WorldWideScience
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Molecular cloning of Taenia solium genomic DNA and characterization of taeniid cestodes by DNA analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total DNAs, isolated from a range of taeniid cestodes (Taenia solium, T. saginata, T. pisiformis, T. crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. ovis, T. multiceps and T. taeniaeformis), have been subjected to restriction enzyme digestion, Southern transfer and hybridization analysis using cloned fragments of the ribosomal RNA gene of Schistosoma mansoni. Substantial inter-specific genetic differences have been revealed on the basis of characteristic hybridization patterns for each of the taeniid cestode species. Furthermore, a random genomic DNA library has been constructed in the vector plasmid pAT153 using DNA extracted from a pig isolate (Indian origin) of T. solium. A panel of taeniid cestode DNAs including DNA from Echinococcus granulosus, has been used in conjunction with hybridization and restriction enzyme analysis to identify in the library a single recombinant plasmid with a T. solium-specific insert (coded pTS10) and two recombinant plasmids with T. solium inserts having selective specificities for T. solium and T. ovis (coded pTS17) and T. solium, T. saginata, T. ovis and T. multiceps (coded pTS28). These recombinant plasmids and the cloned fragments of the ribosomal RNA gene of S. mansoni have been used in restriction endonuclease, Southern transfer and hybridization analysis to detect intra-specific genetic variation in cysticerci of T. solium from India, Mexico and Zimbabwe. In addition, pTS10 and pTS17 have been used in a simple dot-blot assay to distinguish T. solium from T. saginata. PMID:2845336

Rishi, A K; McManus, D P

1988-08-01

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Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment [...] aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, health education has been shown to be highly effective since people become aware of the importance of human and porcine cysticercosis and the possibility of eliminating it. Nevertheless it has to be implemented by knowledgeable people. On the other hand, the life cycle can be controlled by avoiding swine cysticercosis. This review describes the studies performed to vaccinate pigs against T. solium and indicate that short time perspectives are very encouraging for the production of an optimal vaccine.

Ana, Flisser; Marshall W, Lightowlers.

2001-04-01

3

Other cestodes: sparganosis, coenurosis and Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many cestodes are capable of invading the central nervous system (CNS), and several are highly prevalent in the developing world. Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium and echinococcosis due to Echinoccocus granulosus are two of the most common parasitic infections affecting humans, but other less well-known parasites can also infect the nervous system. Coenurosis, caused by Taenia spp. such as T. multiceps, T. serialis, or T. brauni; sparganosis, caused by Spirometra spp., and neurocysticercosis caused by T. crassiceps are three less frequent zoonotic conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with CNS infection - especially if they have lived in or traveled through areas where these infections are endemic. Diagnosis of these infections is typically made through a combination of serological testing, histopathology, and neuroimaging. PMID:23829923

Lescano, Andres G; Zunt, Joseph

2013-01-01

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Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis...

Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Herna?ndez, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; Lo?pez-casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Va?zquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

1999-01-01

5

Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections: from DNA probes to polymerase chain reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was the rapid and easy differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and T. solium. First, a T. saginata size-selected genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (gDNA) library was constructed in the vector lambda gt10 using the 2-4 kb fraction from the parasite DNA digested with EcoR1, under 'star' conditions. After differential screening of the library and hybridization analysis with DNA from T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus (bovine, porcine, and human), 2 recombinant phages were selected. They were designated HDP1 and HDP2. HDP1 reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA, and HDP2 recognized DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium. The 2 DNA probes were then sequenced and further characterized. HDP1 was a repetitive sequence with a 53 bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1272 bp fragment, while the 3954 bp HDP2 was not a repetitive sequence. Using the sequencing data, oligonucleotides were designed and used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 2 selected oligonucleotides from probe HDP1 (PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified gDNA from T. saginata, but not T. solium or other related cestodes, with a sensitivity of < 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA, about the quantity of DNA in one taeniid egg. The 3 oligonucleotides selected from the HDP2 sequence (PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) allowed the differential amplification of gDNA from T. saginata, T. solium and E. granulosus in a multiplex PCR, again with a sensitivity of < 10 pg. These diagnostic tools have immediate application in the differential diagnosis of T. solium and T. saginata in humans and in the diagnosis of dubious cysts in the slaughterhouse. We also hope to apply them to epidemiological surveys of, for example, soil and water in endemic areas. PMID:12055846

González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Sciutto, Edda; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

2002-04-01

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Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR  

OpenAIRE

Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüên...

Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga; Linhares Guido Fontgalland Coelho; Torres Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; Araújo José Luiz de Barros; Barbosa Silvia Minharro

2006-01-01

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Occurrence of Taenia solium and Cysticercosis in Man in Egypt  

OpenAIRE

Cysticercosis is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem. In Egypt Taenia solium/ human cysticercosis is rare. Therefore, this study aims to survey the occurrence of T. solium and cysticercosis in human in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were collected from 425 patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, who attended some hospitals in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were examined by both direct smear method and simple gravity sedimen...

Basem; Abdo, R. N.; Sayed, Amal S. M.; Asmaa A A Hussein, Mohsen; Arafa, I.

2010-01-01

8

Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium  

OpenAIRE

Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovere...

Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-yil; Yong, Tai-soon; Min, Duk-young; Rim, Han-jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-kyu

2011-01-01

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Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

1999-01-01

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Towards a Taenia solium cysticercosis vaccine: an epitope shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium protects mice against experimental cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8(+) and to a lower extent CD4(+) T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide's capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

Toledo, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández, M; Acero, G; Rosas, G; López-Casillas, F; Garfias, C K; Vázquez, R; Terrazas, I; Sciutto, E

1999-05-01

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Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Seth Oâ??Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

2012-04-20

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Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E, Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

2014-10-01

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Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E., Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

2014-12-01

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Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2011-12-01

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Occurrence of Taenia solium and Cysticercosis in Man in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cysticercosis is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem. In Egypt Taenia solium/ human cysticercosis is rare. Therefore, this study aims to survey the occurrence of T. solium and cysticercosis in human in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were collected from 425 patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, who attended some hospitals in Assiut and Sohage Governorates. Stool samples were examined by both direct smear method and simple gravity sedimentation technique. Ninety two serum samples were collected randomly from the patients. IgG antibodies against Taenia solium and its cysticerci (Cysticercus cellulose were detected in human serum by using ELISA. The occurrence of T. solium among 425 examined patients in the present work was 0.7% by using sedimentation stool examination technique. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium/cysticercosis in humans in Assiut and Sohage Governorates was 6.5% by using ELISA test. A great variation in the ecological distribution of Taenia solium/Cysticercosis in human was detected between Assiut and Sohage Governorates (8.1% & 3.33% respectively. Higher seroprevalence was detected in women (8.5% than men (3.0%. There was positive correlation between the age of the patient and the infection rate which was 5.3% in the age group below 20 years, 5.5% in the age group 20-40 years and 11.1% in the age group above 40 years. Results obtained in this study reveal that cysticercosis is prevalent among man in the examined areas. Public health education is considered the key factor for control of cysticercosis. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 57-60

Basem

2010-04-01

16

The Disease Burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the present study was undertaken to calculate the impact of this neglected zoonosis. Methods: Both t...

Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Manzanedo, Rafael; Berkvens, Dirk; Nforninwe, Denis Nsame; Zoli, Andre; Quet, Fabrice; Preux, Pierre-marie; Carabin, Helene; Geerts, Stanny

2009-01-01

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Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:17989190

Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P; Tinoco, Yeny O; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Sterling, Charles R

2008-01-01

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Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed. PMID:11952216

Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

2002-04-01

19

Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3' foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3' e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3' e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3' para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (ndegrees AB020399 e ndegrees AB020395. As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa.

Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga

2006-01-01

20

The effect of gamma radiation on the cysticeri of Taenia Solium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day +24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

21

Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.  

OpenAIRE

Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. ...

Chapman, A.; Vallejo, V.; Mossie, K. G.; Ortiz, D.; Agabian, N.; Flisser, A.

1995-01-01

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Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 kDa protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 kDa, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). PMID:17850901

Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Gilman, Robert H; Farfán, Marilú J; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W

2007-12-01

23

Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

2011-12-31

24

Crystal structure of Cu?/?Zn superoxide dismutase from Taenia solium reveals metal-mediated self-assembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the ?2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular ?-? interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits. PMID:21767346

Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Landa, Abraham; González-Mondragón, Edith; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

2011-09-01

25

Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2014-01-01

26

Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or ‘recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs. It is concluded that mass-treatment can result in a short term dramatic reduction in prevalence, whereas interventions targeting interruption of the life cycle lead to long-term reduction in prevalence.

Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang

2007-01-01

27

Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts  

OpenAIRE

Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the dr...

Johansen, M. V.; Å. Andersson; Sikasunge, C. S.; Cederberg, S.

2011-01-01

28

The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

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Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium

Teresa Montenegro

1994-08-01

29

The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana / Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reativida [...] de cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB)". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium Abstract in english Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the [...] Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.

Teresa, Montenegro; Robert H., Gilman; Rosa, Castillo; Victor, Tsang; Joy, Brandt; Angela, Guevara; Hernan, Sanabria; Manuela, Verastegui; Charles, Sterling; Elba, Miranda.

1994-08-01

30

Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-?-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships. PMID:22657393

Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

2012-09-01

31

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

OpenAIRE

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and human taeniosis is quite high (20.5 and 8.6%, respectively). Surprisingly, however, no cases of human cysticercosis have been...

Zoli, A.; Shey-njila, O.; Assana, E.; Nguekam, J. P.; Dorny, P.; Brandt, J.; Geerts, S.

2003-01-01

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Epidemiologic study and control of Taenia solium infections with praziquantel in a rural village of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the results of an epidemiologic survey for the detection of Taenia solium in a rural village of 559 inhabitants in Sinaloa, Mexico, as well as a large scale treatment of the population with praziquantel. The study was carried out in two stages. In stage 1, serial stool analysis of 392 persons detected a cluster of three T. solium tapeworms. A fourth T. solium tapeworm was detected through a household census, giving a 1.32% prevalence rate for this helminth. Over 70% of the population over five years of age was treated with a 10 mg/kg dose of praziquantel, and no additional tapeworms were found. Environmental studies for the detection of Taenia sp. eggs in soil, water, and and objects from the houses of tapeworm-infected individuals showed only one soil sample containing eggs compatible with Taenia sp. A total of 72 domestic pigs were examined for the presence of cysticerci under the tongue. One animal had cysts, and belonged to a household that had two T. solium tapeworm infections. Stage 2 of the study was carried out one year after large scale antihelminthic treatment (LSAT), and no infections with Taenia sp. eggs were found. No cysticercus-infected pigs were detected. Intestinal parasitosis decreased from 69.2% to 37.5%. It is concluded that LSAT with praziquantel is efficient in decreasing endemic foci of T. solium. Seropositivity to T. solium bladder fluid antigens was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found to be 11% before LSAT and 7% one year later. In family members living with T. solium tapeworm carriers, the number of seropositive individuals was 28%. The relative risk ratio of seropositivity for persons living in the same household with a T. solium tapeworm carrier was 2.95. Positive response was significantly higher in the 30-39-year-old age group, in which 30% were seropositive in stage 1, compared with 7% one year after LSAT. High seropositivity rates were significantly associated with tapeworm clusters as well as with individuals with a clinical history of seizures. PMID:1951862

Diaz Camacho, S P; Candil Ruiz, A; Suate Peraza, V; Zazueta Ramos, M L; Felix Medina, M; Lozano, R; Willms, K

1991-10-01

33

Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR / Specific discrimination between Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by one step PCR assay and duplex-PCR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso [...] n° AB020399 para T. saginata e n° AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt) de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (n° AB020399 e n° AB020395). As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa. Abstract in english This study was conducted to evaluate a protocol and to select novel primers for the species-specific identification of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by PCR and duplex-PCR assays. Sequences of the LSU rRNA gene of taenids were obtained from the GenBank (T. saginata access n° AB020399 and T. soliu [...] m access n° AB020395). The sequences were aligned and then used for primer design. The generic primer TBR3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') was selected from a conserved region. The T. saginata specific primer TBR-4 (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') as well as T. solium specific primers TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') and TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') were selected from different semi-conserved regions. The selected sequences were examined in for similarities with other organisms through the GenBank Blast procedure and experimentally by PCR using total DNA (tDNA) extracted from cysticerci and proglottids from both parasites. The primer pair TBR-3/TBR-4 amplified specific fragments of 328 bp from T. saginata tDNA. The pairs TBR-3/TBR5 and TBR-3/TBR-6 amplified, respectively, the expected and specific fragments of 310bp and 286bp from the T. solium tDNA. Sequencing of the amplicons followed by comparison to GenBank reference sequences confirmed the identities of the PCR products. The detection sensitivity was equivalent to 1fg of T. solium tDNA and 0,2fg of T. saginata tDNA. The combination of primers TBR-3/TBR-4 and TBR3/TBR-6 and the size of amplicons allowed the establishment of a duplex-PCR assay to detect T. saginata and T. solium DNA. No cross reaction was observed with any combination of primers in reactions with tDNA of the parasites Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana

Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga, Jardim; Guido Fontgalland Coelho, Linhares; Fernando Araripe Gonçalves, Torres; José Luiz de Barros, Araújo; Silvia Minharro, Barbosa.

2006-02-01

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Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples / Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesqui [...] sados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from [...] 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Gisele Cristina, Arruda; Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius, Quagliato; Qláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

2007-04-01

35

Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens  

OpenAIRE

Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27...

Salazar-anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

2012-01-01

36

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is...

Morales, Julio; Marti?nez, Jose? Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

37

Efficacy and Safety of Anthelmintics Tested against Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Pigs  

OpenAIRE

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemoth...

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

38

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of eastern Zambia; a community based study  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and househo...

Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N.; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G.; Den Bossche, P.; Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabrie?l, S.

2012-01-01

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Partial characterization of a 29 kDa cysteine protease purified from Taenia solium metacestodes  

OpenAIRE

A 29 kDa cysteine protease of Taenia solium metacestodes was purified by Mono Q anion-exchanger and Superose 6 HR gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors, such as iodoacetic acid (IAA) and trans-epoxy-succinyl-L-leucyl-amido (4-guanidino) butane (E-64) while inhibitors acting on serine- or metallo-proteases did not affect the enzyme activity. The purified enzyme degraded human immunoglobulin G (IgG), collagen and bovine serum albumin...

Kim, Ji-young; Yang, Hyun-jong; Kim, Kwang-sig; Chung, Young-bae

2005-01-01

40

Taenia multiceps: a rare human cestode infection in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain infestation caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps is a rare phenomenon in humans, but is fairly common among sheep in Mediterranean countries. No more than 150 human cases have been reported. In this present study, we report an unusual case of a huge intra-parenchymal cyst in a four-year-old girl caused by T. multiceps. No cross-reactivity between Echinococcus granulosus and T. multiceps antigens was demonstrated. After surgical removal of the cyst, followed by chemotherapeutic treatment with albendazole combined with praziquantel, the child recovered completely. PMID:20411489

El-On, Joseph; Shelef, Ilan; Cagnano, Emanuela; Benifla, Mony

2008-01-01

41

Taenia multiceps: a rare human cestode infection in Israel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brain infestation caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps is a rare phenomenon in humans, but is fairly common among sheep in Mediterranean countries. No more than 150 human cases have been reported. In this present study, we report an unusual case of a huge intra-parenchymal cyst in a four-year-old girl caused by T. multiceps. No cross-reactivity between Echinococcus granulosus and T. multiceps antigens was demonstrated. After surgical removal of the cyst, followed by chemotherapeutic treatment with albendazole combined with praziquantel, the child recovered completely.

Mony Benifla MD

2008-12-01

42

Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata / Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consid [...] eradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle. Abstract in english Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great soc [...] ioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

Márcia Regina, Pfuetzenreiter; Fernando Dias de Ávila, Pires.

2000-06-01

43

Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle.Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great socioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter

2000-06-01

44

Antígenos de larva de Taenia solium em ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina / Taenia solium metacestode antigens in ELISA for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados alguns parâmetros inerentes ao ELISA, por meio de ensaios de reatividade de soros-controle positivos e negativos para a cisticercose bovina com relação a três tipos de antígenos de larva de Taenia solium: total, de escólex e de membrana. As concentrações de antígeno de 0,25; 0,5; 1; [...] 2 e 4µg por orifício, e as diluições de soro de 1:25, 1:50, 1:100 e 1:200, foram os parâmetros que menos influenciaram no desempenho do teste. A substância bloqueadora, o leite desnatado e as diluições de conjugado, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 e 1:5.000, representaram os melhores indicadores de desempenho do teste. Concluiu-se que essa combinação de critérios deve ser considerada no diagnóstico da cisticercose bovina, em atividades de rotina ou de padronização do referido teste, considerando os três antígenos de larva de T. solium estudados. Abstract in english Some parameters of ELISA were evaluated using positive and negative bovine sera for cysticercosis and three types of antigens of Taenia solium larvae: total, scolex and membrane. The antigen concentrations (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4µg/well) and the serum dilutions (1:25, 1:50, 1:100 and 1:200) were the [...] parameters that influenced less the test performance; while blocking substance, skimmed milk, and conjugate dilutions, 1:1.250, 1:2.500 and 1:5.000 were the best indexes of the test performance. It was concluded that this combination of criteria should be considered in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, in routine diagnosis and for the ELISA test standardization.

L.L., Monteiro; P.S.A., Pinto; J.H.P., Salcedo; J.V., Araújo; W.L.M., Santos; P.R., Cecon.

2007-02-01

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Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium / Spliced leader gene cloning from expression library of Taenia solium cysticerci  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La cisticercosis es una enfermedad causada por el estadio larvario (cisticerco) de Taenia solium. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se ve limitado por la disponibilidad de antígenos del parásito, donde una alternativa sería la clonación de genes codificantes de antígenos. En T. solium, al igual que en [...] otros parásitos, ocurre un mecanismo alternativo en el procesamiento de algunos ARNm, denominado trans-splicing, en el cual una pequeña molécula de ARN conocida como Spliced Leader (SL) es añadida al extremo 5´ de una molécula de pre-ARNm, formando diferentes ARNm maduros que contienen un extremo 5´ común. Debido a las limitaciones que presenta el diagnóstico, además del interés en el estudio de este mecanismo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue clonar moléculas que utilizan este procesamiento posttranscripcional. Para ello, se realizó un cribado mediante PCR a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticerco de T. solium utilizando como cebador directo TSSL-DW2 y como reverso ZAP-3´UP que hibridan con la secuencia SL y con la del vector, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron productos de ADNc de diferentes tamaños, que fueron clonados en un plásmido de mantenimiento (pGEM-Teasy). Posteriormente, mediante PCR de colonias se verificó la presencia de los insertos y se estimó su tamaño, obteniendo un total de 56 clones de tamaño variable (150-1200 pb). Este diseño permitió la identificación de genes de T. solium que utilizan el mecanismo de trans-splicing; y además de ser una estrategia fácil para clonar moléculas completas, abre camino para futuras investigaciones enfocadas en el diagnóstico de cisticercosis. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus). The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing [...] of some mRNAs called trans-splicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL) is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this posttranscriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-T-easy). The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp). This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

Oswgladys, Garrido; Dayana, Requena; Carlos, Flores Angulo; Teresa, Gárate; Elizabeth, Ferrer.

2012-04-01

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Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

OpenAIRE

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immun...

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Herna?ndez, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; Lo?pez-casillas, Fernando; Herna?ndez, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

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Sensitive In Vitro System To Assess Morphological and Biochemical Effects of Praziquantel and Albendazole on Taenia solium Cysts ? †  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis resulting from Taenia solium infections is a major cause of adult-acquired seizures worldwide. Disease is caused by larval cysts, and treatment consists of the anthelmintic drugs albendazole or praziquantel. There are no standard methods to assess drug activity to T. solium cysts in vitro. Morphological, functional, and biochemical changes that might reflect damaging (inhibiting, cytotoxic) drug effects were analyzed after exposure of cysts to albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO)...

Mahanty, S.; Paredes, A.; Marzal, M.; Gonzalez, E.; Rodriguez, S.; Dorny, P.; Guerra-giraldez, C.; Garcia, H. H.; Nash, T.

2010-01-01

48

Determinación por medio de marcadores moleculares SSCP y RAPD de la diversidad genética en la especie Taenia solium en Colombia / DETERMINATION BY SSCP AND RAPD OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN Taenia solium ESPECIES, MAIN CAUSATIVE AGENT OF TENIOSIS AND CYSTICERCOSIS IN COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Utilizando las técnicas moleculares de SSCP y RAPD se pudo evidenciar rápida y claramente la variabilidad genética en Colombia de larvas del céstodo Taenia solium analizando fragmentos de genes de ADN mitocondrial y fragmentos aleatorios de ADN nuclear. El ADN estudiado se obtuvo de ocho aislados de [...] cisticercos de cerdo provenientes de tres departamentos de Colombia: Antioquia, Nariño y Sucre. Los fragmentos obtenidos por PCR de los genes NADH deshidrogenasa 1 (ND1) y citocromo oxidasa c subunidad I (COI) al ser denaturados y analizados en geles no denaturantes de acrilamida, mostraron al menos tres patrones diferentes por cada gen analizado, verificando que estos genes conservados mitocondriales son polimórficos en T. solium colombiana. Por otra parte, los cebadores decaméricos de RAPD produjeron patrones polimórficos, corroboraron la diversidad genética entre los diferentes aislamientos analizados Abstract in english SSCP and RAPD techniques were performed in order to detect the genetic variability of Taenia solium cestode, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. The DNA was extracted from eight different cysts isolated of pigs originated from three distant Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Nariño and [...] Sucre. Gene fragments corresponding to NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) were amplified by PCR using total DNA from individual cysts and later run on non denaturing SSCP acrylamide gels. Three different patterns were obtained by SSCP for both genes indicating that ND1 and COI mitochondrial genes are polymorphic in Colombian T. solium species. COI patterns were more polymorphic, related to the geographical origin. Furthermore, RAPD decameric primers showed a nuclear polymorphic DNA, that corroborates the genetic diversity between this isolates

MARCELA, FERNÁNDEZ; AMALIA, MUÑOZ; MAURICIO, CORREDOR.

2006-12-01

49

Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

2014-07-01

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The complete mitochondrial genomes of three cestode species of Taenia infecting animals and humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences provide useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Although Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis are common taeniid tapeworms of ruminants, pigs, dogs, or cats, causing significant economic losses, no published study on their mt genomes is available. The complete mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were amplified in two overlapping fragments and then sequenced. The sizes of the entire mt genome were 13700 bp for T. multiceps, 13489 bp for T. hydatigena, and 13647 bp for T. taeniaeformis. Each of the three genomes contains 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA, which are the same as the mt genomes of all other cestode species studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 71.3% for T. multiceps, 70.8% for T. hydatigena, and 73.0% for T. taeniaeformis. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. T. multiceps and T. hydatigena had two noncoding regions, but T. taeniaeformis had only one. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were more closely related to the other members of the Taenia genus, consistent with results of previous morphological and molecular studies. The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three Taenia species of animal and human health significance, providing useful markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of these cestode parasites of animals and humans. PMID:20922482

Liu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Rui-Qing; Li, Ming-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Kou-Xing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2011-04-01

51

Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

Galileo Escobedo, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Paul Nava-Luna, Alfonso Olivos, Armando Pérez-Torres, Sonia Leon-Cabrera, J.C. Carrero, Jorge Morales-Montor

2011-01-01

52

Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2011-01-01

53

CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

Sri S. Margono

2012-09-01

54

ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci / Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cru [...] zadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF) e extrato total (T) de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e de extrato de escólex (S) e de cisticercos (T) de Taenia solium (Tso). A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública. Abstract in english In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from [...] Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra) and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra), and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts) and of larvae (T-Ts). A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda, PINTO; Adelaide José, VAZ; Pedro Manuel Leal, GERMANO; Paulo Mutuko, NAKAMURA.

