB as the confirmatory test, the positivity was 16% (14/88) in the epileptic patients total group and 22% (12/54) in the epileptic patients with positive CT and signals of cysticercosis. We found a significant statistical correlation among ELISA or IB results and the phase of the disease when any antigens were used (p

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Coyle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article reviews the current literature on neurocysticercosis, including newer diagnostics and treatment developments.

  12. Disseminated cutaneous cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis: A rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchidanand, S; Namitha, P; Mallikarjuna, M; Nataraj, H V

    2012-05-01

    Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral, multiple, small hyperdense lesions in the supratentorial compartment. She was treated with oral albendazole and oral corticosteroids. This case is being reported because of its rare, disseminated nature with cutaneous, neural and ocular involvement. PMID:23130290

  13. Neurocysticercosis in free roaming pigs--a slaughterhouse survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anand; Kumar, G Sai; Rout, Manoranjan; Nagarajan, K; Kumar, Ram

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of neurocysticercosis among free ranging pigs and to study the type of pathomorphological lesions in affected brains, a total of 200 brains were collected from pigs slaughtered at a local abattoir, between August, 2005 to March, 2006. Gross and histopathological examination revealed 3% (6/200) occurrence of neurocysticercosis in pigs. Taenia solium cysticercosis is an under-rated zoonosis and is a leading cause of epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis in human population of India. The prevailing situation warrants immediate implementation of effective control measures for this dreaded disease. PMID:17966268

  14. Comunicación de un caso de cisticercosis subcutánea / Report of case of subcutaneous cysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sylvia, Vidal.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección por la forma larvaria (cisticerco) de Taenia solium en cualquier tejido u órgano se conoce como cisticercosis. Existen numerosos reportes de casos, siendo la mayoría de ellos cisticercos en sistema nervioso central. El compromiso de otros órganos es raramente detectado. Se presenta el c [...] aso de una mujer de 19 años con una cisticercosis subcutánea que fue confirmada con biopsia. Abstract in english Infection of the larval form (cysticerco) of Taenia in any tissue or organ is known as the disease cysticercosis. Many sites of infection have been documented but the central nervous system has been the most common. It present a case report of a 19 years old patient with a subcutaneous cysticercosis [...] confirmed with biopsy.

  15. Cerebral cysticercosis in Campina Grande, Paraíba - northern Brazil: computerized tomography diagnosis importance / Cisticercose cerebral em Campina Grande, Paraíba - Nordeste do Brasil: importância diagnóstica da tomografia computadorizada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago D., Gonçalves-Coêlho; Matheus Diniz G., Coelho.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocisticercose é a infecção do sistema nervoso central pela larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticercus cellulosae. Estudamos 4011 tomografias computadorizadas feitas no Serviço de Radioimagem do Hospital Pedro I, Campina Grande PB, desde sua instalação em setembro de 1993 a junho de 1995. 41 pacientes [...] foram diagnosticados como apresentando infestação cerebral por Cysticercus, correspondendo a 1,02 % . Nenhum caso de neurocisticercose foi diagnosticado em Campina Grande no ano de 1991, ao se analisar as causas das internações na Rede Hospitalar de Campina Grande conveniada ao SUS durante tal ano. Após a instalação deste serviço de radioimagem, observamos, em média, 1,86 casos por mês. Concluímos ser Campina Grande área endêmica para neurocisticercose, necessitando de medidas de saúde pública no intuito de cessar o ciclo Taenia-Cysticercus, a única maneira de erradicar tal afecção. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is the infection of the central nervous system by the larval form of Taenia solium , the Cysticercus cellulosae. We studied 4011 computerized tomographies performed in TomoHPI Radioimaging Service, Hospital Pedro I, Campina Grande PB, Northern Brazil, since its installation on Aug [...] ust 1993 to July 1995. 41 patients were diagnosed as having Cysticercus cerebral infestation, corresponding to an incidence of 1.02%. No cases were related in Campina Grande PB during 1991 according to hospitalizations under prospective payment rates. After this radioimaging service installation, we observed 1.86 cases per month. We conclude that Campina Grande has to be included as an endemic area of neurocysticercosis, needing health service measures to cease the cycle Taenia-Cysticercus, the only way to get rid of such a serious problem.

  16. Cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana no município de Barbalha, Ceará Porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis in municipal district of Barbalha, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Em Barbalha, Ceará, foram realizados levantamentos de casos de cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana causadas por Taenia solium, e realizou-se uma pesquisa quanto aos sistemas de criação de suínos na região. De 85 suínos abatidos em abatedouro local 4,7% apresentavam cisticercose, a maioria dos cisticercos localizava-se na língua e coração. Entre 2001 e 2004, das 302 criações de suínos denunciadas à vigilância sanitária, 96,6% eram chiqueiros. A teníase, entre 1998 e 2003, correspondeu a 1,1% das verminoses diagnosticadas pela Secretária de Saúde Municipal. Entre 2001 e 2003, os casos de neurocisticercose humana corresponderam a 5% das tomografias de crânio requisitadas nos hospitais da região.In Barbalha, municipal district of Ceará state, an assessment of cases of porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis caused by the Taenia solium was performed in order to evaluate the situation of these diseases. It was also carried out a research about the types of swine farms registered in the area. Considering the 85 swine slaughtered at the slaughterhouse of Barbalha, 4.7% presented cysticercosis. Most cysticerci were located in the tongue and in the heart. Between 2001 and 2004, from 302 swine farms denounced to the Sanitary Surveillance, 9.6% were pigsties. Taeniasis, between 1998 and 2003, corresponded to 1.1% of the helminthes diagnosed by the Municipal Health Office. From 2001 to 2003, the cases of human neurocysticercosis corresponded to 5% of the skull tomographies requested in the hospitals of the area.

  17. Diagnóstico laboratorial da neurocisticercose: revisão e perspectivas / Laboratory diagnosis of neurocysticercosis: review and perspectives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Yukari, Togoro; Edna Malona de, Souza; Neuza Satomi, Sato.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A neurocisticercose é causada por Cysticercus cellulose, a forma larval de Taenia solium, quando este se aloja no sistema nervoso central. O seu diagnóstico é realizado com base em dados clínicos, epidemiológicos, demonstração do agente etiológico pelas técnicas de imagem e testes laboratoriais. No [...] presente estudo, apresentamos uma revisão do diagnóstico laboratorial, com ênfase no desempenho dos testes para pesquisa de anticorpos específicos e detecção de antígenos circulantes, utilização de antígeno homólogo ou heterólogo, nativo e recombinante, bem como a aplicação de métodos moleculares. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium, when it lodges in the central nervous system. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is based on clinical and epidemiological data, neuroimaging findings of etiological agent and serologic test results. Herein we [...] present a review of clinical diagnosis, emphasizing test performance for specific antibody and antigen detection, the use of homologous or heterologous antigen, native and recombinant antigens as well as the application of molecular methods.

  18. Oral cysticercosis: case report and review of the literature Cisticercose oral: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Melhem Elias

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a condition that occurs when man is infested by the larvae of Taenia solium, acting as an intermediate host instead of definitive. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event, and it represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. A case of oral cysticercosis in a 23-year-old white female who presented a painless swelling in the dorsal portion of the tongue is reported. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm.A cisticercose é uma doença que ocorre quando o indivíduo é infectado pela larva da Taenia solium, atuando como hospedeiro intermediário ao invés de definitivo. A cisticercose em cavidade oral é rara e seu diagnóstico clínico é difícil. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso de cisticercose oral em paciente de 23 anos, sexo feminino que apresentou um crescimento indolor na região de dorso de língua. Foi realizada uma biópsia excisional e o exame histopatológico revelou uma cavidade cística apresentando em seu interior a larva.

  19. Bruns' syndrome and racemose neurocysticercosis: a case report / Síndrome de Bruns e neurocisticercose racemosa: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Diehl, Rodriquez; Denise Neme da Silva, Crestani; José Otávio Dworzecki, Soares; Paulo Roberto, Franceshini; Ronnie Petersen, Alves; Ricardo, Zimerman; Nelson, Ferreira; Liselotte Menke, Barea.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por cisticercose é causada pelo estágio larval da Taenia solium. O parasita pode infectar o sistema nervoso central, causando neurocisticercose (NCC). As manifestações clínicas dependem da quantidade, tipo, tamanho, local, estágio de desenvolvimento do cisticerco e resposta imune do hospe [...] deiro contra o parasita. A variedade racemosa ocorre nas cisternas ventriculares ou basais e é considerada uma forma maligna. O cisticerco móvel no ventrículo pode produzir hidrocefalia episódica com ataques de cefaléia, vômitos e vertigem, provocados pelo movimento abrupto da cabeça, fenômeno chamado de síndrome de Bruns (SB). Relataremos o caso de uma paciente com NCC racemosa com SB. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The parasite may infect the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). The clinical manifestations depend on load, type, size, location, stage of development of the cysticerci, and the host's immun [...] e response against the parasite. The racemose variety occurs in the ventricles or basal cisterns and is a malignant form. Mobile ventricular mass can produce episodic hydrocephalus on changing head posture with attacks of headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head, a phenomenon called Bruns' syndrome (BS). We report a patient with racemose NCC and BS.

  20. Bruns' syndrome and racemose neurocysticercosis: a case report Síndrome de Bruns e neurocisticercose racemosa: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Diehl Rodriquez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The parasite may infect the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC. The clinical manifestations depend on load, type, size, location, stage of development of the cysticerci, and the host's immune response against the parasite. The racemose variety occurs in the ventricles or basal cisterns and is a malignant form. Mobile ventricular mass can produce episodic hydrocephalus on changing head posture with attacks of headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head, a phenomenon called Bruns' syndrome (BS. We report a patient with racemose NCC and BS.A infecção por cisticercose é causada pelo estágio larval da Taenia solium. O parasita pode infectar o sistema nervoso central, causando neurocisticercose (NCC. As manifestações clínicas dependem da quantidade, tipo, tamanho, local, estágio de desenvolvimento do cisticerco e resposta imune do hospedeiro contra o parasita. A variedade racemosa ocorre nas cisternas ventriculares ou basais e é considerada uma forma maligna. O cisticerco móvel no ventrículo pode produzir hidrocefalia episódica com ataques de cefaléia, vômitos e vertigem, provocados pelo movimento abrupto da cabeça, fenômeno chamado de síndrome de Bruns (SB. Relataremos o caso de uma paciente com NCC racemosa com SB.

  1. Oral cysticercosis: case report and review of the literature / Cisticercose oral: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Melhem, Elias; Marília Trierveiler, Martins; Rodrigo, Foronda; Waldyr Antônio, Jorge; Ney Soares de, Araújo.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose é uma doença que ocorre quando o indivíduo é infectado pela larva da Taenia solium, atuando como hospedeiro intermediário ao invés de definitivo. A cisticercose em cavidade oral é rara e seu diagnóstico clínico é difícil. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso de cisticercose oral em paci [...] ente de 23 anos, sexo feminino que apresentou um crescimento indolor na região de dorso de língua. Foi realizada uma biópsia excisional e o exame histopatológico revelou uma cavidade cística apresentando em seu interior a larva. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is a condition that occurs when man is infested by the larvae of Taenia solium, acting as an intermediate host instead of definitive. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event, and it represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. A case of oral cysticercosis in a 23-year-old white female who [...] presented a painless swelling in the dorsal portion of the tongue is reported. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm.

  2. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090

  3. NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS PRESENTING AS MENINGOENCEPHALITIS - A CASE REPORT

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    Sourajit Routray, Rajib Ray, Radha Tripathy and Raj Kumar Paul*

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human neurocysticercosis, the infection of the nervous system by the larvae of Taenia solium, is a cause of epileptic seizures and other neurologic morbidity worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. The most common clinical manifestation being the seizures (70-90%, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. The accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and/ or results of immunological tests. Encephalitis is the inflammation of brain parenchyma presenting as acute febrile illness with altered level of consciousness, confused behavioral abnormality and depressed level of consciousness ranging from mild lethargy to coma and evidence of either focal or diffused neurological sign and symptoms. Parenchymal brain cysticerci in the acute encephalitic phase have been recognized since the first reports of CT in patients with neurocysticercosis. These lesions were described as focal low densities surrounded by oedema and ring-like enhancement after giving contrast medium. The abnormal enhancement of these lesions were related to the breakdown in the blood-brain barrier caused by the inflammatory reaction around dying cysticerci. We report a case of 10 year old female child presenting with fever, headache and altered sensorium. This case report may help the practitioners to identify this disease with different presentations, some with fatal presentation, so that needful imaging and management would be instituted at the earliest keeping in mind that Anticysticercal drugs are contraindicated in patients with cysticercotic encephalitis because they may exacerbate the inflammatory response within the brain parenchyma.

  4. PRESENCE OF HELMINTH EGGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM CAMPO GRANDE (MS, BRAZIL MUNICIPALITY AFTER ANAEROBIC TREATMENT LEVANTAMENTO DE OVOS DE HELMINTOS EM LODO DE ESGOTO ORIUNDO DE CAMPO GRANDE (MS APÓS TRATAMENTO ANAERÓBICO

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    Juliana Rosa Carrijo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the helminth eggs presence in sewage sludge, previously treated in anerobic digestion process like anaerobic liquid fluid reactor. First of all were evaluated different kinds of materials to choose the best filter which permitted to filter the Taenia saginata eggs. The filter that showed better adaptation was the fine toilet paper one sheet. The helminth eggs were classified for their genera, according to their morphology. The Taenia sp, Trichuris, Dipylidium and Strongyloides were find only in one collect. The number of nematode eggs prevailed on the cestodes. The quantity of helminths eggs found was variable, indicatting complementary treatments process to the sewage sludge. It was concluded that the filter tested was efficient to Taenia sp eggs and to other helminth eggs present in sewage sludge. KEY WORDS: Biossolid, filter, Taenia sp. O presente trabalho avaliou a presença de ovos de helmintos em lodo de esgoto, previamente tratado em sistema de digestão anaeróbia do tipo reator anaeróbio de lodo fluidizado (RALF. Primeiramente testaram-se diferentes tipos de materiais para a escolha do filtro que possibilitasse a passagem de ovos de Taenia saginata. O filtro mais adequado foi o papel higiênico fino, folha única. Classificaram-se os ovos de helmintos por gênero, de acordo com sua morfologia. Encontraram-se ovos de Taenia sp, Trichuris, Dipylidium e Strongyloides em apenas uma das colheitas. O número de ovos de nematóides prevaleceu sobre os de cestóides. Houve variação na quantidade encontrada de ovos de helmintos, indicando a necessidade de o lodo de esgoto receber tratamentos complementares. Concluiu-se que o filtro avaliado foi eficaz tanto para ovos de Taenia sp quanto para outros ovos de helmintos existentes em lodo de esgoto. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Biossólido, filtro, Taenia sp

  5. La cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y en el Ecuador (Porcine cysticercosis in Latin America and Ecuador

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    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen.El presente trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de la cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y el Ecuador, donde el Cysticercus cellulosae (metacestodo de Taenia solium es conocido vulgarmente como: “triquina”, “coscoja”, “alverjilla”, “quinua”, “grano” o “pepa”. Las fuentes de información provienen de artículos científicos publicados en revistas indexadas y de observaciones encontradas en de tesis de grado o trabajos científicos publicados local e internacionalmente. La mayoría de estudios sobre cisticercosis porcina en América Latina fueron realizados en los años 90. Por otro lado, en el caso Ecuatoriano, se efectuó un análisis cronológico exhaustivo, encontrándose que la cisticercosis porcina ya era conocida desde antes del siglo XX. Aunque esta parasitosis no es, comúnmente, asociada a la teniasis, los pobladores de regiones endémicas trasmitían el mensaje de generación a generación. En el Ecuador, en 1957, se realizó el primer estudio publicado sobre la cisticercosis porcina. Otros estudios fueron llevados a cabo en camales locales y áreas endémicas caracterizadas por la falta de servicios básicos, la ausencia de infraestructura higiénico-sanitaria y la cría tradicional del cerdo lo que permite el acceso de estos animales a los excrementos humanos defecados al campo abierto. AbstractThe present work is an actual literature review about porcine cysticercosis in Latin America and Ecuador in where Cysticercus cellulosae (Taenia solium metacestode is locally known as “triquina”, “coscoja”, “arverjilla”, “quinua”, “grano” or “pepa”. Scientific articles published in index journals, thesis or paper locally published was used as our source of information. Mostly works on porcine cysticercosis were carried out in the nineties. On the other hand, the Ecuadorian situation was assessed chronologically founding that porcine cysticercosis was known before XX century. Although porcine cysticercosis is not commonly related with taeniasis, people from endemic areas transmitted this knowledge from one to other generation. In Ecuador, the first porcine cysticercosis paper was published in 1957. Other surveys ware developed on slaughterhouses and endemic regions where all factor favouring transmission of Taenia solium are present i.e. poor sanitary conditions and traditional pig husbandry.

  6. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Nor-them Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  7. Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Prevalence of Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the rural area of Viçosa-MG, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Felix, Iasbik; Paulo Sérgio de Arruda, Pinto; Paula Dias, Bevilacqua; Luis Augusto, Nero; Tatiane de Oliveira, Santos; Adriano Groppo, Felippe.

    1664-16-01

    Full Text Available A teníase é uma doença que se manifesta no ser humano em decorrência da presença da forma adulta da Taenia sp., enquanto a cisticercose decorre da infecção pelo estágio larvar da Taenia sp. ou Taenia solium, no caso dos suínos e humanos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visando a determinar a pre [...] valência de cisticercose em suínos e de teníase em 176 propriedades localizadas na zona rural de Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG). Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 226 suínos e fezes de 266 humanos, além da realização de um inquérito epidemiológico. Não foi identificada teníase humana, e a prevalência da cisticercose suína foi de 0,4%. As informações obtidas mostraram que a maioria das pessoas possuía o hábito de consumir carne suína não inspecionada; entretanto, todas as pessoas se alimentavam da carne bem aquecida. Em apenas 1,1% das propriedades, o esgoto era depositado diretamente no solo e em 99,4% destas a água era canalizada, enquanto 88,1% dos suínos eram criados presos. Concluiu-se que, na zona rural do município de Viçosa-MG, a prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose foi baixa, mostrando ainda um nível de contaminação inferior ao de outros municípios onde o complexo foi estudado. Abstract in english Taeniasis occurs due to the presence of the adult form of Taenia sp. in human beings, and cysticercosis is caused by the presence of the larval stage of T. solium in pigs and humans. A transversal study was conducted aiming to determine the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis in 176 fa [...] rms located in rural areas of Viçosa-MG. Blood samples of 226 pigs, and feces samples of 266 humans were collected. An epidemiological survey has also been done. We found a prevalence of 0.4% of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis has not been found. The epidemiological data has shown that although most people consumed non-inspected pork, it used to be prepared well-done. Data showed that 88.1% of the pigs are reared in confinement in only 1.1% of the properties the sewer was disposed on the soil, and 99.4% used pipes for water distribution. It can be concluded that the prevalence of the Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in rural areas of Viçosa (State of Minas Gerais) is lower than in other similar regions.

  8. Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Prevalence of Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the rural area of Viçosa-MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Felix Iasbik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A teníase é uma doença que se manifesta no ser humano em decorrência da presença da forma adulta da Taenia sp., enquanto a cisticercose decorre da infecção pelo estágio larvar da Taenia sp. ou Taenia solium, no caso dos suínos e humanos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visando a determinar a prevalência de cisticercose em suínos e de teníase em 176 propriedades localizadas na zona rural de Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 226 suínos e fezes de 266 humanos, além da realização de um inquérito epidemiológico. Não foi identificada teníase humana, e a prevalência da cisticercose suína foi de 0,4%. As informações obtidas mostraram que a maioria das pessoas possuía o hábito de consumir carne suína não inspecionada; entretanto, todas as pessoas se alimentavam da carne bem aquecida. Em apenas 1,1% das propriedades, o esgoto era depositado diretamente no solo e em 99,4% destas a água era canalizada, enquanto 88,1% dos suínos eram criados presos. Concluiu-se que, na zona rural do município de Viçosa-MG, a prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose foi baixa, mostrando ainda um nível de contaminação inferior ao de outros municípios onde o complexo foi estudado.Taeniasis occurs due to the presence of the adult form of Taenia sp. in human beings, and cysticercosis is caused by the presence of the larval stage of T. solium in pigs and humans. A transversal study was conducted aiming to determine the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis in 176 farms located in rural areas of Viçosa-MG. Blood samples of 226 pigs, and feces samples of 266 humans were collected. An epidemiological survey has also been done. We found a prevalence of 0.4% of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis has not been found. The epidemiological data has shown that although most people consumed non-inspected pork, it used to be prepared well-done. Data showed that 88.1% of the pigs are reared in confinement in only 1.1% of the properties the sewer was disposed on the soil, and 99.4% used pipes for water distribution. It can be concluded that the prevalence of the Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in rural areas of Viçosa (State of Minas Gerais is lower than in other similar regions.

  9. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Porfiria Barrón González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de que las semillas de C. pepo contienen principios activos capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de G. lamblia bajo condiciones axénicas in vitro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad biológica del extracto acuoso y metanólico de las semillas de C. pepo sobre el crecimiento de G. lamblia. Tanto el extracto metanólico como el acuoso se identificaron siete grupos funcionales y la actividad antioxidante no fue significativa

  10. VASCULAR DEMENTIA TYPE BINSWANGER'S DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foyaca Sibat H, MD.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report seven patients who presented with clinical manifestations of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD, dementia, and on CT Scan radiological signs of active neurocysticercosis and Binswanger?s Disease (BD were found. Two patients died due to bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to deep venous thrombosis on lower limbs and the others remain alive. In almost all of them after one day of treatment with praziquantel(PZQ some aggravation of the clinical manifestations of BD were observed. We have hypothesized about the Taenia solium-microglial activation-coagulation disorder and glial disorders-Blood-Brain-Barrier disturbances-Binswanger?s disease. We considered that anti-parasitic therapy for active NCC in patients with an associated BD should be prescribed for some isolated cases when it?s extremely necessary.

  11. A pilot study of common health problems in smallholder pigs in Angónia and Boane districts, Mozambique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Matos; C, Sitoe; S, Afonso; J, Banze; J, Baptista; G, Dias; F, Rodrigues; A, Atanásio; A, Nhamusso; M-L, Penrith; A L, Willingham III.

    Full Text Available A pilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by [...] the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined.

  12. Cysticercosis in epileptic patients of Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOMES IRENIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the magnitude of infection by the metacestode of Taenia solium in a population of epileptic patients in the arid region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, we examined 200 consecutive cases who attended an ambulatory clinic in the disctrict of Mulungu do Morro. Sixty-six of the patients had a diagnosis of epilepsy. From them 10 (15.2% presented antibodies against a specific fraction of antigens in Western blot, and 4 (6.0% had circulating parasite products, as tested by capture ELISA. Only 1 case was positive for antibodies and antigens. We found that the frequency of seropositivity was related to the time without epileptic seizure. We conclude that cysticercosis is endemic in the region of Mulungu do Morro and that it is related to a benign form of epilepsy.

  13. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara

    The Vicious Worm: A computer-based program advocating for prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis – a zoonotic tapeworm disease - widespread and emerging in many low income countries due to increased pork production and bad hygiene. Available at www.theviciousworm.org + Google Play & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience. Information is divided in three levels, each level is designed at different target audiences: VILLAGE knowledge relevant to the people living here using animations, short stories, videos, quizzes and games. TOWN information for professionals (medical doctors, veterinarians, meat inspectors & agricultural extension officers) using videos, pictures and text. CITY concise information for key stakeholders and decision makers: a 2-page policy brief and information sheet.

  14. Spinal Intramedullary Cysticercosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qi, Pengfei Ge, Hongfa Yang, Chunhua Bi, Yiping Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, involvement of the central nervous system by taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the CNS. However, spinal involvement by neurocysticercosis is uncommon. Here, we reported a 40-year-old woman with intramedullary cysticercosis in the thoracic spinal cord. MRI revealed two well-defined round intramedullary lesions at T4 and T5 vertebral levels, which were homogeneously hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI with peripheral edema. Since the patient had progressive neurological deficits, surgery was performed to decompress the spinal cord. Histopathology examination of the removed lesion proved it was intramedullary cysticercosis. In this report, we also discussed the principles of diagnosis and treatment of intramedullary cysticercosis in combination of literature review.

  15. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  16. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atin; Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Choudhary, Anita; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Gulati, Sheffali [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2010-02-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

  17. A pilot study of common health problems in smallholder pigs in Angónia and Boane districts, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined.