2000-04-01

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ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

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Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública.

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

2000-04-01

56

La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES) de [...] T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba), y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control). La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the immunochromatography assay for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) by coproantigen detection. Materials and methods: IgG anti-T. solium excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens were produced in rabbits and IgG anti-rabbit IgG, in Capra hircu [...] s "goat". A portion of the anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens was conjugated with colloidal gold. Immunochromatography was performed in nitrocellulose paper strips in which two transversal bands with capture antibodies were fixed. The first band had rabbit anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens (test band), and the second band had goat IgG anti-rabbit IgG (control band). The assay was assessed using a pool of three culture media samples with E/S antigens from T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum and of Anisakis simplex larvae, as well a by a pool of three faecal samples from non-infected hamsters, from hamsters infected with H. nana, and from a pool comprising seven hamsters infected with T. solium. Results: Immunochromatography detected T. solium antigens in media samples with T. solium E/S antigens and in stool samples from hamsters infected with T. solium by staining of the test band. Negative results were obtained with culture media samples with E/S antigens from other helminths and in pooled stool samples from hamsters infected with H. nana as well as from non-infected animals. In all strips used the control band got stained. Conclusions: The immunocromatography assay is able to detect T. solium antigens, both in culture media and in stools from infected hamsters, but its sensitivity and specificity should be tested in human fecal samples for diagnosing Tenia infections through coproantigen detection.

Hermes, Escalante A; Obed, Huamanchay C; Kelly, Davelois A.

2001-07-01

57

Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), B [...] ahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p

Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Maria Aparecida, Souza; Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira, Pena; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Lísia Gomes Martins de, Moura; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2012-02-01

58

Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

2012-02-01

59

Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

Moses Gweba

2010-03-01

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Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis.  

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Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8 mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14 days starting the day of infection and their discomfort was followed. Kinetics of coproantigen ELISA or expelled proglottids was used to define the infection status. Efficiency of tapeworm establishment was 21% and of parasite gravidity was 8%; chinchillas showed some degree of suffering along the infection. Viability of eggs obtained from gravid proglottids was tested comparing methods previously published, our results showed 62% viability with propidium iodide, 54% with trypan blue, 34% with neutral red, 30% by oncosphere activation and 7% with bromide 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT) reduction; no statistical differences were obtained between most techniques, except activation. Four piglets were infected with 50,000 eggs each, necropsy was performed 3 months later and, after counting the number of cysticerci recovered, the percentage of infection was similar to data obtained with T. solium eggs recovered from humans. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of T. solium taeniasis in C. laniger is a good alternative for providing eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments; optimization of the model probably depends on the use of inbred hosts and on the reduction of infected animals' suffering. PMID:21723412

Maravilla, Pablo; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Gomez-Diaz, Benjamin; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; West, Brett; Molina, Nadia; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Kawa-Karasik, Simon; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

2011-12-01

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Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters  

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Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

2015-01-01

62

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico  

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Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Vázquez-Flores Sonia

2001-01-01

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In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium  

OpenAIRE

Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antipara...

Paredes, A.; Campo Lourenc?o, T.; Marzal, M.; Rivera, A.; Dorny, P.; Mahanty, S.; Guerra-giraldez, C.; Garci?a, H. H.; Nash, T. E.; Cass, Q. B.

2013-01-01

64

Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classifi...

Guerra-giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel A?ngel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Garci?a, Hector H.; Gonza?lez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

65

Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs  

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In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

2013-01-01

66

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

67

Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

2012-04-01

68

Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

2012-01-01

69

Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

2012-08-01

70

Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

71

Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spo the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal

72

Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

2013-01-01

73

Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez, Carlos Larralde, Julio Morales, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma

2011-01-01

74

Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis ( [...] NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound ) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound ) and aqueous (AJ unbound ) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista de, Oliveira; Margareth Leitao, Gennari-Cardoso; Jose Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2013-05-01

75

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was ...

Palafox-fonseca, He?ctor; Zu?n?iga, Gerardo; Bobes, Rau?l Jose?; Govezensky, Tzipe; Pin?ero, Daniel; Texco-marti?nez, Laura; Fleury, Agne?s; Proan?o, Jefferson; Ca?rdenas, Graciela; Herna?ndez, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

2013-01-01

76

Genotoxicity induced by Taenia solium and its reduction by immunization with calreticulin in a hamster model of taeniosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genotoxicity induced by neurocysticercosis has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in humans. The adult stage of Taenia solium lodges in the small intestine and is the main risk factor to acquire neurocysticercosis, nevertheless its carcinogenic potential has not been evaluated. In this study, we determined the genotoxic effect of T. solium infection in the hamster model of taeniosis. In addition, we assessed the effect of oral immunization with recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) plus cholera toxin as adjuvant on micronuclei induction, as this protein has been shown to induce 33-44% protection in the hamster model of taeniosis. Blood samples were collected from the orbital venous plexus of noninfected and infected hamsters at different days postinfection, as well as from orally immunized animals, to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes as a measure of genotoxicity induced by parasite exposure and rTsCRT vaccination. Our results indicate that infection with T. solium caused time-dependent DNA damage in vivo and that rTsCRT immunization reduced the genotoxic damage induced by the presence of the tapeworms. PMID:23704053

Salazar, Ana María; Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Chávez-Talavera, Oscar; Sordo, Monserrat; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

2013-06-01

77

Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus. The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing of some mRNAs called transsplicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this post-transcriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-Teasy. The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp. This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis

Oswgladys Garrido

2012-04-01

78

Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador  

OpenAIRE

Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 %) of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which includ...

Luis Escalante; Rowland, Edwin C.; Powell, Malcolm R.

1995-01-01

79

Ultrastructure of spermatogonia and spermatocyte lobules in Taenia solium strobilae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae) from golden hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with Taenia solium metacestodes dissected from infected pig meat. Adult worms were collected from hamster intestines of animals killed 5-60 days post-infection (dpi), incubated in RPMI 1640 medium with or without colchicine, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sections for light microscopy from 40 different blocks with scolex, immature and mature proglottids were photographed. Thin sections were cut from 25 selected blocks, examined and photographed with TEM. Metaphase mitosis figures were observed in the subtegument of the germinative tissue and interpreted as germ cell precursors. In immature proglottids (20 dpi), discrete cell clusters of three to four cells surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic envelope were identified along the inner border of the lateral excretory ducts. These were also observed in more mature proglottids (40-60 dpi) as clusters of eight cells enclosed in a cytoplasmic envelope, with nuclei of spermatogonia exhibiting the synaptolems of primary meiotic cells. In mature proglottids from 45 dpi, a large number of spermatocyte lobules were found, exhibiting different stages of spermatogenesis from primary spermatocytes to mature filiform spermatids with a single axoneme, annular nucleus and spiral cortical microtubules, similar to spermatozoa described for type III spermiogenesis of species of the family Taeniidae. All mature spermatocyte lobules were enclosed in a highly organized cellular envelope and surrounded by a basal lamina. The envelopes contained a number of distinct organelles, seen in cross-section as discrete lattices of microtubules located between two layers of plasma membrane, as well as thickened furled cytoplasm with numerous strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum and pockets of microtubules. PMID:12827507

Willms, Kaethe; Caro, Jose Antonio; Robert, Lilia

2003-08-01

80

Immune responses to viable and degenerative metacestodes of Taenia solium in naturally infected swine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of neurocysticercosis that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be a suitable model. The immune response associated with different stages of the parasite larva (metacestode) has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the immune response to various stages of the metacestode (cyst) in the brain and muscles of naturally infected swine. Swine with neurocysticercosis (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10), as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, were included in this study. The animals were sacrificed, and the tissues containing viable or degenerative metacestods in the brain and infected muscles were collected and subjected to reverse transcriptase-PCR and ELISA to determine the expression of different cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). Higher expression of IL-10 was found to be associated with viable cysts. Degenerating cysts displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, whereas calcified cysts had elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-? and IL-6. The present study indicated a strong regulatory (IL-10) and Th1 cytokine response in viable and degenerating cysts, respectively, whereas calcified cysts had a mixed anti-inflammatory (IL-4), regulatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-? and IL-6) response. Thus, Th1 and Th2 immune response operate in the vicinity of metacestodes and the type of immune response may be responsible for disease severity. PMID:24184156

Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

2013-12-01

81

Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim se mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração, língua ou masseter. Não se observou correlação entre concentração de anticorpos e número de cisticercos identificados.Blood samples from seven swines infected with eggs of Taenia solium, were collected weekly during a period of 140 days. The ELISA was carried out in serum, using antigen from Cysticercus cellulosae scolex (Es-Tso. The antibody levels for all animals significantly increased and maintained constant from the 21th day post-infection to the end of the experiment. The sensitivity of the ELISA test averaged between 87.5% and 100%. At the necropsy, 238 cysticerci were identified. Six swines presented at least one cysticercus in one of the organs: heart, tongue or masseter. No correlation between concentration of antibodies and number of identified cysticerci at necropsy, was observed.

K.A. Soares

2006-02-01

82

Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae / Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso) de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim s [...] e mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração, língua ou masseter. Não se observou correlação entre concentração de anticorpos e número de cisticercos identificados. Abstract in english Blood samples from seven swines infected with eggs of Taenia solium, were collected weekly during a period of 140 days. The ELISA was carried out in serum, using antigen from Cysticercus cellulosae scolex (Es-Tso). The antibody levels for all animals significantly increased and maintained constant f [...] rom the 21th day post-infection to the end of the experiment. The sensitivity of the ELISA test averaged between 87.5% and 100%. At the necropsy, 238 cysticerci were identified. Six swines presented at least one cysticercus in one of the organs: heart, tongue or masseter. No correlation between concentration of antibodies and number of identified cysticerci at necropsy, was observed.

K.A., Soares; M.R.M., Silva; M.D., Poleti; A.A.M., Maia.

2006-02-01

83

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

2014-06-01

84

Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

2015-01-30

85

Efecto de diferentes temperaturas (calor y frío) en carne de cerdo sobre la viabilidad del metacestodo de Taenia solium / Effect of different temperatures (freezing and boiling) in pork on the viability of metacestodes of Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En muchas áreas rurales de México se consume la carne de cerdo infectada con el metacestodo de Taenia solium debido a la falta de inspección sanitaria de los animales que matan en forma clandestina o domiciliaria. Como consecuencia, la teniasis- cisticercosis constituye un problema importante de sal [...] ud, tanto para la población humana que padece de teniasis y de neurocisticercosis, como para la producción porcina por las pérdidas económicas para el país. Con el objetivo de recomendar un método simple y efectivo a las amas de casa en zonas rurales y marginadas, para la destrucción de los metacestodos, se expusieron trozos de 4 cm de grosor, de carne de cerdo infectada con cisticercos, a diferentes temperaturas y durante diferentes tiempos de cocción. Se realizaron pruebas de evaginación e inoculación en hámsteres con las larvas tratadas. Con base en los resultados se recomienda la cocción de la carne infectada en trozos pequeños (4 cm de grosor) durante 15 minutos, o la congelación a 0°C por 96 horas; o bien la congelación a -20°C durante 48 horas, esta última resulta impráctica en medios rurales. La cocción y la congelación a 0°C en un refrigerador doméstico, se recomiendan como procedimiento sencillo en áreas marginales para evitar el crecimiento de T. solium en el humano, de esa manera se rompe el ciclo del parásito. Abstract in english In many rural areas of Mexico, pork infected with Taenia solium is still being consumed, mainly because of the domiciliary slaughter of animals in villages where meat inspection does not exist. It follows that taeniasis cysticercosis continues to be an important health problem both for humans who su [...] ffer from taeniasis and neurocysticercosis and for pork producers due to the economic losses involved. In order to recommend a simple and effective method for housekeepers in rural zones to inactivate the metacestodes, infected pork cut in slices of 4 cm thickness was exposed to different temperatures and periods of time. Evagination trials were done and hamsters were infected with the treated larvae. The results show that metacestodes in pieces of pork of 4 cm thickness are innocuous after boiling them for 15 minutes or freezing them at 0° C for 96 hours or for 48 hours at -20° C, but the latter is not feasible in a rural environment. Boiling or freezing at 0° C in a domestic refrigerator is recommended as a simple procedure in marginated areas to avoid the growth of Taenia solium in human beings and thus interrupt the cycle of the parasite.

Gabriela, Nava Balderas; Ada Nelly, Martínez Villalobos; Aline S., de Aluja.

2009-06-01

86

Hacia el desarrollo de una vacuna en contra de la cisticercosis porcina basada en la paramiosina de Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La paramiosina de Taenia solium (TPmy) es un antígeno inmunodominante de la cisticercosis humana y porcina. Se trata de una proteína de 100 kDa con una estructura alfa-hélice superenrollada asociada al músculo y a estructuras tegumentarias del cisticerco. La TPmy tiene la propiedad de unirse al C1q [...] e inhibir la cascada del complemento. La TPmy probablemente se une al C1q a través sus dominios tipo colágena y podría estar relacionada con una estrategia parasitaria para modular la respuesta inmune del huésped. En el hombre y en el ratón, la respuesta inmune humoral en contra de la TPmy está preferentemente dirigida hacia el extremo carboxilo terminal mientras que el extremo amino terminal de la TPmy induce una respuesta protectora celular de tipo Th1. Ensayos de protección en el modelo murino de cisticercosis en ratones inmunizados con fragmentos recombinantes de TPmy revelaron que el extremo amino terminal induce alrededor de 60% de protección en contra de un reto intraperitoneal con cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Ensayos preliminares de protección por inmunización génica revelaron que el extremo amino terminal de la TPmy clonado en un vector plasmídico con un promotor de citomegalovirus induce alrededor de 79% de protección, junto con plásmidos para la expresión de IL-12, sugiriendo que este tipo de inmunización con TPmy puede resultar en el desarrollo de una vacuna eficaz y económica en contra de la cisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium paramyosin (TPmy) is a prominent 100 kDa antigen in human and porcine cysticercosis. TPmy is an ?-helical coiled coil protein present in muscle and tegumentary structures of T. solium cysticerci. TPmy has the property of binding C1q resulting in inhibition of the complement cascade. TP [...] my probably binds C1q through its collagen-like domains and could be involved in a parasite strategy to modulate host immune response. Humoral immune response against TPmy is preferentially directed against carboxyl terminal end in humans and mice, whereas amino terminal end of TPmy preferentially induces a Th1-related cellular immune response. Protection studies in murine model of cysticercosis showed that the amino terminal end fragment of TPmy induces approximately 60% protection against an i.p. challenge with Taenia crassiceps cysts when mice are immunized with recombinant fragments of TPmy. Initial protection studies using genetic immunization showed that amino terminal end fragment of TPmy cloned into a plasmid expression vector with a cytomegalovirus promoter, together with IL-12-expressing plasmids induced 79% protection, suggesting that this kind of TPmy-immunization might result in development of a cost-effective vaccine against cysticercosis.

Carlos F., Solís; José, Vázquez Talavera; Juan Pedro, Laclette.

2004-04-01

87

Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, wit...

Ramirez-aquino, Ruben; Radovanovic, Irena; Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-conde, Edda; Fragoso-gonza?lez, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-delfin, Irma

2011-01-01

88

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

89

Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

90

Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos, ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología.There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental taeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

Javier R Ambrosio

2011-03-01

91

Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium / Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos [...] , ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología. Abstract in english There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental t [...] aeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

Javier R, Ambrosio; Armando, Zepeda-Rodríguez; Araceli, Ferrer; Olivia, Reynoso-Ducoing; Teresa I, Fortoul.

2011-03-01

92

Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden  

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Full Text Available Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140 the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests for antibody (Ab detection and for antigen (Ag detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB, using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP as Ag, five (71% and six (86% animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.. The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

Andréia Bartachini Gomes

2007-09-01

93

[Evaluation of epidemiological situation of cestode infections in Poland in the years 1997-2006 on the basis of data from san-epid stations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1997-2006, 3,523 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 2,748 were caused by Taenia saginata, 41 by T. solium, 533 by Taenia species, 20 by Hymenolepis nana, 5 by Hymenolepis diminuta, 11 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 3 by Dipylidium caninum. Moreover, 350 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 8 cases of cysticercosis were also registered. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:21473070

Waloch, Maria; Sobolewska, Alicja; Dzbe?ski, Tadeusz H

2010-01-01

94

Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

2013-01-01

95

Pacientes neurológicos del noroeste del Perú con serología positiva por Western Blot a la larva de Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de pacientes con sintomatología neurológica de la zona noroeste del Perú que presentan serología positiva por Western Blot a la larva de Taenia solium. Material y Métodos: El estudio se realizó en 3515 pacientes de cero a noventa años de edad y de ambos sexos con [...] sintomatología neurológica, procedentes de los departamentos de Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Ancash, La Libertad y algunas poblaciones de la zona selvática (5 a 10° LS; 77 a 82° LO). Dichos pacientes fueron atendidos en consultorios privados y en los servicios de Neurología de los Hospitales Belén y Regional de Trujillo desde enero de 1997 hasta diciembre de 2000. De cada uno de los pacientes se obtuvo una muestra sanguínea, cuyo suero fue procesado por la técnica de Western Blot, la cual tiene una sensibilidad de 91% y una especificidad de 100%. Resultados: Se detectó serología positiva en 562 pacientes, la cual representa una prevalencia de 16%, siendo el sexo masculino el que presentó mayor porcentaje (58,4%). Los grupos etáreos con mayor frecuencia de serología positiva fueron los de 41 a 50 años (18,7%) y 31 a 40 años (17,4%). Los mayores porcentajes de serología positiva se obtuvo en pacientes procedentes de Piura y Lambayeque. Conclusiones: Los pacientes estudiados presentan una alta frecuencia de serología positiva a la larva de T. solium. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the frequency of patients presenting with neurological symptoms in Northwestern Peru who have positive Western Blot serology to Taenia solium larvae. Material and Methods: The study was performed in 3515 patients, from zero to ninety years old and from both sexes, who present [...] ed with neurological symptoms. Patients came from Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Ancash, and La Libertad departments, as well as from certain areas in the jungle (5 to 10º southern latitude; 77 to 82º western longitude). Those patients were taken care of in private offices and in Neurology services in Belen and Regional hospitals in Trujillo, from January 1997 to December 2000. A blood sample was obtained from all patients, and the sera were processed using the Western Blot technique, which has 91% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Results: Positive serological Western Blot tests were detected in 562 patients, representing 16 per cent prevalence, and the infection was more frequent in males (58.4%). Age groups more frequently found to have positive serological tests were those form 41 to 50 years old (18.7%), and those from 31 to 40 years old (17.4%). The maximum percentages for positive serological tests were obtained in patients from Piura and Lambayeque. Conclusions: Patients studied show a high frequency of positive serology for Taenia solium larvae.

Hermes, Escalante A; Firdusi, Pereda V; Manuel, Sánchez C; Hans, Schulz C; Patricia, Torres L; Kelly, Davelois A.

2004-04-01

96

Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium  

OpenAIRE

Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpecte...

Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

97

Production of monoclonal antibodies anti-Taenia crassiceps cysticerci with cross-reactivity with Taenia solium antigens  

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Full Text Available We describe the production of the potential monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs using BALB/c mice immunized with vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra (T. crassiceps antigen. Immune sera presented anti-VF-Tcra (<20kD IgG and IgM antibodies with cross-reactivity with T. solium (Tso antigen (8-12, 14, and 18 kD. After cell fusion, we selected 33 anti-Tcra and anti-Tso reactive IgM-clones and 53 anti-Tcra specific IgG-clones, 5 of them also recognizing Tso antigens. Two clones identified the 8-14 and 18kD peptides of VF-Tcra.

ESPÍNDOLA Noeli M.

2000-01-01

98

Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres  

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Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis.

Maravilla Pablo

2011-01-01

99

Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci / Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imu [...] noenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0,95 a 1,00). O antígeno bruto de escolex poderá ser empregado na triagem sorológica enquanto a proteína de 100, 95 ou 26kDa nos testes confirmatórios dos casos positivos de NC. Abstract in english Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoe [...] nzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00). Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.

Francesco, Iudici Neto; Geraldo, Pianetti-Filho; Ricardo Nascimento, Araújo; Evaldo, Nascimento.

2007-04-01

100

Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo / Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atza [...] coaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a) temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b) temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c) ebullición (97 ºC) de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous [...] University), Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada) and hot sausage (chorizo). Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a) room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b) temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c) boiling (97ºC) from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p

Ma Isabel, Rivera-Guerrero; Leticia, Sánchez-Rueda; Elvia, Rodríguez-Bataz; Ada Nelly, Martínez-Villalobos; José Juan, Martínez-Maya.

2004-10-01

101

Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo / Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atza [...] coaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a) temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b) temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c) ebullición (97 ºC) de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous [...] University), Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada) and hot sausage (chorizo). Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a) room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b) temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c) boiling (97ºC) from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p

Ma Isabel, Rivera-Guerrero; Leticia, Sánchez-Rueda; Elvia, Rodríguez-Bataz; Ada Nelly, Martínez-Villalobos; José Juan, Martínez-Maya.

2004-10-01

102

Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140) the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into [...] thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for antibody (Ab) detection and for antigen (Ag) detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB), using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag) or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP) as Ag, five (71%) and six (86%) animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP) allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.). The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

Andréia Bartachini, Gomes; Killarney Ataíde, Soares; Ednéia Casagrande, Bueno; Noeli Maria, Espindola; Alberto Hiroshi, Iha; Antônio Augusto Mendes, Maia; Regina Helena Saramargo, Peralta; Adelaide José, Vaz.

2007-09-01

103

The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were examined 1, 4 and 8 weeks after oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment. As controls, half of the pigs received no treatment. Lesions were graded 0-V according to their inflammatory response, based on viability of the parasite, the degree and type of cellular response as well as deposition of collagen. Comparison of the degree of inflammatory response was made between treated and un-treated groups showing a significant difference in the mean grade of inflammatory response between 1 and 8 weeks after OFZ treatment. The OFZ treated pigs were further divided into 4 cyst intensity groups. The group with the highest cyst intensity had the lowest mean grade of inflammatory response and the group with the lowest cyst intensity had the highest mean grade of inflammatory response. Thus the present study supports the hypothesis that the time needed for the body to clear the cysts depends on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at the time of treatment.

Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine

2012-01-01

104

Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 sho [...] wed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 %) of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 %) were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years) and in the oldest (51-60 years) group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

Luis, Escalante; Edwin C., Rowland; Malcolm R., Powell.

1995-12-01

105

Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 % of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 % were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years and in the oldest (51-60 years group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

Luis Escalante

1995-12-01

106

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico / La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaro [...] n los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed [...] by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia, Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto, Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana, Flisser; Peter M., Schantz.

2001-12-01

107

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico / La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaro [...] n los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed [...] by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia, Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto, Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana, Flisser; Peter M., Schantz.