  18. Interview--Hector H. Garcia. Iinterviewed by Christo Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Prof. Garcia is a Wellcome Trust Senior International Research Fellow in Public Health and Tropical Medicine and a Coordinating Member of the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Neurocysticercosis is a global health problem and is majorly responsible for the high prevalence of epilepsy in the developing world. Despite the introduction of potent cysticidal drugs, this parasitic disease continues to pose a threat to millions of people living in these areas. More recent efforts, directed to interrupt all interrelated steps in the life cycle of the causal agent, the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, will undoubtedly reduce the impact burden of the disease. In this regard, the work of Dr. Hector H. Garcia is commendable, as he is co-directing a large-scale control program for the disease complex Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Tumbes, Perú , whose final lresults we are anxiously awaiting. PMID:23265548

  19. Spinal leptomeningeal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal forms of neurocysticercosis are extremely rare, with a frequency under 1% in large series. The types of involvement are a) subarachnoid cysts and b) intramedullary lesions (less frequent). The authors report the case of a 56-year-old female with central nervous system infection by the larval form of Taenia Solium, which conduced to a hydrocephalus, treated by neurosurgical ventricular-peritoneal shunting. After 2 years, the patient consulted due to paraesthesia, spastic paraparesis and incontinence. MRI showed an homogeneous cystic mass compressing the spinal cord at D5-D6 level. Laminectomies were performed and the arachnoid membrane appeared thickened (arachnoiditis); the larval cyst was removed. Anatomo-pathologic exam revealed a leptomeningeal cysticercosis. The patient had a favorable clinical evolution without spinal compression sings or symptoms. (author)

  20. Some trematodes and cestodes of fishes mainly from Hubei Province, central China.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Nie, P.; Scholz, Tomáš; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 67, ?. 3 (2003), s. 161-174. ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 424 Grant ostatní: National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 30025035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trematoda * Cestoda * freshwater fishes Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  1. Ultrastructure of the oncospheral envelopes in the pseudophyllidean cestode Eubothrium salvelini (Schrank, 1790).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?widerski, Z.; Bru?anská, Magdaléna; M?ocicki, D.; Conn, D. B.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 4 (2005), s. 312-318. ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/1317 Grant ostatní: Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Pseudophyllidea * ultrastructure * oncosphere Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2005

  2. Phylogenetic analysis and reconfiguration of genera in the cestode order Diphyllidea.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caira, J. N.; Marques, F.P.L.; Jensen, K.; Kuchta, Roman; Ivanov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 43, ?. 8 (2013), s. 621-639. ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Elasmobranchs * 28S rDNA * 18S rDNA * Ahamulina * Coronocestus * Ditrachybothridium * Echinobothrium * Halysioncum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013

  3. Gastro-intestinal nematodes and cestodes of cattle in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem A.M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the parasites of abomasa, small, and large intestines of 94 bovines conveyed to the main slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou from the central and northern part of Burkina Faso allowed the identification of nine different worm species: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Moniezia expensa, Avitellina sp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris sp. By far, Cooperia sp. was the most prevalent (89.4/, followed by H. contortus (66/, and O. radiatum (42.6/. The other worm species were much less prevalent. While only one cattle was free of parasites, it was noticed that polyparasitism was very common. There was a wide range of worm burden (0 to 42290 with however in most animals high worm numbers specially of Cooperia sp. This study confirmed that the rainy season constitutes a period of worm explosion. During the hot and dry season, H. contortus seemed primarily able to undergo arrested development in the L4 stage and secondarily to remain in the adult stage. Statistical analyses of levels of infestation did not show any significant difference according to age, sex, and weight of cattle.

  4. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Cephalochlamys namaquensis (Cohn, 1906).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bru?anská, M.; Matey, V.; Nebesá?ová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 111, ?. 3 (2012), s. 1037-1043. ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GLARIDACRIS-CATOSTOMI COOPER * WENYONIA-VIRILIS WOODLAND * SPERMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS * MATURE SPERMATOZOON * ALAPTERURUS-ELECTRICUS * SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE * CRASSUM BLOCH * SPERMIOGENESIS * PARASITE * SPERMATOGENESIS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-012-2928-4

  5. Similarity and Diversity in Macrophage Activation by Nematodes, Trematodes, and Cestodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes current knowledge of macrophages in helminth infections, with a focus not only on delineating the striking similarities in macrophage phenotype between diverse infections but also on highlighting the differences. Findings from many different labs illustrate that macrophages in helminth infection can act as anti-parasite effectors but can also act as powerful immune suppressors. The specific role for their alternative (Th2-mediated activation in helminth killing or expulsion versus immune regulation remains to be determined. Meanwhile, the rapid growth in knowledge of alternatively activated macrophages will require an even more expansive view of their potential functions to include repair of host tissue and regulation of host metabolism.

  6. A New Cestode Moniezia Vanamalae N.SP. (Eucestoda : Anoplocephalidae) From Capra Hircus

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    The scolex of Moniezia vanamalae n.sp. is large, broad anteriorly, narrow posteriorly, suckers medium, oval arranged in two pairs, one pair in each half of the scolex. Mature proglottids are big, broader than long, each with double set of reproductive organs, testes follicular, small, round 210-215(211), cirrus pouch in each side, cirrus is thin, slightly coiled, ovary on each side large, globular with irregular margin,vagina is a thin tube situated posterior to the cirrus pouch,...

  7. A NEW CESTODE MONIEZIA GOVINDI N.SP. (EUCESTODA : ANOPLOCEPHALIDAE FROM CAPRA HIRCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Patil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The scolex of Moniezia govindi n.sp. is large, globular,oval, suckers large, oval, situated almost in the anterior 3/4th region of the scolex. Mature proglottids are large, squarish, slightly concave or convex lateral margins. Testes medium, oval 220-230 (225, cirrus pouch on each side, medium, oval, cylindrical appearance, slightly broader anteriorly narrow posteriorly, vagina is a thin tube situated posterior to the cirrus pouch, ootype large, oval, post ovarian, situated in the concavity of the ovarian lobes, vitelline gland large, quadrangular with irregular margin, post ovarian, almost central in position 30-32 short, blunt, round wide acini, in between the two segments in the intra segmental regions, the interproglottidal glands are present.

  8. A New Cestode Moniezia Vanamalae N.SP. (Eucestoda : Anoplocephalidae From Capra Hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P . S. Patil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The scolex of Moniezia vanamalae n.sp. is large, broad anteriorly, narrow posteriorly, suckers medium, oval arranged in two pairs, one pair in each half of the scolex. Mature proglottids are big, broader than long, each with double set of reproductive organs, testes follicular, small, round 210-215(211, cirrus pouch in each side, cirrus is thin, slightly coiled, ovary on each side large, globular with irregular margin,vagina is a thin tube situated posterior to the cirrus pouch, seminal receptacle large, ootype medium, round ventral to the ovary, vitelline gland medium, obliquely placed, in between the two segments in the intra segmental regions, the interproglottidal glands are present.

  9. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Tina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii, both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively. Methods We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. Results We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Conclusions Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.

  10. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich Tina; Benesh Daniel P; Kalbe Martin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii), both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, ...

  11. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats and R. microstoma (in mice showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human.

  12. [Soricinia sawadai sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae), a new cestode species from the shrews of Sakhalin Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubova, O A; Guliaev, V D; Kornienko, S A

    2010-01-01

    A new species Soricinia sawadai sp. n. parasitizing shrews of Sakhalin Island (Sores unguiculatus and S. caecutiens) is described. The new species differs from other species of the genus Soricinia Spassky et Spasskaja, 1954 in having specific armament and size of the cirrus. Soricinia sawadai sp. n. differs from S. aurita (Irzhavsky et al., 2005) in having half size of the ovary (0.076-0.08 x 0.03-0.038 versus 0.135-0.14 x 0.037-0.04) and the cirrus bursa extending into the aporal fraction of the middle part of segment. The new species differs from S. quarta (Karpenko, 1983) in having half size of the cirrus (0.025-0.026 versus 0.05-0.055) and half number of hexacants in uterine segments (20-22 versus 40-45). The new species differs from S. infirma (Zarnowski, 1955) in having other cirrus armament, larger number of segments and lesser number of hexacants. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa Sawada et Koyasu, 1991 parasitizing Sorex unguiculatus on Hokkaido Island is synonymized with Soricinia quarta. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa sensu Sawada et Harada, 1993 parasitizing Sorex shinto shinto on Honshu Island is described as a separate species Soricinia haradai sp. n. PMID:20795487

  13. A new Genus and Species of Cestodes (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae from Ciconiiform Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyushin V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? Proparadilepis Kornyushin et Greben, gen. n. ? ????? ??????? ????? Proparadilepis plegadissaakovae Kornyushin et Greben, sp. n. ?? ????? ???????? ? ?????? Paradilepis Hsu, 1935, Ascodilepis Guildal, 1960 ? Dendrouterina Fuhrmann, 1912. Proparadilepis gen. n. ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ? ???- ??? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????. ??????? ??? Proparadilepis plegadissaakovae, sp. n. ?? Plegadis falcinellus ??? ?????? ?. ?. ???????? ? ??????????? ??? nomen nudum, ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??? ??????????? ???- ???????? (Bona, 1994. ??? Dendrouterina ???????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? «herodiae» ? «macrosphincter », ??????????? ?. ???? (1975, ?? ??? ??????????????? ???? Dendrouterina ? Mashonalepis Beverley-Burton, 1960.

  14. Identification of Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase Inhibitors That Kill Cestode and Trematode Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Fabiana; Herna?ndez, Paola; Porcal, Williams; Lo?pez, Gloria V.; Cerecetto, Hugo; Gonza?lez, Mercedes; Basika, Tatiana; Carmona, Carlos; Flo?, Marti?n; Maggioli, Gabriela; Bonilla, Mariana; Boiani, Mariana; Salinas, Gustavo; Gladyshev, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic flatworms are responsible for serious infectious diseases that affect humans as well as livestock animals in vast regions of the world. Yet, the drug armamentarium available for treatment of these infections is limited: praziquantel is the single drug currently available for 200 million people infected with Schistosoma spp. and there is justified concern about emergence of drug resistance. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential core enzyme for redox homeostasis in f...

  15. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the paruterinid cestode Notopentorchis sp. (Cyclophyllidea).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, A.; Levron, Céline; NIkolov, P. N.; Mizinska, Y.; Mariaux, J.; Georgiev, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 111, ?. 1 (2012), s. 135-142. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : INTESTINAL PARASITE * MATURE SPERMATOZOON * SPERMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS * TAPEWORMS PLATYHELMINTHES * COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY * SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE * ELECTRON MICROSCOPY * GOLDEN-HAMSTERS * FINE-STRUCTURE * VON LINSTOW Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  16. Fluorescent vital labeling to track cestodes in a copepod intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Joachim; van der Veen, Ineke T; Christen, Mira

    2002-01-01

    In experimental studies of host-parasite interactions, it is often important to track parasites in their hosts and to discriminate between individual parasites. We used the fluorescent tracer dyes 7-amino-4-chloromethylcoumarin (CMAC) and, 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) for vital labeling of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda) coracidia larvae. Labeling was fast and easy to perform and enabled microscopic detection of parasites appearing as procercoids in the hemocoel of the copepod intermediate host at 3 h after exposure. The label was still visible after 14 days. Extensive controls showed that CMAC (20 microM) labeling did not harm tapeworms or copepods. CMFDA (2 microM) reduced host survival, but the dye concentration can be decreased to avoid this in future studies. The new labeling method presented here has been very useful to track S. solidus parasites. It can be valuable for other parasites also and may be particularly suitable for visualization of individual live macroparasites in invertebrate hosts, for which we are not aware of any other appropriate method. PMID:11971652

  17. Influence of the pseudophyllidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus on oocyte development in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, D C; Brown-Peterson, N J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the means by which Schistocephalus solidus might reduce annual fecundity in female threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) through processes of oocyte development. Histological examinations of specimens from one lake in Alaska in 2000 and 2001 were used to analyse the effects of S. solidus on recruitment of primary growth oocytes into vitellogenesis, atresia of vitellogenic oocytes, and the interspawning interval. The ratio of primary growth to late secondary growth (late vitellogenic) oocytes was significantly greater (Psolidus infection. Thus, annual fecundity appears to be reduced only through recruitment of oocytes into vitellogenesis. PMID:20128945

  18. Fitness consequences of selfing and outcrossing in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Mixed-mating, that is reproduction by both self-fertilization and cross-fertilization is common in hermaphroditic parasites. Its maintenance poses, however, a problem for evolutionary biology. The tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus Müller 1776, served as a model to study experimentally the consequences of selfing and outcrossing in its 2 consecutive intermediate hosts, a copepod (Macrocyclops albidus Jurine) and the three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Size-matched tapeworms were allowed to reproduce either alone or in pairs in an in vitro system that replaced the definitive bird host's gut. Selfed eggs from singletons had a 4 times lower hatching success than outcrossed eggs from pairs. Outcrossed offspring achieved both a higher infection success and a higher weight in the copepod, and a higher number of parasites per host in both intermediate hosts, but only under competition. Outcrossed offspring were generally more successful. If a S. solidus plerocercoid has a partner in the bird's gut, they should outcross unless they differ in size and thus cannot solve the Hermaphrodite's Dilemma cooperatively. Using microsatellite markers, the proportion of selfed offspring and the total reproductive output of each worm within pairs varying in mean weight and in weight difference was measured. Worms produced more selfed offspring not only with increasing weight difference as expected but also with decreasing total weight of the pair. If small worms were selfed, they have already purged deleterious mutations and would thus be better selfers in a year with low parasite density when worms cannot find partners. To maintain this advantage they should self a higher proportion of their eggs even with a partner. Here I review recent exprimental evidence. PMID:21672749

  19. Parasite-associated growth enhancement in a fish-cestode system.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnott, S A; Barber, I; Huntingford, F A

    2000-01-01

    Parasites impose an energetic cost upon their hosts, yet, paradoxically instances have been reported in which infection is associated with enhanced, rather than diminished, host growth rates. Field studies of these parasite effects are problematic, since the pre-infection condition of the hosts is generally unknown. Here, we describe a laboratory experiment in which the growth rate and body condition of 76 laboratory-reared three-spined stickleback fishes were examined before, during and afte...

  20. Controlling parasites, understanding practices: the biosocial complexity of a One Health intervention for neglected zoonotic helminths in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin; Inthavong, Phouth; Xayaheuang, Sivilai; Okello, Anna L

    2014-11-01

    A parasitological survey in northern Lao PDR showed a remote ethnic minority village to be hyper-endemic for Taenia solium, a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that impacts human and pig health. An intervention combining human Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with porcine vaccination and antihelmintic treatment was then implemented, targeting both T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths. To understand the biosocial complexity of this integrated One Health intervention, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study exploring the transmission dynamics of T. solium and locally acceptable long-term control options. Informed by two years of project work in the village, this included six focus group discussions, 35 semi-structured interviews, a latrine survey, a school-based education meeting, participant observation and many unstructured interviews conducted over two weeks in October 2013. We found that risk behaviours were mediated by various social determinants including limited market access, interrelationships between alcohol, ancestral sacrifices and the consumption of raw pork, seasonal variations and poor latrine coverage. Only sixteen percent of households had latrines, attributed to the unacceptability of dry latrines, lack of water access, poor building techniques and poverty. Whilst women could explain T. solium transmission, most men and children could not, revealing that distributed posters/leaflets relied too heavily on text and ambiguous images. Compliance with MDA was high due to trust between project staff and village leaders. However understandings of pharmacology, minor side effects, human migration and children's fear of worms may lead to resistance in future programmes. Our research highlights the complexities of controlling T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths in a remote ethnic minority village and the need to integrate biomedical and participatory approaches. Although we showcase the heuristic value of using rapid ethnography to inform intervention strategies as part of a One Health/NTD agenda, we also identify several possible paradoxes and conundrums in embedding locally-grounded biosocial analysis into NTD programmes. These need to be acknowledged and negotiated by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:25261615

  1. Neurocisticercosis: Una enfermedad emergente Neurocysticercosis: An emergent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Imirizaldu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis es una afectación del sistema nervioso central por las larvas de la Taenia solium. Aunque en nuestro país su diagnóstico era excepcional, en los últimos años se ha observado un notable incremento en el número de casos diagnosticados, debido al fenómeno de la inmigración desde países donde la enfermedad es endémica. La forma de presentación más frecuente de la neurocisticercosis es la crisis epiléptica, seguida de la cefalea. Para el diagnóstico de sospecha debemos valorar los datos epidemiológicos y la clínica y confirmarlo mediante los estudios de neuroimagen e inmunológicos. El tratamiento de elección debe ser farmacológico, principalmente con albendazol, y reservar la cirugía para los casos en el que el primero falla. Las medidas higiénico-sanitarias y el tratamiento de los pacientes con teniasis son de suma importancia. La neurocisticercosis ha dejado de ser uno de esos diagnósticos excepcionales y dado el previsible aumento de su incidencia en nuestro medio, los profesionales sanitarios debemos conocer dicha enfermedad e incluirla en niveles más altos de los algoritmos de diagnóstico diferencial.Neurocysticerosis is an affection of the central nervous system by the larvae of the Taenia solium. Although its diagnosis in our country is exceptional, in recent years a notable increase in the number of cases diagnosed has been observed, due to the phenomenon of immigration from countries where the disease is endemic. The most frequent form of presentation of neurocysticercosis is seizures, followed by headache. To diagnose it we must evaluate the epidemiological data, the clinical record and confirm this through neuroimage and immunological studies. The treatment selected should be pharmacological, principally with albendazole, and surgery reserved for cases where the former fails. Hygienic measures and the treatment of patients with teniasis are of great importance. Neurocysticerosis has ceased to be an exceptional diagnosis and given the foreseeable increase of its incidence in our milieu, health professionals must understand this disease and include it at higher levels of the algorithms of differential diagnosis.

  2. The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate / A relação entre neurocisticercose e epilepsia: um debate interminável

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Carpio; Matthew L., Romo.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A neurocisticercose (NC) ou infecção cerebral pela Taenia solium é importante problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo. Entre as sequelas neurológicas da NC, as crises convulsivas têm sido descritas como os sintomas mais frequentes. Crises convulsivas sintomáticas agudas resultam, muitas vezes, da [...] degeneração de cistos viáveis; entretanto, nem todos os pacientes com NC e crises agudas ou provocadas desenvolvem epilepsia (i.e., crises recorrentes não provocadas). Pode haver uma relação entre epilepsia e NC, causal ou incidental, devido à alta prevalência de ambas. O potencial epileptogênico dos cistos calcificados assim como a possível associação entre NC e esclerose hipocampal ainda necessitam de futuras pesquisas. O tratamento anti-helmíntico da NC resulta no desaparecimento de cistos viáveis em cerca de 1/3 dos pacientes com a doença parenquimatosa, mas não foi demonstrada redução nas taxas de recorrência das crises convulsivas em estudos randomizados controlados. A prevenção é crítica para reduzir o contingente de crises convulsivas e epilepsia relacionadas à NC. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not [...] all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC.

  3. Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Saavedra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis (NCC es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convulsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y se confirma con serología. La tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas imagenológicas usadas. Como prueba confirmatoria se usa el diagnóstico inmunológico a través de western blot, que actualmente se pude realizar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas tanto en suero como en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento involucra medidas sintomáticas (control de convulsiones o hipertensión endocraneana según sea el caso y tratamiento antiparasitario (albendazol o praziquantel. El tratamiento antiparasitario debe hacerse bajo condiciones de hospitalización y en hospitales de tercer nivel.Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. Inmunodiagnosis by Western Blot, which is currently perform in the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas in serum and cerebrospinal fluid serves as confirmatory test. Treatment involves symptomatic measures (control of seizures or intracranial hypertension and anticysticercal medications (albendazole and praziquantel. Anticysticercal treatment should be used under hospital conditions because of secondary effects.

  4. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú / Assessment of dot blot tests and latex agglutination for cysticercosis diagnostic in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Miranda-Ulloa; Roxana, Sandoval-Ahumada; Eduardo, Ayala; Juan, Vásquez-Ampuero.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas [...] con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú Abstract in english In order to evaluate dot blot tests and latex agglutination for the detection of human cysticercosis with liquid antigen of Taenia solium cysticerci, 125 human sera were used, of which 60 were from people with cysticercosis confirmed by Western Blot, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 20 apparentl [...] y healthy. The optimal concentration of antigen to impregnate dot blot strips was 0.01 ug/uL, and to impregnate the latex particles was 0.092 ug/uL. For the dot blot test, a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.7% was found. For latex agglutination, a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 89.2% was found. Both tests may be useful and feasible to implement alternatives of serological diagnosis in laboratories in endemic areas of Peru

  5. Neurocisticercosis: Una enfermedad emergente / Neurocysticercosis: An emergent disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Imirizaldu; L., Miranda; I., García-Gurtubay; I., Gastón; J., Urriza; P., Quesada.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis es una afectación del sistema nervioso central por las larvas de la Taenia solium. Aunque en nuestro país su diagnóstico era excepcional, en los últimos años se ha observado un notable incremento en el número de casos diagnosticados, debido al fenómeno de la inmigración desde p [...] aíses donde la enfermedad es endémica. La forma de presentación más frecuente de la neurocisticercosis es la crisis epiléptica, seguida de la cefalea. Para el diagnóstico de sospecha debemos valorar los datos epidemiológicos y la clínica y confirmarlo mediante los estudios de neuroimagen e inmunológicos. El tratamiento de elección debe ser farmacológico, principalmente con albendazol, y reservar la cirugía para los casos en el que el primero falla. Las medidas higiénico-sanitarias y el tratamiento de los pacientes con teniasis son de suma importancia. La neurocisticercosis ha dejado de ser uno de esos diagnósticos excepcionales y dado el previsible aumento de su incidencia en nuestro medio, los profesionales sanitarios debemos conocer dicha enfermedad e incluirla en niveles más altos de los algoritmos de diagnóstico diferencial. Abstract in english Neurocysticerosis is an affection of the central nervous system by the larvae of the Taenia solium. Although its diagnosis in our country is exceptional, in recent years a notable increase in the number of cases diagnosed has been observed, due to the phenomenon of immigration from countries where t [...] he disease is endemic. The most frequent form of presentation of neurocysticercosis is seizures, followed by headache. To diagnose it we must evaluate the epidemiological data, the clinical record and confirm this through neuroimage and immunological studies. The treatment selected should be pharmacological, principally with albendazole, and surgery reserved for cases where the former fails. Hygienic measures and the treatment of patients with teniasis are of great importance. Neurocysticerosis has ceased to be an exceptional diagnosis and given the foreseeable increase of its incidence in our milieu, health professionals must understand this disease and include it at higher levels of the algorithms of differential diagnosis.

  6. Cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana no município de Barbalha, Ceará / Porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis in municipal district of Barbalha, Ceará

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C., Silva; A.A., Cortez; A., Aquino-Cortez; M., Valente; R., Toniolli.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Em Barbalha, Ceará, foram realizados levantamentos de casos de cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana causadas por Taenia solium, e realizou-se uma pesquisa quanto aos sistemas de criação de suínos na região. De 85 suínos abatidos em abatedouro local 4,7% apresentavam cisticercose, a [...] maioria dos cisticercos localizava-se na língua e coração. Entre 2001 e 2004, das 302 criações de suínos denunciadas à vigilância sanitária, 96,6% eram chiqueiros. A teníase, entre 1998 e 2003, correspondeu a 1,1% das verminoses diagnosticadas pela Secretária de Saúde Municipal. Entre 2001 e 2003, os casos de neurocisticercose humana corresponderam a 5% das tomografias de crânio requisitadas nos hospitais da região. Abstract in english In Barbalha, municipal district of Ceará state, an assessment of cases of porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis caused by the Taenia solium was performed in order to evaluate the situation of these diseases. It was also carried out a research about the types of swine farms re [...] gistered in the area. Considering the 85 swine slaughtered at the slaughterhouse of Barbalha, 4.7% presented cysticercosis. Most cysticerci were located in the tongue and in the heart. Between 2001 and 2004, from 302 swine farms denounced to the Sanitary Surveillance, 9.6% were pigsties. Taeniasis, between 1998 and 2003, corresponded to 1.1% of the helminthes diagnosed by the Municipal Health Office. From 2001 to 2003, the cases of human neurocysticercosis corresponded to 5% of the skull tomographies requested in the hospitals of the area.

  7. Uso de corticóide sistêmico e intravítreo na inflamação secundária a cisticercose intra-ocular: relato de caso / The use of systemic and intravitreous steroid in inflammation secondary to intraocular cysticercosis: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gleisson Rezende, Pantaleão; André Dal Sasso Borges de, Souza; Eduardo Büchele, Rodrigues; Adriana Isabel, Coelho.