2001-12-01

108

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

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Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Sonia Vázquez-Flores

2001-12-01

109

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

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Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

2013-01-01

110

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and huma [...] n-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

Hector, Palafox-Fonseca; Gerardo, Zuniga; Raul Jose, Bobes; Tzipe, Govezensky; Daniel, Pinero; Laura, Texco-Martinez; Agnes, Fleury; Jefferson, Proano; Graciela, Cardenas; Marisela, Hernandez; Edda, Sciutto; Gladis, Fragoso.

2013-11-01

111

Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p<0.05. After 24 hours, the lowest evagination occurred at -10ºC in spicy meat and at 37ºC in hot sausage (p<0.05. At boiling temperature there was no evagination after 10 minutes (p<0.05. In spicy meat, adding salt caused the most significant reduction; in hot sausage, thyme caused the most significant reduction (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Meat with metacestodes should not be eaten, yet, it is being sold and used to prepare spicy meats. Adding spices can hide the metacestode, thus, adequate cooking of these meat products is necessary. These meats may be consumed at least four days after its preparation and spicy meat after a minimum of four days of refrigeration.

Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

2004-10-01

112

Neurocysticercosis: detection of IgG, IgA and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and saliva samples by ELISA with Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps antigens Neurocisticercose: detecção de anticorpos IgG, IgA e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano, soro e saliva por ELISA com antígenos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

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Full Text Available We assayed samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, serum and saliva from patients with neurocysticercoses, control group and individuals with other parasitoses, by ELISA with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra and Taenia solium total antigen (Tso for the detection of antibodies. The sensitivity for IgG-Tcra was 100% for CSF and serum, and 32.0% for saliva; and for IgG-Tso 100% for CSF, 80.0% for serum and 24.% for saliva. Specificity was 100% for CSF and 80.0% for serum with both antigens, and 100% for saliva with Tcra and 87.5% with Tso. The sensitivity and specificity for IgA-Tcra was, respectively, 40.0% and 100% for CSF, 36.0% and 97.1% for serum, and 4.0% and 90.0% for saliva. IgE detection showed 24.0% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity for serum, with no detection in CSF samples. The search for antibodies revealed the presence of IgG > IgA > IgE in CSF, serum and saliva samples, with IgG being present in all phases of the disease, while IgA/IgE were more frequent in the inactive form.Analisamos amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR, soro e saliva de pacientes com neurocisticercose, grupo de controle e indivíduos com outras parasitoses, por ELISA com antígenos de líquido vesicular de T. crassiceps (Tcra e salino total de T. solium (Tso para a pesquisa de anticorpos. A sensibilidade para IgG-Tcra foi 100% para LCR e soro e 32,0% para saliva, e para IgG-Tso 100% para LCR, 80,0% para soro e 24,0% para saliva. A especificidade foi de 100% para CSF e 80,0% para soro com ambos os antígenos, e 100% para saliva com Tcra e 87,5% com Tso. A sensibilidade e especificidade para IgA-Tcra foi, respectivamente: 40,0% e 100% para LCR, 36,0% e 97,1% para soro, e 4,0% e 90,0% para saliva. A pesquisa de IgE mostrou 24,0% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade para soro, sem detecção nas amostras de LCR. A pesquisa de anticorpos revelou a presença de IgG > IgA > IgE no LCR, soro e saliva, com presença de IgG em todas as fases evolutivas da doença, enquanto que IgA/IgE foram mais frequentes na forma inativa.

EDNÉIA CASAGRANDA BUENO

2000-03-01

113

Effective protection against experimental Taenia solium tapeworm infection in hamsters by primo-infection and by vaccination with recombinant or synthetic heterologous antigens.  

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The disease caused by Taenia solium is progressively being recognized as a growing global threat for public human health and pig husbandry that requires the development of effective control measures. A central participant in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission network is the human carrier of the adult tapeworm because of its great potential in spreading the infection. Herein, evidence is presented that a primary infection of golden hamsters with orally administered T. solium cysticerci improved the host's resistance against a secondary infection. Likewise, previous vaccination increased the hamster's resistance. Similar high levels of protection (> 78%) were induced by systemic or oral vaccination with the S3Pvac anticysticercosis synthetic peptide vaccine or the highly immunogenic recombinant chimera based on the protective peptide KETc1 bound to Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS-KETc1). Increased resistance after primo-infection and vaccination possibly results from changes in the immune conditions prevailing in the host's intestine. The contribution to protection from the KETc1 and BLS epitopes in a chimeric vaccine is under study. Preventive vaccination of definitive hosts of T. solium against the tapeworm, the most relevant step in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission, may greatly impact the dynamics of endemic disease and has not been studied or tried previously. PMID:16995407

Cruz-Revilla, C; Toledo, A; Rosas, G; Huerta, M; Flores-Perez, I; Peña, N; Morales, J; Cisneros-Quiñones, J; Meneses, G; Díaz-Orea, A; Anciart, N; Goldbaum, F; Aluja, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

2006-08-01

114

The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs.  

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Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Rueda, Luis D; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia

2012-01-15

115

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

2013-09-01

116

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

2013-07-01

117

Taenia solium metacestode immunodominant peptides recognized by IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum paired samples from patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to test if serological distinction between patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis (NCC), could be accomplished by the recognition of immunodominant peptides in total saline antigenic extract of Taenia solium metacestodes by IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid [...] (CSF) and serum paired samples. CSF and serum samples of 10 each, active NCC patients, inactive NCC, and individuals with other neurological disorders, were used to recognize the antigenic peptides by western blot (WB). In the active NCC the 28-32 and 39-42 kDa peptides were more frequently detected in CSF than in sera (p 80 kDa) for diagnosis of NCC. The final conclusions were that the difference between active and inactive NCC may be done with the detection of peptides only in the CSF samples and that the 47-52, 64-68, and 70 kDa bands may be included as specific markers for active NCC when detected in CSF samples by WB using total saline extract of T. solium metacestode.

Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Leandro Pajuaba de, Moura; Vinicius Paulino da, Costa; Marcelo Simão, Ferreira; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2007-09-01

118

Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes  

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Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

Abraham Landa

2010-01-01

119

A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania  

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Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general community and their impacts in improving behaviours facilitating disease transmission. PMID:25719902

Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

2015-01-01

120

A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania.  

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Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general community and their impacts in improving behaviours facilitating disease transmission. PMID:25719902

Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

2015-01-01

121

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995  

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Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

2002-07-01

122

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 / Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo [...] teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%), Tupaciguara (5,0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8%) e Uberlândia (4,7%). Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população. Abstract in english Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence an [...] tibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%), Tupaciguara (5.0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8%) and Uberlândia (4.7%). The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.

Elisângela de Paula, SILVEIRA-LACERDA; Eleuza Rodrigues, MACHADO; Sílvio César de Freitas, ARANTES; Julia Maria, COSTA-CRUZ.

2002-07-01

123

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

Mekonnen Sissay M

2011-06-01

124

Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities' Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia.  

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Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

2015-02-01

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Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil Anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium em amostras de soro de habitantes da região centro-oeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p Um total de 354 amostras de soro de habitantes que freqüentaram o Laboratório Clínico em Catalão, Goiás, na região centro-oeste do Brasil, foram colhidas no período de junho a agosto de 2002. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta e enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA com o objetivo de detectar anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium. As amostras reativas e inconclusivas foram testadas pelo Western blotting (WB. Considerando WB como reação confirmatória, a freqüência de anticorpos nas amostras de soro da população estudada foi 11,3% (IC: 5,09 - 17,51. As bandas imunodominantes mais frequentemente reconhecidas no WB foram 64-68 kDa (97,5% e 47-52 kDa (80%. A porcentagem de soropositividade para cisticercose foi significativamente maior nos indivíduos que residiam em áreas sem sistema de esgoto (p < 0,0001. Concluiu-se que os resultados indicam uma provável situação de endemicidade para cisticercose nesta população, reforçando a urgente necessidade de medidas de controle e prevenção que devem ser implantadas pelo serviço de saúde pública local.

Heliana B. de Oliveira

2006-02-01

126

Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil / Anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium em amostras de soro de habitantes da região centro-oeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um total de 354 amostras de soro de habitantes que freqüentaram o Laboratório Clínico em Catalão, Goiás, na região centro-oeste do Brasil, foram colhidas no período de junho a agosto de 2002. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta e enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E [...] LISA) com o objetivo de detectar anticorpos IgG anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium. As amostras reativas e inconclusivas foram testadas pelo Western blotting (WB). Considerando WB como reação confirmatória, a freqüência de anticorpos nas amostras de soro da população estudada foi 11,3% (IC: 5,09 - 17,51). As bandas imunodominantes mais frequentemente reconhecidas no WB foram 64-68 kDa (97,5%) e 47-52 kDa (80%). A porcentagem de soropositividade para cisticercose foi significativamente maior nos indivíduos que residiam em áreas sem sistema de esgoto (p Abstract in english A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay i [...] n order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB). Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51). The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5%) and 47-52 kDa (80%). The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p

Heliana B. de, Oliveira; Rosângela M., Rodrigues; Ivanildes S. C., Barcelos; Luciana P., Silva; Julia M., Costa-Cruz.

2006-02-01

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Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose. MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA. RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose.

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

2011-06-01

128

Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin) for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) / Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina) para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina) de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose [...] . MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas) e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias) foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA). RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography) from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHO [...] D: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders) and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons) were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

Lisandra Akemi, Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio, Rossi.

2011-06-01

129

[Cestode infections in Poland in 2009].  

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In the year 2009, 26 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 20 were caused by Taenia saginata, 4 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 1 by Hymenolepis diminuta. Moreover, 23 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. PMID:21913477

Waloch, Maria

2011-01-01

130

Estudio de la respuesta inmune humoral en cerdos infectados con huevos y posoncosferas de Taeina solium / Study on immune humoral response in pigs infected with eggs and posoncospheresof Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Due to the importance of cysticercosis in Mexico and Latin America and to the fact that in the last years another mechanism of infection for this disease has been proposed, i.e. through postoncospheres and immunosuppression of the host, we have considered relevant to perform the present work, which [...] consisted in assessing the immune response induced by dexamethasone as well as that produced by parasites in pigs infected with T. solium eggs, or postoncosphere-infected, and in postoncosphere-infected and dexamethasone-treated animals. We used 10 recently weaned pigs, three were used as controls, two of them without the drug and one with it; two were infected with T. solium eggs; five with postoncospheres receiving also dexamethasone three of them.We evaluated the humoral response against parasite antigen using indirect haemagglutination (IH) and ELISA methods Results of the immune humoral response revealed titres of up to 1:128 in T. solium eggs infected animals, of 1:16 in postoncosphere infected animals, and of 1:32 towards the end of the experiment in postoncosphere plus dexamethasone animals. Absorbance titres with ELISA confirmed these findings. Data obtained by IH show that the antibody titres of the pigs challenged with postoncospheres and postoncospheres plus dexamethasone are positive as compared to the titres obtained in the pigs infected with T. solium eggs. Results from the ELISA confirmed this finding, since, from weeks 14 to 17, the pigs became positive, behaving as those pigs that developed cysticercosis. This is relevant as it indicates that the antiposcosphere antibodies recognized antigens of T. solium larvae.

Gloria, Rojas Wastavino; Patricia, Tato Zaldívar; Sandra, SolanoGalvez; Luis, Herrera Montalvo; Manuel, Gutiérrez Quiroz; Paz, SalazarSchettino.

1999-07-01

131

Estudio de la respuesta inmune humoral en cerdos infectados con huevos y posoncosferas de Taeina solium Study on immune humoral response in pigs infected with eggs and posoncospheresof Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available Due to the importance of cysticercosis in Mexico and Latin America and to the fact that in the last years another mechanism of infection for this disease has been proposed, i.e. through postoncospheres and immunosuppression of the host, we have considered relevant to perform the present work, which consisted in assessing the immune response induced by dexamethasone as well as that produced by parasites in pigs infected with T. solium eggs, or postoncosphere-infected, and in postoncosphere-infected and dexamethasone-treated animals. We used 10 recently weaned pigs, three were used as controls, two of them without the drug and one with it; two were infected with T. solium eggs; five with postoncospheres receiving also dexamethasone three of them.We evaluated the humoral response against parasite antigen using indirect haemagglutination (IH and ELISA methods Results of the immune humoral response revealed titres of up to 1:128 in T. solium eggs infected animals, of 1:16 in postoncosphere infected animals, and of 1:32 towards the end of the experiment in postoncosphere plus dexamethasone animals. Absorbance titres with ELISA confirmed these findings. Data obtained by IH show that the antibody titres of the pigs challenged with postoncospheres and postoncospheres plus dexamethasone are positive as compared to the titres obtained in the pigs infected with T. solium eggs. Results from the ELISA confirmed this finding, since, from weeks 14 to 17, the pigs became positive, behaving as those pigs that developed cysticercosis. This is relevant as it indicates that the antiposcosphere antibodies recognized antigens of T. solium larvae.

Gloria Rojas Wastavino

1999-07-01

132

THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES  

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Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T. saginata-\\ike worms from Taiwan and classical T.saginata, differences have been detected in DNA hybridization patterns.

John H. Cross

2012-09-01

133

Strategies for optimal expression of vaccine antigens from Taeniid cestode parasites in Escherichia coli.  

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Investigations were undertaken into optimizing the expression of Cestode parasite vaccine antigens in the bacterium, Escherichia coli to levels sufficient for mass production. A strategy to genetically engineer the antigens and improve their expression in E. coli was investigated. Plasmid constructs encoding truncated parasite antigens were prepared, leading to removal of N and C-terminal hydrophobic domains of the antigens. This approach was found to be an effective strategy for improving expression of the TSOL18 recombinant antigen of Taenia solium in E. coli. Clear demonstration that plasmid construct modification can be used to significantly improve heterologous expression in E. coli was shown for the EG95 antigen of Echinococcus granulosus. Removal of hydrophobic stretches of amino acids from the N and C termini of EG95 by genetic manipulation led to a substantial change in expression of the protein from an insoluble to a soluble form. The data demonstrate that the occurrence of hydrophobic regions in the antigens are a major feature that hindered their expression in E. coli. It was also shown that retaining a minimal protein domain (a single fibronectin type III domain) led to high level expression of functional protein that is antigenic and host protective. Two truncated antigens were combined from two species of parasite (EG95NC? from E. granulosus and Tm18N? from Taenia multiceps) and expressed as a single hybrid antigen in E. coli. The hybrid antigens were expressed at a high level and retained antigenicity of their respective components, thereby simplifying production of a multi-antigen vaccine. The findings are expected to have an impact on the preparation of recombinant Cestode vaccine antigens using E. coli, by increasing their utility and making them more amenable to large-scale production. PMID:21222242

Gauci, Charles; Jenkins, David; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2011-07-01

134

Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.  

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The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2014-07-01

135

The nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a source of phylogenetic information in the genus Taenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia. PMID:23183704

Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Li; Ni, Xingwei; Guo, Aijiang; Li, Hongmin; Zheng, Yadong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Jia, Wanzhong

2013-03-01

136

Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms by Cox1 gene in Koh Kong, Cambodia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected fecal samples from 21 individuals infected with Taenia tapeworms in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia, and performed nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene and multiplex PCR on the eggs for DNA differential diagnosis of human Taenia tapeworms. Genomic DNA was extracted from the eggs of a minimum number of 10 isolated from fecal samples. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta7126F, Ts7313F, Tso7466F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay proved useful for differentially diagnosing Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica based on 706, 629, and 474 bp bands, respectively. All of the Taenia specimens from Kho Kong, Cambodia, were identified as either T. saginata (n=19) or T. solium (n=2) by cox1 sequencing and multiplex PCR. PMID:21738280

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Han, Eun-Taek; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Chhakda, Tep; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Eom, Keeseon S

2011-06-01

137

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)  

OpenAIRE

The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Prog...

Toral-bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-gonzalez, Diego E.; Garcia-cortes, Ramon; Avila-ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

2011-01-01

138

First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of ...

Youssefi, B. Esfandiari And M. R.

2010-01-01

139

Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP, a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 within granulomas in T. crassiceps-infected wild type (WT mice and mice deficient in SP-precursor (SPP or the SP-receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1. Granuloma volumes of infected SPP- and NK1-knockout mice were reduced by 31 and 36%, respectively, compared to WT mice (P<.05 for both and produced up to 5-fold less IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 protein. Thus, SP signaling contributes to granuloma development and proinflammatory cytokine production in T. crassiceps infection and suggests a potential role for this mediator in human cystercercosis.

Armandina Garza

2010-01-01

140

NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).  

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Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae. PMID:10961852

Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

1999-12-01

141

Quantitative Screening for Anticestode Drugs Based on Changes in Baseline Enzyme Secretion by Taenia crassiceps  

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Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays...

Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M.; Nash, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

142

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.  

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Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

1988-06-01

143

[The helminth fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus 1758) in north Hesse and east Westphalia. 1. Cestodes].  

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Between November 1989 and June 1990 a total number of 397 foxes were examined for the presence of cestodes. The animals came from the districts of Arnsberg, Detmold and Kassel. In 16.4% of the foxes infections with Echinococcus multilocularis were found, in 28.5% Taenia crassiceps, in 14.4% Taenia polyacantha, in 4.3% Mesocestoides spp., in 3.3% Multiceps multiceps, in 2.5% Hydatigera taeniaeformis, in 0.8% Taenia hydatigena and in 0.3% Taenia martis. Infections with Echinococcus multilocularis very often showed high worm numbers of more than 1000 per fox. The number of worms for the other cestodes mostly varied between one and ten specimen per animal. PMID:1396164

Ballek, D; Takla, M; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M

1992-09-01

144

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)  

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Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rab...

Maravilla Pablo; Avila-Ramirez Guillermina; Garcia-Cortes Ramon; Jimenez-Gonzalez Diego E; Garza-Rodriguez Adriana; Toral-Bastida Elizabeth; Flisser Ana

2011-01-01

145

First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran  

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Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

2010-10-01

146

A survey of taeniid cestodes in farm dogs in mid-Wales.  

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In 1983-1988, dogs on 315 farms in Powys, mid-Wales, were purged once with arecoline acetarsol and the faecal purges were examined for cestodes. A few dogs were examined by autopsy. Ninety-seven farms had at least one infected dog, and cestodes were found in 161 of the 882 dogs examined. The ovine strain of Echinococcus granulosus was found in 41 dogs on 25 farms. Taenia hydatigena, T. pisiformis, T. multiceps, T. serialis, T. ovis and Dipylidium caninum were recovered from 85, 35, 15, 3, 19 and 29 dogs respectively. The results are compared with those of previous surveys in Powys and in other regions of Wales. PMID:1417204

Jones, A; Walters, T M

1992-04-01

147

The prevalence and epidemiology of cestodes in dogs in Clwyd, Wales. I. Farm dogs.  

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The results of a survey of 51 farms in Clwyd carried out between 1981 and 1983 to elucidate the prevalence and epidemiology of dog cestodes are reported. Taeniid species were obtained from 24 (17.1%) of the 140 dogs which purged. Taenia ovis and T. hydatigena appeared to depend largely on dogs scavenging from carcasses for the perpetuation of their life-cycles, whereas T. multiceps was found only in dogs on two farms where sheep heads formed the main diet of the dogs. Dog husbandry in relation to cestode epidemiology is discussed, and recommendations for control are made. PMID:3834846

Stallbaumer, M

1985-12-01

148

Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis  

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Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD?=?4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a critical role in early protective inflammatory response to infection with T. crassiceps. PMID:22206032

Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-González, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

2011-01-01

149

Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica.  

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There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n=20) and T. saginata (n=18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T. saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T. asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded. PMID:19874910

Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakao, Minoru; Blair, David; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

2010-03-01

150

A phylogenetic hypothesis for species of the genus Taenia (Eucestoda : Taeniidae).  

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Cladistic analysis of a numerical data matrix describing 27 characters for species of Taenia resulted in 4 most parsimonious phylogenetic trees (174 steps; consistency index = 0.28; homoplasy index = 0.72; retention index = 0.48). Monophyly for Taenia is diagnosed by the metacestode that is either a cysticercus or a form derived from a bladder-like larva; no other unequivocal synapomorphies are evident. Tree structure provides no support for recognition of a diversity of tribes or genera within the Taeniinae: Fimbriotaeniini and Taeniini have no phylogenetic basis. Hydatigera, Fimbriotaenia, Fossor, Monordotaenia, Multiceps, Taeniarhynchus, Tetratirotaenia must be subsumed within Taenia as synonyms. Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica are sister species and distantly related to Taenia solium. Cospeciation with respect to carnivorous definitive hosts and Taenia appears to be limited. Although felids are putative ancestral hosts, contemporary associations appear to have resulted from extensive host-switching among felids, canids, hyaenids, and others. In contrast, relationships with herbivorous intermediate hosts are indicative of more pervasive coevolution; rodents as intermediate hosts are postulated as ancestral for the Taeniidae, Taenia + Echinococcus. Patterns appear consistent with rapid shifts between phylogenetically unrelated carnivores but among those that historically exploited a common prey resource within communities in specific biogeographic regions. PMID:10701570

Hoberg, E P; Jones, A; Rausch, R L; Eom, K S; Gardner, S L

2000-02-01

151

Sympatric distribution of three human Taenia tapeworms collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea.  

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Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

2008-12-01

152

Taenia saginata: polymerase chain reaction for taeniasis diagnosis in human fecal samples.  

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The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a zoonosis of great medical and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata. This paper describes PCR standardization that can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis. DNA extraction was achieved with DNAzol reagent, after egg disruption with glass beads. DNA prepared from fecal specimens was first purified and PCR amplified generating fragments of 170 and 600 bp. The assay described herein provides an important tool for T. saginata identification in human fecal samples. PMID:12932762

Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Lima, Luiz Gustavo Ferraz; Manoel, Camila Santos; Pereira, Rodrigo Norberto; Nakano, Mauro Massaharu; Garcia, José Fernando

2003-01-01

153

Occurrence and biochemical characteristics of cestode lymphocyte mitogens.  

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The cestodes Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. hydatigena, Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniezia expansa and Anoplocephala perfoliata all produced substances that stimulated thymidine incorporation by whole blood lymphocyte cultures. This mitogenic activity was demonstrated in metacestode cyst fluids, live protoscoleces and scoleces, parasite culture supernatants, and extracts of adult parasites. T. multiceps metacestode cyst fluid mitogen adhered to, but would not pass through, cellulose dialysis tubing. This adherence was reduced or prevented by D-glucose and by proteins. The mitogen was weakly anionic. With Sephadex G75 gel filtration, its elution volume was greatly decreased when the elution buffer contained 0.5 M D-glucose. Mitogenic activity was protease resistant and could be separated by gel filtration from all the cyst fluid proteins. PMID:3822512

Judson, D G; Dixon, J B; Skerritt, G C

1987-02-01

154

Characterization of Taenia madoquae and Taenia regis from carnivores in Kenya using genetic markers in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and their relationships with other selected taeniids.  

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In the present study, we have extended earlier taxonomic, biochemical and experimental investigations to characterize two species of Taenia from carnivores in Kenya by use of the sequences of a variable domain (D1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase 1 genes of mitochondrial DNA. Emphasis was placed on the characterization of Taenia madoquae from the silver-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) and Taenia regis from the lion (Panthera leo), given the previous absence of any DNA sequence data for them, and on assessing their genetic relationships with socioeconomically important taeniids. The study showed that T. regis was genetically most closely related to T. hydatigena, and T. madoquae to T. serialis, T. multiceps or T. saginata. The present findings provide a stimulus for future work on the systematic relationships and epidemiology of lesser-known taeniid cestodes in Africa and other continents, employing mitochondrial sequence data sets. PMID:17600673

Zhang, L; Hu, M; Jones, A; Allsopp, B A; Beveridge, I; Schindler, A R; Gasser, R B

2007-01-01

155

Sequence variability in two mitochondrial DNA regions and internal transcribed spacer among three cestodes infecting animals and humans from China.  

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Sequence variability in two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA among and within three cestodes, Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, Taenia multiceps and Taenia hydatigena, from different geographical origins in China was examined. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1), nad4 genes (pnad4) and the ITS (ITS1+5.8S rDNA+ITS2) were amplified separately from individual cestodes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Representative amplicons were subjected to sequencing in order to estimate sequence variability. While the intra-specific sequence variations within each of the tapeworm species were 0-0.7% for pcox1, 0-1.7% for pnad4 and 0.1-3.6% for ITS, the inter-specific sequence differences were significantly higher, being 12.1-17.6%, 18.7-26.2% and 31-75.5% for pcox1, pnad4 and ITS, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the pcox1 sequence data revealed that T. multiceps and T. hydatigena were more closely related to the other members of the Taenia genus, and S. erinaceieuropaei was more closely related to the other members of the Spirometra genus. These findings demonstrated clearly the usefulness of mtDNA and rDNA sequences for population genetic studies of these cestodes of socio-economic importance. PMID:21745429

Dai, R S; Liu, G H; Song, H Q; Lin, R Q; Yuan, Z G; Li, M W; Huang, S Y; Liu, W; Zhu, X Q

2012-06-01

156

The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.  

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In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-04-01

157

Characterisation of taeniid cestode species by PCR-RFLP of ITS2 ribosomal DNA.  

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Seven species of taeniid cestode (Echinococcus granulosus. E. multilocularis, Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis, T. pisiformis, T. multiceps and T. serialis) were characterised using a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP). The second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was amplified from various geographical isolates of each of the seven species, digested separately with four restriction endonucleases and the fragments were separated by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR-RFLP produced characteristic patterns for each taeniid species examined. No variation in RFLP patterns was observed among different isolates of E. multilocularis and the species of Taenia, but distinct intraspecific variation was detected in E. granulosus. The present study indicates the usefulness of the PCR-RFLP of ITS2 for systematic, epidemiological and diagnostic purposes. PMID:7785524

Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

1995-03-01

158

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus  

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Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

Maravilla Pablo

2011-07-01

159

Spermatological characteristics of the genus Taenia inferred from the ultrastructural study on Taenia hydatigena.  

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The present study attempts to establish the sperm ultrastructure baseline for Taenia hydatigena, which is essential for the future research on the location of specific proteins involved in spermatogenesis in this species. Thus, the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live tapeworms were obtained from an experimentally infected dog in the Department of Pathology and Public Health of the Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II of Rabat (Morocco). The spermatozoon of T. hydatigena is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, a crested body, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other interesting characteristics are the presence of a 2000 nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of T. hydatigena are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia. PMID:25320046

Miquel, Jordi; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

2015-01-01

160

Evaluación de cisticerco de taenia crassiceps como antígeno sustituto para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis  

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Full Text Available

Para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis (NCC se requiere de extractos antigénicos obtenidos de los cisticercos de Taenia solium (T.so, lo cual presenta dificultades técnicas por la difícil consecución de cerdos naturalmente infectados (1. Sin embargo, los extractos antigénicos obtenidos de Taenia crassiceps (T.cra muestran una alta homología con los de T.so, brindando ventajas en la producción de antígenos para implementar en técnicas serológicas (2,3. Nuestro grupo ha venido trabajando en la búsqueda de alternativas para el diagnóstico serológico de cisticercosis humana y porcina en
Colombia y en el establecimiento de un modelo animal de fácil mantenimiento que permita la obtención de cisticercos a gran escala.

 

 

Sonia Agudelo

2004-02-01

161

Preliminary investigations into the immunization of lambs against infection with Taenia multiceps metacestodes.  

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Two trials were carried out to investigate the protective value of various antigens in the immunization of lambs against Taenia multiceps metacestode infections. The first trial involved groups of 5 or 6 lambs immunized with activated T. multiceps oncospheres; activated T. hydatigena oncospheres; T. multiceps coenurus fluid antigens, and two untreated control groups. All except one of the control groups were challenged orally with T. multiceps oncospheres 5 weeks later. The results of the trial were equivocal with 1 to 3 lambs from each group showing post-mortem evidence of infection. There was evidence that some lambs from this trial had previously been exposed to Taenia oncospheres, thus nullifying possible effects of immunization. A second trial used two groups of 5 "cestode free" lambs. One group was immunized with T. multiceps oncosphere-derived antigens prior to challenge and showed significant protection when compared with the sham-vaccinated controls. PMID:7201194

Edwards, G T; Herbert, I V

1982-02-01

162

Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.  

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Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

2013-02-01

163

Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.  

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Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic. PMID:22301089

Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

2012-06-01

164

The cestodes of foxhounds and foxes in Powys, mid-Wales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cestodes were found in 129 of 875 foxhounds from 20 packs in Powys, mid-Wales, examined by purging in 1983-1988, in the following order of prevalence: Taenia hydatigena in 57 hounds (6.51%), Echinococcus granulosus in 27 (3.09%), Dipylidium caninum in 25 (2.86%), T. ovis in 14 (1.60%), T. pisiformis in 10 (1.14%), T. serialis in five (0.57%) and T. multiceps in four (0.46%). Of 197 foxes examined by autopsy, 22 harboured cestodes: two (1.02%) had E. granulosus, nine (4.57%) T. polyacantha, eight (4.06%) T. pisiformis, two (1.02%) T. serialis, one (0.51%) D. caninum and one (0.51%) Mesocestoides sp. This is the first definite report of T. polyacantha in British foxes. The results are compared with those of previous surveys in Powys and in other parts of Wales, and the reasons for changes in prevalence are discussed. PMID:1417205

Jones, A; Walters, T M

1992-04-01

165

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

2008-08-01

166

Cestode regulation of inflammation and inflammatory diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminth parasites are masters of immune regulation; a likely prerequisite for long-term survival by circumventing their hosts' attempt to eradicate them. From a translational perspective, knowledge of immune events as a response to infection with a helminth parasite could be used to reduce the intensity of unwanted inflammatory reactions. Substantial data have accumulated showing that inflammatory reactions that promote a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases are dampened as a consequence of infection with helminth parasites, via either the mobilization of an anti-worm spectrum of immune events or by the direct effect of secretory/excretory bioactive immunomodulatory molecules released from the parasite. However, many issues are outstanding in the definition of the mechanism(s) by which infection with helminth parasites can affect the outcome, positively or negatively, of concomitant disease. We focus on a subgroup of this complex group of metazoan parasites, the cestodes, summarizing studies from rodent models that illustrate if, and by what mechanisms, infection with tapeworms ameliorate or exaggerate disease in their host. The ability of infection with cestodes, or other classes of helminth, to worsen a disease course or confer susceptibility to intracellular pathogens should be carefully considered in the context of 'helminth therapy'. In addition, poorly characterised cestode extracts can regulate murine and human immunocyte function, yet the impact of these in the context of autoimmune or allergic diseases is poorly understood. Thus, studies with cestodes, as representative helminths, have helped cement the concept that infection with parasitic helminths can inhibit concomitant disease; however, issues relating to long-term effects, potential side-effects, mixed pathogen infections and purification of immunomodulatory molecules from the parasite remain as challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve the use of helminths as anti-inflammatory agents for human diseases. PMID:23058631

Hernandez, Jose-Luis Reyes; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek M

2013-03-01

167

Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update  

OpenAIRE

Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, ...

Chai, Jong-yil

2013-01-01

168

Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in three communities in north Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the response to a serum antigen-detecting ELISA for cysticercosis and a stool coproantigen test for taeniasis in two rural communities (mountainous and coastal areas) and one group of (peri-)urban factory workers; and (2) to examine clinical features of human cysticercosis in northern Vietnam. METHODS: Villagers and factory workers and their families were informed and invited to participate in the study. Blood and faecal samples were collected from the participa...

Somers, R.; Dorny, P.; Nguyen, V. K.; Dang, T. C. T.; Goddeeris, B.; Craig, P. S.; Vercruysse, J.

2006-01-01

169

[Cloning and sequence analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase gene from Taenia multiceps].  

Science.gov (United States)

Protoscoleces of Taenia multiceps were collected from the naturally infected sheep and total RNA was extracted. Specific primers were designed according to TaHe2-D11 mRNA sequence and T. multiceps thioredoxin peroxidase gene (TmTPx) was amplified by RT-PCR. PCR products were ligated into pMD18-T vector and transformed to E. coli DH5alpha. The recombinant plasmids were identified by restriction digestion and sequencing. A 614 bp cDNA was amplified. The TmTPx open reading frame (591 bp) encoded a 196-amino acid protein with Mr 21,690, pI 7.61. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that TmTPx had a typical 2-Cys Prx conserved domain. Phylogenetic tree revealed that T. multiceps had the closest relationship to T. asiatica, followed by T. solium and T. crassiceps, E. granulosus and E. multilocularis. PMID:21823330

Li, Yong-guang; Li, Wen-hui; Gai, Wen-yan; Yao, Ju-xia; Qu, Zi-gang; Jia, Wan-zhong; Radu, Blaga; Fu, Bao-quan

2011-02-28

170

Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens  

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Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

BRAGAZZA Lúcia M.

2002-01-01

171

Dipstick dot ELISA for the detection of Taenia coproantigens in humans.  

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A dipstick dot ELISA for detection of Taenia-specific coproantigens was developed. The test was based on a sandwich ELISA using antibodies raised against adult Taenia solium. Antibodies were absorbed to nitrocellulose paper previously adhered to acetate plastic to form dipsticks. Once blocked with 5% skimmed milk and dried the antibody-coated dipsticks were stable for several weeks at room temperature. Both micro and dot ELISA formats were genus specific although the dot ELISA was less sensitive than the micro ELISA based on the same antiserum. During field studies, in which the majority of samples were tested in rural villages soon after collection, 3728 samples were tested. All samples were also examined by microscopy using formol ether concentration and individuals questioned to determine whether they were aware of being infected. After the initial diagnostic work individuals were treated with taeniacidal drugs for worm recovery. Use of the coproantigen test significantly increased the number of cases diagnosed. Of the 41 cases diagnosed by the three diagnostic techniques combined 31 were detected by the dipstick assay making it the most sensitive technique employed. The specificity of the dipstick assay was 99.9% with a positive predictive value of 88.6%. The combined diagnostic approach did not, however, diagnose all cases. The coproantigen test was fast and easy to use. Further improvements may make the dipstick test suitable for wide-scale use in field studies and diagnostic laboratories. PMID:8356000

Allan, J C; Mencos, F; Garcia-Noval, J; Sarti, E; Flisser, A; Wang, Y; Liu, D; Craig, P S

1993-07-01

172

Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.  

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We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples. PMID:21112414

Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

2011-01-01

173

Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis / Fração hidrofóbica de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata, ao contrário da fração hidrofílica, contém marcadores imunodominantes para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose humana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando que antígenos alternativos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NC) continua sendo um desafio devido ao aumento da dificuldade em se obter parasitas de suínos naturalmente infectados, para a preparação do antígeno homólogo de Taenia solium, o objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi avaliar frações detergente (D) e aquosa (A), do extrato salino de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata para diagnóstico da NC. MÉTODOS: Bovinos, naturalmente infectados com Taenia saginata, procedentes da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram obtidos de frigoríficos e abatidos de acordo com a técnica de inspeção recomendada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal. As frações D e A foram obtidas utilizando Triton X-114 (TX-114). Amostras de soro foram obtidas de 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de NC, 45 com diagnóstico de outras doenças parasitárias e 30 de indivíduos aparentemente normais. Níveis de IgG foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Imunoblotting. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste ELISA foram 95% e 73,3%, quando utilizado o extrato salino, 95% e 82,6% para fração D, e 65% e 61,3% para a fração A, respectivamente. O ensaio Imunoblotting confirmou os resultados do teste ELISA, sendo a fração D mais eficiente que os outros extratos, observando-se que o componente 70-68kDa se comportou como imunodominante para os pacientes com NC. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados demonstraram que a fração D de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata obtida com TX-114 pode ser utilizada como fração antigênica heteróloga pelo Imunoblotting para o diagnóstico sorológico da NC humana, considerando sua habilidade para selecionar antígenos imunodominantes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

Flávia de Assunção, Gonçalves; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista, Oliveira; Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco, Rezende; José Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2010-06-01

174

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido à desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais levemente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1 anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata e (2 antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas. A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina.

Silvana de Cássia Paulan

175

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines / Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido á desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais lev [...] emente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1) anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata) e (2) antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas). A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina. Abstract in english Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typ [...] ically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

Silvana de Cassia, Paulan; Rutilia Marisela Hernandes, Gonzales; Laura Adalid, Peralta; Josy Campanha, Vicentini-Oliveira; Germano Francisco, Biondi; Edda Sciuto, Conde; Robert Michael Evans, Parkhouse; Caris Maroni, Nunes.

2013-06-25

176

Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps?  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P = 0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P = 0.023, P = 0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease. PMID:18160069

Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Öncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Craig, Philip S.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2008-01-01

177

Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P=0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P=0.023, P=0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease. PMID:18160069

Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Oncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T; Craig, Philip S; Anderson, Garry A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2008-07-01

178

Phylogeny of Taenia: Species definitions and origins of human parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogeny is fundamental as it constrains explanations about history and forms our foundation for recognizing and diagnosing species. In the absence of such a framework taxonomists historically relied on intuitive processes, personal judgment and authority, often embracing a typological view of species that disregarded otherwise unequivocal historical and biological criteria. Species of Taenia are among the most characteristic tapeworms infecting carnivores and humans as definitive hosts and indeed Taeniidae is unique among the Eucestoda in requiring 2 obligate mammalian hosts for transmission; a high percentage (>80%) of life cycles have been completely elucidated among the approximately 45 species and nominal subspecies of Taenia. Until recently there had been no comprehensive attempts at reconstruction of a phylogeny among these important parasites. Such analyses have allowed us to explore the origins and evolution of those independent species of Taenia that occur in humans (T. saginata, T. asiatica, and T. solium) and to understand the ecological and historical processes serving as determinants of biogeography and host-association. These studies supported the status of T. asiatica as a valid species and diagnosed a relationship as the sister-species of T. saginata. These conclusions contrasted with a diversity of opinions that would subsume T. asiatica as a subspecies. Recognition of a species constitutes a specific and testable hypothesis, is not an arbitrary decision and is most appropriately assessed in the context of phylogenetic or historical data. Considering macrospecies, a process has been outlined by Brooks and McLennan [Brooks DR, McLennan DA. The nature of diversity: an evolutionary voyage of discovery. University of Chicago Press: Chicago; 2002] as follows: (1) Discovery: a systematist describes the species; (2) Phylogenetic reconstruction; (3) Evaluation I: do sister-species show geographical overlap-are they sympatric or allopatric (use phylogeny+geographical distributions)? (4) Evaluation II: are sister-species reproductively isolated based on information from natural history, ecology and reproductive biology? Species may be viewed in the context of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary processes. For instance, microspecies are defined in ecological time and involve populations and contemporary process that are potentially reversible (reticulate). In contrast, macrospecies as exemplified by T. saginata and T. asiatica are divergent lineages resulting from processes in evolutionary time where an ancestor has undergone a permanent split that is non-reversible (non-reticulate). Applying these criteria in evaluation of T. saginata and T. asiatica, it becomes clear that in evolutionary time these represent historical lineages with independent spatial and temporal trajectories, having separated from a common ancestor near 0.78 to 1.71 MYBP in Africa, or Eurasia. In ecological time, sympatry, reproductive isolation, and differences in life history evident for T. saginata and T. asiatica as observed in China, and perhaps other regions of Southeast Asia, further serve to validate these taeniids. PMID:16371252

Hoberg, Eric P

2006-01-01

179

Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and in EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Paraná-Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neurocisticercose (NCC), causada pela presença do metacestódeo do parasito Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae) no sistema nervoso central, é uma doença mundialmente conhecida como responsável por distúrbios neurológicos. Com o objetivo de validar um imunodiagnóstico para pacientes da rede pública [...] do estado do Paraná-Brasil, o extrato bruto do metacestódeo de T. crassiceps (C. longicollis) foi produzido e utilizado como antígeno heterólogo para o diagnóstico de NCC ativa e inativa utilizando-se ELISA e eletroimunotransferência (EITB). O ensaio de ELISA indireto foi capaz de discriminar a forma ativa e inativa da NCC, apresentando alta especificidade e sensibilidade. Ao se utilizar EITB, nenhuma proteína foi imunodominante de forma a distinguir os diferentes estágios da NCC, embora o ensaio tenha tido 100% de especificidade. Os resultados mostram que os ensaios imunológicos podem ser uma ferramenta auxiliar importante para o diagnóstico da NCC, principalmente para o sistema público de saúde, cujo diagnóstico por imagem não é acessível ou cujos recursos financeiros são escassos. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the cerebral presence of Taenia solium metacestode (Cysticercus cellulosae), is responsible for neurological disorders worldwide. In order to validate an immunodiagnosis for public-health patients in the State of Parana-Brazil, crude antigen of Taenia crassicepsmetacestode [...] (Cysticercus longicollis) was used as an alternative heterologous antigen to be used in ELISA and in electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) for active and inactive NCC diagnosis. Indirect ELISA was able to discriminate between active and inactive samples and presented high specificity and sensitivity. Any immunodominant band was able to distinguish the NCC stages, although the EITB showed 100% specificity. The immunological results proved to be an important auxiliary toll for NCC diagnosis, mainly for public-health systems in developing countries, where either the neuroimage techniques are not accessible or the resources are scarce.

João Carlos, Minozzo; Juliana de, Moura; Sérgio Monteiro, Almeida; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

1127-11-01

180

Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the larval tetraphyllideans and trypanorhynchs lacking evaginated tentacles and other key diagnostic features.

Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

2013-12-01

181

Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.  

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The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ? 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections. PMID:24703071

Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

2014-04-28

182

Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution. PMID:23146722

Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

2013-01-01

183

Cloning and characterization of the fatty acid-binding protein gene from the protoscolex of Taenia multiceps.  

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Taenia multiceps (Cestoda: Taeniidae), a worldwide cestode parasite, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal central nervous system disease commonly known as coenurosis in domestic and wild ruminants including humans. Herein, a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) gene was identified from transcriptomic data in T. multiceps. This gene, which contains a complete coding sequence, was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding protein, which was named TmFABP, had a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and subsequently was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified on Ni-NTA beads (Bio-Rad). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses showed that the purified recombinant protein caused immunogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that TmFABP was expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscolices and in the cells between the body wall and parenchyma layer of the cestode. In sections from gravid proglottids, intense staining was detected in the uterus and eggs. Based on this, TmFABP could be switched on during differentiation of germinative layers to protoscoleces and from metacestodes to adult worms. Taken together, our results already reported for T. multiceps suggest the possibility of TmFABP developing a vaccine to control and prevent coenurosis. PMID:23474657

Nie, Hua-Ming; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, Ying-Dong; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xi; Lai, Wei-Ming; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

2013-05-01

184

Preliminary field trial of a vaccine against coenurosis caused by Taenia multiceps.  

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Taenia multiceps is a taeniid cestode that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. In the intermediate hosts, the larval stage of T. multiceps causes coenurosis, a common disease in the CNS of ruminants, which typically leads to the death of the infected animals. Recent research into new methods for control of coenurosis and other taeniid cestode infections such as hydatidosis has identified vaccination as a potentially valuable new tool. In order to test the applicability of vaccination as an approach for control of T. multiceps infection in sheep, a field trial was carried out against natural infection in Sardinian farms (Italy) with recombinant proteins of T. multiceps. The recombinant proteins with Quil A as adjuvant were injected subcutaneously, the first administered to lambs at 10-12 weeks of age and a booster dose given after 2-4 weeks. A total of 632 sheep were selected, belonging to the "replacement quota" of six different farms, of which 424 were used as controls (unvaccinated) and 208 were vaccinated. After a period of more than 40 months from the beginning of the field trial, 33 episodes of cerebral coenurosis occurred in the monitored farms, including 32 cases in control sheep and l case in a vaccinated animal. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the number of coenurosis cases in the vaccinated animals (chi(2)=14.08, Pmulticeps and, considering the high degree of effectiveness achieved, could be a prelude to routine application in field situations of particular risk, such as Sardinia. PMID:19345506

Varcasia, A; Tosciri, G; Coccone, G N Sanna; Pipia, A P; Garippa, G; Scala, A; Damien, V; Vural, G; Gauci, C G; Lightowlers, M W

2009-06-10

185

First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

2014-04-01

186

Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells  

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Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

2011-01-01

187

[Biology of cestodes of domestic ducks and wild water birds].  

Science.gov (United States)

Life cycles of 16 cestode species of the families Hymenolepididae and Diploposthidae were studied in 52 ponds of the State Fishery in Bohemia and Moravia. The parasites were recovered from domestic ducks kept on the ponds and from wild birds, mostly of the genera Anas and Aythya, occurring in these water biotopes. Cestode larvae were found in 9 species of Copepoda (9669 out of 1 600 200 examined specimens, i. e. 0.6%) and 3 species of Ostracoda (500 out of 272 300 examined specimens, i. e. 0.18%). Five species of water snails serving as reservoir hosts harboured cysticercoids of 5 cestode species (680 out of 10 212 examined specimens, i. e. 6%). The studies of cestode life cycle under natural conditions were supplemented with 680 successful experiments with intermediate hosts and 179 successful experiments with definitive hosts. The development of larvae was related to the temperature and lasted approximately 13-20 days at 18-25 degrees C. The highest intensity of infection occurred incrustaceans under experimental conditions, a lower intensity was found in crustaceans from duck farms and the lowest in crustaceans from other parts of ponds (e. g., in the case of Fimbriaria fasciolaris in Copepoda, 37, 22 and 10 cysticercoids). The intermediate hosts infected with cestode larvae can live for 3-6 weeks (Copepoda) and 4-7 weeks (Ostracoda) and after invagination of cysticercoids for 20-25 days, on the average. The cysticercoids survive their hosts for 14-18 h at 4-6 degrees C, for 10-11 h at 12-14 degrees C, for 6-7 h at 18-20 degrees C and for 3-4 h at 24-26 degrees C. If they are swallowed by water snails at that time (dead crustaceans are a component of their food), they survive in their digestive tract even for two years (the longest period demonstrated experimentally) and after this time they are able to develop into an adult cestode in the definitive host. The infectivity of cysticercoids increases with their age. It is the lowest immediately after invagination (10-15%), during the stay of cysticercoids in crustaceans it gradually increases (30-60% on days 10-20 after invagination) and it is the highest in cysticercoids from snails (45-55% after 20-50 days in snails, 60-80% after 50-100 days in snails and 70-90% after more than 100 days in snails). PMID:6417876

Valkounová, J

1983-09-01

188

Effects of nitroscanate on adult Taenia pisiformis in dogs with experimentally induced infections.  