    1006-10-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose é uma parasitose causada por ovos de Taenia solium, que pode acometer diversos tecidos como coração, músculo esquelético, cérebro e olhos. Neste estudo será descrito o caso de um paciente de 62 anos do sexo masculino encaminhado com queixa de baixa acuidade visual progressiva no olho [...] direito há dois meses. O exame biomicroscópico e ultra-sonográfico permitiu o diagnóstico ocular de cisticercose intravítrea. Foi realizada cirurgia de vitrectomia via pars plana para remoção do parasita e no intra-operatório ocorreu ruptura do cisto com extravasamento intravítreo. Durante o procedimento foram injetadas 400 microgramas de dexametasona intravítreo e prescrito 60 mg/dia de prednisona via oral por 14 dias. O paciente evoluiu com recuperação visual e acuidade visual final de 20/25, retina aplicada e vítreo claro. Em conclusão, farmacoterapia com corticóide intravítreo associada à terapia com corticóide sistêmico pode ser considerada como alternativa a ser associada para o controle inflamatório após cirurgia vitreorretiniana de cisticercose ocular. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is a parasitosis caused by Taenia solium eggs that could affect several tissues, such as heart, skeletal muscles, brain and eyes. This study describes the case of a 62-year-old male who complained of progressively loss of vision in his right eye for two months. Slit-lamp and ultrasound [...] exams suggested a diagnosis of intravitreous cysticercosis. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy to remove the intravitreous parasite. Intraoperatively the cyst ruptured and leaked into the vitreous cavity. Therefore, 400 µg of intravitreous dexamethasone was injected intraoperatively, and 60 mg/day of prednisone PO was prescribed for 14 days. The post-operative best corrected visual acuity was 20/25, the retina was attached and vitreous remained clear. In conclusion, drug therapy with intravitreous corticosteroids associated with systemic steroids showed to be an alternative approach to control inflammation following vitreoretinal surgery.

  8. Frequency of depression among patients with neurocysticercosis Depressão em pacientes portadores de neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common central nervous system infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of depression in patients with calcified NCC form. The study group consisted of 114 patients subdivided in four groups: NCC with epilepsy, NCC without epilepsy, epilepsy without NCC and chronic headache. METHOD: Depression was evaluated and quantified by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21. RESULTS: Percentage of patients with depression was as follows: group 1 (83%; group 2 (88%; group 3 (92%; group 4 (100%. The majority of patients had moderate depression. CONCLUSION: Incidence of depression in all groups was higher than in the general population. It is possible that, in a general way, patients with chronic diseases would have depression with similar intensity. NCC is associated with the presence of depression.Neurocysticercose (NCC é uma infecção do sistema nervoso central comum causada por metacestodes da Taenia solium. OBJETIVO: investigar a ocorrência de depressão nos pacientes com NCC forma calcificada. O grupo de estudo é formado por 114 pacientes subdivididos em quatro grupos: NCC com epilepsia, NCC sem epilepsia, epilepsia sem NCC e cefaléia crônica. MÉTODO: A presença de depressão foi determinada e quantificada pela Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (HRSD-21. RESULTADOS: A porcentagem de pacientes com depressão foi: grupo 1 (83%; grupo 2 (88%; grupo 3 (92%; grupo 4 (100%. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou depressão moderada. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência da depressão em todos os grupos foi mais elevada do que na população geral, contudo não houve diferença entre os grupos estudados. É possível que, de uma maneira geral, os pacientes portadores de doença crônica apresentarem a depressão em intensidade similar. NCC está associada com a presença de depressão.

  9. Treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis with praziquantel and albendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbar Hamid

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent methods, doses and results of medical treatment on taeniasis/cysticercosis, a zoo-notic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are discussed. In cases of cysticercosis T. solium, especially neurocysticercosis the optimal length and dose of albendazole is a course of 8 days with doses of 15 mg/kg/day divided in two times added by 50 mg/day of prednisone in the morning. The drug is effective in almost any location of the parasites for 80-90% of macroscopic cysts seen by imaging studies. For taeniasis a single dose of praziquantel, 10-15 mg/kg achieves cure rates of more than 90%. Side effects such as nausea, headache and abdominal pain are mild.  Evaluation of drug treatment is done by clinical, radiological and serological evaluation. In Papua (=Irian Jaya nine cases with suspected neurocysticercosis, serologically positive, were treated with 1200 mg single dose albendazole for 15 days. Prednisonetablets, three times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days were added. After one year 6 cases were still serologic positive. At the same time praziquantel, 1200 mg, single dose was given to ten cases during 15 days and prednisone tablets, 3 times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days. After one year 5 sero-positive cases were still found. Albendazole and praziquantel are both effective drugs for taeniasis and cysticercosis, with minor side effects. In addition symptomatic treatment should be given if necessary. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:253-7Keywords: albendazol, praziquantel, cysticercosis, taeniasis

  10. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú / Assessment of dot blot tests and latex agglutination for cysticercosis diagnostic in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Miranda-Ulloa; Roxana, Sandoval-Ahumada; Eduardo, Ayala; Juan, Vásquez-Ampuero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas [...] con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú Abstract in english In order to evaluate dot blot tests and latex agglutination for the detection of human cysticercosis with liquid antigen of Taenia solium cysticerci, 125 human sera were used, of which 60 were from people with cysticercosis confirmed by Western Blot, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 20 apparentl [...] y healthy. The optimal concentration of antigen to impregnate dot blot strips was 0.01 ug/uL, and to impregnate the latex particles was 0.092 ug/uL. For the dot blot test, a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.7% was found. For latex agglutination, a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 89.2% was found. Both tests may be useful and feasible to implement alternatives of serological diagnosis in laboratories in endemic areas of Peru

  11. Neurocisticercosis: recomendaciones de tratamiento a propósito de tres casos / Neurocysticercosis: report of three cases and recommendations of treatment

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    E., Álvarez-Rodríguez; R., Torres-Gárate; A., Gutiérrez Larráinzar; J., Cabello; D., Espinós Pérez.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis es una patología que nos estamos encontrando actualmente en la población inmigrante. La produce el parásito Taenia solium cuando se enquista en el sistema nervioso central. La clínica más frecuente es la crisis focal aunque se puede presentar como crisis generalizada; pueden ap [...] arecer también hidrocefalia, hipertensión intracraneal e incluso encefalitis. Su diagnóstico se basa en estudios de neuroimagen fundamentalmente. El tratamiento aún es controvertido y se ha de individualizar. La indicación de antiparasitarios como el albendazol y el prazicuantel ha de considerarse según la viabilidad del parásito, el número de lesiones y su localización. Si un quiste crece siempre está indicado su tratamiento. En el caso de aparecer hipertensión intracraneal, ésta debe ser tratada antes de tomar ninguna otra medida contra la enfermedad parasitaria. Los antiepilépticos son necesarios para tratar los síntomas. En ocasiones también está recomendado el uso de esteroides antes y durante la administración de antiparasitarios e incluso de forma individual. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is a pathology that we are finding nowadays over the immigrant population. It is produced by the Taenia solium parasite when it encyst into the central nervous system. The most frequent clinic is the focal crisis though it can come up as a general crisis; hydrocephalus, intracrani [...] al hypertension and even encephalitis can also happen. Its diagnosis is mainly based on imaging methods. The treatment is still controversial and must be individualized. The indication of antiparasitic drugs like albendazole and praziquantel has to be considered depending on the viability of the parasite, the number of cysts and their localization. If a cyst grows up the treatment is always recommended. In the case of an intracranial hypertension arises, this has to be treated before initiating any other action against the parasitic disease. Antiepileptic drugs are necessary to treat the symptoms. In some cases it is also recommended the use of steroids before and during the administration of antiparasitic therapy and even independently on their own.

  12. Infecciones por parásitos en trabajadores de la salud: transmisión y control

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    Heberto, Reyes R; Pedro, Navarro R; Mirna, Sánchez P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa una actualización bibliográfica sobre el riesgo que corren los trabajadores que laboran en laboratorios de investigación parasitológica, al exponerse a las infecciones producidas por diferentes parásitos, tanto protozoarios como helmintos. Se seleccionan las infecciones que ocasionan los [...] protozoarios: Leishmania, Plasmodium, Babesia, Toxoplasma, Tripanosoma, Entamoeba, Giardia y Criptosporidium . Entre los helmintos: Onchocerca, Schistosoma y Taenia (solium y saginata). Se efectúa un enfoque sobre el parásito (morfología, ciclo vital, etcétera), la enfermedad que ocasionan, su distribución, el modo natural de transmisión, manifestaciones clínicas y los diferentes procedimientos diagnósticos. Se evalúan los distintos modos de transmisión en el laboratorio (infecciones adquiridas), el control de los pacientes (empleo de la quimioprofilaxia). Se insiste en las recomendaciones para evitar que estos accidentes se presenten. Se efectúan comentarios finales sobre la necesidad de efectuar protocolos de estas infecciones. Abstract in english The main purpose of this article is to actualize laboratorians and health care workers about the potential hazard of handling specimens that contains parasites (protozoa and helminthes) and about the diseases that can induce. We provide information about protozoa that have caused health care workers [...] infections: Leishmania spp ., Plasmodium spp ., Babesia spp ., Toxoplasma gondii., Trypanosoma ., Entamoeba ., Giarda and Cryptosporidium . Health care workers-acquired helminthic infection are: Onchocerca , Schistosoma, Taenia solium and T. saginata . The review discussion focus on the parasite (morphology, life cycle, etc), the disease that developed; the parasite distribution, the natural transmission, the clinical manifestation that induce, and the laboratory methods used to document infection. The different types of transmission into the laboratory (laboratory-acquired cases), the patient control (antiparasitic drugs). To decrease the likelihood of accidental infection, recommendations are discussed. Safety precautions protocols should be provided for health care workers.

  13. TAENIASIS/SISTISERKOSIS DI ANTARA ANGGOTA KELUARGA DI BEBERAPA DESA, KABUPATEN JAYAWIJAYA, PAPUA

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    Akira Ito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasis/cysticercosis among family members in villages of Jayawijaya District, Papua. The area of Jayawijaya, including the Subdistricts of Wamena and Assologaima, is a hyperendemic area of taeniasis/cysticercosis. The disease is considered as a household disease because often if one family member is infected with the disease we can also expect other family members with the same disease. The aim of this study is to obtain data on the condition oftaeniasis/cysticercosis in families living in a complex of houses (silimo and to know the distribution of cysticercosis patients living together with taeniasis patients (adult worm carriers. A limited study was conducted using a test on the detection of antibodies against antigen Taenia solium and the ELISA-coproantigen test. The immunoblot test used purified glycoproteins (GP as a Taenia solium antigen. Antibodies anti-cysticercosis were detected in 51.7% of 89 human sera samples. The seroprevalence of families in Wamena (68.4%, 26/38 was higher in comparison with that in Assologaima (35.3%, 18/51, men (61.2%, 30/49 were more infected than women (40.0, 16/40. In addition positive ELISA-coproantigen was found in 2.4% (3/42 of the families in Assologaima, whereas in 5 families in Wamena as well as in Assologaima family members were found seropositive without an individu with coproantigen positive in their families living in their respectively silimo’s. In hyperendemic areas of taeniasis/cysticercosis one can be infected by hisfamily living in the same complex of houses as well as by other families. All adult worm carriers are contaminating the whole environment.

  14. Cestodiasis tisulares: participación de los linfocitos T cooperadores 1 y 2 / Tisular cestodiasis: The role of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2

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    Héctor Samuel, López-Moreno.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis y la hidatidosis son las parasitosis causadas por los metacéstodos de Taenia solium y de Echinococcus multilocularis (o E. granulosus), respectivamente. El estudio de las enfermedades parasitarias ofrece uno de los mejores modelos in vivo para el estudio de la división efectora de l [...] as subpoblaciones de linfocitos T cooperadores CD4+, designadas Th1 y Th2 de acuerdo con el patrón de citocinas que producen. La polarización hacia alguno de estos fenotipos puede marcar la diferencia entre una respuesta inmune celular protectora o una respuesta inmune permisiva para la infección. La participación de los linfocitos Th1 y Th2 en las cestodiasis tisulares (cisticercosis e hidatidosis) ha sido estudiada en modelos experimentales de ratón y en pacientes humanos; en ambos casos los resultados sugieren que en los individuos con cisticercosis o hidatidosis la respuesta inmune celular está polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th2. En tanto que en los individuos donde los parásitos son destruidos, o su desarrollo está limitado, la respuesta inmune celular se encuentra polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th1. Abstract in english Cysticercosis and hydatidosis are parasitic diseases caused by larvae of Taenia solium and Echinococcus sp., respectively. Parasitic diseases are useful models for in vivo studies of effector functions of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2, (called Th1 and Th2 on the basis of the pattern of cytokines the [...] y produce). The polarization to Th1 or Th2 is related to protective or permissive immune responses in these diseases. The role of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in tissue cestodiasis (cysticercosis and hydatidosis) has been studied in experimentally infected mice and in human patients; study results suggest that in individuals with cysticercosis or hydatidosis, the cellular immune response is polarized to Th2, while individuals in whom parasites are killed or their growth is limited, have an immune cellular response that is polarized towards Th1.

  15. Prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina en la ampliación del Parque Porcino de Ventanilla "Pampas de los Perros", Callao

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    Rocío, Turín S.; Teresa, López U.; Armando, González Z..

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis porcina es una enfermedad parasitaria de carácter zoonótico y endémica en el país, y cuyo agente etiológico es el Cysticercus cellulosae, fase larvaria de la Taenia solium. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la seroprevalencia de la cisticercosis porcina en el área de a [...] mpliación del Parque Porcino "Pampas de los Perros" en el distrito de Ventanilla, Provincia Constitucional del Callao. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre a 299 cerdos en los sectores A, B, C, D y E que conforman la ampliación del Parque Porcino y se analizaron mediante la prueba de Western Blot. Se determinó una prevalencia corregida de 19 ± 4% y una prevalencia real del 7% a través de una prueba de simulación estocástica beta-binomial. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa (p Abstract in english Porcine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysticercosis is endemic in Peru with a high prevalence in the mountains, jungle and the northern coast; however, there is scarce information about its presence in [...] Lima. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis in the expansion area of the Porcine Park "Pampas de los Perros" in Ventanilla district, Callao. A total of 299 serum samples collected from pigs in sectors A, B, C, D and E of the expansion area of the Porcine Park were tested by the Western Blot test. The corrected seroprevalence was 19 ± 4%, and the real prevalence obtained through a stochastic simulation beta binomial test was 7%. There was a significant statistical difference (p

  16. Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú / Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru

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    Herbert, Saavedra; Isidro, Gonzales; Manuel A., Alvarado; Miguel A., Porras; Victor, Vargas; Román A., Cjuno; Hector H., Garcia; S. Manuel, Martinez.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convu [...] lsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y se confirma con serología. La tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas imagenológicas usadas. Como prueba confirmatoria se usa el diagnóstico inmunológico a través de western blot, que actualmente se pude realizar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas tanto en suero como en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento involucra medidas sintomáticas (control de convulsiones o hipertensión endocraneana según sea el caso) y tratamiento antiparasitario (albendazol o praziquantel). El tratamiento antiparasitario debe hacerse bajo condiciones de hospitalización y en hospitales de tercer nivel. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated [...] with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. Inmunodiagnosis by Western Blot, which is currently perform in the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas in serum and cerebrospinal fluid serves as confirmatory test. Treatment involves symptomatic measures (control of seizures or intracranial hypertension) and anticysticercal medications (albendazole and praziquantel). Anticysticercal treatment should be used under hospital conditions because of secondary effects.

  17. Neurocisticercosis con lesiones cerebrales únicas: Presentación de dos casos documentados por Resonancia Magnética y revisión de la literatura / Neurocysticercosis with single brain lesions: Report of two cases documented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and literature review

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    Marcelo, Corti; María F, Villafañe; Claudio, Yampolsky; Omar, Palmieri.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es una infección del sistema nervioso central (SNC) originada por el estadio larvario de Taenia solium. Esta importante parasitosis es la causa más frecuente de epilepsia adquirida del adulto. Las manifestaciones clínicas más comunes de las formas parenquimatosas son la c [...] efalea y las convulsiones, mientras que las formas extraparenquimatosas suelen presentarse con hidrocefalia. En este aspecto, es importante destacar que las manifestaciones clínicas de la enfermedad son el resultado de la muerte de la larva del cestodo y de la reacción inflamatoria perilesional que se produce en el SNC. El diagnóstico de NCC se basa en la epidemiología, las manifestaciones clínicas, los hallazgos de las neuroimágenes y la serología, y su tratamiento incluye el uso de fármacos antiepilépticos, corticoesteroides y drogas antiparasitarias, como el albendazol o el praziquantel. En este trabajo se describen dos casos de neurocisticercosis parenquimatosa con lesiones únicas que se manifestaron con cefalea y convulsiones. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is a central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. This major parasitic infection is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy. The most common clinical manifestations of the parenchymal form of this disease are headache and seizures, wher [...] eas extraparenchymal forms typically present with hydrocephalus. In this context, it is important to emphasize that the clinical manifestations of this disease are the result of the death of the tapeworm larvae and of the perilesional inflammatory reaction that occurs in the CNS. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is based on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings and serology. Treatment of neurocysticercosis includes the use of antiepileptic drugs, corticosteroids and antiparasitic therapy with albendazole or praziquantel. We report two cases of parenchymal neurocysticercosis with single lesions presenting with headache and seizures.

  18. Frequency of depression among patients with neurocysticercosis / Depressão em pacientes portadores de neurocisticercose

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    Sergio Monteiro de, Almeida; Solange Aparecida, Gurjão.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercose (NCC) é uma infecção do sistema nervoso central comum causada por metacestodes da Taenia solium. OBJETIVO: investigar a ocorrência de depressão nos pacientes com NCC forma calcificada. O grupo de estudo é formado por 114 pacientes subdivididos em quatro grupos: NCC com epilepsia, N [...] CC sem epilepsia, epilepsia sem NCC e cefaléia crônica. MÉTODO: A presença de depressão foi determinada e quantificada pela Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (HRSD-21). RESULTADOS: A porcentagem de pacientes com depressão foi: grupo 1 (83%); grupo 2 (88%); grupo 3 (92%); grupo 4 (100%). A maioria dos pacientes apresentou depressão moderada. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência da depressão em todos os grupos foi mais elevada do que na população geral, contudo não houve diferença entre os grupos estudados. É possível que, de uma maneira geral, os pacientes portadores de doença crônica apresentarem a depressão em intensidade similar. NCC está associada com a presença de depressão. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of depression in patients with calcified NCC form. The study group consisted of 114 patients subdivided in four groups: NCC with epilepsy, NCC without [...] epilepsy, epilepsy without NCC and chronic headache. METHOD: Depression was evaluated and quantified by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21). RESULTS: Percentage of patients with depression was as follows: group 1 (83%); group 2 (88%); group 3 (92%); group 4 (100%). The majority of patients had moderate depression. CONCLUSION: Incidence of depression in all groups was higher than in the general population. It is possible that, in a general way, patients with chronic diseases would have depression with similar intensity. NCC is associated with the presence of depression.

  19. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for clinical diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in symptomatic patients Avaliação de um teste imunoenzimático para o diagnóstico clínico de neurocisticercose em pacientes sintomáticos

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    Reynaldo Mendes de Carvalho Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the human central nervous system caused by the metacestode larvae of Taenia solium. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease in developing countries. Epilepsy is the most common clinical manifestation. Difficulties in confirming the diagnosis motivated the evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with NCC and 44 control patients were studied. CSF was analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit developed for NCC. Sensitivity and specificity were measured and a multivariate logistic regression was performed. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 31.8% and 100%, respectively, with accuracy of 77.3%. Only the size of the lesions proved to be important for performance of the test. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that ELISA contributes to the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis if the result is negative or if the patient has a lesion of 2 cm or more.INTRODUÇÃO: Neurocisticercose é a infecção do sistema nervoso central causada pela larva metacestódea da Taenia solium. Neurocisticercose é a parasitose mais comum nos países em desenvolvimento. Epilepsia é a sua manifestação clínica mais comum. A dificuldade para confirmar o diagnóstico motivou a avaliação do ensaio imunoenzimático ligado à enzima no líquido cérebro-espinhal. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois pacientes com NCC e 44 pacientes controles foram estudados. Líquido cérebro-espinhal foi analisado por um kit ELISA comercial desenvolvido para NCC. A sensibilidade e especificidade foram medidas e uma análise multivariada de regressão logística foi realizada. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e a especificidade de ELISA foram, respectivamente, 31,8% e 100%, com acurácia de 77,3%. Apenas o tamanho das lesões mostrou-se importante para o desempenho do teste. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo concluiu que ELISA contribui para o diagnóstico de NCC, caso o teste seja negativo ou caso o paciente seja portador de lesão cuja dimensão seja igual ou maior que dois centímetros.

  20. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for clinical diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in symptomatic patients / Avaliação de um teste imunoenzimático para o diagnóstico clínico de neurocisticercose em pacientes sintomáticos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reynaldo Mendes de, Carvalho Junior; Dorcas Lamounier, Costa; Savyo Carvalho, Soares; Carlos Henrique Nery, Costa.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Neurocisticercose é a infecção do sistema nervoso central causada pela larva metacestódea da Taenia solium. Neurocisticercose é a parasitose mais comum nos países em desenvolvimento. Epilepsia é a sua manifestação clínica mais comum. A dificuldade para confirmar o diagnóstico motivou a a [...] valiação do ensaio imunoenzimático ligado à enzima no líquido cérebro-espinhal. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois pacientes com NCC e 44 pacientes controles foram estudados. Líquido cérebro-espinhal foi analisado por um kit ELISA comercial desenvolvido para NCC. A sensibilidade e especificidade foram medidas e uma análise multivariada de regressão logística foi realizada. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e a especificidade de ELISA foram, respectivamente, 31,8% e 100%, com acurácia de 77,3%. Apenas o tamanho das lesões mostrou-se importante para o desempenho do teste. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo concluiu que ELISA contribui para o diagnóstico de NCC, caso o teste seja negativo ou caso o paciente seja portador de lesão cuja dimensão seja igual ou maior que dois centímetros. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the human central nervous system caused by the metacestode larvae of Taenia solium. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease in developing countries. Epilepsy is the most common clinical manifestation. Difficulties in confirming the [...] diagnosis motivated the evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: Twenty-two patients with NCC and 44 control patients were studied. CSF was analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit developed for NCC. Sensitivity and specificity were measured and a multivariate logistic regression was performed. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 31.8% and 100%, respectively, with accuracy of 77.3%. Only the size of the lesions proved to be important for performance of the test. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that ELISA contributes to the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis if the result is negative or if the patient has a lesion of 2 cm or more.

  1. Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú / Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herbert, Saavedra; Isidro, Gonzales; Manuel A., Alvarado; Miguel A., Porras; Victor, Vargas; Román A., Cjuno; Hector H., Garcia; S. Manuel, Martinez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convu [...] lsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y se confirma con serología. La tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas imagenológicas usadas. Como prueba confirmatoria se usa el diagnóstico inmunológico a través de western blot, que actualmente se pude realizar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas tanto en suero como en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento involucra medidas sintomáticas (control de convulsiones o hipertensión endocraneana según sea el caso) y tratamiento antiparasitario (albendazol o praziquantel). El tratamiento antiparasitario debe hacerse bajo condiciones de hospitalización y en hospitales de tercer nivel. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated [...] with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. Inmunodiagnosis by Western Blot, which is currently perform in the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas in serum and cerebrospinal fluid serves as confirmatory test. Treatment involves symptomatic measures (control of seizures or intracranial hypertension) and anticysticercal medications (albendazole and praziquantel). Anticysticercal treatment should be used under hospital conditions because of secondary effects.

  2. Cestodiasis tisulares: participación de los linfocitos T cooperadores 1 y 2 Tisular cestodiasis: The role of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Samuel López-Moreno

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis y la hidatidosis son las parasitosis causadas por los metacéstodos de Taenia solium y de Echinococcus multilocularis (o E. granulosus, respectivamente. El estudio de las enfermedades parasitarias ofrece uno de los mejores modelos in vivo para el estudio de la división efectora de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T cooperadores CD4+, designadas Th1 y Th2 de acuerdo con el patrón de citocinas que producen. La polarización hacia alguno de estos fenotipos puede marcar la diferencia entre una respuesta inmune celular protectora o una respuesta inmune permisiva para la infección. La participación de los linfocitos Th1 y Th2 en las cestodiasis tisulares (cisticercosis e hidatidosis ha sido estudiada en modelos experimentales de ratón y en pacientes humanos; en ambos casos los resultados sugieren que en los individuos con cisticercosis o hidatidosis la respuesta inmune celular está polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th2. En tanto que en los individuos donde los parásitos son destruidos, o su desarrollo está limitado, la respuesta inmune celular se encuentra polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th1.Cysticercosis and hydatidosis are parasitic diseases caused by larvae of Taenia solium and Echinococcus sp., respectively. Parasitic diseases are useful models for in vivo studies of effector functions of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2, (called Th1 and Th2 on the basis of the pattern of cytokines they produce. The polarization to Th1 or Th2 is related to protective or permissive immune responses in these diseases. The role of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in tissue cestodiasis (cysticercosis and hydatidosis has been studied in experimentally infected mice and in human patients; study results suggest that in individuals with cysticercosis or hydatidosis, the cellular immune response is polarized to Th2, while individuals in whom parasites are killed or their growth is limited, have an immune cellular response that is polarized towards Th1.

  3. Reversible dementia due to Neurocysticercosis: improvement of the racemose type with antihistamines / Demência reversível por Neurocisticercose: melhora da forma racemosa com o uso de anti-histamínicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislaine Cristina Lopes, Machado-Porto; Leandro Tavares, Lucato; Fábio Henrique de Gobbi, Porto; Evandro Cesar de, Souza; Ricardo, Nitrini.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A infecção do sistema nervoso central (SNC) pela larva da Taenia solium, intitulada neurocisticercose (NCC) é endêmica na maior parte dos países "em desenvolvimento", onde é a principal causa de convulsão adquirida, além de outras morbidades neurológicas, entre elas, sintomas neuropsiquiátricos. No [...] entanto, apesar de manifestações neuropsiquiátricas serem frequentes, alguns achados, tais como comprometimento cognitivo e demência, continuam a ser mal compreendidos. Menos frequentemente, NCC pode afetar o sistema ventricular e espaços subaracnóideos e esta forma é conhecida como NCC extraparenquimatosa. Uma apresentação particular subaracnóidea, chamada cisticercose racemosa, é encontrada mais raramente, evolui de forma progressiva, associada a hidrocefalia e pode levar a morte. Neste artigo revisamos um caso da variedade racemosa de NCC, complicada com hidrocefalia e demência reversível que evoluiu com remissão dos sintomas após derivação ventricular e permaneceu estável com uso de dexclorfeniramina. Discutimos os desafios no diagnóstico, achados de imagem, tratamento e acompanhamento desta forma de doença. Abstract in english Infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) by the larvae of Taenia solium, termed neurocysticercosis (NCC), is endemic in most developing countries, where it is a major cause of acquired seizures and other neurological morbidity, including neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, despite its fre [...] quent manifestation, some findings, such as cognitive impairment and dementia, remain poorly understood. Less commonly, NCC may affect the ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces and this form is known as extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. A particular presentation of the subarachnoid form is called racemose cysticercosis, which has a progressive pattern, frequently leads to hydrocephalus and can be life-threatening. Here we review a case of the racemose variety of cysticercosis, complicated by hydrocephalus and reversible dementia, with remission of symptoms after derivation and that remained stable with use of dexchlorpheniramine. We discuss the challenges in diagnosis, imaging findings, treatment and follow-up of this disease.

  4. Infecciones por parásitos en trabajadores de la salud: transmisión y control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberto Reyes R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa una actualización bibliográfica sobre el riesgo que corren los trabajadores que laboran en laboratorios de investigación parasitológica, al exponerse a las infecciones producidas por diferentes parásitos, tanto protozoarios como helmintos. Se seleccionan las infecciones que ocasionan los protozoarios: Leishmania, Plasmodium, Babesia, Toxoplasma, Tripanosoma, Entamoeba, Giardia y Criptosporidium . Entre los helmintos: Onchocerca, Schistosoma y Taenia (solium y saginata. Se efectúa un enfoque sobre el parásito (morfología, ciclo vital, etcétera, la enfermedad que ocasionan, su distribución, el modo natural de transmisión, manifestaciones clínicas y los diferentes procedimientos diagnósticos. Se evalúan los distintos modos de transmisión en el laboratorio (infecciones adquiridas, el control de los pacientes (empleo de la quimioprofilaxia. Se insiste en las recomendaciones para evitar que estos accidentes se presenten. Se efectúan comentarios finales sobre la necesidad de efectuar protocolos de estas infecciones.The main purpose of this article is to actualize laboratorians and health care workers about the potential hazard of handling specimens that contains parasites (protozoa and helminthes and about the diseases that can induce. We provide information about protozoa that have caused health care workers infections: Leishmania spp ., Plasmodium spp ., Babesia spp ., Toxoplasma gondii., Trypanosoma ., Entamoeba ., Giarda and Cryptosporidium . Health care workers-acquired helminthic infection are: Onchocerca , Schistosoma, Taenia solium and T. saginata . The review discussion focus on the parasite (morphology, life cycle, etc, the disease that developed; the parasite distribution, the natural transmission, the clinical manifestation that induce, and the laboratory methods used to document infection. The different types of transmission into the laboratory (laboratory-acquired cases, the patient control (antiparasitic drugs. To decrease the likelihood of accidental infection, recommendations are discussed. Safety precautions protocols should be provided for health care workers.

  5. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Bareilly, Northern India

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    B. C. Saravanan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs slaughtered at makeshift houses in Bareilly, Northern India. Materials and Methods: Local makeshift slaughter houses were visited weekly in Bareilly to explore the prevalence of the porcine cysticercosis in this area. 175 pigs were screened for cysticercosis and prevalence was correlated to age, sex and breed of pigs. Results: A total of 175 pigs were examined for cysticercosis out of which 9 (5.14% were found positive for porcine cysticercosis. Sex-wise prevalence of this infection in male and female was recorded as 4.82% (4/83 and 5.43% (5/92, respectively. The infection was higher (5.34% in the young age group of 1-12 months as compared to the older stocks of 13-24 months of age group (4.54%. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was relatively higher in cross bred pigs (5.88%, 6/102 than in the non-descript local breed of pigs (4.11%, 3/73. Conclusion: The present study reveals that T. solium cysticerci infection is prevalent in swine population of Bareilly. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance, strict hygienic measures need to be undertaken for prevention of human infection.

  6. Hidrocefalia en un niño como manifestación de neurocisticercosis: Reporte de un caso y revisión de tema / Hydrocephalus in children as a manifestation of neurocysticercosis: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SARA, HERNÁNDEZ QUICENO; MAURICIO, FERNÁNDEZ LAVERDE.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis es una enfermedad producida por un parásito endémico en muchas regiones de Centro y Suramérica, el cual puede invadir el sistema nervioso central y manifestarse como una epilepsia y con menor frecuencia como hidrocefalia. La infección de Tenia solium en su estado larvario se adquier [...] e por la ingesta de sus huevos, los cuales están presentes en la materia fecal de humanos portadores del parásito adulto. Una vez en la luz intestinal, las oncoesferas invaden la pared del intestino delgado y migran, vía hematógena, a diferentes órganos, entre ellos el cerebro. Presentamos un caso que se manifiesta con hidrocefalia y hacemos una revisión del tema. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is a disease caused by an endemic parasite in many regions of Central and South America. It can invade the central nervous system and manifests as an epileptic syndrome and hydrocephalus. Taenia solium infection in their larval stage is acquired by ingestion of the parasite eggs p [...] resent in the feces of human adult carriers, once in the intestinal lumen the oncospheres invade the bowel wall and migrate hematogenously to different organs including the brain. We present a case that shows hydrocephalus and then review the issue.

  7. Gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats (Felis catus) from Aizawl, Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, S K; Mukharjee, S N

    2011-03-01

    Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 27 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus) in Aizawl, Mizoram, India from January 2005 to April, 2009. The examined cats showed mixed helminthic infections, with an overall prevalence of 85.2%. Five nematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 trematode were identified. The most common helminthes were Taenia taeniaeformis (70.4%), Toxocara cati (59.3%), Physaloptera praeputalis (44.4%), Dipylidium caninum (40.7%), Spirocerca felineus (18.5%), Gnathostoma spinigerum (11.1%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (7.4%) and Opisthorchis sp (3.7%). Co-infection with T. taeniaeformis and T. cati was seen in 48.1% (13/27), indicating the possibility of these cats were paratenic hosts for toxocariasis in cats. PMID:21710844

  8. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminthic Infestation in Pet and Stray Dogs in Tabriz (East-Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safar Mashaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2010 fecal samples of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz area were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes infestation. Helminthic infestation was encountered in 41 cases (41% of the fecal samples examined. The egg and larvae of 3 different cestodes and 4 different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminthes eggs found were identified as Echinococcus granulosus (8%, only in stray dogs, Taenia hydatigena (5%, Dipylidium caninum (7%, Toxocara canis (12%, Ancylostoma caninum (8%, Trichuris vulpis (6%, one larvae belong to Angiostrongylus vasorum (respiratory nematod and also one case of Alaria canis (Trematoda were absorved in this study.

  9. Aspectos epidemiológicos dateníase-cisticercose na área endêmica de Lagamar, MG

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    Mario León Silva-Vergara

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Um inquérito epidemiológico sobre teníase-cisticercose foi realizado em Lagamar- MG em 1992. Cadastradas 1109 casas com 3344 habitantes. O inquérito abrangeu 875 (86% famílias e foi respondido por um informante que, em 80% dos casos, foi o pai. Na cidade havia 100 chiqueiros em 100 (11,4% casas que albergavam 406 suínos, em condições extremamente precárias. Em 300 (34,2% casas havia o antecedente de teníase em algum membro da família. O antecedente de convulsão foi relatado por 125 (14,2% famílias. O início das convulsões na idade adulta foi caracterizado em 39 (3 7,8% famílias e o antecedente de doenças mentais foi relatado em 53 (6% casas. Os exames parasitológicos de fezes mostraram ovos de Taenia spp em 24 (1,3% das 1850 amostras examinadas.An epidemiological inquiry of human- cysticercosis due to Taenia solium was carried out in Lagamar, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1992. A survey of 1109 houses with 3344. inhabitants was made. The inquiry included 875 (86% families and the questionaire was answered by an informer, who was the father in 80% of the cases. One hmidred pigsties, sheltering 406 swines in extremely precarious conditions, were found in 100 (11.4% houses. A history on taeniasis in some member of the family was verified in 300 (34.2% houses. A histoiy of seizures was referred to by 125 (14.2% of families. The outset of convulsion in adult age was characterized in 39 (37.8% families. A history of mental disorder was reported in 53 (6.0% of houses. Stool examinations were positive for Taenia spp in 24 (1.3% of samples examined.

  10. Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-01-01

    Known as a disease of swine in ancient civilizations, cysticercosis is currently considered the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a Taenia carrier by the fecal-oral route. Once in the human intestine, Taenia eggs evolve to oncospheres that, in turn, cross the intestinal wall and lodge in human tissues - especially the nervous system - where cysticerci develop. The brain is a hostile environment in which parasites attempt to escape the immune surveillance while the host is trying to drive out the infection. In some cases, cysticerci are destroyed by this immunological attack, while in others, parasites may live unchanged for years. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing a myriad of pathologic changes that are the main changes responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of the disease, but some patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. With the exception of cystic lesions showing the scolex as an eccentric nodule, neuroimaging findings of neurocysticercosis are nonspecific and may be seen in other diseases of the nervous system. Likewise, immune diagnostic tests have been faced with problems related to poor sensitivity or specificity. Accurate diagnosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunologic tests, in a proper epidemiologic scenario. The introduction of cysticidal drugs has changed the prognosis of neurocysticercosis. Praziquantel and albendazole have been shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain (as seen on neuroimaging studies) and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed towards eradicating this disease through the implementation of control programs for all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:24365429

  11. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  12. Helminthes of synanthropic rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) from Dakahlia and Menoufia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha I; Azab, Manar S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Abdel-Gawad, Abdel Gawad E; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from Dakahlia and Menoufia governorates. The domestic rodents (271) were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus frugivorous, Rattus r. alexandrinus, & Mus musculus. The overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. In Dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then R. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), R. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the lowest was M. musculus 20 (40%). In Menoufia, 71/126 rats (56.3%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 36 (77.7%), then M. musculus 27 (48.1%), R. norvegicus 23 (47.8%), and the lowest was in R. r. alexandrinus 40 (47.5%). A total of 24 species of helminthes (11 trematodes, 4 cestodes & 10 nematodes) were identified among the 271 rodents. The commonest trematode was Mesostephanus aegypticus followed by Stictodora tridactyla. The commonest cestode was Hymenolepis diminuta followed by Taenia taeniaformis. The commonest nematode was Capillaria hepatica followed by Trichurus muris. Given the zoonotic potential of rodents' parasites and since several residential, commercial, and agricultural sites exist in the examined geographic areas, the potential health risk should not be ignored. PMID:19209758

  13. Intestinal helminth parasites of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?irovi?, Duško; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Penezi?, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) is the most widespread large carnivore in Europe with large populations in the Eastern part of Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, a total of 102 wolves were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. The carcasses were collected within the Serbian part of the wolf's range during the period 2009-2014. Nine helminth species were found: one nematode, Toxocara canis (3.9%), one trematode, Alaria alata (1.0%), and seven cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (1.0%), T. hydatigena (9.8%), T. polyacantha (2.9%), T. taeniaeformis (2.0%), T. (syn. Multiceps) multiceps (3.9%), T. serialis (1.0%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (1.0%). Taenia (syn. Hydatigera) taeniaeformis has been registered for the first time in a wolf from Europe. An overall moderate prevalence (16.7%) of infected wolves was recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sexes. Of the years studied, the highest prevalence was found in 2014 (57.1%). The maximum number of helminth species per host specimen was four. PMID:26051257

  14. High prevalence of Haplorchis taichui, Phaneropsolus molenkampi, and other helminth infections among people in Khammouane province, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Han, Eun-Taek; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Um, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Sung; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phommasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal helminth infections, including Opisthorchis, Haplorchis, Phaneropsolus, hookworms, Enterobius, and Taenia, was surveyed in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,242 people (590 men and 652 women) in 3 Mekong riverside villages and were examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 81.1%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 81.1% and the positive rate for hookworms was 6.7%. To obtain adult worms, 35 people who were positive for small trematode eggs were treated with 20-30 mg/kg praziquantel and 10-15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Diarrheic stools were collected from 33 of these people and searched for helminth parasites using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various helminths (Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, echinostomes, hookworms, Trichostrongylus spp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and/or Taenia saginata) were found. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 20,907 (approximately 634 per person). The most common species was H. taichui, followed by P. molenkampi, O. viverrini, P. bonnei, E. vermicularis, hookworms, and Trichostrongylus spp. These results show that diverse species of intestinal nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes are infecting humans in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. PMID:19724697

  15. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirovi?, D; Pavlovi?, I; Penezi?, A; Kuliši?, Z; Selakovi?, S

    2013-08-13

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  16. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  17. Experimental studies on the cadmium accumulation in the cestode Moniezia expansa (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and its final host (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; Száková, J; Miholová, D; Kunc, P; Knízková, I; Cadková, Z; Langrová, I

    2010-10-01

    The tapeworm Moniezia expansa and naturally infected sheep were investigated with respect to their cadmium accumulation. Cadmium chloride (CdCl(2), 0.2 g) was added to 10 ml of distilled water and administered orally to the sheep every day for a period of 1 week. The cadmium content of M. expansa was lower than that in the liver tissues of sheep, although this difference was not significant. The highest mean cadmium concentrations were found in the liver of sheep infected with M. expansa (24.5+/-11.5 mgkg(-1) dry weight). The mean cadmium concentration measured in M. expansa was 21.5+/-19.2 mgkg(-1) dry weight, which was 31 and 1.5 times higher than levels determined in the muscle and kidney of the host, respectively, but 0.9 times lower than levels determined in the liver of host. Sheeps with M. expansa infection always had higher cadmium concentrations in the tissues (with the exception of the blood) than their uninfected conspecifics. PMID:20435007

  18. Sandonella sandoni (Lynsdale, 1960), an enigmatic and morphologically unique cestode parasitic in the osteoglossiform fish Heterotis niloticus in Africa.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Mariaux, J.; Sène, A.; Mahmoud, Z. N.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 94, ?. 1 (2008), s. 202-211. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/04/0342; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tapeworms * systematics * morphology * phylogeny * geographical distribution Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2008

  19. Neurocysticercosis: A possible cause of epileptiform seizures in people residing in villages served by the Bethanie clinic in the North West Province of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C M, Veary; S N, Manoto.

    Full Text Available A study to detect human taeniasis and cysticercosis was conducted in 4 village communities served by the Bethanie clinic in the North West Province, based on reports of people being diagnosed there with epileptiform episodes. Many home owners in the villages rear pigs in small numbers for both meat [...] availability and an immediate income from live pig or pig meat sales. The primary aim of the work was to conduct in the study area a census of all small scale pig producers and a survey of rural village consumers, both by means of a structured questionnaire. The former reviewed pig husbandry practices, slaughter and marketing of pigs and the latter provided information on pork consumption, sanitation as well as people's basic knowledge of Taenia solium. Stool samples from consenting participants were screened by a contracted approved laboratory for T. solium. A descriptive analysis of retrospective data was conducted at the Bethanie clinic to determine the proportional morbidity of neurocysticercosis from the medical records of patients diagnosed with seizures in an attempt to establish possible sources of infection and routes of transmission. In addition, the total pig population in the study area was determined more accurately and the prevalence of cysticercosis investigated in pigs subjected to meat inspection at an approved abattoir. The questionnaires revealed a poor understanding of the disease, poor sanitation and hygiene, poor methods of pig husbandry and poor meat inspection and control in rural smallholder communities. There was no significant statistical difference in the proportion of households reporting evidence of epilepsy and owning pigs and those that did not. There is a strong evidence of a tendency towards an association between epilepsy, consumption habits and some identified epidemiological risk factors.

  20. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KEJADIAN SISTISERKOSIS PADA PENDUDUK KECAMATAN WAMENA, KABUPATEN JAYAWIJAYA, PROPINSI PAPUA TAHUN 2002

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    Wilfried H. Purba

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larva of Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm, whereas taeniasis solium is caused by the adult worm, which lives in the small human intestines. The prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia varies from 1.0% to 42.7% and until now is found predominantly in three provinces i.e. Bali, North Sumatera and Papua. The highest prevalence was found in Papua during the year 1997 (42,7%. This case-control study was designed for finding factors in connection with the existing cysticercosis in Sub-district Wamena, District Jawawijaya. The number of cases consisted of all patients suffering from cysticercosis aged morethan 8 years, found by questionaires during a survey for Taeniasis, Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis, conducted by the team from January till February 2002 and the control group consisted of individuals without cysticercosis during the survey. The diagnosis of cysticercosis was determined with ELISA by antibody detection of the parasites in the serum of both groups. Among the total number of variables several factors were found significantly associated with the existence of cysticercosis after calculation as a whole i.e. washing hands (OR 4.9 95%CI:2.55-9.61, profession (OR 2.11 95%CI:1.14-3.91, frequency of bathing (OR 2.59 95%CI:1.31-5.13, source of clean water (OR 2.41 95%CI:1.31-4.44 and sanitation (OR 6.25 95%CI:3.14-12.44. Community health education is recommended on topics such as the habit of washing hands, bathing with clean water and using standard toilets. It is suggested that the local government provides clean water facilities and general sanitation facilities.

  1. Neurocysticercosis : a possible cause of epileptiform seizures in people residing in villages served by the Bethanie clinic in the North West Province of South Africa

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    C.M. Veary

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study to detect human taeniasis and cysticercosis was conducted in 4 village communities served by the Bethanie clinic in the North West Province, based on reports of people being diagnosed there with epileptiform episodes. Many home owners in the villages rear pigs in small numbers for both meat availability and an immediate income from live pig or pig meat sales. The primary aim of the work was to conduct in the study area a census of all small scale pig producers and a survey of rural village consumers, both by means of a structured questionnaire. The former reviewed pig husbandry practices, slaughter and marketing of pigs and the latter provided information on pork consumption, sanitation as well as people's basic knowledge of Taenia solium. Stool samples from consenting participants were screened by a contracted approved laboratory for T. solium. A descriptive analysis of retrospective data was conducted at the Bethanie clinic to determine the proportional morbidity of neurocysticercosis from the medical records of patients diagnosed with seizures in an attempt to establish possible sources of infection and routes of transmission. In addition, the total pig population in the study area was determined more accurately and the prevalence of cysticercosis investigated in pigs subjected to meat inspection at an approved abattoir. The questionnaires revealed a poor understanding of the disease, poor sanitation and hygiene, poor methods of pig husbandry and poor meat inspection and control in rural smallholder communities. There was no significant statistical difference in the proportion of households reporting evidence of epilepsy and owning pigs and those that did not. There is a strong evidence of a tendency towards an association between epilepsy, consumption habits and some identified epidemiological risk factors.

  2. Cisticercosis en Boyacá, Colombia: estudio de seroprevalencia / Cisticercosis in Boyacá, Colombia: seroprevalence study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La cisticercosis humana es una infección producida por la forma larval de la Taenia solium, que presenta múltiples manifestaciones clínicas de acuerdo a los órganos y tejidos que afecte, la neurocisticercosis (NC) es la forma más grave. En Colombia se desconoce la prevalencia de la cis [...] ticercosis en la población general. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de la cisticercosis en el departamento de Boyacá en población general, a través de pruebas serológicas. Materiales y Métodos. La metodología utilizada, teniendo en cuenta que se trata de una encuesta departamental con proyección nacional, se basó en tres fases, una primera correspondiente a su diseño estadístico y planteamiento metodológico, una segunda etapa dada por la ejecución en campo para obtener información a través de instrumentos de recolección de datos, toma de muestras de sangre y procesamiento de las mismas en el Laboratorio de Parasitología del Instituto Nacional de Salud mediante la técnica de Elisa y una última fase de consolidación, análisis y divulgación de los resultados. El diseño muestral fue probabilístico, trietápico, de conglomerados y estratificado. Resultados. La prevalencia general de anticuerpos anti-cisticerco en el departamento de Boyacá fue de 4,02%. Entre hábitos de aseo no realizar el lavado de manos después de ir al sanitario configura un riesgo muy importante (RP=4,63 I.C 95% 4,50 - 4,76 p Abstract in english Introduction. Human cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium, which has many clinical manifestations according to the organs and tissues affected, being the neurocysticercosis (NC) the most severe form. In Colombia, the prevalence of cysticercosis is unknown in the ge [...] neral population and habits exist in our population. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of the cysticercosis in Boyaca Department in general population through serological tests . Materials and Methods. The methodology used, taking into account that this is a survey at the departmental level with national projection was based on three phases, an initial design for statistical and methodological approach, a second stage performance given by its field to obtain information through data collection instruments, blood sampling and processing them in the Laboratory of Parasitology, National Institute of Health by ELISA and a final phase of consolidation, analysis and dissemination of results. The sample design was probabilistic, three-stage, stratified cluster. Results. The overall prevalence of anti-cysticercus antibodies in the department of Boyacá was 4.02%. Hygiene habits were a group of factors which are found not to hand washing after using the bathroom set up a very significant risk (RP = 4.63 CI 4.50 to 4.76) p

  3. Teniasis/Cisticercosis: Avances en diagnóstico inmunológico y molecular / Taeniasis/cysticercosis: Advances in immunological and molecular diagnosis

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    Elizabeth, Ferrer.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La teniasis es la infección parasitaria producida por el adulto de Taenia solium y T. saginata, mientras que la cisticercosis es causada por el estadío larvario (cisticerco) de estos ténidos en hospedadores intermediarios; el hombre puede de forma accidental adquirir la cisticercosis. El binomio ten [...] iasis/cisticercosis causa graves problemas de salud pública y económicos en las zonas endémicas de África, Asia, y Latinoamérica, además de otras áreas como consecuencia de los viajes y las migraciónes. La neurocisticercosis es la enfermedad parasitaria más importante del sistema nervioso nentral. El diagnóstico de la teniasis se logra generalmente mediante examenes coprológicos, mientras que el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis se lleva a cabo por métodos parasitológicos, por técnicas de imágenes y una amplia variedad de ensayos inmunológicos. Los métodos de diagnóstico inmunológico convencional presentan graves limitaciones, baja sensibilidad y especificidad, no estandarizados convenientemente y basados en la utilización como antígeno del siempre escaso material parasitario. Actualmente se están utilizando nuevas herramientas y técnicas que permiten un mejor diagnóstico de estas enfermedades, por ejemplo, anticuerpos monoclonales, antígenos recombinantes, péptidos sintéticos, PCR, cuya manipulación es de fácil estandarización e independientes de las fuentes del siempre preciado material parasitario. Abstract in english Taeniasis is a parasitic infection caused by the adult of Taenia solium and T. saginata, while cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage (Cysticercus) of these parasites in intermediary hosts; humans can accidentally acquire cysticercosis. Taeniasis/ cysticercosis causes serious public health and [...] economic problems in endemic areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, in addition to other areas as a result of the travel and migration. Neurocysticercosis is the most important parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Taeniasis diagnosis is obtained generally by stool exams, whereas cysticercosis diagnosis is carried out by parasitological methods, imaging techniques and several immunological tests. Conventional methods of diagnosis have serious limitations, such as poor sensitivity and low specificity, are not standardized properly and are based on the parasitic material which is difficult to obtain. At present new technical tools are being used that allow a better diagnosis of these diseases, for example, monoclonal antibodies, recombinant antigens, synthetic peptides, PCR, whose manipulation is easily standardized and independent of the sources of the always valuable parasitic material.