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Twenty-four specific-pathogen-free Beagles were each given 50 cysticerci of Taenia pisiformis that had been harvested from experimentally infected rabbits. Quantitative fecal egg counts and fecal screening for recovery of passed segments were performed on postinoculation days 56 through 70. Twenty-three of 24 dogs fed cysticerci developed patent infections. The 23 dogs with patent infections were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and treated with nitroscanate or a placebo 60 days after inoculation. Egg counts in the treated dogs had markedly decreased by the second day after treatment, and by the sixth day after treatment, segments were not found in the feces of any of the treated animals. The control dogs continued to pass eggs and segments in their feces throughout the 9 days after treatment. The dogs were euthanatized and necropsied 70 days after being inoculated. At necropsy, the mean number of scolices recovered from control dogs was 24.6, the mean number of scolices recovered from treated dogs was 0.25. Worms recovered from the control dogs were intact, gravid cestodes. Efficacy of treatment with nitroscanate at a mean dosage of 56 mg/kg of body weight was 98.9%. PMID:1835326

Bowman, D D; Lin, D S; Johnson, R C; Lynn, R C; Hepler, D I; Stansfield, D G

1991-09-01

189

[Distribution of cestodes among domestic ducks and free-living aquatic birds].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1959-1975, 3404 water birds of 18 species belonging to six orders were examined for the presence of cestodes. The birds came from 52 localities (ponds) in Bohemia and Moravia where domestic ducks were kept by the State Fishery and where also wild water fowl occurred. Cestodes of 31 species of the families Hymenolepididae, Dilepididae, Amabiliidae and Diploposthidae were found. The total number of examined birds included 2476 domestic ducks (1406 of them, i. e. 56.8%, were positive for cestodes) and 928 free-living water birds (873 of them, i. e. 94.1%, were 30 cestode species. Eight free-living bird species of the orders Anseriformes and Ralliformes (Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, A. fuligula, Fulica atra, Aythya nyroca, Anas crecca, A. querquedula and A. strepera) are significant for the circulation of cestodes as they harbour 16 cestode species also occurring in Anas platyrhynchos dom. PMID:6407178

Valkounová, J

1983-01-01

190

Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.  

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Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank. PMID:22299430

Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

2011-09-01

191

Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship  

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Full Text Available Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obtained from rats infected 2,5 months earlier with viable eggs. The humoral immunological response of cats and rats was detected in the second week after infection and the peaks of circulating antibodies occurred in the fourth and fifth weeks, respectively.

Evaldo Nascimento

1982-09-01

192

Field trials with nitroscanate against cestodes and nematodes in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical trials were carried out to test the safety and efficacy of the anthelmintic, nitroscanate, against naturally acquired helminth infections. The trials involved 418 dogs, of which 252 were treated with one or other of two different tablet formulations of nitroscanate. A coarse particle formulation given in two doses each of 200 mg per kg reduced the worm burden of Taenia spp and Dipylidium caninum by 100 per cent and Echinococcus granulosus by 94.1 per cent in farm dogs. Given as a single dose of 100 mg per kg this formulation reduced faecal worm egg counts by 95.3 per cent for Toxocara canis, 93.3 per cent for Toxascaris leonina and 99.1 per cent for Uncinaria stenocephala. A micronised formulation given in a single dose of 50 mg per kg caused a 97.9 per cent reduction in worm burden for Taenia spp and D caninum and 98.3 per cent reduction for E granulosus in foxhounds. The same formulation at this dosage gave reductions in faecal worm egg counts of 96.4 per cent for T canis and 100 per cent for T leonina and U stenocephala. Side-effects recorded were fewer than with piperazine and bunamidine. PMID:6990596

Richards, R J; Somerville, J M

1980-04-12

193

Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens / Frequência de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco na população de uma comunidade rural brasileira (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP) determinada por ELISA e imunoblot usando antígenos de Taenia crassiceps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Considerando o impacto na saúde pública gerado pela ocorrência da cisticercose, especialmente a forma neurológica, neurocisticercose (NC), foi estudada a freqüência de positividade de anticorpos anti-cisticerco em amostras de soro de 1.863 habitantes do município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, situado [...] a 80 Km de Ribeirão Preto, região considerada endêmica para a cisticercose. As amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste ELISA usando extrato antigênico de líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e as amostras reagentes e inconclusivas foram analisadas pelo imunoblot. Das 459 amostras submetidas ao imunoblot, 40 foram fortemente imunorreativas para os peptídeos imuno dominantes de 18 e 14kD. Considerando o uso do teste imunoblot como confirmatório, dada sua elevada especificidade, a soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-cisticerco foi de 2,1% na população estudada. Abstract in english Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC), we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal distr [...] ict located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra). The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

Lúcia M., BRAGAZZA; Adelaide J., VAZ; Afonso D.C., PASSOS; Osvaldo M., TAKAYANAGUI; Paulo M., NAKAMURA; Noeli M., ESPÍNDOLA; Alessandra, PARDINI; Ednéia C., BUENO.

2002-02-01

194

Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.  

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A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

2014-10-01

195

Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1?M, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the ?3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins. PMID:25523293

Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

2015-04-01

196

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

Hove, T.; Mukaratirwa, S.

2012-01-01

197

Differentiating Taenia eggs found in human stools - Does Ziehl Neelsen staining help?  

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SUMMARY Introduction Unlike other tapeworms, T. solium infections carry risk for neurocysticercosis. Differential diagnosis of human tapeworm infections relies on morphology of the scolex or proglottids, frequently unavailable. DNA-based assays are poorly available in endemic areas. Ziehl Neelsen staining has been suggested but not tested in controlled designs. We validated whether Ziehl Neelsen staining could differentiate T. solium and T. saginata eggs. Methods Tapeworm proglottids (33 specimens, 23 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) and eggs (31 specimens, 13 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) were stained. Four eggs from each sample were measured and average diameters were recorded. Results T. saginata eggs stained entirely magenta in seven of 13 cases. T. solium eggs stained entirely blue/purple in 4/18 cases and entirely magenta in one. Eggs of T. saginata were slightly larger and always ovoid, while T. solium eggs were smaller and were mostly spheric. Conclusions Ziehl Neelsen staining can occasionally distinguish fully mature T. solium from T. saginata eggs. This distinction is poorly sensitive and not completely specific. Differential staining suggest differences in embryophore components between species, evident along egg maturation. In this small series, egg morphology (shape, maximal diameter) provided appropriate differentiation between T. solium and T. saginata eggs. PMID:20579318

Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; García, Héctor H.

2012-01-01

198

Preparation and sequence analysis of Taenia crassiceps metacestode recombinant antigens with potential for specific immunodiagnosis of human cerebral cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Taenia crassiceps metacestode cDNA expression library in lambda gt 11 was screened with rabbit antisera to metacestodal T. solium and T. saginata crude extract. Primary clones (121) were identified, and after rescreening and lysogenization in Escherichia coli Y 1089, were tested in Western blot for reactivity with the same antisera. In addition, analyses were performed with rabbit antisera directed towards T. crassiceps and Echinococcus granulosus metacestode crude extract, sera from humans with neurocysticercosis (Mexico) and other important helminth diseases, mice and calves with experimental T. crassiceps and T. saginata infections and normal sera. Of those tested, 22 clones expressing beta-galactosidase fusion proteins (approximately 118-132 kDa) were reactive with IgG antibodies of cysticercotic patients and T. crassiceps infected mice. Of these clones, 11 were also sero-positive with calf-IgG antibodies against T. saginata larvae. None of the 22 clones reacted with IgG antibodies due to human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, intestinal/hepatic or urinary schistosomiasis, African onchocerciasis or with sera from uninfected controls (man, rabbit, calf and mouse). Of these 22 clones, 15 have been subcloned into the plasmid vectors pGEX-2T (modified) and pT7T3 alpha 19. Expressed glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins were again tested for sensitivity and specificity by Western blot, and concentrated by affinity chromatography. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA inserts of 9 clones has been determined in pT7T3 alpha 19 and revealed identity in 4 and 5 clones, respectively. PMID:7716396

Fischer, C; Nosratian, R; Habtemichael, N; Tolle, R; Riemenschneider, V; Geyer, E

1994-12-01

199

Digeneans and cestodes parasitic in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Threskiornithidae) from Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some digeneans and cestodes parasitic in a population of the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot) from Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are presented. The digeneans Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909), Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819), Ascocotyle (Leighia) hadra Ostrowski de Nuñez, 1992 and Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 from the intestine; Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi, 1803) from the cloaca; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899) from the bile ducts and the cestode Hymenolepis megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) from the cloaca, were recorded. The discovery of D. egregia, P. ovatus, A. heterolecithodes and P. nanum constitute new host and/or new geographical records. Adults of A. (L.) hadra, previously described in experimental definitive hosts, are first reported from a naturally infected bird. Hymenolepis megalops, a cestode of Anseriformes is first reported from Ciconiiformes. PMID:11104147

Digiani, M C

2000-01-01

200

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION  

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Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

M. B. Sonune

2012-11-01

201

Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea  

OpenAIRE

Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examination...

Jeon, Hyeong-kyu; Kim, Kyu-heon; Chai, Jong-yil; Yang, Hyun-jong; Rim, Han-jong; Eom, Keeseon S.

2008-01-01

202

Molecular Identification of Taenia Tapeworms by Cox1 Gene in Koh Kong, Cambodia  

OpenAIRE

We collected fecal samples from 21 individuals infected with Taenia tapeworms in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia, and performed nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene and multiplex PCR on the eggs for DNA differential diagnosis of human Taenia tapeworms. Genomic DNA was extracted from the eggs of a minimum number of 10 isolated from fecal samples. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta7126F, Ts7313F, Tso7466F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay proved useful for differentially diagnosing Taenia soliu...

Jeon, Hyeong-kyu; Yong, Tai-soon; Sohn, Woon-mok; Chai, Jong-yil; Hong, Sung-jong; Han, Eun-taek; Jeong, Hoo-gn; Chhakda, Tep; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Eom, Keeseon S.

2011-01-01

203

[Embryonic development of the cestode Mosgovoyia ctenoides (Anoplocephalidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the cleavage divisions and the ultrastructural analysis of early embryos as well as cellular organisation of infective oncosphere of the anoplocephalid cestode Mosgovoyia ctenoides are described. The early cleavage is unequal and results in the formation of three types of blastomeres: 2 large macromeres containing large electron dense granules, 3 medium-size mesomeres and several small micromeres. In the early stage of oncospheral morphogenesis, formation of three following primary embryonic envelopes takes place: (1) the capsule replaced by thick, rigid outer coat originated form the uterine material secretion, (2) the outer envelope and (3) the inner envelope. The capsule is formed from the vitellocyte material. Two macromeres contribute to the formation of the outer envelope and three mesomeres take part in the formation of the inner envelope. The inner envelope undergoes differentiation into three sublayers: (1) a thick extraembryophoral cytoplasmic layer, (2) an electron-dense embryophore, as a stiff pyriform apparatus, and (3) a thin intraembryophoral cytoplasmic layer containing mesomere nuclei. The oncosphere is located in the extended cupule-like part of the pyriform apparatus. Four egg envelopes surround the mature infective oncosphere of M. ctenoides: (1) a thick outer coat, (2) the outer envelope, (3) the inner envelope with a characteristic pyriform apparatus and (4) the oncospheral membrane. Hook morphogenesis takes place inside six symmetrically arranged oncoblasts, each of which shows a characteristic large nucleus of semi-lunar shape. At the beginning the "hook-forming center" appears in the cytoplasmic part of each oncoblast. It consists of numerous free ribosomes, polyribosomes, mitochondria and Golgi complexes. The hook-forming center is involved in synthesis of a hook primordium, which undergoes differentiation and elongation into the fully developed hook. Mature hook consists of three parts: (1) blade, (2) shank, (3) base, and at the site of its protrusion from the oncosphere, is surrounded by a circular septate junction. Wide bands of hook muscles are attached to the basal and collar parts of the hook. The hook blades project outside the oncospheral body into a large cavity that is delimited by the hook region membrane. In the fully developed oncosphere of M. ctenoides three pairs of oncospheral hooks together with specialized hook muscles form a complex of "hook muscle system", responsible for coordinated hook action. The surface of the infective oncosphere is covered by a thin cytoplasmic layer of oncospheral tegument connected with the so-called "binucleate subtegumental cell", situated deeper in the oncospheral body. Below the cytoplasmic layer are situated wide bands of the somatic musculature responsible for oncospheral body movements. Five major types of oncospheral cells have been distinguished in the infective oncosphere: (1) a binucleate subtegumental cell, (2) a binucleate penetration gland, (3) two nerve cells, (4) numerous somatic cells, and (5) six germinative cells. During development of the oncosphere, changes in the concentration of glycogen and number of lipid droplets were observed. In the early embryos glycogen particles were most abundant in the macromere cytoplasm, whereas in micromeres concentration of glycogen was observed to be lower. In the course of the differentiation of the oncospheral envelopes glycogen was progressively distributed to other parts of the developing embryo. Simultaneously, a great increase in the number of lipid droplets was detected. However, during the preoncospheral phase of development a progressive reduction of lipid droplets was observed. This may indicate that lipids play a role of the energy source for developing oncosphere. PMID:17912814

M?ocicki, Daniel

2007-01-01

204

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (f [...] leas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %), followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

S, Mukaratirwa; T, Hove.

205

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

T. Hove

2012-05-01

206

Disease: H01047 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available H01047 Cysticercosis Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is endemic in many poorer countries of La ... , Evans CA, Gilman RH Taenia solium cysticercosis. Lancet ... 362:547-56 (2003) PMID:10738675 (description) Garc ...

207

[Pararodentolepis gen. n., a new genus of cestodes from rodents, with the description of P. sinistra sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cestode genus and speies with armed scolex, Pararodentolepis sinistra gen. et sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae), is described ex brown rat Rattus norvegicus Berkentheut, 1769 from the western Siberia. The differential diagnosis is also given. PMID:20198964

Makarikov, A A; Guliaev, V D

2009-01-01

208

Cestodes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a W Norwegian hatchery:Infection dynamics, aspects of development and pathology  

OpenAIRE

Many cestodes use copepods as first intermediate hosts, and some may infect juvenile salmonids in hatcheries that use water from sources that are inhabited by native salmonids. Little is known about their infection dynamics and development under these artificial conditions. The cestode fauna of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was examined from February (fry) to the end of July (parr) at a hatchery in Hordaland, W Norway. Two fish groups, which followed standard rearing conditions, ...

Sundnes, Glenn Arve

2003-01-01

209

Ultrastructure of vitellogenesis and vitellocytes in the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax  

OpenAIRE

This is the first TEM examination of vitellogenesis in the cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax and a member of a little-studied trypanorhynch family, the Aporhynchidae. The synthetic activity of vitellocytes plays two important functions in the developmental biology of cestodes: (1) their shell-globules serve in eggshell formation; and (2) their accumulated reserves of glycogen and lipids represent a food source for the developing embryo...

Swiderski, Zdzislaw; Miquel Colome?, Jordi; Marigo, Adji Mama; Gibson, David I.

2012-01-01

210

High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts  

Science.gov (United States)

Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness?=?0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness?=?0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

2013-01-01

211

The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR). 1  

OpenAIRE

The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae) cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% ), Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% ), Hymenolepis scutigera (54% ), Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% ), Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% ), Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% ), Choanotaenia hepa...

Novikov, Michael V.

1992-01-01

212

The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR. 1  

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Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% , Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% , Hymenolepis scutigera (54% , Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% , Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% , Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% , Choanotaenia hepatica (6% , Dilepis undula (2% and Polycercus sp. (2% .

Michael V. Novikov

1992-01-01

213

The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR). 1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae) cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaem [...] us fulvus (86% ), Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% ), Hymenolepis scutigera (54% ), Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% ), Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% ), Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% ), Choanotaenia hepatica (6% ), Dilepis undula (2% ) and Polycercus sp. (2% ).

Michael V., Novikov.

214

Review of tapeworms of rodents in the Republic of Buryatia, with emphasis on anoplocephalid cestodes  

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Full Text Available Examination of ca. 500 rodents [Microtus spp., Myodes spp., Cricetulus barabensis (Pallas, Apodemus peninsulae Thomas] from 14 localities in the Republic of Buryatia (Russian Federation revealed a minimum of 11 cestode species representing Anoplocephaloides Baer, 1923 s. str. (1 species, Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 s. l. (5 species, Catenotaenia Janicki, 1904 (2 species, Arostrilepis Mas-Coma & Tenora, 1997 (at least 2 species and Rodentolepis Spasskii, 1954 (1 species. At least 5 of these species are previously unknown. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Buryatian Paranoplocephala-species was defined by cytochrome oxidase I (COI sequences (mtDNA. The phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the status of Parandrya Gulyaev & Chechulin, 1996 as a junior synonym of Paranoplocephala s. l.. The species diversity of anoplocephalid cestodes was significantly lower in Buryatia and North-East Siberia (6-7 species than in Europe (17 species. The connections of the anoplocephalid fauna of Buryatia seem to be closer with Beringia (North-East Siberia and Alaska than with Europe. The present study demonstrated high spatial variation (patchiness among study sites in cestodes of Buryatian rodents, with the exception of the ubiquitous Arostrilepis horrida (von Linstow, 1901-complex.

Voitto Haukisalmi

2009-04-01

215

[Developing of new anthelmintics. Evaluation of fluzamide on the new experimental models of intestinal cestode infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of the original drug fluzamide (a N,S-containing heterocycle derivative) was evaluated by primary screening on a modified model of monoinvasion with the luminal form of Echinococcus multilocularis and on an original model of intestinal mixed invasion of E. multilocularis and Hymenolepsis nana at the immature and mature stages of the parasites in golden hamsters when an experimental host was immunosuppressed with hydrocortisone. The efficacy of fluzamide in an oral dose of 0.3 g/kg against young E. multilocularis and H. nana (the duration of their invasion was 7 days) was 99.8-100%; that against adult cestodes of both species (their maximum age was 28 days) was 100%. The original method of simulation of intestinal cestodiases in laboratory rodents, which is based on the artificial transplantation of cestodes at the prepatent stage of development from the intestine of infected donors to the intestine of healthy recipients through the latter' stomach during drug immunosuppression, showed its high reliability. There is evidence that transplanted immature strobilar cestodes can survive in the stomach, get acclimated, and continue to develop in the recipients' small bowel up to the stage of formation of infective eggs. PMID:12886590

Kovalenko, F P; Perchun, N I; Chernikova, E A; Sevbo, D P; Trusov, S N; Mikha?litsyn, F S; Bessonov, A S; Legon'kov, Iu A

2003-01-01

216

In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

217

In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

/sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

1980-12-01

218

Treatment of the larval stage of Taenia multiceps with praziquantel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five sheep were infested orally with 5,500 eggs of Taenia multiceps and were treated with praziquantel (Droncit, Bayer) when they showed typical nervous signs of coenuriasis. Two sheep were treated with praziquantel at 100 mg/kg live mass per day for 5 days, 2 sheep at the same dosage for 2 days and one animal at 50 mg/kg per day for 5 days. No viable coenuri were recovered from any of these animals. This is the only anthelmintic that is known to be effective against this parasite, but its cost is such (R200 at the lowest dose rate) that it can be economically used only for the treatment of valuable stud animals. PMID:7120267

Verster, A; Tustin, R C

1982-06-01

219

MRS findings in cerebral coenurosis due to Taenia multiceps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral coenurosis due to Taenia multiceps is a rare infection with no case reports from India. A 55-year-old male patient had presented with progressive symptoms of hemiparesis of 1-year duration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the lesion was performed that showed a septated cystic lesion in left parieto-occipital lobe. Multivoxel MRS through the lesion was performed using repetition time of 1500 ms and time to echo of 144 ms at 3T MRI. MRS showed mildly elevated choline (Cho), depressed creatine (Cr), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a large peak of lactate, pyruvate, and acetate peaks. To best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of in vivo proton MRS finding ever reported. We present MRS findings in this operatively proven case of T. multiceps cyst of the brain. PMID:21699611

Ambekar, Sudheer; Prasad, Chandrajit; Dwarakanath, Srinivas; Mahadevan, Anitha

2013-01-01

220

Immunization of sheep against the larval stage of Taenia multiceps.  

Science.gov (United States)

A trial with 200 ewes and 127 lambs showed that vaccination of lambs with 2 doses of Oncosphere Secretory Antigen (OSA) 4 weeks apart, at either 4-8 and 8-12 weeks or at 12-16 and 16-20 weeks of age, was equally effective in protecting them against infestation with the larval stage of Taenia multiceps. In this trial, the lambs of ewes, vaccinated with OSA when they were 90 and again 120 days pregnant, were as susceptible to infestation as the lambs of untreated control ewes. Another trial to provoke passive immunity in lambs gave inconclusive results. In a 3rd trial 2 doses of regular OSA and 2 doses of freeze-dried OSA protected all the lambs in each group, while a single dose of regular OSA protected 9 out of 10 lambs against cerebral lesions. PMID:3306549

Verster, A; Tustin, R C

1987-06-01

221

Vitellocytes and vitellogenesis in cestodes in relation to embryonic development, egg production and life cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitellocytes have two important functions in cestode embryogenesis: (1) formation of hard egg-shell (e.g. Pseudophyllidea) or a delicate capsule (e.g. Cyclophyllidea), and (2) supplying nutritive reserves for the developing embryos. During evolution any of these two functions can be reduced or intensified in different taxa depending on the type of their embryonic development, degree of ovoviviparity and life cycles. Within the Cestoda, there are three monozoic taxa with only one set of genital organs: Amphilinidea, Gyrocotylidea and Caryophyllidea. In these monozoic taxa and some polyzoic groups with well developed vitellaria (e.g. Pseudophyllidea, Trypanorhyncha) a single oocyte [=germocyte] and a large number of vitellocytes (up to 30) are enclosed within a thick, hardened egg-shell, forming a type of eggs typical for the basic pattern of Neodermata. Only one type of egg-shell enclosures, the so-called 'heterogeneous shell-globule vesicle' is common for the above mentioned cestode taxa. Each membrane-bounded vesicle of mature vitellocytes contains numerous electron-dense shell globules embedded in a translucent matrix. In free-living Neoophora and Monogenea there are two types of vesicles with dense granules; the second is considered to be proteinaceous reserve material. Within the Cestoda, the numbers of vitellocytes per germocyte are reduced in those taxa forming eggs of the 'Cyclophyllidean-type' (e.g. Cyclophyllidea, Tetraphyllidea, Pseudophyllidea). This is particularly evident in Cyclophyllidea; for example, in vitellocytes of Hymenolepis diminuta (Hymenolepididae) there are numerous vitelline granules of homogeneously electron-dense material; in Catenotaenia pusilla (Catenotaeniidae) there are three large, homogenous vitelline vesicles, while in Inermicapsifer madagascariensis (Anoplocephalidae) there is only one large vitelline vesicle, containing homogeneously electron-dense material, which occupies most of the vitelline cell volume. In this respect the Tetraphyllidea and Proteocephalidea, in forming eggs that lack a hard egg-shell, hold an intermediate position. A comparison of interrelationships which exist among types of vitellocytes, vitellogenesis, types of embryonic development, ovoviviparity and life cycles indicates parallelisms and analogies in adaptation to the parasitic way of life in different groups of cestodes. Knowledge on cestode vitellogenesis may also have an important applied aspect. Vitellocytes, due to their high metabolic rate, represent a very sensitive target for analysing effect of anthelminthic drugs upon the egg formation (ovicidal effects); rapid degeneration of vitellocytes is usually accompanied by a cessation of egg production. PMID:10899525

Swiderski, Z; Xylander, W E

2000-06-01

222

In vivo efficacy of the anthelmintic tribendimidine against the cestode Hymenolepis microstoma in a controlled laboratory trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tribendimidine has been registered for the treatment of human soil transmitted helminthiases in China. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans it is an agonist of L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and therefore shares its mode of action with levamisole and pyrantel. Besides its broad spectrum of nematicidal efficacy, tribendimidine is efficacious against several trematodes and has been attributed to have anti-cestodal effects. However, there are few published data available for the latter. The efficacy of tribendimidine and its nematicidal metabolite deacylated amidantel against Hymenolepis microstoma were examined for their anti-cestodal potential. Doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight deacylated amidantel and 10, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg tribendimidine were administered orally on three consecutive days to mice experimentally infected with eight cysticercoids. Necropsy was performed and the worm burdens were determined one day after the last treatment. Furthermore, levamisole was used in combination with tribendimidine (100mg/kg levamisole plus 10 and 25mg/kg tribendimidine, respectively) and alone (50 and 100mg/kg) to investigate any possible interactions of the partner compounds against cestodes. Tribendimidine showed a very high efficacy at dosages of 50mg/kg or higher. Surprisingly, deacylated amidantel led to no reduction of the worm burden in any of the treatments. Combinations of levamisole with tribendimidine did not augment the effects of tribendimidine alone and as expected levamisole alone also showed no anti-cestodal activity. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time activity of tribendimidine against a cestode in a controlled laboratory study. Due to the excellent cure rates observed here, multiple tribendimidine treatments might be considered as useful scheme for treatments of cestode, nematode and trematode infections although this would significantly increase both costs and management efforts. Moreover, the differences between tribendimidine and deacylated amidantel indicate at least a strong difference in sensitivity of H. microstoma or a strong difference in drug availability. PMID:22487754

Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Welz, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Harder, Achim

2012-08-01

223

Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 52, ?. 3 (2002), s. 171-182. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cestodes * parasites of birds * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2002

Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, R.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

2002-01-01

224

Influence of Intestinal Cestodes on the Blood Picture of the Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Present study was performed to determined the changes in the blood picture of the brown rats Rattus norvegicus naturally infected with intestinal cestodes. The results are based on the examination of 82 brown rats captured at random from Hyderabad city and its adjacent areas. Blood profiling of cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana infected male and female rats showed significantly lower values of Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb concentration, Haematocrit (Hct, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC as compared to their control (non-infected rats of both sexes. The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV value for infected male and female rats was found significantly higher than those of their control rats. A significantly higher Total Leukocyte Count (TLC in male and female infected rats was noted as against the non-infected (control rats of both sexes. The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC revealed significant increase in absolute number of each type of cell in cestode infected male and female rats. However, lymphocyte and basophil counts recorded from male infected rats were similar to the counts of their control rats. Conspicuous changes in the blood picture of cestode infected male and female rats indicate host-parasite interaction as well as the triggering of defense mechanism in the host against infection.