  4. Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens

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    Eni Picchioni Bompeixe

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes influence individual susceptibility to NCC, we performed a case-control association analysis. Fifty-two Caucasoid patients and 149 matched controls were typed for antigens of the HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ loci. All patients had computerized tomography and clinical features compatible with parenchymal NCC. Indirect immunofluorescence of cerebrospinal fluid showed that 19 (37% of the patients presented anti-cysticercus antibodies at titers ³ 1:10. Frequencies of HLA specificities in the whole group of patients and in the subgroup with antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid were compared to those of the control group. No significant difference was found. These results do not support the hypothesis of HLA gene participation in susceptibility to parenchymal neurocysticercosis.A neurocisticercose, causada pelo cisticerco, a larva do cestóide Taenia solium, é a infecção mais comum do sistema nervoso central e constitui importante problema de saúde pública em muitos países. A sua prevalência na região de Curitiba, localizada no Estado do Paraná, foi estimada em 9%, situando-se entre as mais elevadas do mundo. Os aspectos genéticos de suscetibilidade à neurocisticercose (NCC ainda são pouco conhecidos. Com o objetivo de investigar se genes do MHC influenciam a suscetibilidade individual à NCC, realizamos uma análise de associação caso-controle. Cinqüenta e dois pacientes caucasóides e 149 indivíduos-controle pareados foram tipados para antígenos dos locos HLA-A, B, C, DR e DQ. Todos os pacientes apresentavam tomografia computadorizada e sinais clínicos compatíveis com NCC parenquimatosa. Imunofluorescência indireta do líquido céfalo-raquidiano mostrou que 19 (37% pacientes apresentavam anticorpos anti-cisticerco com títulos ³1:10. As freqüências de especificidades HLA no grupo total de pacientes e no subgrupo de pacientes que apresentaram anticorpos no líquor foram comparadas àquelas do grupo controle. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi detectada. Esses resultados não sustentam a hipótese de participação dos genes HLA na suscetibilidade à neurocisticercose parenquimatosa.

  5. Detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies in cerbrospinal fluid of patients with chronic meningitis Detecção de antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus em fluido cerebrospinal de pacientes com meningite crônica

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    Subhash Chandra Parija

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic meningitism is a less frequent manifestation of neurocysticercosis caused by Taenia solium cysticerci. In the present study we used Co-agglutination (Co-A, a simple and rapid slide agglutination test to detect specific Cysticercus antigen in the 67 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with chronic meningitis of unknown etiology. The results were compared with that of ELISA for detection of antibodies. Among these samples four (5.97% were positive for Cysticercus antigen by Co-A test and six (8.95% were positive for antibodies by ELISA. Two samples were positive by both Co-A and ELISA, two were positive only by Co-A and four were positive only by ELISA. In the present study, although Cysticercus antigen and antibodies were present in CSF samples from eight (11.94% patients, we cannot affirm that all the cases of chronic meningitis are due to cysticercosis, but for any case of chronic meningitis of unknown origin, it would be useful to consider the possibility of cysticercal meningitis.Meningite crônica é manifestação pouco freqüente de neurocisticercose causada por cisticerco de Taenia solium. No presente estudo utilizamos co-aglutinação (Co-A um teste simples e rápido de aglutinação para detectar antígeno específico de Cysticercus nas 67 amostras de fluido cerebrospinal (CSF de pacientes com meningite crônica de etiologia desconhecida. Os resultados foram comparados com os de ELISA para detecção de anticorpos. Dentre estas amostras quatro (5,97% foram positivas para antígenos de Cysticercus pelo teste Co-A e seis (8,95% foram positivas para anticorpos por ELISA. Duas amostras foram positivas por ambos Co-A e ELISA, duas foram positivas somente por Co-A e quatro foram positivas somente por ELISA. No presente estudo embora antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus estivessem presentes nas amostras de CSF de oito pacientes (11,94%, não podemos afirmar que todos os casos de meningite crônica sejam devidos à cisticercose, mas para qualquer caso de meningite crônica de origem desconhecida seria útil considerar a possibilidade de meningite por cisticerco.

  6. Utilização do teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose Capture erytroimmunoadsorption test for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis

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    Carmen Silvia de M. Pialarissi

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi padronizado o teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura (EIAC para detecção de anticorpos específicos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium, classe IgG, no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose. O reagente empregado para detecção de anticorpos específicos foi preparado com hemácias de carneiro em uma concentração de 0,25%, sensibilizadas com antígeno extrato salino bruto (ESB obtido do Cysticercus cellulosae. A concentração ótima de ESB para sensibilização das hemácias de carneiro foi de 40ug/ml. O rendimento do ESB foi de 0,lug proteína/cavidade. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 84,5% (limite de confiança 95% de 75% a 94%, quando aplicado a 58 amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose; e a especificidade foi de 95,3% (limite de confiança 95% de 90,7% a 99,9% quando 85 amostras de LCR do grupo controle foram analisadas. O teste EIAC foi eficiente para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose, e é importante para os laboratórios de saúde pública, tendo em vista a fácil execução, alto rendimento e baixo custo.The capture erytroimmunoadsorption (C-EIA test was standardized for detection of Taenia solium cysticercus-IgG specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with ncurocysticercosis. For the C-EIA test performance a reagent for specific antibody detection was prepared using sheep's red blood cells (SRBC in a concentration of 0.25% sensitized with crude saline extract antigen (SEA obtained from Cysticercus cellulosae. The optimum concentration of SEA for SRBC sensitization was 40ug/ml. The yield of SEA was 0.lug protein/cavity. When 58 CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis were analysed the sensitivity of the test was found to be 84.5% and the confidence limit of 95% probability (CL 95% ranged from 75% to 94%. The specificity was 95.3% (CL 95% from 90.7% to 99.9% when CSF samples from the control group were analysed. The C-EIA test was shown to be efficient for neurocysticercosis diagnosis and important for public health laboratories, because of its low cost, high reagent yield and ease of use.

  7. Detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies in cerbrospinal fluid of patients with chronic meningitis / Detecção de antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus em fluido cerebrospinal de pacientes com meningite crônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Subhash Chandra, Parija; Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan, Sahu; Hariharkrishnaiear, Dhanya.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningite crônica é manifestação pouco freqüente de neurocisticercose causada por cisticerco de Taenia solium. No presente estudo utilizamos co-aglutinação (Co-A) um teste simples e rápido de aglutinação para detectar antígeno específico de Cysticercus nas 67 amostras de fluido cerebrospinal (CSF) d [...] e pacientes com meningite crônica de etiologia desconhecida. Os resultados foram comparados com os de ELISA para detecção de anticorpos. Dentre estas amostras quatro (5,97%) foram positivas para antígenos de Cysticercus pelo teste Co-A e seis (8,95%) foram positivas para anticorpos por ELISA. Duas amostras foram positivas por ambos Co-A e ELISA, duas foram positivas somente por Co-A e quatro foram positivas somente por ELISA. No presente estudo embora antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus estivessem presentes nas amostras de CSF de oito pacientes (11,94%), não podemos afirmar que todos os casos de meningite crônica sejam devidos à cisticercose, mas para qualquer caso de meningite crônica de origem desconhecida seria útil considerar a possibilidade de meningite por cisticerco. Abstract in english Chronic meningitism is a less frequent manifestation of neurocysticercosis caused by Taenia solium cysticerci. In the present study we used Co-agglutination (Co-A), a simple and rapid slide agglutination test to detect specific Cysticercus antigen in the 67 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from pat [...] ients with chronic meningitis of unknown etiology. The results were compared with that of ELISA for detection of antibodies. Among these samples four (5.97%) were positive for Cysticercus antigen by Co-A test and six (8.95%) were positive for antibodies by ELISA. Two samples were positive by both Co-A and ELISA, two were positive only by Co-A and four were positive only by ELISA. In the present study, although Cysticercus antigen and antibodies were present in CSF samples from eight (11.94%) patients, we cannot affirm that all the cases of chronic meningitis are due to cysticercosis, but for any case of chronic meningitis of unknown origin, it would be useful to consider the possibility of cysticercal meningitis.

  8. Hemiparesia ipsilateral y calcificaciones en ganglios basales: Reporte de un Caso / Ipsilateral hemiparesia and calcifications in the basal ganglia: Case Report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel David, Pinilla-Monsalve; Oscar Leonel, Rueda-Ochoa.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Las calcificaciones en los ganglios basales son un hallazgo fisiológico o patológico reconocido en hasta el 0,6% de los pacientes sometidos a estudios por neuroimagen. Su etiología incluye diversas patologías de tipo metabólico, infeccioso, neoplásico, vascular, etc. Entre las causas prevalentes de [...] calcificaciones en ganglios basales se encuentran las diferentes presentaciones de la neurocisticercosis, causada por la infección con larvas de Taenia solium. Esta enfermedad ha sido olvidada y constituye un problema de salud pública específicamente para países subdesarrollados. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir, por medio de un caso clínico, algunas características semiológicas y fisiopatológicas de la neurocisticercosis. Informe del Caso: se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 57 años de edad, con hemiparesia derecha ipsilateral, calcificaciones ganglio-basales y quistes meníngeos espinales derechos por neurocisticercosis. Tras un mes de tratamiento médico con albendazol y prednisona, el paciente presenta una remisión significativa de los signos y síntomas neurológicos. Discusión: es pertinente destacar que las características de este cuadro clínico dependen de su fisiopatología y presentación clínica. Además, el médico debe poseer fundamentos sólidos de neurofisiología que permitan un adecuado diagnóstico y tratamiento de la entidad clínica, de tal manera que se reduzca la discapacidad en los pacientes. Abstract in english Calcifications in the basal ganglia can be physiological or pathological findings in up to 0.6% of patients studied with neuroimagery. Their etiology includes diverse metabolic, infectious, neoplasmatic or vascular pathologies. Some relevant infectious causes of this kind of calcifications include t [...] he different clinical presentations of neurocysticercosis, a disease produced by Taenia solium's grub. This illness is considered a forgotten disease and an issue of interest in public health, especially in undeveloped countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe through a clinical case the semiological and pathophysiological manifestations of neurocysticercosis. Clinical Case Report: A case of a 57-year-old male patient, with right ipsilateral hemiparesia, basal ganglia calcifications and spinal meningeal cysts. After 1 month of pharmacological treatment with albendazole and prednisone, he presents significant diminishment of the neurological signs and symptoms. Discussion: It is mandatory to emphasize that the characteristics of this disease depend on its pathophysiology and clinical presentations of the disease. Besides, physicians should have clear knowledge of the neurophysiology that allows an accurate diagnosis and treatment of this clinical entity in order to reduce patients' handicap.

  9. Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, northeast Brazil: an endemic area? / Neurocisticercose na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil: uma área endêmica?

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    Thiago D., Gonçalves-Coêlho; Matheus D. G., Coêlho.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocisticercose é a infestação do sistema nervoso central pelo Cysticercus cellulosae, a forma larval da Taenia solium. É relacionada a hábitos higiênicos e sanitários precários; embora o Nordeste seja a Região mais pobre do Brasil, foi sempre considerada área não-endêmica para neurocisticercose. [...] Depois da instalação de um serviço de tomografia computadorizada (TC), a incidência da neurocisticercose começou a crescer nos serviços de neurologia em Campina Grande PB, cidade para onde confluem pessoas de todo o interior paraibano à procura de serviços médicos especializados. Analisamos 5.883 TC realizadas no Serviço TomoHPI de Radioimagem do Hospital Pedro I de agosto de 1993 até dezembro de 1995 e 1,02% foram diagnosticadas como sugestivas de neurocisticercose e classificadas de acordo com idade e sexo, procedência e condições sócio-econômicas. A distribuição dos casos de acordo com a idade é homogênea até os 50 anos de idade (média: 28,36 anos). Homens e mulheres são afetados igualmente. Procedentes de áreas urbanas representam 83.33%. Residentes em Campina Grande representam 48.33% do total; 48,34% residem em cidades ao redor de Campina Grande (até 50 Km de distância) ou em outras cidades da Paraíba. Cincoenta e oito pacientes são dependentes do Sistema Único de Saúde. Concluimos que a neurocisticercose parece ser endêmica em nosso Estado, sendo necessários estudos mais detalhados para que tal assertiva possa ser confirmada. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of co [...] mputed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, precedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraíba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

  10. Prevalence of teniasis-cysticercosis complex in a rural area of Matias Barbosa-MGPrevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural de Matias Barbosa-MG

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    Patrícia Santana Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is an important disease to the public and animal health. The man plays an important role in the life cycle, because he is the unique definitive host. The adult forms of the Taenia solium or Taenia saginata holds in gut, and the larvae forms develops in the muscle of cattle and swine, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex transmission in rural area of Matias Barbosa – MG, Brazil. Catla and swine lood and human stool samples were collected from 74 farms. Cisticercosis were eníasis were diagnosis serological methods and the teniasis by direct microscopy. Moreover, a questionnaire was applied about the sanitary conditions of the animals and people envolved, food habits and housing. This research indicated the prevalence of 0,9 % of cysticercosis bovine in the rural area of Matias Barbosa. Cases of cysticercosis swine and taeniasis were not found. Some risk factors for taeniasis-cysticercosis complex transmission in the municipality were identified and discussed. Despite the low predominance of bovine cysticercosis found in Matias Barbosa, it is necessary to maintain measures to control the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex to prevent causing increased cases of the zoonosis,considering that some risk factors favorable to their emergence were found. O complexo teníase-cisticercose é uma zoonose de grande importância para a saúde pública e animal. O ser humano desempenha importante papel sendo o único hospedeiro definitivo do parasita. Albergando no intestino as formas adultas da Taenia saginata ou da Taenia solium, cabendo à forma larvar (cisticerco o desenvolvimento na musculatura de bovinos e suínos ou do próprio homem, quando este também atua como hospedeiro intermediário. Visando obter maior conhecimento sobre esta zoonose, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o perfil epidemiológico do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Matias Barbosa, localizado na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. Para tanto, foram realizadas coletas de sangue de 350 bovinos e 81 suínos e amostras de fezes de 124 pessoas da população presente em 74 propriedades rurais. Além disso, foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico sobre as condições sócio-econômicas e sanitárias de cada propriedade. Observou-se uma prevalência de 0,9% de bovinos positivos ao teste de Immunoblot. Não houve suínos positivos, assim como também não foi diagnosticada pessoa portadora de teníase. Alguns fatores de risco de transmissão do complexo teníase-cisticercose no município foram identificados como o consumo de carne bovina e suína crua, propriedades sem saneamento básico e criação de bovinos com acesso a fontes de contaminação. Apesar da baixa prevalência da cisticercose bovina encontrada no município de Matias Barbosa, é necessária a tomada de medidas de controle do complexo teníase-cisticercose para impedir que haja aumento de casos da doença no município, tendo em vista que foram registrados fatores favoráveis à sua manutenção.

  11. Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose Evaluation of immunological tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis

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    Heloisa Werneck de Macedo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NCC deve ser feito pela associação de técnicas de imagem com métodos imunológicos sensíveis e específicos. Objetivos: Avaliar os métodos Elisa e Western blot (Wb, utilizando-se como antígeno extrato bruto salino da larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticercus cellulosae e Wb, empregando-se como antígeno cisticercos da Taenia crassiceps em amostras de soro, para o diagnóstico da NCC. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliadas amostras de soro de 43 pacientes com diagnóstico de NCC: 21 por clínica, tomografia computadorizada de crânio (TC e presença de anticorpos anticisticerco no líquido cefalorraquiano (LCR; 22 por clínica e TC e 229 pacientes com diferentes parasitoses. Para as análises desses materiais biológicos foram empregados os métodos Elisa, usando-se como antígeno C. cellulosae, e Wb, usando-se como antígeno C. cellulosae e Cysticercus longicollis. Resultados: O método Elisa utilizando C. cellulosae como antígeno apresentou especificidade de 95% e sensibilidade de 71%. O método Wb utilizando C. cellulosae ou C. longicollis como antígeno apresentou sensibilidade de 86% e especificidade de 99%. Conclusões: Os métodos imunológicos no LCR são importantes para a definição da NCC. Entretanto o método Elisa no soro ainda não é adequado pela sua baixa sensibilidade, mas o Wb apresentou alta especificidade e boa sensibilidade, podendo auxiliar no diagnóstico da NCC, possibilitando sugerir a existência de forma transicional da doença, não demonstrada pela TC.Background: The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC has been made by association of neuroimaging studies and use of sensitive and specific serological assays. Objectives: Evaluating Elisa and Western blot (Wb tests using a crude extract of Cysticercus cellulosae (Taenia solium as antigen and a Wb test using a glycoprotein of Cysticercus longicollis (Taenia crassiceps as antigen for the diagnosis of NCC. Methods: Serum samples from 43 patients with NCC: 21patients presenting clinical manifestations, cerebral computed tomography findings compatible with cerebral lesions and high levels of anti-cysticercus antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 22 patients with clinical manifestations and cerebral computed tomography findings compatible with cerebral lesions and serum samples from 229 patients with other parasitic infections were tested by Elisa standardized with crude extract of C. cellulosae and Wb standardized with glicoprotein of C. cellulosae and C. longicollis. Results: The Elisa test using crude extract of C. cellulosae showed specificity of 95% and sensibility of 71%. Both tests using glycoproteins of either C. cellulosae or C. longicollis showed specificity of 99% and sensibility of 86%. Conclusions: The use of immunological techniques for antibodies detection in CSF was shown to be an important tool for NCC diagnosis. However, detection of antibodies in serum lacked sensibility when Elisa was evaluated. The Wb assay in serum samples was sensitive and specific and it can be helpful for the diagnosis of the transitional form of NCC frequently not detected by cerebral computed tomography.

  12. Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose / Evaluation of immunological tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heloisa Werneck de, Macedo; Regina Helena Saramago, Peralta; Armando, Cipriano; Maria Rosa, Sarmento; Adelaide José, Vaz; José Mauro, Peralta.

    Full Text Available Introdução: O diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NCC) deve ser feito pela associação de técnicas de imagem com métodos imunológicos sensíveis e específicos. Objetivos: Avaliar os métodos Elisa e Western blot (Wb), utilizando-se como antígeno extrato bruto salino da larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticerc [...] us cellulosae e Wb, empregando-se como antígeno cisticercos da Taenia crassiceps em amostras de soro, para o diagnóstico da NCC. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliadas amostras de soro de 43 pacientes com diagnóstico de NCC: 21 por clínica, tomografia computadorizada de crânio (TC) e presença de anticorpos anticisticerco no líquido cefalorraquiano (LCR); 22 por clínica e TC e 229 pacientes com diferentes parasitoses. Para as análises desses materiais biológicos foram empregados os métodos Elisa, usando-se como antígeno C. cellulosae, e Wb, usando-se como antígeno C. cellulosae e Cysticercus longicollis. Resultados: O método Elisa utilizando C. cellulosae como antígeno apresentou especificidade de 95% e sensibilidade de 71%. O método Wb utilizando C. cellulosae ou C. longicollis como antígeno apresentou sensibilidade de 86% e especificidade de 99%. Conclusões: Os métodos imunológicos no LCR são importantes para a definição da NCC. Entretanto o método Elisa no soro ainda não é adequado pela sua baixa sensibilidade, mas o Wb apresentou alta especificidade e boa sensibilidade, podendo auxiliar no diagnóstico da NCC, possibilitando sugerir a existência de forma transicional da doença, não demonstrada pela TC. Abstract in english Background: The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been made by association of neuroimaging studies and use of sensitive and specific serological assays. Objectives: Evaluating Elisa and Western blot (Wb) tests using a crude extract of Cysticercus cellulosae (Taenia solium) as antigen and a W [...] b test using a glycoprotein of Cysticercus longicollis (Taenia crassiceps) as antigen for the diagnosis of NCC. Methods: Serum samples from 43 patients with NCC: 21patients presenting clinical manifestations, cerebral computed tomography findings compatible with cerebral lesions and high levels of anti-cysticercus antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); 22 patients with clinical manifestations and cerebral computed tomography findings compatible with cerebral lesions and serum samples from 229 patients with other parasitic infections were tested by Elisa standardized with crude extract of C. cellulosae and Wb standardized with glicoprotein of C. cellulosae and C. longicollis. Results: The Elisa test using crude extract of C. cellulosae showed specificity of 95% and sensibility of 71%. Both tests using glycoproteins of either C. cellulosae or C. longicollis showed specificity of 99% and sensibility of 86%. Conclusions: The use of immunological techniques for antibodies detection in CSF was shown to be an important tool for NCC diagnosis. However, detection of antibodies in serum lacked sensibility when Elisa was evaluated. The Wb assay in serum samples was sensitive and specific and it can be helpful for the diagnosis of the transitional form of NCC frequently not detected by cerebral computed tomography.

  13. Human cerebral cysticercosis: immunolocalization of a sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT) in larval and adult tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, E M; Cornford, M E; Wright, E M; Bruckner, D A; Sampogna, S; Hirayama, B A

    2001-06-01

    Light microscopic immunocytochemistry was used to examine human brain cysticerci resected from the fourth ventricles of patients who had not been treated with anthelminthic drugs. Tissues were examined from 3 different patients undergoing surgery for treatment of hydrocephalus. A rabbit polyclonal antiserum to the peptide corresponding to amino acids 564-575 unique to the rabbit sodium-dependent, SGLT1 glucose cotransporter labeled with immunoperoxidase, localized immunoreactive SGLT epitopes. This antibody localizes SGLT1 in the apical brush borders of human enterocytes, but is negative in cytoplasm, as well as lateral and basal enterocyte membranes. Taenia solium neurocysticerci were SGLT positive; transporter protein was highly expressed on the surface microvilli of the external cyst wall. The well-developed network of small and larger osmoregulatory ducts within racemose larval cystcerci displayed high expression of SGLT cotransporter, consistent with a resorptive function for this system of tubules. Because water is cotransported with glucose molecules by the SGLT protein, its high expression in neurocysticerci may contribute to the expansive growth of these larvae in subarachnoid and intraventricular sites. The SGLT epitopes were also immunolocalized in gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata, indicating that cotransporter expression persisted in intestinal-dwelling, adult tapeworms. Cotransporter antibody was abundantly localized at the proglottid tegumentary surface and in the lateral osmoregulatory ducts, analogous to the SGLT localization in cysticerci. Furthermore, high expression of this cotransporter was seen in the branches of the uterus, suggesting that SGLT-mediated absorption of glucose and water has an important functional role within the reproductive system of adult tapeworms. PMID:11426712

  14. Conocimiento y Prácticas sobre Teniasis-cisticercosis en una Comunidad Colombiana / Knowledge and practices concerning taeniasis-cysticercosis in Colombian pig-breeders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Piedad, Agudelo-Flórez; Berta N, Restrepo; Luis G, Palacio.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar los conocimientos y prácticas sobre teniasis-cisticercosis y la frecuencia de anticuerpos contra Taenia solium en habitantes de la localidad de Andagoya, Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio cualitativo-cuantitativo. Las poblaciones de estudio fueron los criadores de cerdos y [...] sus familias, población local y cerdos. Resultados La población tiene un conocimiento parcial del complejo teniasis-cisticercosis. Identifica la cisticercosis como una enfermedad sólo del cerdo y no del humano, considera la teniasis como una enfermedad de transmisión fecal y no ocasionada por el consumo de carne de cerdo con cisticercosis. La crianza de cerdos no se hace en confinamiento y aunque se conocen los hábitos higiénicos para el control de enfermedades parasitarias su cumplimiento no es adecuado. La presencia de anticuerpos contra T. solium en los criadores de cerdos y sus familiares fue del 8,7 % y en los cerdos del 20,9 %. Conclusión Se debe desarrollar un programa educativo sobre teniasis-cisticercosis que permita sensibilizar a la población para el conocimiento y la aplicación de medidas de control. Abstract in english Objective Describing knowledge and practices regarding taeniasis-cysticercosis and cysticercosis prevalence in the village of Andagoya, Colombia. Methods The study design was qualitative and quantitative. The study population consisted of pig breeders and their families, local groups and pigs. Resul [...] ts Study participants had partial knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex. They considered taeniasis to be an illness resulting from faecal transmission and not caused by becoming infected with cysticercosis after consuming pork. Pig breeding is not carried out in confined conditions and, although breeders know the right measures for controlling some parasitic illnesses, these practices are not observed. There was 8.7% presence of T. solium antibodies in pig breeders and their relatives and 20.9% in the pigs. Conclusions An educational programme aimed at raising the population's awareness of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex cycle should be developed; this will facilitate control measures being applied.

  15. Antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: lessons and experiences from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Jia, Fengju; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yixin; Huang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Cysticercosis is a tropical disease caused by infection with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Humans and pigs acquire cysticercosis by ingesting T. solium eggs shed in the feces of humans with taeniasis (i.e., infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm). Cerebral cysticercosis occurs when the cysts of T. solium develop within the central nervous system, and it is the primary cause of illness in T. solium infection. Currently, cerebral cysticercosis is endemic worldwide, and it is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. However, it is now increasingly detected in developed countries due to the immigration of T. solium carriers from the endemic areas. The antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis remains controversial till now. In China, except a few cases who conform to the contraindicated criteria of antiparasitic therapy, most cerebral cysticercosis patients with symptoms and signs are given etiological treatment. This paper reviews the antiparasitic therapy of cerebral cysticercosis in China during the past several decades. Praziquantel treatment with different regimens has been used, and various efficacies are achieved. In the early stage, unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy was achieved due to small doses and short treatment courses. Afterwards, the therapeutic efficacy became increasingly remarkable in both adults and children with the increases in dosage and courses. Albendazole also presents activity against cysticercosis with slow and moderate action, and it has been widely used in the treatment of the infection. The comparison between praziquantel and albendazole treatments showed that the immediate and short-term effects of albendazole treatment were better than those of praziquantel treatment, but similar mid- and long-term efficacies were observed following albendazole and praziquantel treatments. The combination of albendazole and praziquantel treatments can increase the therapeutic efficacy, and now, from the massive clinical practices, most of Chinese clinical specialists propose the combination therapy of albendazole and praziquantel for cerebral cysticercosis with simultaneous administration of steroids, especially in the first course. In addition, administration of praziquantel at a high dose can become a diagnostic treatment for suspected cerebral cysticercosis and serve as a supplement of the currently available diagnostic methods, such as diagnoses based on the clinical features, immunology, CT and MRI imaging, etc., in some atypical cerebral cysticercosis patients. Praziquantel and albendazole treatments have some adverse reactions, and to control these adverse effects, all the cerebral cysticercosis patients should be treated in hospital. According to the type of cerebral cysticercosis, especially for intracranial hypertension type and meningocephalitis type, the dosages of anti-cysticercus drugs need to follow a gradually increasing pattern. During the period of anti-cysticercosis treatments, steroids and/or dehydrating agents need be administered which can alleviate the intracranial hypertension and so on. Traditional Chinese medicines have been also used in the treatment of cerebral cysticercosis and achieve satisfactory outcomes. However, the compound prescription of traditional Chinese medicines is very complex, and the effective components are not fully clear. Some cerebral cysticercosis patients with very high intracranial tension could not receive antiparasitic treatment immediately, and surgical treatment is required. Chinese surgeons also achieve some successful experiences, but not all the cysticercus can be removed completely during the surgery. Therefore, antiparasitic drugs are still needed after the operation. The rehabilitative treatment is supplementary in the therapy of cerebral cysticercosis. In China, the rehabilitative treatment of cerebral cysticercosis is still at the initial stage. These lessons and experiences in China can be shared with medical staff and researchers from other countries where the disease is endemic. PMI

  16. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  17. Tribendimidine and Albendazole for Treating Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: Open-Label Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    More than a billion people are infected with intestinal worms and, in the developing world, many individuals harbor several kinds of worms concurrently. There are only a handful of drugs available for treatment, and drug efficacy varies according to the worm species. We compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of tribendimidine, a new broad-spectrum worm drug from China, with the standard drug albendazole for the treatment of hookworm, large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Tric...

  18. European colonization by the spined loach (Cobitis taenia) from Ponto-Caspian refugia based on mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Culling, M.; Janko, Karel; Boron, A.; Vasiljev, V. P.; Cote, I. M.; Hewitt, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 15, 1 (2006), s. 173-190. ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP206/05/P586; GA AV ?R IBS5045111 Grant ostatní: RFBR 02-04-48354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : colonization * glacial refugia * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2006

  19. Occurence of Cysticercosis in cattle and buffaloes and Taenia saginata in man in Assiut Governance of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasis is an important foodborne parasitic disease worldwide. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of cysticercosis in cattle and buffaloes and discussing its public health importance in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. The occurrence of cysticercosis among examined cattle and buffaloes was 1.6 % and 0.8 % respectively. Female cattle and buffaloes were more susceptible to bovine cysticercosis (2.7% and 1.3% than males (1.4% & 0.5%, respectively. There was a positive relationship between the age of the examined animals and the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis. The higher occurrence was recorded among cattle and buffaloes above 2 years (2.7% and 0.9% than those below 2 years (1.1% and 0.6%, respectively. Detailed meat inspection showed to be sensitive (1.6% than routine meat inspection (1.4%.Taeniasis was detected in 0.6% of examined patients with gastroenteritis. The infection rate of taeniasis among males was 1.6 % while, it was not detected in females. In conclusion, results obtained in this study confirm that cysticercosis is endemic among cattle and buffaloes. Detailed meat inspection is recommended than routine meat inspection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 173-176

  20. Crystallization of the Membrane-Associated Annexin B1: Roles of Additive Screen, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Bioactivity Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, F.; Xu, Y; Azzi, A; Zhu, D; Rehse, D; Chen, C; Sun, S; Lin, S

    2010-01-01

    Annexin B1 (AnxB1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein from Taenia solium cysticercus and has been reported to possess anticoagulant activity, to inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and to regulate membrane transport. Native AnxB1 and its selenomethionyl derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The results of dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Hepes buffer combined with low concentration salts (NaCl or CaCl{sub 2}) was beneficial for preventing aggregation and for AnxB1 stabilization in the storage. After the additive screen, crystals have been yielded in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (Gn-HCl). We determined that a low concentration of Gn-HCl significantly delayed clotting time and increased anticoagulant activity. Analysis of the crystal showed that in the presence of Gn-HCl, AnxB1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group, which is modified from the cubic space group for crystals grown in the absence of Gn-HCl. A high quality data set (at 1.9 {angstrom}) has been collected successfully for crystals of L-selenomethionine labeled protein in the presence of Gn-HCl, to solve the structure with the single anomalous dispersion method (SAD). The unit cell parameters are a = 102.35 {angstrom}, b = 103.59 {angstrom}, c = 114.60 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90.00{sup o}.

  1. Neurocisticercosis en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagón Valdez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisticercosis: enfermedad parasitaria que afecta en México al 3% de la población. Se considera que hay más de 50 millones de infectados en el mundo, endémica en México, Centro y Sudamérica, Africa, Asia e India. Considerada la enfermedad infecciosa neurológica más importante mundialmente por sus manifestaciones clínicas. El agente causal en cerdos y humanos es el cisticerco de la Taenia solium, que puede alojarse en músculo, cerebro y ventrículos. Si se ingiere carne de cerdo contaminada con cisticercos, se adquiere la solitaria, que vive en los intestinos del ser humano y genera miles de huevecillos que se excretan por la materia fecal. Al ingerir alimentos contaminados con materia fecal por el humano y el cerdo, se adquiere la cisticercosis que compromete distintas partes del organismo, especialmente el SNC. El ser humano es el único hospedero de la solitaria y el cerdo es intermediario, por lo que la prevalencia de la teniasis-cisticercosis depende de este vínculo. Se diagnostica en zonas endémicas por la presencia de crisis convulsivas, cefalea, síntomas neurológicos focales, trastornos de visión, hipertensión endocraneal y tomografía cerebral con zonas hipodensas o quiste con un anillo hiperdenso. El tratamiento con antiparasitarios es controversial en pediatría, se sugiere administrarse en la fase quística no calcificada y en casos de epilepsia asociada. Pocos son los casos que ameritan tratamiento quirúrgico por hidrocefalia o por cisticerco intraventricular, que es muy raro.

  2. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  3. Comparative selenoproteome analysis reveals a reduced utilization of selenium in parasitic platyhelminthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The selenocysteine(Sec-containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present in all three kingdoms of life. Although the selenoproteomes of many organisms have been analyzed, systematic studies on selenoproteins in platyhelminthes are still lacking. Moreover, comparison of selenoproteomes between free-living and parasitic animals is rarely studied. Results. In this study, three representative organisms (Schmidtea mediterranea, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia solium were selected for comparative analysis of selenoproteomes in Platyhelminthes. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein prediction algorithm, a total of 37 selenoprotein genes were identified in these organisms. The size of selenoproteomes and selenoprotein families were found to be associated with different lifestyles: free-living organisms have larger selenoproteome whereas parasitic lifestyle corresponds to reduced selenoproteomes. Five selenoproteins, SelT, Sel15, GPx, SPS2 and TR, were found to be present in all examined platyhelminthes as well as almost all sequenced animals, suggesting their essential role in metazoans. Finally, a new splicing form of SelW that lacked the first exon was found to be present in S. japonicum. Conclusions. Our data provide a first glance into the selenoproteomes of organisms in the phylum Platyhelminthes and may help understand function and evolutionary dynamics of selenium utilization in diversified metazoans.

  4. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.M. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, H.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2004-10-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells ('Comet Assay') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6 deg. C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA 'Comet Assay'. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  5. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  6. Interleukin-5 and interleukin-10 are major cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with active neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Jr. V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common neurological disorder especially in developing countries, caused by infection of the brain with encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Seizures are a common finding associated with this disease. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the levels of various cytokines present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with NCC and the severity of the disease. The levels of the cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-alpha, IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-gamma were determined in the CSF of 22 patients with active NCC, 13 patients with inactive NCC and 15 control subjects. CSF from patients with active NCC presented significantly higher IL-5 levels compared to control subjects. IL-5 and IL-10 levels in CSF from NCC patients with inflammatory CSF were significantly higher than those detected in non-inflammatory CSF. These results show a predominant Th2 lymphocyte activation in human NCC and also indicate the possible use of cytokines in the CSF as a marker for the differential diagnosis between inactive disease and the active form of NCC.

  7. Pulmonary and pleural cysticercosis: a case report; Cisticercose pulmonar pleural: relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, Marco Antonio; Toni, Xisto A. de; Meira, Lisiane A.; Goncalves, Nelson L.; Oliveira, Godofredo G. [Hospital Santa Isabel, Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Toni, Guilherme de [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1995-07-01

    The authors report a case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the lungs, pleura, brain and subcutaneous tissues. Plain chest X-rays and chest computed tomography showed multiple round ill defined nodular lesions scattered through the lungs and pleural surface, identified as cystic lesions by ultrasound. Calcified cysticerci were visualized in the subcutaneous tissues of the arms and thorax at the plain chest X-rays. Biopsy of subcutaneous nodes was performed, which results revealed cysticercosis. Brain CT demonstrated multiple calcified intraparenchymatous lesions, associated with cystic lesions, compatible with cysticercosis. Due to the rarity of the lung involvement by cysticercosis, an open lung biopsy was performed with partial resection of the lingula and two cystic lesions, which anatomo-pathological results revealed pleural and pulmonary cysticercosis. The pleural and pulmonary involvement is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease, usually due to heavy infestation of Taenia solium larvae. As a far as we know, we did not see clear illustration of proved lung and pleural cysticercosis fully documented in the world literature. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Utilização do teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pialarissi Carmen Silvia de M.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi padronizado o teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura (EIAC para detecção de anticorpos específicos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium, classe IgG, no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose. O reagente empregado para detecção de anticorpos específicos foi preparado com hemácias de carneiro em uma concentração de 0,25%, sensibilizadas com antígeno extrato salino bruto (ESB obtido do Cysticercus cellulosae. A concentração ótima de ESB para sensibilização das hemácias de carneiro foi de 40ug/ml. O rendimento do ESB foi de 0,lug proteína/cavidade. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 84,5% (limite de confiança 95% de 75% a 94%, quando aplicado a 58 amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose; e a especificidade foi de 95,3% (limite de confiança 95% de 90,7% a 99,9% quando 85 amostras de LCR do grupo controle foram analisadas. O teste EIAC foi eficiente para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose, e é importante para os laboratórios de saúde pública, tendo em vista a fácil execução, alto rendimento e baixo custo.

  9. Tratamento da cisticercose subcutânea co praziquantel: um novo agente cestoidicida Treatment of dermal cysticercosis with praziquantel: a new cestocidal agent

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    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult patients presenting dermal cysticercosis without cerebral or ocular involvement were treated with praziquantel. The first eleven cases received 60 mg/kg/day and the last nine cases 30 mg/kg/day. In both groups the daily dose was split into three oral intakes 4 to 6 hours apart and the drug administration lasted for 6 consecutive days. The latter group of patients also got dexamethasone, 3 mg daily, from one day before until four days after the treatment period with praziquantel. The drug proved to be 100% efficacious as demonstrated histopathologically by the death of the cysticerci of Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae in serial biopsies taken from the 2nd week on after the end of treatment, as well as clinically by the steady disappearence of the dermal nodules during the 6 months following the therapy. Tolerance of praziquantel was good as the incidence and severity of side-effects were not relevant. The drug safety was confirmed through laboratory tests which failed to detect any abnormal findings related to the hematopoietic, liver and kidney functions.

  10. Neuroinfection survey at a neurological ward in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital

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    Paulo E Marchiori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to characterize the neuroinfection profile in a tertiary neurological ward. INTRODUCTION: Neuroinfection is a worldwide concern and bacterial meningitis, tetanus and cerebral malaria have been reported as the commonest causes in developing countries. METHODS: From 1999 to 2007, all patients admitted to the Neurology Ward of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University School of Medicine because of neuroinfection had their medical records reviewed. Age, gender, immunological status, neurological syndrome at presentation, infectious agent and clinical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy four cases of neuroinfectious diseases accounted for 4.2% of ward admissions and the identification of infectious agent was successful in 81% of cases. Mean age was 40.5 + 13.4 years, 63.8% were male, 19.7% were immunocompromised patients and meningoencephalitis was the most common clinical presentation despite infectious agent. Viruses and bacteria were equally responsible for 29.4% of neuroinfectious diseases; parasitic, fungal and prion infections accounted for 28%, 9.6% and 3.5% respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Taenia solium, Schistosoma mansoni, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were the more common infectious pathogens in the patients. Infection mortality rate was 14.2%, of which 62.3% occurred in immunocompetent patients. CONCLUSION: Our institution appeared to share some results with developed and developing countries. Comparison with literature may be considered as quality control to health assistance.

  11. Neuroinfection survey at a neurological ward in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo E, Marchiori; Angelina M M, Lino; Luis R, Machado; Livia M, Pedalini; Marcos, Boulos; Milberto, Scaff.

    1021-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to characterize the neuroinfection profile in a tertiary neurological ward. INTRODUCTION: Neuroinfection is a worldwide concern and bacterial meningitis, tetanus and cerebral malaria have been reported as the commonest causes in developing countries. METHODS: Fr [...] om 1999 to 2007, all patients admitted to the Neurology Ward of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University School of Medicine because of neuroinfection had their medical records reviewed. Age, gender, immunological status, neurological syndrome at presentation, infectious agent and clinical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy four cases of neuroinfectious diseases accounted for 4.2% of ward admissions and the identification of infectious agent was successful in 81% of cases. Mean age was 40.5 + 13.4 years, 63.8% were male, 19.7% were immunocompromised patients and meningoencephalitis was the most common clinical presentation despite infectious agent. Viruses and bacteria were equally responsible for 29.4% of neuroinfectious diseases; parasitic, fungal and prion infections accounted for 28%, 9.6% and 3.5% respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Taenia solium, Schistosoma mansoni, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were the more common infectious pathogens in the patients. Infection mortality rate was 14.2%, of which 62.3% occurred in immunocompetent patients. CONCLUSION: Our institution appeared to share some results with developed and developing countries. Comparison with literature may be considered as quality control to health assistance.

  12. [Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutikhin, A G; Yuzhalin, A E; Brusina, E B; Briko, N I

    2012-01-01

    According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), at least 6 virus species (HPV, EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, HTLV-1, HBV, HCV), 4 helminthes species (Schistosoma haematobium and japonicum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis) and I bacterium species (Helicobacter pylori) have been proved to be capable of causing the development of cancer. The analysis of the data available shows that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), monkey virus 40 (SV40), cytomegalovirus (CMV), xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), Helicobacter bilis and hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Fusobacterium varium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Prevotella spp., Streptococcus bovis and anginosus, Treponema denticola, Salmonella typhi, paratyphi and typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, trachomatis and psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Propionibacterium acnes, Tropheryma whippelii, Schistosoma mansoni, Opistorchis felineus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Candida spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichomonas vaginalis can also be potential etiological agents of cancer. Apparently, detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of the development of cancer will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylaxis measures, early diagnostic methods and, probably, methods of treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:23163048

  13. Relationship between the clinical heterogeneity of neurocysticercosis and the immune-inflammatory profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Anahí; Fleury, Agnes; García, Esperanza; Márquez, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda

    2005-09-01

    Human neurocysticercosis is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis may be asymptomatic or manifested by non-specific mild to severe neurological symptoms. Host factors may be involved in this heterogeneous clinical picture. An immune-inflammatory profile that underlies neurocysticercosis presentation was determined in 45 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), from clinical and radiologically characterized neurocysticercosis patients, measuring specific IgG subclasses and cytokines. Severity related with increased cellularity in the CSF which was characterized by increased levels of IgG subclasses, IL6/IL5/IL10, proteins, and eosinophils. Multiple neurocysticercosis showed higher levels of IL5/IL6 than single neurocysticercosis. Women presented increased IL6/IL5/IL10 levels pointing out immunological differences due to gender. Severe symptomatology was found when cysticerci were located intraventricular or in the subarachnoid space of the base, inducing an exacerbated response in the CSF. These results constitute an integrative insight to understand the immune-inflammatory response that underlies symptomatic neurocysticercosis. PMID:15935735

  14. [Racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina and cystic arachnoiditis. Apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, F; Hladky, J P; Breton, J O; Mignard, C; Laporte, J P; Bousquet, C

    1988-01-01

    Central nervous system infection by the larval form of the pork tapeworm, taenia solium is a major public health problem in view of its prevalence. The high incidence of neurocysticercosis in Reunion Island has been precised by computerized tomography and Elisa test. Spinal involvement is an uncommon form of cysticercosis, occurring with a frequency of less than 1% in large series. The types of involvement that are most common are subarachnoid cysts which appear as intradural extramedullary masses and meningeal reaction with appearance of arachnoiditis at myelography. Intramedullary involvement is less frequent. Epidural and subpial masses have been reported very rarely. The authors report the two first cases of spinal cysticercosis in Reunion Island which are both extramedullary leptomeningeal forms. A radicular syndrome was present in both cases; incontinence and sacral hemihypoesthesia in one case. Myelography showed lumbosacral arachnoid cysts. Immunodiagnostic tests were positive in blood and C.S.F. in the two cases. Laminectomy was performed and the arachnoid membrane appeared opaque and thickened; the cysts were removed. Microscopically the cystic wall had a thin and curved cuticle, no scolex was found. Treatment was completed with the anti-helminthic agent Praziquantel. Full recovery was observed in one case. In the other case low back pain spread out to the lower extremities with a non radicular distribution and was associated with lumbosacral spinal fibrosis. PMID:2849066

  15. Neurocysticercosis in the United States: 35 cases and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, M P; Reller, L B; Filley, C M; Grek, A J

    1987-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis has become more prominent in the United States in recent years because of an increase in immigration from endemic regions and because of improved ease of diagnosis with computed tomography (CT). Neurocysticercosis should be suspected in any patient from a high-risk region who has symptoms or signs of a central nervous system disorder, especially seizures, headaches, or signs of increased intracranial pressure. The best diagnostic test is CT of the head, which usually shows a combination of multiple punctate calcifications; hydrocephalus; and parenchymal, subarachnoid, or intraventricular cysts with and without contrast enhancement. Cysticercosis is confirmed serologically by measurement of cysticercosis antibody titers in serum or cerebrospinal fluid and histologically by biopsy of a lesion. Treatment with praziquantel and dexamethasone is usually sufficient, but ventricular shunting or surgical removal of intraventricular or spinal cysts may be necessary. Whenever a case is identified, other household members should be examined for symptoms and signs of neurocysticercosis and screened for active Taenia solium infection. PMID:3317739

  16. Trichinella spiralis: monoclonal antibody against the muscular larvae for the detection of circulating and fecal antigens in experimentally infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José-Lino; García-Juarez, Jazmín; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    In this work we search for antigens of Trichinella spiralis in sera and stool of rats experimentally infected. The kinetic of antibodies to excretory and secretory (ES) antigens of muscle larvae (ML) was also determined. Wistar rats were infected with 15 ML per gram of body weight and blood samples were collected weekly for 10 weeks. Antibodies were studied using an indirect ELISA. For detection of circulating antigens and coproantigens, a sandwich ELISA was developed with the use of polyclonal rabbit antibodies obtained against the total extract of ML and an IgM monoclonal antibody (Mab) against ES antigens of ML. No reactivity was observed between Mab and the total worm antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Ascaris suum, Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Toxocara canis and Trichuris trichiura. The IgM Mab recognized antigens of 45, 49, and 55 kDa in ES antigens and was unable to bind ES antigens deglycosylated with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid (TFMS) indicating that a glycan structure is present in the epitope recognized by this Mab. The sensitivity of sandwich ELISA was 1 ng/mL. Circulating antigens were detected in all infected rats between 3 and 8 weeks post infection and coproantigens were found during the first two days post infection. Antibodies were detected since the third week post infection through the end of experiment. These results suggested that antigen detection by our sandwich ELISA could be a useful complementary laboratory test for antibody detection. PMID:23026455

  17. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect") and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively). In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band. PMID:19748853

  18. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L.; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  19. Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminth samples (n = 35 recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. The scope of the present investigation is to survey the parasites infecting these hosts, commonly used as laboratory animal models in scientific research and supply figurative data on the helminths in order to provide their easy identification, since the presence of autochthonous parasite burdens, if undetected or misinterpreted, can alter the final results of experimental assays, mainly those related to immunological approaches, when cross-reactions can occur.Trinta e cinco amostras de helmintos coletadas de Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 e de uma outra espécie de coelho, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, de agosto de 1909 a fevereiro de 1948 e que estão depositadas na Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, foram analisadas. As amostras estudadas estão representadas pelo cisticerco do cestóide Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 e pelos nematóides Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. O objetivo da presente investigação é o de inventariar os parasitos que infectam estes hospedeiros, comumente utilizados como modelos de animais de laboratório na pesquisa científica e fornecer dados figurativos sobre os helmintos a fim de facilitar sua identificação, uma vez que, cargas parasitárias autóctones, caso não detectadas ou erroneamente avaliadas, podem alterar o resultado final de protocolos experimentais, principalmente dos relacionados a ensaios imunológicos, quando infecções cruzadas podem ocorrer.

  20. Coprologic survey of endoparasites from Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes) in Chiloé, Chile / Muestreo coprológico de endoparásitos del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes) en Chiloé, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JE, Jiménez; C, Briceño; H, Alcaíno; P, Vásquez; S, Funk; D, González-Acuña.

    Full Text Available Un total de 189 heces del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837]) en peligro crítico de extinción, de diferentes localidades de la isla de Chiloé en el sur de Chile, se examinaron en busca de huevos de parásitos y oocitos usando la técnica de flotación en azúcar. Los resultados mostrar [...] on que el 21,2% de las muestras fue positivo a nueve helmintos y/o a un protozoo. Los parásitos con la mayor prevalencia fueron nematodos del orden Ascaridida y un cestodo Spirometra. Otros endoparásitos identificados incluyeron Capillaria sp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Filaroides osleri, nematodos ancylostomatidos, Trichuris sp., Taenia sp., e Isospora sp. Las cargas parasitarias fueron mayores durante el invierno y en áreas con más perros domésticos. Todas estas especies y géneros son reportados por primera vez en el zorro de Darwin. Abstract in english A total of 189 faecal samples of the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837]), from different areas within Chiloé Island in southern Chile were examined for parasites eggs and oocysts using the sugar flotation technique. The results showed that 21.2% of the samples we [...] re positive to either one of nine helminthes and one protozoan. The parasites with the highest prevalence were an ascarid nematode and a Spirometra species of cestode. Other identified endoparasites include Capillaria sp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Filaroides osleri, ancylostomatid nematodes, Trichuris sp., Taenia sp., and Isospora sp. Parasite loads were higher during the winter and in areas having more domestic dogs. All these species and genera are reported for the fist time in the Darwin's fox.