Nasreen Gill

2007-01-01

225

Prevalence of Taenia multiceps in sheep in northern Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

From March 1996 to February 1997, slaughtered-sheeps' heads were examined for the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. Out of 451 sheep heads, only 12 (3%) were infested. All cysts but one were in the age group 0.5-2.5 years old, with prevalence of 10% (11 of 108). Eleven of 12 infested heads were found during the spring and autumn seasons. Out of 95 flocks involved in questionnaire survey unrelated to the abattoir survey, all the farmers reported the existence of the clinical signs known for coenurosis and described it in locally known names and diseases. Twenty-five of them had recent cases that were diagnosed by the veterinarian as coenurosis cases. Each flock reported one or two cases at the time of survey. A variety of clinical signs were reported from these cases (n = 42). These included circling (86%), head pressing (52%), blindness (29%) and paresis (40%). Coenurosis is a sheep-health problem and an important cause of sheep culling in Jordan. PMID:12383656

Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Jebreen, Eyad; Arab, Baker; Mukbel, Rami; Torgerson, Paul R

2002-10-15

226

Genetic variation within Taenia multiceps in Sardinia, Western Mediterranean (Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were undertaken on Taenia multiceps to determine if genetic variation was present within the parasites of Sardinia (Italy). Forty samples were obtained from various locations of Sardinia and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on NADH dehydrogenase I (ND1) and cytochrome c subunit 1 (CO1) mitochondrial genes and amplicons were then sequenced and aligned with Bioedit software. Pairwise comparison between the ND1 sequences of the T. multiceps isolates showed differences ranging from 1.27 to 2.54% using an isolate obtained from Wales as an outgroup, while COI sequences showed within the samples coming from Sardinia a lesser degree of variability, ranging from 0.22 to 0.67%. Considering the two genes, it was possible to define at least three specific genetic variants in Sardinian samples, which we have termed Tm1, Tm2, and Tm3. This is the first description of genetic variability in T. multiceps. Further investigations will be required to understand to what extent the genetic variability described in this paper would be reflected also in phenotypic differences. PMID:16614827

Varcasia, A; Lightowlers, M W; Cattoli, G; Cancedda, G M; Canu, S; Garippa, G; Scala, A

2006-10-01

227

Ultrastructural reconstruction of Taenia ovis oncospheres from serial sections.  

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The cellular organisation of Taenia ovis oncospheres is interpreted from ultrathin serial sections and transmission electron microscopy following high pressure freezing and freeze-substitution. The surface of a hatched, non-activated T. ovis oncosphere is covered by an oncospheral membrane below which is the tegument bearing microvilli. The basal lamina of the tegument is underlain by broad bands of peripheral somatic musculature. Three pairs of hooks and associated muscles are present in the somatophoric third of the oncosphere. Approximately 19 cells of seven different types were identified which include: (i) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 1 containing two lateral pairs of cell bodies interconnected by narrow cytoplasmic bridges (PG1); (ii) a quadri-nucleated syncytium of penetration gland type 2 (PG2); (iii) a single-nucleated median mesophoric gland cell; (iv) 10 somatic cells; (v) two germinative cells; (vi) two nerve cells; and (vii) a pair of median somatophoric cells. This study provides a clear understanding of the morphology of T. ovis oncospheres and forms the basis for further investigations into the biology of taeniid oncospheres. PMID:20478311

Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw P; Conn, David B; Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2010-10-01

228

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI  

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Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

2010-02-15

229

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)author)

230

Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

2010-10-01

231

Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

2010-12-01

232

The ultrastructure of taeniid cestode oncospheres and localization of host-protective antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taeniid eggs contain an infective larval form of the parasite, known as the oncosphere, which has been found to be highly susceptible to attack by the host's immune system and this fact has been exploited in the development of highly effective vaccines. Relatively little is known about the structure of taeniid oncospheres and the localization of host-protective antigens within or on the oncosphere. Here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge of the structure of the oncosphere and present preliminary data on the localization of a host-protective antigen within the oncospheres of Taenia ovis. The precise localization of the antigens, in the context of a detailed knowledge of the ultrastructure of the parasite, may reveal the immune mechanisms by which the taeniid parasites are killed by vaccine-induced immune responses, which, in turn, may provide clues about how vaccines could be developed against other parasitic helminths. PMID:19835645

Jabbar, A; Swiderski, Z; Mlocicki, D; Beveridge, I; Lightowlers, M W

2010-03-01

233

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis  

OpenAIRE

Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically...

Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A. R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-fernandez, Maria Teresa

2014-01-01

234

[Relictolepis gen. n.--a new cestode genus (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from rodents of the Russian Far East and the description of R. feodorovi sp. n].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cestode genus and species Relictolepis feodorovi gen. et sp. n. having armed scolex is described ex Clethrionomis rufocanus Sundevall, 1846 (Rodentia, Microtinae) from the Russian Far East. PMID:18052007

Guliaev, V D; Makarikov, A A

2007-01-01

235

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

236

Stem cell proliferation during in vitro development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva to adult worm  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In free-living flatworms somatic differentiated cells do not divide, and a separate population of stem cells (called neoblasts) is responsible for cell proliferation and renewal. In cestodes, there is evidence that similar mechanisms of cell renewal exist. Results In this work, we have characterized proliferative cells during the development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva (tetrathyridium) to young segmented worm. This was done by two complementary stra...

Castillo Estela; Kun Alejandra; Marín Mónica; Domínguez María F; Koziol Uriel

2010-01-01

237

Myostimulating Effect of Sesamum Radiatum Aqueous Leaf Extract in Isolated Guinea-Pig Taenia Caeci Contractile Activity  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried to examine the effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Sesamum radiatum, a laxative plant on the contractile activity of Taenia caeci, an intestinal smooth muscle. Strips of Taenia caeci were rapidly removed from guinea-pig and were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath with Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the Taenia caeci strips were recorded by using a strain gauge. S. radiatum aqueous leaf extract (ESera) is a...

Konan, Andre? B.; Amonkan, Augustin K.; Ahui, Marie-louise B.; Bouafou, Guy-marcel K.; Kouakou, Le?andre K.; Kpahe?, Fide?le Z.; Datte?, Jacques Y.

2011-01-01

238

Determinants of the prevalence of the cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops in teal wintering in the French Camargue  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Eurasian teal Anas crecca (n?=?46,581) were inspected during ringing operations for the presence of the hymenolepidid cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops between 1954 and 1971 while wintering in the Camargue, Southern France. These birds become infected when ingesting seed shrimps (Ostracoda) that act as intermediate hosts, largely while on migration across Western Europe. The prevalence ranged from 4% to 14% per year and increased significantly over time. This long-...

2010-01-01

239

The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against two rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis microstoma in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 ?M, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 ?M, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected. PMID:24462509

Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, Ann; Behnke, J M

2014-03-17

240

Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch. PMID:25475253

Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

2014-12-01

241

Taxonomic revision of the cestodes of the family Progynotaeniidae (Cyclophyllidea) parasitising stone curlews (Charadriiformes: Burhinidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The type series of Progynotaenia evaginata Fuhrmann, 1909 from Burhinus senegalensis in Sudan, P. foetida Meggitt, 1928 from B. oedicnemus in Egypt and Angularia australis Maplestone, 1921 from B. grallarius in Australia are redescribed. As a comparative material, specimens of P. evaginata from B. oedicnemus in Kazakhstan were studied. The type-series of P. evaginata and P. foetida were found to be heterogeneous due to the presence of scoleces and fragments of cestodes of the genus Stenovaria Spasskii & Borgarenko, 1973 (Dilepididae). For P. foetida, a lectotype is designated. P. foetida is recognised as a synonym of P. evaginata (new synonymy). Angularia australis, previously considered a member of the Dilepididae, is transferred to the Progynotaeniidae as a synonym of P. evaginata (new synonymy). The synonymy of P. indica Johri, 1963 with P. evaginata, proposed by Ryzhikov & Tolkacheva (1981), is supported. The host range and the geographical distribution of P. evaginata are restricted to birds of the genus Burhinus from the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:15980966

Nikolov, Pavel N; Georgiev, Boyko B; Gvozdev, Evgeniy V; Gulyaev, Vladimir D

2005-06-01

242

Genetic Diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and Other Geographical Locations as Revealed by Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 Sequences  

OpenAIRE

Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations w...

Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

2013-01-01

243

Sterilisation of cysticerci with gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticerci of Taenia solium and of Taenia saginata were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 0,2 - 1,4 kGy. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of nine days in T. solium and after six days in T. saginata. Some cysticerci of T. solium treated with low doses (0,2 - 0,8 kGy) evaginated 24 days after treatment but no T. saginata cysticerci evaginated after 15 days. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 0,2 - 1,2 kGy are as infective to golden hamsters as untreated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely and are excreted or digested from Day +12 onwards. Such tapeworms do not grow but are resorbed and finally consist of only a scolex. It appears that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells to divide and the cells do not recover from this treatment. Carcasses lightly infested with cysticercosis could be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to low doses (0,2 - 0,6 kGy) of gamma radiation

244

Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.  

Science.gov (United States)

An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment. PMID:25120032

Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

2014-08-14

245

Increased Resistance to Taenia crassiceps Murine Cysticercosis in Qa-2 Transgenic Mice  

OpenAIRE

We previously reported important differences in resistance to Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis between BALB/c substrains. It was suggested that resistance might correlate with expression of the nonclassic class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Qa-2 antigen; BALB/cAnN is Qa-2 negative and highly susceptible to T. crassiceps, whereas BALB/cJ expresses Qa-2 and is highly resistant. In this study, we investigated the role of Qa-2 in mediating resistance to cysticercosis by linkage a...

Fragoso, Gladis; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Mellor, Andrew; Lomeli?, Ciro; Herna?ndez, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

1998-01-01

246

The effect of micronised nitroscanate on Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trials with micronised nitroscanate carried out on 170 dogs infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena indicated that a single treatment at 62-5 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg respectively significantly reduced the proportion of dogs infected with tapeworms. Some evidence is presented that micronisation may give a fourfold increase in the efficiency of nitroscanate in worm removal without increasing the toxic effects to the dog. PMID:877440

Gemmel, M A; Johnstone, P D; Oudemans, G

1977-05-01

247

The effect of nitroscanate on Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trials with nitroscanate carried out on 186 dogs infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena indicated that a single treatment at a dose rate of 1000 mg/kg or two treatments at 250 mg/kg eliminated the former, but a single treatment at 64 mg/kg was sufficient to eliminate the latter. At this dosing schedule, vomiting and diarrhoea occurred, as well as a transient 'tranquillising' effect on some dogs. PMID:1172624

Gemmell, M A; Oudemans, G

1975-09-01

248

[Investigation on Taenia sp. infection in Midu County of Yunnan Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status and species of Taenia sp. were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. in stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24% (21/85) and 26% (15/57), respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. by untreated feces). PMID:22908811

Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun; Li, Ke-Rong; Luo, Hua; Xu, Xin; Chen, Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ji-Bing; Huang, Ming-Hao; Li, Su-Mei

2012-04-30

249

Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

250

Molecular characterization of Taenia multiceps isolates from Gansu Province, China by sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu; Fu, Bao Quan

2013-04-01

251

Huge hemispheric intraparenchymal cyst caused by Taenia multiceps in a child. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report an unusual case of a huge intraparenchymal cyst in a 4-year-old girl caused by Taenia multiceps infection. After surgical removal of the cyst, the child recovered completely. Brain infestation by coenurus is a rare disease, mainly reported in Africa, with a few case reports from patients in developed countries. Humans, especially young children, become intermediate hosts by ingesting eggs passed in the excrement of a definitive host, usually carnivores. In such cases, high mortality and morbidity rates have been reported. These rates decreased after the introduction of the modem neuroradiological techniques of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:18154024

Benifla, Mony; Barrelly, Revital; Shelef, Ilan; El-On, Joseph; Cohen, Avi; Cagnano, Emanuela

2007-12-01

252

Calcium and the activation of the alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

OpenAIRE

1. The actions of phenylephrine (0.1-100 mumol l-1) and methoxamine (0.1-100 mumol l-1) were compared with that of adrenaline (0.01-10 mumol l-1) using the single sucrose gap method and mechanical recording in the guinea-pig taenia caeci. Drugs were applied for variable periods of time. 2. The characteristics of the inhibitory effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists were the same when exposure time did not exceed 5 min. When the exposure was prolonged, in contrast to the sustained effects of a...

Rusko, J.; Bauer, V.

1988-01-01

253

Outward current in single smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig taenia coli  

OpenAIRE

In single myocytes of the guinea pig taenia coli, dispersed by enzymatic digestion, the late outward current is carried by K+. It has both a Ca2+-activated component and a voltage-dependent component which is resistant to external Co2+. The reversal potential is -84 mV, and the channel(s) for it are highly selective to K+. At 33 degrees C, the activation follows n2 kinetics, with a voltage-dependent time constant of 10.6 ms at 0 mV, which shortens to 1.7 ms at +70 mV. Deactivation follows a s...

1989-01-01

254

[A new species of cestode, Vampirolepis insula sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from bats of the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands].  

Science.gov (United States)

Description of a new cestode species Vampirolepis insula sp. n. parasitizing Ambliotus nilssonni (Keyserling et Blasius, 1839 and Plecotus auritus Linnaeus, 1758 from the islands Sakhalin and Kunashir is given. The new species is closely related to the species group within the genus Vampirolepis having 30 rostellar hooks 0.020-0.022 mm length with the blades shorter than guard. The group includes V. balsaci (Joyeux et Baer, 1934) Spassky, 1954, Sawada, 1974 and V. ozensis Sawada, 1974. The main differential character of the new species is the position of genital pores on the left side of proglottides. Moreover, the new species differs from V. balsaci and V. ozensis by almost twice larger size ofscolex, suckers, and rostellum. Vampirolepis insula sp. n. also differs from V. ogaensis and V ozensis by a larger size of ovary and vitelline gland. PMID:20536008

Makarikova, T A; Guliaev, V D; Tiunov, M P

2010-01-01

255

Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Cyclophyllidean cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924), an endoparasite of domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the major biochemical constituents of Cotugnia cuneata revealed that the total protein, carbohydrate, glycogen and lipid contents (as percentage of dry weight) were 25.22 ± 0.93, 32.90 ± 0.30, 21.33 ± 0.99 and 9.94 ± 0.42 respectively. The results showed that the carbohydrate content was the highest followed by protein and lipid contents respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high which showed that carbohydrate was mainly present in the form of glycogen in these cestodes. The A + T and G + C contents were obtained as 49.82 and 50.18 % respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that C. cuneata branched with its closest cluster comprising of Raillietina tunetensis, Raillietina australis, Fuhrmannetta malakartis and Raillietina sonini with 99 % bootstrap support. PMID:24505187

Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

2014-03-01

256

Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location  

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Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4 eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of infection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2% were alive and 132 (18.8% were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%, kidneys 03 (0.43%, tongue 07 (1.00%, liver 12 (1.71%, lungs 15 (2.14%, diaphragm 18 (2.56%, mastication muscles 25 (3.56%, heart 49 (6.98%, anterior muscle 323 (46.00% and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%.

Minozzo João Carlos

2002-01-01

257

Taenia antigens detection in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis and its relationship with clinical activity of the disease / Dosagem de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano em pacientes com neurocisticercose e sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: (1) Determinar a concentração de antígenos de Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) em doentes com neurocisticercose; (2) estudar sua relação com a atividade clínica da doença e com as variáveis clássicas do LCR. MÉTODO: Em 36 pacientes com diagnóstico definido de neurocisticercose foi [...] realizado exame do LCR, com estudo citológico e citomorfológico, exame bioquímico, reações imunológicas para cisticercose e detecção de antígenos de Taenia. Os anticorpos para detecção desses antígenos foram obtidos a partir da forma larvar da Taenia crassiceps, cepa ORF. Após a inoculação e proliferação intraperitoneal dessa forma larvária em ratas, foi imunizado um grupo de coelhos com seu líquido vesicular. RESULTADOS: Em 17 pacientes (47,2%) foi detectado antígeno de Taenia, especialmente naqueles com manifestação epiléptica nos últimos 12 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A detecção de antígeno de Taenia guarda relação significativa com a vigência de formas clinicamente ativas, sendo, nestas formas, marcador mais sensível que a eosinofilorraquia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine the concentration of Taenia antigens in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurocysticercosis (NC); (2) to establish its relationship with clinical activity of the disease and with classical variables of CSF. METHOD: A CSF examination was performed in one samp [...] le from 36 patients with definitive diagnosis of NC, including: quantitative and cytomorphological study, biochemical tests, immunological reactions for cysticercosis and Taenia antigens. The antibodies for antigens detection were obtained from the larval form of Taenia crassiceps, ORF strain. After intraperitoneal passage through female mice, a group of rabbits was immunized with vesicular fluid antigens. RESULTS: The Taenia antigen was detected in CSF from 17 patients (47.2%), especially in those patients with epileptic symptoms in the last 12 months. CONCLUSION: Taenia antigens presence in CSF have significant relationship with clinically active forms of NC, being a more sensitive marker than the classic eosinophil presence.

Ronaldo, Abraham; Alessandra Xavier, Pardini; Adelaide José, Vaz; José Antonio, Livramento; Luís dos Ramos, Machado.

2004-09-01

258

The use of cestode parasites from the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913) in the Vaal Dam, South Africa as indicators of heavy metal bioaccumulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty Largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913) were collected in the Vaal Dam in the vicinity of RAU Island (Groot Eiland). Muscle-, spinal cord- and liver tissue were removed from each fish and the intestine opened to obtain Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. The tissues were then digested in a microwave digester and the metal concentrations were determined in each tissue with an ICP-MS. The results indicate that the worms have potential use as bioindicators, because in 8 elements (lithium, beryllium, manganese, selenium, mercury, thallium, lead and uranium) out of the 23 elements measured the cestodes have accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in 7 elements (chromium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and barium) out of 23 elements the cestodes had the second highest metal accumulation recorded.

Retief, N.-R.; Avenant-Oldewage, A.; du Preez, H.

259

Consideraciones sobre el ciclo de Taenia saginata en humanos y bovinos de la provincia Villa Clara, Cuba (Considerations on the cycle of saginata Taenia in humans and bovines of the province Villa Clara, Cuba  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el de conocer la situación del ciclo de Taenia saginata en la provincia Villa Clara. Se estudiaron los registros de matanza del matadero ¨Chichi Padrón¨ y se valoró la inspección postmortem a los bovinos faenados en este, además fueron analizadas las encuestas aplicadas a los humanos positivos a Taenia saginata desde 1998 hasta 2001. La mayor prevalencia de Cysticercus en bovinos y de casos humanos de Taenia saginata se detectaron en los municipios Manicaragua (0,60 % y 33, Placetas (0,53 % y 28 y Santa Clara (0,40 % y 26, resultados que difirieron estadísticamente (p<0.05 con los de los demás municipios de la provincia. El sistema de vigilancia postmortem en el matadero no garantiza la inocuidad de las carnes en cuanto a la cisticercosis. La teniosis es más prevalente en personas adultas y las ocupaciones más relacionadas fueron: amas de casa (56 %, gastronomía (8,3 %, matadero (2,3 % y campesinos (2,3 %, entre los síntomas más frecuentes estaban: dolor abdominal (70 %, nauseas (68 %, debilidad (36 %, descenso de peso (31 %, diarrea (28 %, nerviosismo (20 %, insomnio (18 % y anorexia (15 %. ABSTRACT.- The objective of the present work was the study of the general characteristics of the Taenia saginata life cycle in Villa Clara province. The slaughter registrations of the ¨Chichi Padrón¨ slaughterhouse was studied and was valued the postmortem inspection of bovines. Also, it was analyzed the humans positive to Taenia saginata from 1998 to 2001. The biggest Cysticercus prevalence in bovine and human cases number of Taenia saginata were detected in the municipalities Manicaragua (0,60% and 33, Placetas (0,53% and 28 and Santa Clara (0,40% and 26, results that differed statistically (p <0.05 with those of the other municipalities in the same province. The system of postmortem surveillance in the slaughterhouse doesn't guarantee the meats innocuousness from the Cysticercus viewpoint. The teniosis is more prevalent in adult people and the most related occupations were: housewives (56%, gastronomy (8,3%, slaughterhouse (2,3% and peasants (2,3%, among the most frequent symptoms they were: abdominal pain (70%, nausea (68%, weakness (36%, lost of weight (31%, diarrhea (28%, nervousness (20%, insomnia (18% and anorexy (15%.