  1. Coprologic survey of endoparasites from Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes in Chiloé, Chile Muestreo coprológico de endoparásitos del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes en Chiloé, Chile

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    JE Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 189 faecal samples of the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837], from different areas within Chiloé Island in southern Chile were examined for parasites eggs and oocysts using the sugar flotation technique. The results showed that 21.2% of the samples were positive to either one of nine helminthes and one protozoan. The parasites with the highest prevalence were an ascarid nematode and a Spirometra species of cestode. Other identified endoparasites include Capillaria sp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Filaroides osleri, ancylostomatid nematodes, Trichuris sp., Taenia sp., and Isospora sp. Parasite loads were higher during the winter and in areas having more domestic dogs. All these species and genera are reported for the fist time in the Darwin's fox.Un total de 189 heces del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837] en peligro crítico de extinción, de diferentes localidades de la isla de Chiloé en el sur de Chile, se examinaron en busca de huevos de parásitos y oocitos usando la técnica de flotación en azúcar. Los resultados mostraron que el 21,2% de las muestras fue positivo a nueve helmintos y/o a un protozoo. Los parásitos con la mayor prevalencia fueron nematodos del orden Ascaridida y un cestodo Spirometra. Otros endoparásitos identificados incluyeron Capillaria sp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Filaroides osleri, nematodos ancylostomatidos, Trichuris sp., Taenia sp., e Isospora sp. Las cargas parasitarias fueron mayores durante el invierno y en áreas con más perros domésticos. Todas estas especies y géneros son reportados por primera vez en el zorro de Darwin.

  2. / Wild animals endoparasites (Nemathelminthes and Platyhelminthes) from the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru: Endoparasitos (Nemathelminthes y Platyhelminthes) de animales de vida silvestre de la Reserva de Biósfera del Manu, Perú

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Tantaleán; John, Chavez.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año 2001, se recolectaron 8 géneros de helmintos de mamíferos y aves silvestres del Perú, en la Reserva Biosfera del Manu (Departamentos de Cusco y Madre de Dios), desde los 470 a 3780 m. Los parásitos fueron fijados con alcohol etílico en el campo y transportados al laboratorio para estu [...] diarlos; los nemátodos se diafanizaron y los céstodos y tremátodos se colorearon con carmín de acuerdo a técnicas convencionales. La identificación específica de algunos helmintos fue imposible por el estado en que se encontraban, pero se dan a conocer por ser material de gran importancia y ser algunos de ellos algunos registros nuevos para el Perú. Nuestros hallazgos son los siguientes: Rhopalias caballeroi Kifune y Uyema, 1982, Rhopalias sp. (probable n. sp.), Taenia pisiformis Bloch, 1780 (cisticerco), Mesocestoides sp. (tetratyridia), Aprocta sp., Evaginuris branicki Mc Clure, 1932, Haematospiculum sp., Protospirura sp., Diplotriaena sp., Thelazia sp. 1, Thelazia sp. 2, Thelazia sp. 3 y Subulura sp. Abstract in english During 2001, eight genera (three identified to species level) of endoparasites were collected from wild mammals and birds in Peru. These collections were part of a large survey along an elevational gradient (470 3780 m.) on the Southwestern border of the Manu Biosphere Reserve (Departments of Cusco [...] and Madre de Dios). Parasites were fieldfixed in 70% ethyl alcohol and transported to the laboratory, where nematodes were cleared and cestodes were stained using standard procedures. Identification of some specimens was impossible. Nonetheless, the material is of exceptional interest because it includes the first Peruvian records of some taxa. Our findings include: Rhopalias caballeroi Kifune and Uyema, 1982, Rhopalias sp. (probable n. sp.), Taenia pisiformis Bloch, 1780 (cysticercus), Mesocestoides sp. (tetratyridia), Aprocta sp., Evaginuris branicki Mc Clure, 1932, Haematospiculum sp., Protospirura sp., Diplotriaena sp., Thelazia sp. 1, Thelazia sp. 2, Thelazia sp. 3 and Subulura sp.

  3. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 / Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Márcia Imenes, Ishida; Marília Sirianni dos Santos, Almeida; Noeli Maria, Espíndola; Alberto, Iha; Diana Ana, Pereira; Jean Gabriel de, Souza; Theopi Rados, Varvakis; Adelaide José, Vaz.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O primeiro levantamento sobre cisticercose humana e identificação dos fatores de risco associados à transmissão, foram realizados em Lages, SC. MÉTODOS: Oitocentos e setenta e sete voluntários de regiões periurbana e rural foram entrevistados e forneceram informações demográficas e condi [...] ções sanitárias e de saúde. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por meio de punção digital em papel filtro entre agosto 2004 e maio 2005. Verificou-se que 850 amostras estavam adequadas para análise. No ELISA, utilizou-se o antígeno heterólogo liquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps. Para assegurar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ELISA, foram pareadas 77 amostras de soro e sangue eluido do papel filtro. A confirmação do diagnóstico sorológico foi feita por immunoblot (IB) com glicoproteínas purificadas de Taenia crassiceps. RESULTADOS: A reatividade de IgG eluída de sangue em papel filtro mostrou-se compatível com a dos soros correspondentes. A triagem por ELISA de 850 indivíduos revelou 186 (21,9%) positivos. De 213 pessoas convidadas a colher soro para IB (186 ELISA positivo e 27 com amostras de sangue total inadequadas), compareceram 130. O IB foi positivo em 29 (3,4%) de 850 amostras. Houve correlação significativa entre IB positivo e a prática de criação de suínos e de horta caseira (p = 0,0364). CONCLUSÕES: ELISA com sangue total em papel filtro mostrou-se adequado para inquéritos populacionais para cisticercose. A transmissão da cisticercose humana na área estudada mostrou correlação com criação suína domestica e horta caseira. A prevalência obtida foi semelhante à relatada em áreas endêmicas da América Latina. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878) from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health inf [...] ormation. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB) test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9%) out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples) and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4%) out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364) was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.

  4. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.INTRODUÇÃO: O primeiro levantamento sobre cisticercose humana e identificação dos fatores de risco associados à transmissão, foram realizados em Lages, SC. MÉTODOS: Oitocentos e setenta e sete voluntários de regiões periurbana e rural foram entrevistados e forneceram informações demográficas e condições sanitárias e de saúde. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por meio de punção digital em papel filtro entre agosto 2004 e maio 2005. Verificou-se que 850 amostras estavam adequadas para análise. No ELISA, utilizou-se o antígeno heterólogo liquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps. Para assegurar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ELISA, foram pareadas 77 amostras de soro e sangue eluido do papel filtro. A confirmação do diagnóstico sorológico foi feita por immunoblot (IB com glicoproteínas purificadas de Taenia crassiceps. RESULTADOS: A reatividade de IgG eluída de sangue em papel filtro mostrou-se compatível com a dos soros correspondentes. A triagem por ELISA de 850 indivíduos revelou 186 (21,9% positivos. De 213 pessoas convidadas a colher soro para IB (186 ELISA positivo e 27 com amostras de sangue total inadequadas, compareceram 130. O IB foi positivo em 29 (3,4% de 850 amostras. Houve correlação significativa entre IB positivo e a prática de criação de suínos e de horta caseira (p = 0,0364. CONCLUSÕES: ELISA com sangue total em papel filtro mostrou-se adequado para inquéritos populacionais para cisticercose. A transmissão da cisticercose humana na área estudada mostrou correlação com criação suína domestica e horta caseira. A prevalência obtida foi semelhante à relatada em áreas endêmicas da América Latina.

  5. Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys Opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kamranrashani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran.Methods: During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tap­peh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites.Results: Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8% were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae 37.7%, Skrjabinotae­nia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%.Conclusion: R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nema­tode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.

  6. Prevalence of the intestinal flukes Haplorchis taichui and H. yokogawai in a mountainous area of Phongsaly Province, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Shin, Eun-Hee; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Phongsaly Province, located in the northernmost area of Lao PDR, was previously suggested to be endemic for the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection. To confirm, or rule out, this suggestion, the Phonxay village in the Khoua District, Phongsaly Province, was selected for a survey. Ten volunteers (8 men and 2 women aged 31-57 years) who consumed raw freshwater fish and had gastrointestinal troubles were treated with a single dose of praziquantel (40 mg/kg) and pyrantel pamoate (10 mg/kg) and purged with magnesium sulfate to recover any worm parasites. Eight of the 10 volunteers expelled 1 or more species of trematodes, nematodes, or cestodes (worm positive rate; 80%). The worms were morphologically identified as H. taichui (861 worms from 8 people), H. yokogawai (59 from 6 people), Phaneropsolus bonnei (1 from 1 person), Trichostrongylus sp. (2 from 2 people), Ascaris lumbricoides (2 from 1 person), Enterobius vermicularis (11 from 3 people), and Taenia saginata (1 strobila with scolex from 1 person). The results indicate that the mountainous area of Phongsaly Province, Lao PDR, is not endemic for the liver fluke but endemic for intestinal flukes, in particular, Haplorchis taichui and H. yokogawai. PMID:21234239

  7. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given.

  8. Prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis in Jimma municipal abattoir, South West Ethiopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T., Tolosa; W., Tigre; G., Teka; P., Dorny.

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis was conducted from October 2007 to March 2008 in cattle slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir. Cyst distribution and viability of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis were also determined. A total of 51 [...] 2 carcasses were inspected of which 15 (2.93%) and 161 (31.44%) were infected with Taenia saginata metacestodes and hydatid cysts, respectively. From a total of 109 cysticerci collected from infected carcasses, 47 (43.12 %) were viable. The anatomical distribution of the cysticerci was, shoulder muscle (39.5°%), heart (33.9 %), neck muscle (13.8°%), tongue (10.1°%), masseter muscles (1.8°%) and diaphragm (0.9°%). Of the 1171 hydatid cysts collected 223 (19.0°%) were fertile, 505 (43.1 °%) sterile, 49 (29.8 °%) calcified and 94 (8.0 °%) contained pus. A greater proportion of fertile cysts were found in the lungs than in other organs. It was concluded that these zoonotic cestodes deserve due attention to safeguard public health, and that further studies are needed on genotyping, epidemiology and public health importance of Echinococcus granulosus in the study area.

  9. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Germinal J; Guerrero, Roberto I; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  10. Validation of an immunohistochemical assay for bovine cysticercosis, with comparison to a standard histological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandrett, W Brad; Haines, Deborah M; Parker, Sarah E; Robinson, Yves; Forbes, Lorry B; Brandt, Jef; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2012-05-25

    The larval stage (syn Cysticercus bovis) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata causes cysticercosis in cattle, which has both aesthetic and food safety implications to consumers of beef. A monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical (IHC) assay developed to improve postmortem diagnosis of this parasite and a standard histological method were assessed to determine their fitness for intended use. Sections from 169 known-positive specimens of T. saginata from experimentally or naturally infected cattle, and from 30 known-negative specimens and lesions of various etiologies from non-infected cattle, were tested. The IHC assay identified significantly more known positive bovine cysticerci than the histological method (91.7% and 38.5%, respectively). Positive IHC staining occurred on sections from other cestode species, but should not affect the diagnostic specificity of this assay for bovine cysticercosis, due to the different host and/or tissue preferences amongst these parasites. Use of the IHC assay should improve the reliability of diagnosing lesions caused by degenerated cysticerci, facilitating more effective and efficient control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:22169223

  11. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  12. DIVERSITY AND DIMENSIONS OF NEMATODE OVA: A TOOL IN WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELITA RIVERA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematode ova were enumerated and dimensions were measured in raw and treated wastewater from two (2 Haya Water sewage treatment plants situated in Muscat, the capital city. A total of 100 wastewater samples of 5 liter volume per sample were collected from Darsait (DST and Al Ansab (ANS Sewage Treatment Plants (STP from 30 March-08 April 2011 at 4 hour interval from 6:00 am -10:00 pm on a daily basis. The US EPA modified method, double flotation technique using Sodium Nitrate was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the parasitic ova, whereas, DP2-BSW software was applied for length/width measurement of the ova. Seven genera under Phylum Nematoda were found in the samples namely: Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria, Enterobius, Ancyclostoma (hookworm, Toxocara, and Strongyloides. Apparently, two types of cestode eggs under Phylum Platyhelminthes were also noted: Taenia and Hymenolepis. Size measurements were compared to publish dimensions. The study establishes the diversity, counts, and dimensions of the nematode ova content of the domestic wastewater in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. As primary generated information, the profile will be useful in wastewater management and skill enhancement of the laboratory personnel.

  13. Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms – commonly referred to as biomarkers – to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 ?g/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. -- Highlights: •We show how parasites and pollutant affect biomarkers. •Metallothioneins were not influenced by parasites. •Heat shock proteins are modulated by parasites. •Biomarker levels of organisms are dependent on infection status. •Infection with parasites has to be considered in ecotoxicology. -- Parasites are capable of affecting host physiology and therefore modulate biomarker responses

  14. First identification of four trypanorhynchid cestodes: Callitetrarhynchus speciouses, Pseudogrillotia sp. (Lacistorhynchidae), Kotorella pronosoma and Nybelinia bisulcata (Tentaculariidae) from Sparidae and Mullidae fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Al Ghamdi, Ali; Mostafa, Nesma

    2013-07-01

    Four previously unrecognized trypanorhynchids are described based on fish specimens from Sparidae and Mullidae host fish of the Red Sea. From September 2010 to June 2011, 66 specimens of the sea bream Pagrus pagrus (F: Sparidae) and 43 of the red mullet Mullus barbatus (F: Mullidae) were purchased from markets in the Suez and Hurghada cities of the Red Sea. The fishes were measured, and their organs investigated for helminth infections. Forty-one (37.6 %) out of the 109 fish specimens investigated were parasitized with Trypanorhyncha metacestodes, identified as Callitetrarhynchus speciouses Linton 1897, Pseudogrillotia sp. Dollfus 1969, Kotorella pronosoma Stossich 1901 from P. pagrus, and Nybelinia bisulcata Linton 1889 from M. barbatus in the mesentery and peritoneal cavity, with prevalences of 16.5, 11.0, 6.0, and 12.0 %. All of these larval stages were encapsulated larvae in blastocysts. C. speciouses is characterized by an elongated scolex, two bothria, a long postbulbosa, and four elongated bulbs. Pseudogrillotia sp. possesses a scolex with two lateral patelliform bothridia; posterior margins are free, not notched. A long sheath was observed, which was irregularly coiled when tentacles invaginated. N. bisulcata possesses an acraspedote scolex with four bothridia, which are broad, bean-shaped. The tentacles are spirally coiled, supplied with hooks with abruptly turned points. The four tentacles sheaths rose from scolex as two anterior (front) and two posterior (back) which overlap at the apices of bulbs. K. pronosoma is characterized by a short body with a craspedote scolex and four bothridia. The tentacles are short and emerge pairwise. The presence of Trypanorhyncha metacestodes in the muscles does not represent a risk of infection for humans. They have a negative effect on fish esthetics. The repugnant aspect and the prohibition for commercial use by sanitary inspectors, however, cause consumer rejection. Parasites of the order Trypanorhyncha have been recorded in these host fishes for the first time. PMID:23624547

  15. The Morphology Of Mogheia Kangaraensis N.SP. A New Cestode From The Intestine Of Capra Hircus (GOAT At. Kangara(M.S. India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. PATIL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Scolex of Mogheia kangaraensis n.sp. is medium, oval, highly muscular. Suckers large, oval, arranged in two pairs, one pair in each half of the scolex, overlapping in each other, in each pair. Mature proglottids are thin, broader than long. Testes 20 in number in each segment 10 in poral half and 10 in aporal half, small to medium, bean shaped in appearance, ootype small, oval, ventrally of the ovary. Vagina is a long tube, posterior to the cirrus pouch. Genital pores medium, oval, marginal, regularly alternate.

  16. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of the cestode Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of the electric catfish Malapterurus electricus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš; Ibraheem, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 94, ?. 6 (2004), s. 421-426. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/04/0342; GA ?R GA206/03/1317 Grant ostatní: GA SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalidea * spermatozoon Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  17. Cestodes Diphyllobothriidea parasitizing blackfin goosefish, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915 Cestoides Diphyllobothriidea parasitos de peixe sapo-pescador, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Knoff

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre os meses de março de 2000 e dezembro de 2005, 87 espécimes de L. gastrophysus foram obtidos de supermercados e empresas de exportação localizadas nos municipios de Cabo Frio, Niteroi, Duque de Caxias e Rio de Janeiro. Os peixes foram necropsiados, filetados e seus órgãos investigados para presença de helmintos. Dois espécimes (2,3% estavam parasitados por plerocecoides de Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 na cavidade abdominal e serosa do intestino, com intensidade média de um parasito por peixe e abundância média de 0,02, mostrando baixo potencial infectivo. Este é o primeiro registro de plerocercoides de Diphyllobothrium sp. no peixe sapo-pescador.

  18. Cestodes Diphyllobothriidea parasitizing blackfin goosefish, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915 / Cestoides Diphyllobothriidea parasitos de peixe sapo-pescador, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Knoff; S.C. São, Clemente; M.C.G., Fonseca; N.N., Felizardo; R.M., Pinto; D.C., Gomes.

    1033-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre os meses de março de 2000 e dezembro de 2005, 87 espécimes de L. gastrophysus foram obtidos de supermercados e empresas de exportação localizadas nos municipios de Cabo Frio, Niteroi, Duque de Caxias e Rio de Janeiro. Os peixes foram necropsiados, filetados e seus órgãos investigados para pres [...] ença de helmintos. Dois espécimes (2,3%) estavam parasitados por plerocecoides de Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 na cavidade abdominal e serosa do intestino, com intensidade média de um parasito por peixe e abundância média de 0,02, mostrando baixo potencial infectivo. Este é o primeiro registro de plerocercoides de Diphyllobothrium sp. no peixe sapo-pescador. Abstract in english [...

  19. [Composition of leucocytes of the head kidney of the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) as affected by invasion of cestode Digramma interrupta (Cestoda; Pseudophyllidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, I A; Pronin, N M; Dugarov, Zh N

    2011-01-01

    The composition of leucocytes of the head kidney is studied in the crucian carps (Carassius auratus) either contaminated or uncontaminated with Digramma interrupta. The composition of leucocytes in the pronephros of the crucian carp from Lake Baikal basin has a lymphoid character. Compared to the crucian carp from the European part of Russia, in the fish from Baikal the granulocytopoetic processes are more pronounced. This is proved by the high content of young forms of granulocytes. In the fish infected with digramma, the immune suppression of proliferation of blasts and young forms of eosinophils was revealed. On the other hand, the inflammatory and humoral specific immune reactions are enhanced. Partial suppression of the immune response of C. auratus to invasion by D. interrupta facilitates development of the parasite. PMID:22292296

  20. In vitro effects of prostaglandin E2 on leucocytes from sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infected and not infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Ivan A; Franke, Frederik; Büscher, Janine; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-12-01

    Many helminth parasites have evolved strategies to evade the immune response of their hosts, which includes immunomodulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the best-described immunomodulators in mammalian helminth parasite infections. We hypothesized that also in teleost fish anti-helminthic immune responses are regulated via PGE2. We used a model system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), to investigate in vitro effects of PGE2 on head kidney leucocytes (HKL) derived from sticklebacks that were experimentally infected with S. solidus. PGE2 was tested alone or in combination with either S. solidus antigens or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). After in vitro culture, cell viability and changes in leucocyte subpopulations (granulocytes to lymphocytes ratios) were monitored by flow cytometry and HKL were tested for their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a chemiluminescence assay. In short term (2 h) HKL cultures PGE2 did not change the total numbers of live HKL, but the production of ROS decreased significantly with high (0.1 ?mol L(-1)) PGE2 concentrations. In long-term (96 h) cultures high PGE2 concentrations induced a sharp decrease of leucocytes viability, while low (0.1 pmol L(-1)) and intermediate (0.1 nmol L(-1)) concentrations of PGE2 caused elevated leucocyte viability compared to controls. This coincided with reduced ROS production in cultures with high PGE2 and elevated ROS production in cultures with low PGE2. Granulocyte to lymphocyte ratios increased with high PGE2 concentrations alone and in combination with S. solidus antigens and LPS, most prominently with HKL from S. solidus infected sticklebacks. The present study supports the hypothesis that PGE2 might be an immunomodulator in tapeworm-fish parasite-host interactions. PMID:25301719

  1. Fish hepatic glutathione-S-transferase activity is affected by the cestode parasites Schistocephalus solidus and Ligula intestinalis: evidence from field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sabrina Nadine; Faust, Steffen; Kalbe, Martin; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

    2011-06-01

    The activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was analysed in 3 different fish species with respect to fish sex and infection with parasites. In both sexes of laboratory bred three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) experimentally infected with Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda), a significantly lower GST-activity was found for infected fish compared to control. After field sampling of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Müggelsee (MS) and the Reservoir Listertalsperre (LTS), the GST-activity showed significantly lower values for males infected with Ligula intestinalis from MS (25%) and for infected females from LTS (55%). L. intestinalis-infected female chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from LTS also appeared to have a lower GST-activity. Thus, it could be shown that the presence of parasites significantly affects GST-activity in different fish species resulting in a decreased GST-activity due to infection. Our results therefore emphasize the need for more integrative approaches in environmental pollution research to clearly identify the possible effects of parasites in an effort to develop biomarkers for evaluating environmental health. PMID:21518465

  2. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, Erick V G; Kimbi, Eliakunda C; Ngowi, Helena A; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mlangwa, James E; Lekule, Faustin P; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Willingham, Arve Lee; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2013-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600 male and female pigs of different age categories were randomly selected and examined for PC using lingual examination method and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The overall pig level PC prevalence in Mbozi district was 11.7% (95% CI=8.5-15.8%) and 32% (95% CI: 27-37.5%) based on lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbeya Rural district, the prevalences were 6% (95% CI: 3.8-9.3%) and 30.7% (95% CI: 25.8-36.1%) by lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbozi district 46% of the households were found infected (one or more infected pigs) and the corresponding figure was 45% for Mbeya Rural district. The agreement between lingual examination and Ag-ELISA was poor (?differences in the prevalence of PC in different sex categories of pigs. Significant risk factors associated with PC prevalence were free roaming of pigs (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.6; p=0.006), past experience of porcine cysticercosis in the household (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.5-4.8; p=0.002), increased age of pig (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-3.0), slatted raised floor in pig pen (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.0-70.0), in-house origin of the pig (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1-2.5) and sourcing of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; pponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which imposes a major economical and public health burden to the smallholder pig farmers. The study also points to a number of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium. PMID:24139481

  3. Análisis epidemiológico de pacientes coinfectados con enfermedad de Chagas y cisticercosis / Epidemiological analysis of patients coinfected with Chagas disease and cysticercosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina, Faleiros; Ruy, Lino-Junior; Virlanea, Lima; Camila, Cavellani; Rosana Rosa, Corrêa; Mauricio, Llaguno; Marlene, Reis; Vicente, Teixeira.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se ha sugerido que la infección por larvas de Taenia solium (cisticercosis) podría inducir un estado de inmunosupresión en el huésped, aumentando el riesgo de adquirir infecciones múltiples después de estar expuesto a otros parásitos, entre ellos Trypanosoma cruzi, particularmente entr [...] e habitantes de áreas endémicas en países en desarrollo. Objetivos. Evaluar un posible aumento en la presentación endémica de infección por T. cruzi (enfermedad de Chagas) en pacientes con cisticercosis. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 1.501 autopsias de individuos mayores de 15 años de edad del Hospital Universitario de Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1970-2004. Se dividieron los casos en cuatro grupos: (1) sin infección, (2) con cisticercosis, (3) con enfermedad de Chagas y (4) coinfectados con cisticercosis y enfermedad de Chagas. Se analizaron las variables de raza, sexo y edad. Resultados. Más de la mitad de todos los casos no presentaban infección (848 casos o 56,5%); 611 pacientes (40,7%) tenían enfermedad de Chagas; 72 casos (4,8% de las autopsias) tenían cisticercosis y 30 (41,7%) presentaron coinfección de cisticercosis con enfermedad de Chagas. La raza blanca y el sexo masculino fueron predominantes en todos los grupos. La mediana de edad más joven fue encontrada en el grupo sin infección (46 años), seguido por aquéllos que presentaban enfermedad de Chagas (49 años) y por aquéllos con coinfección de cisticercosis y enfermedad de Chagas (57,5 años). Conclusión. En teoría, todos los pacientes tuvieron un riesgo similar de exposición para ambos parásitos. Sin embargo, este trabajo demuestra que, en la población estudiada, la enfermedad de Chagas fue, aproximadamente, 10 veces más frecuente en los casos coinfectados con cisticercosis. Abstract in english Introduction. Among inhabitants of endemic areas in the developing world, infection with the larva of Taenia solium (cysticercosis) may possibly induce a state of immunosuppression in the host, thereby increasing the risk of multiple infections after exposure to other parasites, such as Trypanosoma [...] cruzi. Objective. Increase in the epidemiological occurrence of infection was assessed for Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in patients with cysticercosis. Materials and methods. At the University Hospital in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, data were obtained from autopsies performed between 1970-2004 on 1,501 subjects older than 15 years of age. Cases were divided into four groups: (1) no infection, (2) cysticercosis only, (3) Chagas disease only, and (4) cysticercosis coinfected with Chagas disease. Race, gender and age data were analyzed. Results. More than half of the cases showed no infection (848 cases or 56.5%); Chagas disease was found in 611 patients (40.7%); 72 cases (4.8% of the autopsies) had cysticercosis and 30 of them (41.7%) were co-infected with Chagas disease. White race and male gender were predominant in all groups. The youngest median age was found in the non-infected group (46 years), followed by those with Chagas disease without cysticercosis (49 years) and those coinfected with cysticercosis and Chagas disease (57.5 years). Conclusion. Presumably, all patients had a similar exposure to both parasites. However, in this study population, Chagas disease was approximately 10 times more frequent in patients co-infected with cysticercosis.