Dr. MV Pedro De la Fe Rodríguez

2006-04-01

260

Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effect on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in two closely related small barbs and the effects of the parasites on the barbs life histories in Lake Tana (Ethiopia) during 1 year. In all affected barbs L. intestinalis c...

Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F. A.

2006-01-01

261

Immunological activities of a lymphocyte mitogen isolated from coenurus fluid of Taenia multiceps (Cestoda).  

Science.gov (United States)

The purification of a mitogen from Taenia multiceps coenurus fluid has been previously reported. In the present study, this activity, which was independent of endotoxin, stimulated the expression of lymphocyte IL-2 and Fc receptors, enhanced mitotic response to phylohaemogglutinin and concanavalin A and antagonised the previously described suppressive effects of the macrophage modifying fraction of coenurus fluid. The mitogen also increased peritoneal macrophage count and viability, Fc receptor expression and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. The mitogenic activity could be destroyed by a combination of protease and amylase, but not by either enzyme alone. It is suggested that the mitogen forms part of a homeostatic mechanism for the preservation of a balanced host-parasite relationship. PMID:9208030

Rakha, N K; Dixon, J B; Carter, S D

1997-03-01

262

Taenia multiceps (Cestoda): Ia antigen expression and prostaglandin secretion by parasite-modified, murine peritoneal macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia multiceps secretions modify accessory cell activity in macrophages. The present experiments were designed to elucidate the cellular mechanisms involved. While normal, murine peritoneal macrophages amplified mitogen-activated T-cell proliferation, macrophages modified by exposure to parasite secretions inhibited this proliferation. The modified behaviour was shown by glutaraldehyde-fixed as well as living macrophages, and modification was inducible by FPLC fraction 24 of coenurus fluid and was associated with an expanded population of 1a- macrophages. Secretory products of parasite-activated macrophages also inhibited T-cell proliferation, and secretion was prevented by indomethacin. The measurement of modified accessory activity was not influenced by the concentration of tritiated thymidine in lymphocyte proliferation assays. Consequently there is no evidence that the reported events are affected by macrophage-derived, cold thymidine secretion. It is concluded that T. multiceps si able to manipulate macrophage accessory function by mechanisms which involve altered histocompatibility antigen expression and the secretion of prostaglandin. PMID:8758551

Rakha, N K; Dixon, J B; Carter, S D

1996-06-01

263

Preliminary report on the stimulation of immunity to the larval stage of Taenia multiceps.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of Oncosphere Secretory Antigen (OSA) in protecting sheep against the larval stage of Taenia multiceps was assessed in 47 sheep in 2 trials. In the pilot trial no cerebral coenuri were found in 3 sheep which were treated with OSA 28 and 14 days before challenge with 6 000 eggs of T. multiceps. Cerebral coenuri were present in 3 untreated controls. In the second experiment 30 sheep were similarly treated with OSA and challenged with 5 000 eggs of T. multiceps, while 11 sheep served as untreated controls. At necropsy either developing coenuri or degenerate lesions were present in the brain of 5 (16,6%) of the 30 vaccinated animals while 8 out of 11 (72,7%) of the untreated animals had cerebral coenuri or degenerate lesions in the brain. It is concluded that OSA may be used to protect animals against cerebral coenuriosis. PMID:7175904

Verster, A; Tustin, R C

1982-09-01

264

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

265

The effect of nitroscanate tablets of Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tablets of micronised nitroscanate (nominal particle size 2--3 microns) were given to a total of 190 dogs that had been experimentally infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena. The efficiency of the drug in tablet form in freeing dogs from tapeworms, was investigated. The dose rate at which 50 per cent of normally fed dogs can be expected to be freed from E granulosus was found to be 89 mg/kg (95 per cent confidence limits 55 mg/kg to 140 mg/kg). The 90 per cent effective dose rate was not determined within the range 32 mg/kg to 250 mg/kg. The dose rate at which 90 per cent of normally fed dogs can be expected to be freed from T hydatigena was 37 mg/kg (95 per cent confidence limits 23 mg/kg to 60 mg/kg). PMID:523820

Gemmell, M A; Johnstone, P D; Oudemans, G

1979-09-01

266

Identification and functional characterization of alpha-enolase from Taenia pisiformis metacestode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enolase belongs to glycolytic enzymes with moonlighting functions. The role of enolase in Taenia species is still poorly understood. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding for Taenia pisiformis alpha-enolase (Tpeno) was cloned from larval parasites and soluble recombinant Tpeno protein (rTpeno) was produced. Western blot indicated that both rTpeno and the native protein in excretion-secretion antigens from the larvae were recognized by anti-rTpeno monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The primary structure of Tpeno showed the presence of a highly conserved catalytic site for substrate binding and an enolase signature motif. rTpeno enzymatic activities of catalyzing the reversible dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and vice versa were shown to be 30.71±2.15U/mg (2-PGA to PEP) and 11.29±2.38U/mg (PEP to 2-PGA), respectively. Far-Western blotting showed that rTpeno could bind to plasminogen, however its binding ability was inhibited by ?-aminocaproic acid (?ACA) in a competitive ELISA test. Plasminogen activation assay showed that plasminogen bound to rTpeno could be converted into active plasmin using host-derived activators. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence indicated that Tpeno was distributed in the bladder wall of the metacestode and the periphery of calcareous corpuscles. In addition, a vaccine trial showed that the enzyme could produce a 36.4% protection rate in vaccinated rabbits against experimental challenges from T. pisiformis eggs. These results suggest that Tpeno with multiple functions may play significant roles in the migration, growth, development and adaptation of T. pisiformis for survival in the host environment. PMID:25623259

Zhang, Shaohua; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; You, Yanan; Hou, Junling; Wang, Qiuxia; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

2015-04-01

267

Functional ultrastructure of the hexacanth larvae in the bothriocephalidean cestode Eubothrium salvelini (Schrank, 1790) and its phylogenetic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional ultrastructure and its phylogenic implications in the bothriocephalid cestode Eubothrium salvelini (Schrank, 1790) are described and discussed. The infective hexacanth shows bilateral symmetry in cellular organization. The mature hexacanth is armed with three pairs of oncospheral hooks of a heterogeneous electron density. It is covered by a thin layer of the oncospheral tegument, possessing characteristic bubble-like processes at the surface. Within the infective hexacanth larva five cell types were distinguished: (1) a binucleated subtegumental cell; (2) the U-shaped, tetranucleated penetration gland; (3) two nerve cells; (4) three types of somatic cells represented by: i) myocytons of both somatic and hook musculature, ii) numerous degenerating micromeres with pycnotic nuclei and iii) a new oncospheral cell type, the interstitial cell, that has never been observed in any other hexacanth; and (5) large germinative cells with characteristic prominent nucleoli in their large spherical nuclei. Functions of all the cell types are described on the basis of the obtained ultrastructural characteristics and previously published reports. The mode of the penetration gland secretion is classified as apocrine. Flame cells have never been observed within the hexacanth of E. salvelini. The results of the present study, comparing the functional aspects of the ultrastructure of the hexacanths of E. salvelini with literature data on the oncospheres of other bothriocephallideans and diphyllobothriideans, suggest potential phylogenetic and evolutionary criteria for determining relationships among these groups of tapeworms. PMID:20637299

M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Conn, David Bruce

2010-12-01

268

Immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease: evaluation of antigens from hydatid cyst fluid and the vesicularfluid of Taenia crassiceps metacestode Inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis: evaluación de líquido hidático y de líquido vesicular de cisticerco de Taenia crassiceps  

OpenAIRE

The specificity and sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA), presently used in South America areas where hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is endemic, was compared to two alternative EIA. One of these uses an hydatid antigen of different prepraration and the other vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps cisticerci (VFCC). The effect of previous neutralization in the serum sample of antibodies anti-normal ovine or murine sera and anti-phosphorylcholine on the diagnostic efficiency...

Emilio Coltorti; Graciela Cammarieri

1993-01-01

269

An unusual case of cycticercosis of the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm, especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larvae become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, the vitreous humor, or other tissues. We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles that presented as a swelling of the tendoachilles. Upon Fine Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC that were conducted preoperatively, the possibility of villonodular synovitis was identified. However, the cysticercosis diagnosis was confirmed later after an excisional biopsy was performed. We could find no reports in the literature concerning an occurrence of cysticercosis in the tendon sheath of tendoachilles.

Sharat Agarwal

2010-04-01

270

Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity?  

OpenAIRE

Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 o...

Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Ange?lica; Bobes, Raul J.; Herna?ndez, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, Rene?; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

2011-01-01

271

Effects of local anaesthetics on short-term desensitization of guinea-pig taenia caecum to histamine.  

OpenAIRE

1 Short-term desensitization to histamine was induced by incubating guinea-pig taenia caecum with 10(-4)M histamine for 30 min (desensitizing incubation) in normal Locke-Ringer solution or Ca-free Locke-Ringer solution containing 0.2 mM EGTA. This desensitization was measured as a reduction of the maximal contractile response. 2 The effects of the presence of local anaesthetics during the desensitizing incubation were examined. Results showed that tetracaine, procaine, procainamide, oxybuproc...

Hishinuma, S.; Uchida, M. K.

1987-01-01

272

First case of peritoneal cysticercosis in a non-human primate host (Macaca tonkeana) due to Taenia martis  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Infections with larval stages (metacestodes) of a variety of taeniid species have been described in primates, including humans, with partial to severe clinical consequences. Taenia martis is a tapeworm of mustelids, and martens are mainly their definitive hosts in Central Europe. In the rodent intermediate host cysticerci develop in the pleural and peritoneal cavities. The present report describes a case of T. martis peritoneal cysticercosis in a Tonkean macaque. FINDINGS: An abd...

Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Chermette, Rene?; Regnard, Pierrick; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Ferreira, Xavier; Sabou, Marcela; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Abou-bacar, Ahmed; Candolfi, Ermanno

2014-01-01

273

Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly. PMID:21907295

Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira

2011-12-01

274

Distribución y viabilidad de cisticercos de Taenia saginata en los cortes de carne de la canal de bovinos naturalmente infectados / Distribution and viability of cyticerci of Taenia saginata in meat cuts from naturally infected beef  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se determinó la distribución anatómica y viabilidad de los cisticercos de Taenia saginata en bovinos naturalmente infectados, faenados en el sur de Chile. Los animales fueron inspeccionados post mórtem según los procedimientos chilenos oficiales en los puntos obligatorios: corazón, lengua, maseteros [...] , esófago, diafragma y superficie de canal. Se tomaron al azar 20 canales de bovinos diagnosticados positivos a la inspección, y sus mitades izquierdas fueron despostadas en los 33 cortes oficiales; éstos fueron completamente disecados en láminas de aproximadamente 0,5 cm de grosor, contabilizando el número de cisticercos encontrados por inspección visual en cada corte. Lesiones compatibles con cisticercos de Taenia saginata se encontraron a la inspección oficial en 148 bovinos (0,5% de prevalencia), encontrando 64,9% en corazón, 33,8% en músculos maseteros, 0,7% en esófago y 0,7% en la canal. Al examen histológico de las lesiones, se encontró que 82,9% eran cisticercos no viables (degenerados) y sólo 5,1% eran viables; 10,7% correspondieron a otros diagnósticos (principalmente miositis, seguido de miocarditis en corazón y actinobacilosis en lengua) y en 1,3% de los casos no se encontraron alteraciones. Se encontraron 14 lesiones compatibles con cisticercosis en las 20 canales positivas a cisticercos de Taenia saginata a la inspección; todas fueron confirmadas positivas al análisis histológico y todas eran quistes degenerados. Estos cisticercos estaban distribuidos en filete, tapapecho, asiento, ganso, plateada, asado de tira, posta negra, tapabarriga, posta de paleta y entraña. Se concluye que la posibilidad de encontrar cisticercos en cortes de carne es limitada, especialmente en animales infectados en forma leve, como sucede en Chile. Abstract in english The anatomical distribution and viability of cysticerci of Taenia saginata in naturally infected cattle slaughtered in southern Chile was determined. The cattle were inspected post mortem according to official chilean procedures, where mandatory inspection sites are: heart, tongue, masseter, oesopha [...] gus, diaphragm and superficial observation of the carcass. Twenty carcasses diagnosed as positive during inspection were chosen at random and their left half sides were separated into the 33 official meat cuts; these were completely dissected into approximately 0.5 cm thick slices and number of cysts determined by visual inspection. Lesions compatible with cysticerci of Taenia saginata were diagnosed according to official procedures in 148 cattle (0.5% prevalence) at mandatory sites, finding that 64.9% of them were located in heart, 33.8% in masseter muscles, 0.7% in oesophagus and 0.7% in the carcasses. At histological examination, 82.9% of the lesions were diagnosed as nonviable cysts and only 5.1% were viable; 10.7% corresponded to other diagnoses (mostly myositis and myocarditis, followed by schwannoma in heart and actynomycosis in tongue) and in 1.3% no alteration could be found. Fourteen cysts were found in the meat cuts of the 20 positive to cysticerci of Taenia saginata in carcasses, all were nonviable; cysts were found in tenderloin, point end brisket, rump heart, silverside, cube roll cover, ribs, topside, flanck meat, bolar and thin skirt. It is concluded that chances of finding cysticerci in meat cuts of cattle diagnosed positive to cysticerci of Taenia saginata at slaughter inspection is limited, especially when animals are infected in a mild form, as it happens in Chile.

F, Cayo; G, Valenzuela; E, Paredes; V, Ruíz; C, Gallo.

275

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhi...

Al-quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Abdel-baki, Abdel-azeem S.

2013-01-01

276

Modification of accessory activity of sheep monocytes in vitro by a coenurus antigen from Taenia multiceps.  

Science.gov (United States)

A factor in Taenia multiceps coenurus fluid (TMCF) has previously been shown to modify the accessory activity of murine macrophages in vivo and in vitro. The factor (TMCF-F24) has been purified by ion exchange in a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. This study was conducted to determine whether TMCF-F24 is an antigen in naturally occurring cerebral coenuriasis, and whether it can also modify normal sheep blood monocytes. Specific IgG antibodies to TMCF-F24 were detected, using ELISA, in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of sheep with clinical coenuriasis. Alterations in monocyte accessory activity were detected by an assay which measured the rate of increase in mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation caused by addition of increasing numbers of the monocytes. Normal monocytes caused a positive increase in lymphocyte transformation. Monocytes incubated with TMCF-F24 caused progressive inhibition of transformation. This factor may therefore modify monocyte-T cell interaction in natural infection. PMID:1595191

Rakha, N K; Dixon, J B; Skerritt, G C; Carter, S D; Jenkins, P

1992-01-15

277

Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. PMID:25450723

Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

2014-12-15

278

Increased Resistance to Taenia crassiceps Murine Cysticercosis in Qa-2 Transgenic Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported important differences in resistance to Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis between BALB/c substrains. It was suggested that resistance might correlate with expression of the nonclassic class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Qa-2 antigen; BALB/cAnN is Qa-2 negative and highly susceptible to T. crassiceps, whereas BALB/cJ expresses Qa-2 and is highly resistant. In this study, we investigated the role of Qa-2 in mediating resistance to cysticercosis by linkage analysis and infection of Qa-2 transgenic mice. In BALB/cAnN × (C57BL/6J × BALB/cAnN)F1 and BALB/cAnN × (BALB/cJ × BALB/cAnN)F1 backcrosses, the expression of Qa-2 antigen correlated with resistance to cysticercosis. Significantly fewer parasites were recovered from infected Qa-2 transgenic male and female mice than from nontransgenic mice of similar genetic background. These results clearly demonstrate that the Qa-2 MHC antigen is involved in resistance to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. PMID:9453638

Fragoso, Gladis; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Mellor, Andrew; Lomelí, Ciro; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

1998-01-01

279

Changes in cyst's nuclear chromatin resulting after experimental manipulation of Taenia crassiceps mice infections: biological implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

During some estimations of the nuclear DNA content, based on determinations propidium iodide (PI) binding through fluorocytometry for Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, significant variation in the results were found. This initial observation led to a series of experiments designed to explain the variation. These changes could be induced by the diameter of the needles in the syringes used for the mouse to mouse transfer of the cysts. Nuclei from cysts transferred through 27-gauge needles showed 30% less PI staining than those transferred through 21 gauge needles, after 2 months infections. Reduction in PI capture induced by 27-gauge needle was reversible when the cysts were maintained in their mice hosts during 5 months. Moreover, variation in PI binding to cysticercal DNA was also found when comparing parasites grown in male versus female mice. The use of agents that homogenize the chromatin structure during PI staining, allowed demonstrating that variation were entirely due to differences in the chromatin relaxation/compaction. Additional experiments demonstrated that the higher compaction is accompanied by a reduced ability of cysts to grow in the peritoneal cavity of BALB/cAnN mice. Furthermore, proteomic analysis also showed that these changes in chromatin relaxation/compaction resulted in different levels and patterns of protein expression. Our results strongly suggest that chromatin is involved in several well characterized phenomena of the T. crassiceps murine model, and open new avenues for a detailed approach to understand such a complex host-parasite relationship. PMID:22343043

Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raul J; Espinoza, Bertha; Martínez, María Luisa; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Rosas, Gabriela; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan Pedro

2012-04-01

280

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics.

Fu Bao-Quan

2010-07-01

281

Permeation, selectivity, and blockade of the Ca2+-activated potassium channel of the guinea pig taenia coli myocyte  

OpenAIRE

The permeation properties of the 147-pS Ca2+-activated K+ channel of the taenia coli myocytes are similar to those of the delayed rectifier channel in other excitable membranes. It has a selectivity sequence of K+ 1.0 greater than Rb+ 0.65 greater than NH4+ 0.50. Na+, Cs+, Li+, and TEA+ (tetraethylammonium) are impermeant. Internal Na+ blocks K+ channel in a strongly voltage-dependent manner with an equivalent valence (zd) of 1.20. Blockade by internal Cs+ and TEA+ is less voltage dependent, ...

1989-01-01

282

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

2013-01-01

283

Effect of apamin on responses to BRL 34915, nicorandil and other relaxants in the guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

OpenAIRE

BRL 34915 (4-64 X 10(-7) M), isoprenaline (0.5-32 X 10(-8) M) and nicorandil (4-64 X 10(-6) M) produced a slowly-developing relaxation of spontaneous tone of the guinea-pig taenia caeci; with no after-contraction on washout. These inhibitory responses were unaffected by apamin (10(-7) M). Adenosine triphosphate (0.06-2 X 10(-3) M) and noradrenaline (1-16 X 10(-7) M) produced a rapid inhibition of spontaneous tone with a prominent after-contraction, especially on washout. Both the inhibitory e...

Weir, S. W.; Weston, A. H.

1986-01-01

284

Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n?=?10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n?=?3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n?=?3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n?=?4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079

Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

2010-10-01

285

Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

1989-01-31

286

Spermiogenesis and ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi (Aporhynchidae), a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax (Elasmobranchii: Etmopteridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi Noever, Caira, Kuchta et Desjardins, 2010 are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Type I spermiogenesis of A. menezesi starts with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles separated by an intercentriolar body constituted by five electron-dense plates. Each centriole gives rise to a free flagellum, which grows at an angle of 90 degrees in relation to a median cytoplasmic process. The nucleus and cortical microtubules elongate along the spermatid body. Later, both flagella rotate and fuse with the median cytoplasmic process. At the final stage of spermiogenesis, the young spermatozoon is detached from the residual cytoplasm by a narrowing of the ring of arched membranes. The mature spermatozoon is a long and filiform cell, tapered at both ends, lacking mitochondria. It is characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the 9+'1' trepaxonematan pattern, the absence of crested bodies, the presence of parallel cortical microtubules and nucleus. This pattern corresponds to the type I spermatozoon of the eucestodes. The anterior extremity of the spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of an arc-like row of up to seven parallel cortical microtubules that partially surrounds the first axoneme. These anterior cortical microtubules are thicker than the posterior microtubules and, consequently, the sperm cell of A. menezesi exhibits two types of cortical microtubules. Another interesting aspect is the presence of alpha-glycogen rosettes. This spermatological pattern is similar to that observed in the spathebothriidean and diphyllobothriidean cestodes. PMID:21539140

Marigo, Adji Mama; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi

2011-03-01

287

Early intrauterine embryonic development of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758) (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The early intrauterine embryonic development of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758), was studied by means of light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Contrary to the generic diagnosis given in the CABI Keys to the cestode parasites of vertebrates, the eggs of C. crassiceps, the type of species of Clestobothrium Lühe, 1899, are operculate and embryonated. Our LM and TEM results provide direct evidence that an operculum is present and that the eggs exhibit various stages of intrauterine embryonic development, and in fact represent a good example of early ovoviviparity. The intrauterine eggs of this species are polylecithal and contain numerous vitellocytes, generally ?30, which are pushed to the periphery and remain close to the eggshell, whereas the dividing zygote and later the early embryo remain in the egg centre. During early intrauterine embryonic development, several cleavage divisions take place, which result in the formation of three types of blastomeres, i.e. macro-, meso- and micromeres. These can be readily differentiated at the TEM level, not only by their size, but also by the ultrastructural characteristics of their nuclei and cytoplasmic organelles. The total number of blastomeres in these early embryos, enclosed within the electron-dense eggshells, can be up to ?20 cells of various sizes and characteristics. Mitotic divisions of early blastomeres were frequently observed at both LM and TEM levels. Simultaneously with the mitotic cleavage divisions leading to blastomere multiplication and their rapid differentiation, there is also a deterioration of some blastomeres, mainly micromeres. A similar degeneration of vitellocytes begins even earlier. Both processes show a progressive degeneration of both vitellocytes and micromeres, and are good examples of apoptosis, a process that provides nutritive substances, including lipids, for the developing embryo. PMID:23932252

Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Delgado, Eulàlia

2013-07-01

288

Lymphoreticular responses to metacestodes: Taenia multiceps (Cestoda) can modify interaction between accessory cells and responder cells during lymphocyte activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to test the accessory function of macrophages after activation with products of Taenia multiceps coenuri. Activation was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of mice with coenurus fluid or protoscolex culture supernatant, and function was assessed by adding these macrophages in progressively increasing numbers to macrophage-depleted lymphocyte cultures transforming under the influence of plant mitogens or coenurus-fluid mitogen. In contrast to normal macrophages, which have a progressively enhancing action on the above reactions, parasite-activated macrophages at similar concentrations were progressively inhibitory. However, low concentrations of the activated macrophages enhanced mitosis as well as, or better than, normal. Lymph node cells from injected mice showed abnormal response to macrophage-derived signals. In particular there was subnormal reaction to macrophages in the presence of coenurus mitogen. These results suggest that T. multiceps coenuri may survive in the host because of their ability to reduce effective interaction between lymphocytes and accessory cells. PMID:2038498

Rakha, N K; Dixon, J B; Skerritt, G C; Carter, S D; Jenkins, P; Marshall-Clarke, S

1991-02-01

289

Susceptibility of Taenia saginata metacestodes to gamma irradiation and shelf-life extension of the treated meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taenia saginata metacestodes from experimentally infected calves were irradiated at levels varying from 0.2 to 0.6 kGy. Human volunteers who infected themselves with the irradiated cysticerci showed that a minimum irradiation dose level of 0.3 kGy is required to inhibit the development into adult tapeworms. Irradiation of infected carcasses by 0.5 kGy to 0.6 kGy seems to be effective. The evagination reflex and the in vitro maintenance did not show any difference in behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated cysticerci. Even this relatively low irradiation dose produced a lower microbiological contamination in hygienically produced minced veal. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

290

Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA) after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba liv [...] ia), weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG); with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG); with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG); with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG), and with daily handling (naive group; NG). The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P

I., Brito; L.R.G., Britto; E.A.M., Ferrari.