  4. Uso del ELISA de captura de antígeno en el monitoreo de porcinos infectados naturalmente con Cysticercus cellulosae y tratados con oxfendazol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yeny, Tinoco F.; Armando, González Z.; Teresa, López U.; María, Silva I..

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis por Taenia solium es una enfermedad zoonótica común en países en desarrollo y un grave problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En la actualidad es posible tratarla mediante el uso de cisticidas, pero una vez aplicado el tratamiento, el monitoreo de la evolución del animal es limi [...] tado por el alto costo de las técnicas de radioimagen. Además, las pruebas inmunodiagnósticas disponibles no son útiles en el monitoreo pues detectan la presencia de anticuerpos contra los C. cellulosae, los cuales se mantienen en circulación, aún después de la muerte de los quistes. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la utilidad del ELISA captura de antígeno en el monitoreo de la persistencia de antígeno parasitario circulante en animales tratados contra cisticercosis. Para este fin, se tomó un grupo de sueros que corresponden al seguimiento pre y post tratamiento de 6 cerdos naturalmente infectados con cisticercosis y tratados con oxfendazol. Se utilizó también el archivo de necropsias y las fichas de evaginación. Se encontró que el tiempo en el que los títulos de antígeno fueron inferiores al punto de corte ocurrió en el día 59 post tratamiento y que la media de supervivencia fue de 71.5 días (59.3-83.8). Los resultados parecen evidenciar que el ELISA-Ag permitiría el monitoreo cuantitativo del comportamiento y persistencia de los antígenos circulantes en animales naturalmente infectados y tratados con una droga cisticida. Sin embargo, se requiere monitorear mayor cantidad de cerdos para obtener resultados concluyentes. Abstract in english Taenia solium cysticercosis is a serious public health problem in developing countries around the world. At the present time, treatment with anthelmintic drugs is possible, but once applied the treatment the monitoring of the animal is limited by the high cost of the radiological techniques. Moreove [...] r, the available immunodiagnostic assays are not useful for monitoring because they detect the presence of antibodies against C. cellulosae, which remain in circulation after cysts are dead. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the usefulness of a monoclonal antibody-based capture ELISA (Ag-ELISA) in the monitoring of the persistence of circulating parasite antigens in animals treated against cysticercosis. For this purpose, serum samples corresponding to the monitoring of pre and post treatment of 6 pigs, naturally infected with cysticercosis and treated with oxfendazol, were evaluated. Necropsy data and evagination records were also used. It was found that the time in which the antigen titles were lower to the cut off OD values occurred on day 59 post treatment and that the mean survival time was 71.5 (59.3-83.8) days. These results seem to demonstrate that the Ag-ELISA would allow the quantitative monitoring of the behavior and persistence of circulating antigens in naturally infected animals that are treated with an antiparasitic drug. However, the monitoring of additional treated pigs are required to obtain conclusive results.

  5. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2: sensibilidade 81,8% (MAE=0,46 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG3: sensibilidade 63,6% (MAE=0,12 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG4: sensibilidade 90,9% (MAE=0,85 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgE: sensibilidade 93,8% (MAE=0,60 e especificidade 100%. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as sensibilidades e especificidades das reações ELISA-IgG e ELISA-IgE, embora a MAE da reação ELISA-IgG em amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose tenha sido significativamente maior que a obtida com ELISA-IgE. Os valores de sensibilidade e MAE da reação ELISA-IgG4 foram maiores que os valores correspondentes para as outras subclasses da IgG. Estudos futuros deverão abordar a contribuição dos anticorpos IgG4 e IgE na fisiopatologia da neurocisticercose.

  6. Cysticercosis in experimentally and naturally infected pigs: parasitological and immunological diagnosis Cisticercose em suínos infectados experimentalmente e naturalmente: diagnósticos parasitológico e imunológico

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    Márcia R.M. da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis by examining "ante mortem" (inspection of the tongue, "post mortem" (inspection and detailed necropsy and ELISA for research in serum of antibodies (Ab-ELISA and antigens (Ag-ELISA. Seven (7 pigs were experimentally infected orally with eggs of Taenia solium and another 10 were naturally infected. In the pigs experimentally infected, inspection of the tongue was negative in all animals, in the routine inspection detailed necropsy and cysticercis were identified in all of them. In pigs with heavy natural infection, inspection of the tongue identified cysticerci in two (20%, while at inspection with necropsy the parasites were identified in large quantities in all animals. In ELISA for antibody search (Ab-ELISA TS-14 recombinant protein was used, and in search for antigen (Ag-ELISA a monoclonal antibody against this protein. In animals experimentally infected, blood was collected weekly for 140 days. The Ab-ELISA identified an increase in titers of antibody to cysticerci 21 days after infection, and at the end of the experimental period six animals (86% were positive to the test. The search for circulating antigens (Ag-ELISA was positive in two pigs 28 to 91 days after infection. All naturally infected pigs were positive for Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA. The search for antibodies and antigens by ELISA in serum from 30 pigs of a local farm and without history of cysticercosis was negative. Thus, the use of TS-14 antigen in ELISA test (Ab-ELISA can be useful for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs with low infection.Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o diagnóstico de cisticercose suína através do exame "ante mortem" (inspeção da língua, "post mortem" (inspeção e necropsia detalhada e teste de ELISA para a pesquisa no soro de anticorpos (Ab-ELISA e antígenos (Ag -ELISA. Sete (7 suínos foram infectados experimentalmente por via oral com ovos de Taenia solium e outros 10 eram portadores de infecção natural generalizada. Nos suínos experimentalmente infectados, a inspeção da língua foi negativa em todos os animais, na inspeção 4 (57% estavam infectados, a necropsia detalhada identificou cisticercos em todos os animais. Nos animais com infecção natural generalizada, a inspeção da língua identificou cisticercos em 2 (20%, enquanto que a inspeção e a necropsia os parasitas foram identificados em grande quantidade em todos os animais. No teste de ELISA para a pesquisa de anticorpos (Ab-ELISA foi utilizada a proteína recombinante TS-14 e para a pesquisa de antígenos (Ag-ELISA um anticorpo monoclonal produzido contra esta proteína. Nos animais experimentalmente infectados o sangue foi coletado semanalmente por um período de 140 dias. O Ab-ELISA identificou um aumento nos títulos de anticorpos para cisticercos 21 dias após a infecção, sendo que no final do período experimental 6 animais (86% foram positivos ao teste. A pesquisa de antígenos circulantes (Ag-ELISA, foi positiva em 2 animais, entre os dias 21 e 91 após a infecção . Todos os suínos com infecção natural generalizada foram positivos para Ag-ELISA e Ab-ELISA.A pesquisa de anticorpos e antígenos pelo ELISA realizada no soro de 30 suínos procedentes de uma criação local sem historia de cisticercose foi negativa. Assim o uso do antígeno TS-14 (Ac-ELISA, pode ser útil para o diagnóstico da cisticercose em suínos com baixa infecção.

  7. Cysticercosis in experimentally and naturally infected pigs: parasitological and immunological diagnosis / Cisticercose em suínos infectados experimentalmente e naturalmente: diagnósticos parasitológico e imunológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia R.M. da, Silva; Cibele N.S., Uyhara; Flavio H., Silva; Noeli M., Espindola; Mirele D., Poleti; Adelaide J., Vaz; Flávio V., Meirelles; Antonio A.M., Maia.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o diagnóstico de cisticercose suína através do exame "ante mortem" (inspeção da língua), "post mortem" (inspeção e necropsia detalhada) e teste de ELISA para a pesquisa no soro de anticorpos (Ab-ELISA) e antígenos (Ag -ELISA). Sete (7) suínos foram infectados experimentalm [...] ente por via oral com ovos de Taenia solium e outros 10 eram portadores de infecção natural generalizada. Nos suínos experimentalmente infectados, a inspeção da língua foi negativa em todos os animais, na inspeção 4 (57%) estavam infectados, a necropsia detalhada identificou cisticercos em todos os animais. Nos animais com infecção natural generalizada, a inspeção da língua identificou cisticercos em 2 (20%), enquanto que a inspeção e a necropsia os parasitas foram identificados em grande quantidade em todos os animais. No teste de ELISA para a pesquisa de anticorpos (Ab-ELISA) foi utilizada a proteína recombinante TS-14 e para a pesquisa de antígenos (Ag-ELISA) um anticorpo monoclonal produzido contra esta proteína. Nos animais experimentalmente infectados o sangue foi coletado semanalmente por um período de 140 dias. O Ab-ELISA identificou um aumento nos títulos de anticorpos para cisticercos 21 dias após a infecção, sendo que no final do período experimental 6 animais (86%) foram positivos ao teste. A pesquisa de antígenos circulantes (Ag-ELISA), foi positiva em 2 animais, entre os dias 21 e 91 após a infecção . Todos os suínos com infecção natural generalizada foram positivos para Ag-ELISA e Ab-ELISA.A pesquisa de anticorpos e antígenos pelo ELISA realizada no soro de 30 suínos procedentes de uma criação local sem historia de cisticercose foi negativa. Assim o uso do antígeno TS-14 (Ac-ELISA), pode ser útil para o diagnóstico da cisticercose em suínos com baixa infecção. Abstract in english Our objective was to evaluate the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis by examining "ante mortem" (inspection of the tongue), "post mortem" (inspection and detailed necropsy) and ELISA for research in serum of antibodies (Ab-ELISA) and antigens (Ag-ELISA). Seven (7) pigs were experimentally infected ora [...] lly with eggs of Taenia solium and another 10 were naturally infected. In the pigs experimentally infected, inspection of the tongue was negative in all animals, in the routine inspection detailed necropsy and cysticercis were identified in all of them. In pigs with heavy natural infection, inspection of the tongue identified cysticerci in two (20%), while at inspection with necropsy the parasites were identified in large quantities in all animals. In ELISA for antibody search (Ab-ELISA) TS-14 recombinant protein was used, and in search for antigen (Ag-ELISA) a monoclonal antibody against this protein. In animals experimentally infected, blood was collected weekly for 140 days. The Ab-ELISA identified an increase in titers of antibody to cysticerci 21 days after infection, and at the end of the experimental period six animals (86%) were positive to the test. The search for circulating antigens (Ag-ELISA) was positive in two pigs 28 to 91 days after infection. All naturally infected pigs were positive for Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA. The search for antibodies and antigens by ELISA in serum from 30 pigs of a local farm and without history of cysticercosis was negative. Thus, the use of TS-14 antigen in ELISA test (Ab-ELISA) can be useful for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs with low infection.

  8. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies / Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses) e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA) padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses) e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com neurocistice [...] rcose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE)=1,17) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2: sensibilidade 81,8% (MAE=0,46) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG3: sensibilidade 63,6% (MAE=0,12) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG4: sensibilidade 90,9% (MAE=0,85) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgE: sensibilidade 93,8% (MAE=0,60) e especificidade 100%. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as sensibilidades e especificidades das reações ELISA-IgG e ELISA-IgE, embora a MAE da reação ELISA-IgG em amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose tenha sido significativamente maior que a obtida com ELISA-IgE. Os valores de sensibilidade e MAE da reação ELISA-IgG4 foram maiores que os valores correspondentes para as outras subclasses da IgG. Estudos futuros deverão abordar a contribuição dos anticorpos IgG4 e IgE na fisiopatologia da neurocisticercose. Abstract in english In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal product [...] ion of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  9. Neurocisticercosis en pediatría / Pediatric neurocysticercosis

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    Jorge, Malagón Valdez.

    Full Text Available Cisticercosis: enfermedad parasitaria que afecta en México al 3% de la población. Se considera que hay más de 50 millones de infectados en el mundo, endémica en México, Centro y Sudamérica, Africa, Asia e India. Considerada la enfermedad infecciosa neurológica más importante mundialmente por sus man [...] ifestaciones clínicas. El agente causal en cerdos y humanos es el cisticerco de la Taenia solium, que puede alojarse en músculo, cerebro y ventrículos. Si se ingiere carne de cerdo contaminada con cisticercos, se adquiere la solitaria, que vive en los intestinos del ser humano y genera miles de huevecillos que se excretan por la materia fecal. Al ingerir alimentos contaminados con materia fecal por el humano y el cerdo, se adquiere la cisticercosis que compromete distintas partes del organismo, especialmente el SNC. El ser humano es el único hospedero de la solitaria y el cerdo es intermediario, por lo que la prevalencia de la teniasis-cisticercosis depende de este vínculo. Se diagnostica en zonas endémicas por la presencia de crisis convulsivas, cefalea, síntomas neurológicos focales, trastornos de visión, hipertensión endocraneal y tomografía cerebral con zonas hipodensas o quiste con un anillo hiperdenso. El tratamiento con antiparasitarios es controversial en pediatría, se sugiere administrarse en la fase quística no calcificada y en casos de epilepsia asociada. Pocos son los casos que ameritan tratamiento quirúrgico por hidrocefalia o por cisticerco intraventricular, que es muy raro. Abstract in english Cysticercosis: parasitic disease which affects 3% of the population in Mexico. It is considered that there are more than 50 million infected people in the world, endemic in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and India. It is considered the most important neurological infectious disease [...] world-wide for its clinical manifestations. The causal agent in pigs and humans is the cysticercus of the Taenia solium, that can lodge in muscle, brain and ventricles. If pork meat contaminated with cysticercus is eaten, the tapeworm will live in the human intestine and create thousands of eggs that are excreted by the feces. When food contaminated with fecal matter is consumed by man or pig, the cisticercosis is disseminated in several parts of the organism, specially CNS. Man is the only host of the tapeworm and the pig is the only intermediary, reason why the prevalence of the teniasis-cisticercosis depends on this bond. It is diagnosed in endemic zones by the presence of convulsion crises, focal migraine, neurological symptoms, disorders of vision, endocraneal hypertension and CT scan with hypodense zones or cysts with a hyperdense ring. The antiparasitic treatment in children is controversial among pediatricians; it is suggested to use it only in the non calcified cystic phase and in cases associated with epilepsy. Few are the cases of hydrocephalic or intraventricular cysticercus that need surgical treatment.

  10. Neurocysticercosis in the pediatric age: description and five years of experience

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    González-Velásquez Tania

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused bythe parasitic Taenia Solium, the most common parasites of this system and the principalcause of adquired epilepsy.Objective: To know which are the epidemiological and clinical characteristics in a seriesof children and adolescents with neurocysticercosis diagnosis.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of medical histories, case series type ofpediatric patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosis that were evaluated and followedbetween three and ten months at Hospital Infantil Napoleón Franco Pareja, in Cartagena,Colombia, since June 2006 to June 2011.Results: 201 medical histories were studied, 112 (55.7% were from rural areas and 89(44.3% were from urban areas. Fourty new cases per year on average were observedin the last five years. There were observed various cases in children of two years old orless, which is an unusual behavior. All patients were from Bolivar´s department in theColombian Caribbean. The most frequent clinical symptom was focal epileptic crisis, followedby generalized epileptic crisis and in the third place, generalized convulsive status.The disease appeared of the following way according to the clinical stadium: 29 (14.4%had colloidal clinical stadium, 66 (32.8% vesicular clinical stadium, 98 (48.8% granularclinical stadium and 8 (4.0% calcified clinical stadium. In the majority of the cases(97.5% anthelmintic treatment was used. Epileptic crisis control was obtained in 100%of the cases. 84.6% received an anticolvulsivant. In the monitoring of the cases therewas identified as the first neurologic consequence: The acquired epilepsy (59%. Studiedpopulation belongs to urban neighborhoods and rural populations, who don´t have anadequate infrastructure of services that guarantees a good management of garbage andoutput.Conclusion: Neurocysticercosis is an important disease that affects since early agesto children from subnormal urban and rural areas of Bolivar´s department. Preventiveactions, included improvement in the environmental reorganization are indispensable.Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2: 217-225KEYWORDSCysticercosis; Neurocysticercosis; Epilepsy.RESUMEN.Introducción: la neurocisticercosis es una infección del sistema nervioso centralcausada por el parásito Taenia Solium, la parasitosis más común de este sistema y laprincipal causa de epilepsia adquirida.Objetivo: conocer cuáles son las características epidemiológicas y clínicas en una seriede niños y adolescentes con diagnóstico de neurocisticercosis.Metodología: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de historias clínicas, tipo seriede casos, de pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de neurocisticercosis, evaluados yseguidos entre tres y diez meses en el Hospital Infantil Napoleón Franco Pareja, enCartagena, Colombia, desde junio 2006 hasta junio 2011.Resultados: 201 historias clínicas fueron estudiadas, 112 (55.7% de pacientes deprocedencia rural y 89 (44.3% urbana. Cuarenta casos nuevos anuales en promediofueron observados en los últimos cinco años. Se revisaron varios casos en niños pordebajo de los dos años de edad, lo cual es un comportamiento inusual. Todos lospacientes procedían del departamento de Bolívar en el Caribe colombiano. La poblaciónestudiada pertenece a barrios urbanos y poblaciones rurales, que no cuentan con lainfraestructura adecuada de servicios que garanticen un buen manejo de basuras yexcretas. El síntoma clínico más frecuente fue la crisis epiléptica focal, seguido de lascrisis epilépticas generalizadas y en tercer lugar el estatus convulsivo generalizado.Según el estadio clínico, la enfermedad se presentó de la siguiente manera: 29 (14.4%tenían estadio clínico coloidal, 66 (32.8% estadio clínico vesicular, 98 (48.8% estadioclínico granular y 8 (4.0% estadio clínico calcificado. En la gran mayoría de los casos(97.5% se utilizó tratamiento antihelmíntico. Control de las crisis epilépticas seconsiguieron en el 100% de los casos. El 84.6% recibió un anticonvulsivante. En el

  11. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicanor, Ibáñez H; César, Jara C; Antenor, Guerra M; Enrique, Díaz L.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En est [...] e estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal); Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine the prevalence of intestinal infections by protozoan and helminthes and their relationship with sex, living place, and age group, in native schoolchildren from the Alto Marañon area in the Amazon jungle, Bagua province, Amazonas department, Peru. Materials and Methods: In th [...] is observational, cross-sectional study, representative schools from the region were selected, and stool samples from 1049 schoolchildren with ages from 6 to 15 year old were examined between October 2001 and October 2002, using direct microscopy with saline solution and lugol, as well as Teleman’s and Kinnyoun’s techniques. Results: The prevalence of intestinal protozoan and helminthes infections was as follows: Entamoeba coli, 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis, 28,4%; Endolimax nana, 23,9%; Iodameoba butschlii, 32,9%; Giardia lamblia, 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp., 10,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus, 0,7%; and Fasciola hepatica, 0,2% (which are not intestinal parasites, but living in lungs and biliary tract, respectively, and pass through feces); Ancylostoma/Necator, 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura, 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 3,6%; Hymenolepis nana, 3,5%;Taenia solium/saginata, 0,2%; Strongyloides stercolaris, 0,8%; and H. diminuta, 0,2%. Conclusions: Ancylostoma/ Necator and A. lumbricoides are most prevalent in young people in Mesones Muro and Nazaret areas, and this is the very first time that Paragonimus infection is reported in the northern jungle of Peru.

  12. The Vicious Worm - a cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara

    Porcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis implicates significant economic losses, both in pig production and its impact on human health causing severe headaches and seizures. Cysticercosis control strategies in developing countries have been limited by a lack of available intervention tools and poor socioeconomic and sanitary conditions. Consequently, the intervention strategies to prevent and control cysticercosis must be on health education engaging the communities and creating public awareness. Enhancing basic conditions such as hygiene has an important effect on reducing the risk of transmission. In addition some very simple but effective changes in people’s day-to-day practices such as use of latrines and keeping pigs in pens would stop the life cycle of the disease and considerably reduce the risk of cysticercosis transmission. The need for political will and resources are basic requirements in order to control not only cysticercosis but also other endemic zoonotic diseases. ICONZ and ADVANZ are two One Health neglected zoonotic diseases projects, funded by the European Commission through its 7th framework program. Part of University of Copenhagen’s tasks in these projects is to develop an improved advocacy tool for teaching about cysticercosis, including information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans, its impact on people’s livelihood, and possible control and intervention strategies. The advocacy tool will be developed as a USB flash drive, with information targeted at three levels: knowledge relevant to the laymen in the villages, information for supporting practitioners; MD’s in health centres, veterinary and agricultural extension officers and pig traders. Furthermore there will be a policy brief aimed at the key decision makers at ministry level.

  13. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in Homa Bay District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshitera Eric E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and leads to economic losses to the pig production industry. Due to scarcity of data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Kenya, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis within Homa Bay district. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010, and a total of 392 pigs were recruited in a household survey, with all being tested by ante-mortem lingual palpation (together with questionnaire data on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis collected from the households from which pigs were sampled. Sufficient serum was collected from 232 of the pigs to be tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA. Results Seventy six pigs were found positive by the Ag-ELISA (32.8%, 95% C.I. 26.8-39.2%, while by tongue inspection cysticerci were detected in 22/ 392 pigs (5.6% 95% C.I. 3.6-8.4%. The most important risk factor for porcine cysticercosis in the Homa Bay area was for pigs to belong to a farm where latrine use by members of the household was not evident (OR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.13–2.37. Conclusion The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in Homa Bay District, and that latrine provision, in conjunction with free-range pig keeping contributes significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission.

  14. Neurocysticercosis: A five-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doder Radoslava Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common parasitic disease with wide distribution which is caused by larval forms of Taenia Solium. Our aim was to: show the most common clinical manifestations of patients with NCC and their importance in diagnosing this disease; examine the value of serologic diagnostic methods in blood and cerebrospinal fluid; to emphasize the value of radiological diagnostic methods – CT and MRI of the brain, in relation to the applied protocol of therapy, as well as the impact of anti-parasitic therapy on the outcome of this disease. Material, methods and results 13 patients with NCC (from 35 to 63 years of age, median age 49; 61,5% male and 38,5% female were treated at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Novi Sad during a five-year period. Two patients had a positive epidemic data of parasitic diseases of the intestinal tract in childhood. The most common clinical manifestation was headache in 61,5% of patients, and generalized convulsions and hemiparesis in 46,2%. Meningeal inflammation was present in 27,3% of patients. Two of five patients had positive ELISA test for cysticercosis in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. CT and MRI findings confirmed parenchimal form of NCC in 30,8% of patients, while calcifications were found in 69,2% of patients. All patients were treated with Albendazole, 800 mg a day, in two doses. 30,76% of patients had a favorable outcome of the disease, 53,7% of patients were discharged with complications, and one patient died. Conclusion The most common manifestation of NCC in our patients was headache, followed by general convulsions and hemiparesis. Radiological diagnostic methods – CT and MRI – proved to be most valuable both in diagnostics and follow-up of lesions. All our patients were treated with Albendazole; Dexamethasone was applied in patients with severe inflammatory reaction, and anti-convulsive drugs in patients with convulsions.

  15. Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: Role of High Resolution Ultrasound in Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Lohra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the commonest site of extraintestinal infestation with Taenia solium is brain, Subcutaneous cysticercosis is fairly common in asia. The advent of high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, and a heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated soft tissue cysticerci has probably supplanted the need for surgical intervention and excision biopsy in asymptomatic subcutaneous cysts, as cysts have high rate of spontaneous resolution. OBJECTIVES: - To observe role of high resolution ultrasound in diagnosis and need of surgical intervention in treatment of subcutaneous cysticercosis. MATERIALS and METHODS: retrospective study of seven cases of extraneural cysticercosis, all involving the subcutaneous tissues or muscles over the arms and torso. Either high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, or excision biopsy, or a combination of these were used to arrive at a diagnosis. All patients were followed up with serial ultrasounds. All patients received oral nitazoxanide for autoinfection. Surgical excision was resorted to in two patients, in whom it was possible to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis. RESULTS: of the seven cases of subcutaneous cysticercosis all have rural background, most of the patients (6 were vegetarian and one was non vegetarian. Age and gender of patient, size and duration of lesion were insignificant in establishing the diagnosis. High resolution ultrasound was highly significant in establishing the diagnosis over FNAC and histopathology. Five of the cases resolved spontaneously and surgical intervention was required only in two cases. INTERPRETATION and CONCLUSIONS: With heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated subcutaneous cysticercosis in patients with close animal contact, and the widespread availability of high resolution ultrasound and FNAC, subcutaneous cysticercosis can be diagnosed readily. Surgery can be avoided in the great majority of these patients, as the cysts mostly resolve on their own, and do not require any specific treatment. Identification and treatment of autoinfection, and of another source of infection in the household is equally important. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 82-86

  16. Healthy