2011-08-01

291

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

Youn, Heejeong

2009-10-01

292

Cloning and characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestode EgactI and EgactII actin gene promoters and their functional analysis in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report here for the first time the structure and function of a promoter from a cestode. The ability of DNA fragments respectively encompassing the 935-bp and 524-bp regions upstream from the ATG codon from the EgactI and EgactII actin genes of Echinococcus granulosus to promote transcription was studied in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line. The results of transfection assays showed that both regions have strong promoter activity in these cells. The fragments were tested in both orientations and the 524-bp fragment of EgactII presented a bidirectional promoter activity. Deletion analysis of EgactI and EgactII promoters indicated the presence of regulatory regions containing putative silencer elements. These results indicate that both EgactI and EgactII promoters are functional and that the preliminary functional evaluation of E. granulosus and possibly of other cestode promoters can be performed in heterologous cell lines.

E.R.P. Gimba

2000-11-01

293

Spasmogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) on the contractile activity of guinea-pig taenia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica (AETI) was studied on the guinea pig taenia coli, due to its use for treatment of constipation in traditional medicines. AETI, at concentrations ranging from 10(-8) mg/ml to 10(-2) mg/ml, increased the spontaneous contractile activity of guinea pig taenia coli in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 4x10(-6) mg/ml). This activity was unaffected by atropine. In high K(+), Ca(2+)-free solution containing EDTA, AETI as well as acetylcholine, used as a control, induced tonic contraction. These results suggest that the plant extract exert a spasmogenic effect that would not involve cholinergic mechanism of action. However, these active principles could mobilize both extra cellular calcium and intracellular calcium from internal stores. PMID:20161887

Souza, A; Aka, K J

2007-01-01

294

Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

E.V. Schwan

2012-07-01

295

Receptor for catecholamines responding to catechol which potentiates voltage-dependent calcium current in single cells from guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

OpenAIRE

1. Single isolated cells were obtained from the taenia of the guinea-pig's caecum by enzymic digestion and held under voltage clamp. The effects of various catecholamines, sympathomimetics and related compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate the voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) evoked in these cells by a depolarizing step. 2. ICa was potentiated by up to 60% by isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline which were equipotent. The EC50 for isoprenaline was about 40 nM. 3. ...

Muraki, K.; Bolton, T. B.; Imaizumi, Y.; Watanabe, M.

1994-01-01

296

Immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease: evaluation of antigens from hydatid cyst fluid and the vesicularfluid of Taenia crassiceps metacestode / Inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis: evaluación de líquido hidático y de líquido vesicular de cisticerco de Taenia crassiceps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se comparó la especificidad y sensibilidad del ensayo inmunoenzimático (EIE) actualmente en uso en las áreas de Sudamérica donde la hidatidosis causada por Echinococcus granulosus es endémica, con dos versiones de EIE, una de las cuales emplea un antígeno hidatídico de diferente preparación y la otr [...] a líquido vesicular de cisticerco de Taenia crassiceps (LVCC). Se estudió también para ambos antígenos el efecto de la neutralización previa de los anticuerpos anticomponentes séricos ovinos o murinos, y antifosforilcolina sobre la eficiencia diagnóstica de los EIE. Se analizó la frecuencia de distribución de los títulos obtenidos en los tres sistemas de EIE frente a sueros normales, hidatídicos a la prueba de doble difusión arco 5 (DD5) e hidatídicos DD5 negativos. Los resultados mostraron una significativa disminución de sensibilidad del LVCC frente a los antígenos hidatídicos lo cual hace inconveniente su uso para inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los dos antígenos hidatídicos. El análisis por SDS-PAGE mostró una marcada diferencia de composición entre el LVCC y los antígenos hidatídicos, y algunas diferencias entre estos últimos posiblemente debidas a los procesos de preparación. Abstract in english The specificity and sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA), presently used in South America areas where hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is endemic, was compared to two alternative EIA. One of these uses an hydatid antigen of different prepraration and the other vesicular fluid of [...] Taenia crassiceps cisticerci (VFCC). The effect of previous neutralization in the serum sample of antibodies anti-normal ovine or murine sera and anti-phosphorylcholine on the diagnostic efficiency of these EIA was studied. The frequency of distribution of the titers obtained with normal sera, hydatid sera positive to DD5 test and hydatid sera negative to DD5 test in three EIA systems was analyzed. Results showed a significant decrease of sensitivity of the EIA using VFCC when compared to these EIA using hydatid antigens. This makes inconvenient the use of VFCC for the immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease. No significant differences between the two EIA using hydatid antigens were observed. SDS-PAGE analysis showed remarkable differences between the VFCC and the hydatid antigens composition and some differences among these latters probably due to manufacturing procedures.

Emilio, Coltorti; Graciela, Cammarieri.

1993-04-01

297

Immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease: evaluation of antigens from hydatid cyst fluid and the vesicularfluid of Taenia crassiceps metacestode Inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis: evaluación de líquido hidático y de líquido vesicular de cisticerco de Taenia crassiceps  

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Full Text Available The specificity and sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA, presently used in South America areas where hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is endemic, was compared to two alternative EIA. One of these uses an hydatid antigen of different prepraration and the other vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps cisticerci (VFCC. The effect of previous neutralization in the serum sample of antibodies anti-normal ovine or murine sera and anti-phosphorylcholine on the diagnostic efficiency of these EIA was studied. The frequency of distribution of the titers obtained with normal sera, hydatid sera positive to DD5 test and hydatid sera negative to DD5 test in three EIA systems was analyzed. Results showed a significant decrease of sensitivity of the EIA using VFCC when compared to these EIA using hydatid antigens. This makes inconvenient the use of VFCC for the immunodiagnosis of hydatid disease. No significant differences between the two EIA using hydatid antigens were observed. SDS-PAGE analysis showed remarkable differences between the VFCC and the hydatid antigens composition and some differences among these latters probably due to manufacturing procedures.Se comparó la especificidad y sensibilidad del ensayo inmunoenzimático (EIE actualmente en uso en las áreas de Sudamérica donde la hidatidosis causada por Echinococcus granulosus es endémica, con dos versiones de EIE, una de las cuales emplea un antígeno hidatídico de diferente preparación y la otra líquido vesicular de cisticerco de Taenia crassiceps (LVCC. Se estudió también para ambos antígenos el efecto de la neutralización previa de los anticuerpos anticomponentes séricos ovinos o murinos, y antifosforilcolina sobre la eficiencia diagnóstica de los EIE. Se analizó la frecuencia de distribución de los títulos obtenidos en los tres sistemas de EIE frente a sueros normales, hidatídicos a la prueba de doble difusión arco 5 (DD5 e hidatídicos DD5 negativos. Los resultados mostraron una significativa disminución de sensibilidad del LVCC frente a los antígenos hidatídicos lo cual hace inconveniente su uso para inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los dos antígenos hidatídicos. El análisis por SDS-PAGE mostró una marcada diferencia de composición entre el LVCC y los antígenos hidatídicos, y algunas diferencias entre estos últimos posiblemente debidas a los procesos de preparación.

Emilio Coltorti

1993-04-01

298

Redescription and systematic position of Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a cestode species parasitic in shrews of the genus Sorex, including erection of Gulyaevilepis gen. n.  

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Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from the type host Sorex araneus Linnaeus from Lithuania, Latvia and Russia (Republic of Karelia and Republic of Komi - a new geographical record) as well as from Sorex satunini Ognev and Sorex volnuchini Ognev from Russia (Nalchik Area in the Caucasus Mountains). The strobilar morphology of S. tripartita is compared with that of other hymenolepidid cestodes of shrews with an unarmed scolex and serial development of proglottides in the strobila, i.e. species of Mathevolepis Spassky, 1948, Ditestolepis Soltys, 1952, Spasskylepis Schaldybin, 1964, Ecrinolepis Spassky et Karpenko, 1983 and Diorchilepis Lykova, Gulyaev, Melnikova et Karpenko, 2006. It was noted that S. tripartita does not correspond to any of the known genera. The following unique characters are found for S. tripartita: heteronomous serial strobilation with one or two sterile proglottides at the end of each series in the strobila and the whole copulatory part of the vagina covered with numerous, fine spines. Therefore, the new genus Gulyaevilepis is erected, with Gulyaevilepis tripartita (Zarnowski, 1955) comb. n. as its type and only species. Since the type material of Soricinia tripartita is not known to exist, a neotype from the same host species and from a locality close to the type locality is designated. PMID:24822320

Kornienko, Svetlana A; Binkiene, Rasa

2014-04-01

299

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

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The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

2014-09-01

300

Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis / Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino [...] con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por análisis de titulación en bloque mostrando 100.0% de sensibilidad y 96.7% de especificidad. Los péptidos específicos para la cisticercosis en orden de frecuencia fueron: 72-68 kD (100%), 16-15 kD (77%), 39-36 kD (62%), 18-17 kD (54%), 21 kD (31%), 14 kD (23%), 25-23 kD (8%), y 20-19 kD (8%). Reacción cruzada (72-68 y 18-17 kD) sólo se descubrió en una muestra (12.5%) de cerdo con hidatidosis. Debido a sus altas tasas de desempeño, el inmunoblot debe ser útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de cisticercosis porcina y es más eficaz que otras pruebas empleadas para este propósito, como examen de la lengua, examen anatomopatológico y ELISA Abstract in english [...

Paulo Sérgio, de Arruda Pinto; Adelaide José, Vaz; Paulo Mutuko, Nakamura; Pedro Manuel, Leal Germano.

2001-01-01

301

Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis  

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Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El inmunoblot fue padronizado por análisis de titulación en bloque mostrando 100.0% de sensibilidad y 96.7% de especificidad. Los péptidos específicos para la cisticercosis en orden de frecuencia fueron: 72-68 kD (100%, 16-15 kD (77%, 39-36 kD (62%, 18-17 kD (54%, 21 kD (31%, 14 kD (23%, 25-23 kD (8%, y 20-19 kD (8%. Reacción cruzada (72-68 y 18-17 kD sólo se descubrió en una muestra (12.5% de cerdo con hidatidosis. Debido a sus altas tasas de desempeño, el inmunoblot debe ser útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de cisticercosis porcina y es más eficaz que otras pruebas empleadas para este propósito, como examen de la lengua, examen anatomopatológico y ELISA

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto

2001-01-01

302

Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis: lack of cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi and Taenia hydatigena.  

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A commercial coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis, based on the use of MM3 monoclonal antibody for antigen capture, was investigated for possible cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi, a trematode that commonly infects cattle and sheep grazing in fluke-infested pasture in Ireland. Histological sections of adult and immature Fasciola hepatica and P cervi were incubated with MM3 monoclonal antibody, and its binding to tissue-localised coproantigen was subsequently visualised by immunocytochemistry. In a related study, the soluble antigenic fractions derived from homogenates of P cervi adults and Taenia hydatigena metacestodes were tested for cross-reactivity with MM3 monoclonal antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA, using known F hepatica-positive and F hepatica-negative ovine faecal samples as natural controls. It was found that, while intense immunocytochemical labelling was located over the gastrodermis and gut contents of adult and immature F hepatica, sections of adult and immature P cervi were unlabelled. In the ELISA tests, the soluble fractions of F hepatica reacted strongly with MM3 monoclonal antibody, but those of P cervi and T hydatigena gave negative results. These findings support the specificity of the coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis in areas where paramphistomosis and cysticercosis are liable to occur singly or as coinfections with F hepatica. PMID:23077134

Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; Forster, F I; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2012-11-17

303

Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity?  

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Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5?-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

2011-01-01

304

Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda) in the rat: ultrastructure of the host-parasite interface on days 8 to 22 postinfection.  

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The host-parasite interface was examined at the ultrastructural level 8 to 22 days postinfection (DPI) with metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis in the rat. Throughout this phase of development the parasite surface was invested with a dense surface coat of complex microtriches. At 8 to 14 DPI the plasma membrane of each microthrix extended beyond the distal end of the electron-dense tip, forming a slender tubular streamer over 10 microns long; by 18 DPI these had shortened and withered. Host cell processes interdigitated with the microtriches without evidence of harm to the parasite surface or the underlying tegument. The cells, on the other hand, became damaged, and their contents were shed into the matrix surrounding the microtriches. Lipid inclusions appeared within the parasites, and in the cytoplasm of surrounding inflammatory cells. By 22 DPI fibroblastic activity had resulted occasionally in the formation of a capsule surrounding a free-floating cysticercus, while in others intense granulocytic infiltration persisted with abutment and intermeshing of host cell and parasite surface processes; however there was still no evidence of any adverse effect on the microtriches, though many granulocytes were clearly pyknotic and degenerating. Evidently, the vigorous cellular response of the host is ineffective in either containing the expansion of the parasite or compromising the integrity of its surface membrane. The changing characteristics of the microtriches may be related to the need for dissolution of both intercellular matrices, and host cells as the vesicular organism rapidly increases in volume. PMID:6323668

Engelkirk, P G; Williams, J F

1983-10-01

305

Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation  

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Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.

I. Brito

2011-08-01

306

Prevalence and morphological characterisation of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysts) in sheep and goat from north India.  

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Taenia hydatigena is an adult parasite of dogs with the metacestode (Cysticercus tenuicollis) stage residing in ruminants and pigs. Documentation and surveillance data concerning to the prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease in India is largely lacking. In this experiment, 3,199 carcasses, including 760 sheep and 2,439 goat were examined for the presence of C. tenuicollis (T. hydatigena cysts) on post-mortem inspection at different slaughter houses/shops in northern India. Morphological analysis was also conducted on five samples from each species. Out of 3199 carcasses examined, 135 were found containing cysts of T. hydatigena indicating a prevalence of 4.22 %. Most of the cysts were present in abdominal cavity, except few which were embedded in the liver. The high prevalence of 4.83 was recorded in goats as compared to 2.23 % in sheep. Principal component analysis was applied for statistical analysis. The results of morphological analysis indicated its usefulness as a valid criterion for differentiation of T. hydatigena cysts and that there might be possibility of two different strains infecting sheep and goat. PMID:25698866

Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Sharma, J K

2015-03-01

307

Actions of adenine dinucleotides in the guinea-pig taenia coli: NAD acts indirectly on P1-purinoceptors; NADP acts like a P2-purinoceptor agonist.  

OpenAIRE

The actions of the adenine dinucleotides beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) were examined on the carbachol-contracted taenia coli of the guinea-pig. Both were capable of inducing full relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner; NADP was 21.4 times more effective than NAD at EC50; the threshold for NADP was approximately 0.1 microM and for NAD approximately 1.0 microM. The P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophyllin...

Burnstock, G.; Hoyle, C. H.

1985-01-01

308

Evidence for multiple sources of calcium for activation of the contractile mechanism of guinea-pig taenia coli on stimulation with carbachol.  

OpenAIRE

1 The evidence presented suggests there are three sources of Ca available for contraction of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli on stimulation with carbachol; the inward Ca current of the spike, a second voltage-dependent Ca channel and an internal Ca store. 2 The initial increment of tension in response to carbachol is thought to be due to an increase in spike frequency which is probably the main source of Ca at low carbachol concentrations (< 10(-6) M). 3 The maintained tension...

Brading, A. F.; Sneddon, P.

1980-01-01

309

Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09%) revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral organs. The coenuri, of variable sizes, were found mainly in the muscles of the thigh, shoulder and neck, and were less common in the abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Coenuri were also found in the diaphragm, tongue, intercostal muscles, lung, parotid area and tunica adventitia of the aorta in a goat with severe infection. The brains of slaughtered goats that had coenuri in their skeletal muscles were examined and coenuri were found in two specimens (8.69%). The coenuri were located in the occipital lobe, the anterior part of the right cerebrum and the parietal lobe of the left cerebrum. Histopathologically, coenuri in the brain caused pressure atrophy and liquefactive necrosis in the surrounding tissues, hyperaemia, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration, neuronophagia, satellitosis, diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis. Coenuri in the skeletal muscles caused degenerative and necrotic changes, hyalinisation and myositis. In the lung, tissues around the coenurus revealed atelectasis and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the present study, concurrent occurrence of coenuri in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles supports the hypothesis that C. cerebralis and C. gaigeri are different names for the metacestodes of the same species of tapeworm. PMID:23327321

Kheirandish, Reza; Sami, Masoud; Azizi, Shahrzad; Mirzaei, Mohammad

2012-01-01

310

Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran  

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Full Text Available Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09% revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral organs. The coenuri, of variable sizes, were found mainly in the muscles of the thigh, shoulder and neck, and were less common in the abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Coenuri were also found in the diaphragm, tongue, intercostal muscles, lung, parotid area and tunica adventitia of the aorta in a goat with severe infection. The brains of slaughtered goats that had coenuri in their skeletal muscles were examined and coenuri were found in two specimens (8.69%. The coenuri were located in the occipital lobe, the anterior part of the right cerebrum and the parietal lobe of the left cerebrum. Histopathologically, coenuri in the brain caused pressure atrophy and liquefactive necrosis in the surrounding tissues, hyperaemia, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration, neuronophagia, satellitosis, diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis. Coenuri in the skeletal muscles caused degenerative and necrotic changes, hyalinisation and myositis. In the lung, tissues around the coenurus revealed atelectasis and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the present study, concurrent occurrence of coenuri in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles supports the hypothesis that C. cerebralis and C. gaigeri are different names for the metacestodes of the same species of tapeworm.

Reza Kheirandish

2012-11-01

311

Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by detecting live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA  

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Full Text Available An ante mortem antigen-ELISA-based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n = 24 and naturally (n = 25 infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in naturally infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificial infections it was above 14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves, and 1 and 2 live cysticerci in naturally infected steers, escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harbouring dead cysticerci gave negative reactions in the assay as was the case in non-infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially infected calves (r = 0.798, n = 24 ; P < 0.05 and naturally infected steers (r = 0.631, n = 25 ; P < 0.05. These results clearly show the potential effectiveness of ante mortem monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in cattle. Its value lies in the diagnosis of infection in cattle as a screening test in a herd, rather than as a diagnostic test at the individual level, due to false positive and negative reactions. In a herd of heavily infected cattle, the assay may, however, provide for individual diagnosis. Nevertheless, more work is recommended to increase its sensitivity so as to be able to diagnose light infections consistently in the field.

W. Wanzala

2012-07-01

312

DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR  

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Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their causative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yielded evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American/African and Asian genotypes of Taenia solium with molecular sizes of 827, 269, 720, and 984 bp, respectively. In the PCR-based detection of tapeworm carriers using fecal samples, t...

Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Allan, James C.; Sato, Marcello Otake; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Mamuti, Wulamu; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

2004-01-01

313

Proteocephalid cestode infection in tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) from Paraná River, São Paulo / Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), no Rio Paraná, São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a ocorrência de cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp., capturados mensalmente, entre agosto de 2000 e agosto de 2001, no rio Paraná, em Presidente Epitácio, SP. Um total de 128 espécimes foram analisados, dos quais 71 (55,6%) estavam parasitados por Proteocephalus macrophallus [...] (Diesing, 1850) e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935). A abundância e intensidade média total foram de 157,08 e 223,41, respectivamente. A maior prevalência (90%), juntamente com os maiores índices de abundância (1122,4) e intensidade média (1247,11) ocorreram no mês de fevereiro 2001, enquanto no mês de setembro 2000 não foram observados animais parasitados por cestóides. Não houve relação entre o sexo do hospedeiro e os índices parasitológicos. Abstract in english The occurrence of proteocephalid cestodes in tucunaré Cichla sp., captured monthly, between August 2000 and August 2001, in Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, SP, was evaluated. From 128 specimens, 71 (55.6%) were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Wo [...] odland, 1935). Total mean abundance and intensity were 157.08 and 223.41, respectively. The highest prevalence (90%) mean abundance (1,122.4) and intensity indexes (1,247.11) occurred in February 2001, while in September 2000 there were no observed animals infected by cestodes. No relationship between the sex of the host and parasitological indexes was found.

R.S., Santos; K., Roumbedakis; N.G., Marengoni; H.K., Takahashi; F.D.A., Pimenta; C.M.R., Melo; M.L., Martins.

2011-06-01

314

The cestode order Rhinebothriidea no longer family-less: A molecular phylogenetic investigation with erection of two new families and description of eight new species of Anthocephalum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spiral intestines of a total of 30 specimens of 14 species of batoids from around the world were examined for rhinebothriideans. These consisted of Taeniura grabata, Dasyatis margaritella, and Dasyatis sp. from Senegal, Dasyatis americana from Florida, Dasyatis dipterura and Dasyatis longa from México, Himantura jenkinsii, Himantura leoparda, Himantura uarnak 2, Urogymnus asperrimus 1, and Neotrygon kuhlii 4 from Australia, in addition to Himantura uarnacoides and Neotrygon kuhlii 1 from Borneo. Each of these hosted one or more species of Anthocephalum. Eleven of the cestode species were new to science; four represented described species. In addition, Urotrygon aspidura from Costa Rica hosted a species of Escherbothrium. Sufficient material was available for formal description of the following eight species of Anthocephalum: A. decrisantisorum n. sp., A. healyae n. sp., A. jensenae n. sp., A. mattisi n. sp., A. meadowsi n. sp., A. odonnellae n. sp., A. papefayi n. sp., and A. philruschi n. sp. These species differ from their nine described congeners in overall size, number of proglottids and marginal loculi, number and arrangement of testes, apical sucker size, arrangement and distribution of vitelline follicles particularly with respect in the post-poral field, and muscularity of the genital pore. The diagnosis of Anthocephalum is emended slightly to accommodate these new species. Material of four previously described Anthocephalum species, seven of the novel Anthocephalum species described here, 3 undescribed Anthocephalum species, and the species of Escherbothrium was preserved in 95% ethanol and partial 28S rDNA (D1-D3) and complete 18S rDNA sequence data were generated de novo. These data were combined with data from GenBank for Anthocephalum cf. centrurum (recognized as A. mattisi n. sp. below) and 29 species representing 12 other putative rhinebothriidean genera. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods were conducted using a total of five representatives of the Lecanicephalidea, Cathetocephalidea and "Tetraphyllidea" as outgroups. The analyses yielded trees that were largely congruent and that supported the existence of four major subgroups of rhinebothriideans. Family designations were established for each of these clades. Echeneibothriidae was elevated from subfamily to family level to accommodate the group consisting of Echeneibothrium and Pseudanthobothrium; this family is unique in retaining the apical organ (as a myzorhynchus) into adulthood. Rhinebothriidae was elevated from subfamily to family level to accommodate the group consisting of Rhabdotobothrium, Rhinebothrium, Rhinebothroides, Rhodobothrium, Scalithrium and Spongiobothrium. This family is distinctive in its lack of apical suckers and also of a definitive anterior/posterior orientation to the bothridia. Anthocephaliidae n. fam. was established to house Anthocephalum and taxa identified as New Genus 1, New Genus 2, and New Genus 4 by previous authors. The bothridia of its members exhibit a conspicuous anterior/posterior orientation signaled by the presence of an apical sucker. In addition, its members bear marginal loculi or one or more rows of facial loculi and vitelline follicles that are usually interrupted by the ovary. Escherbothriidae n. fam. was established to house Escherbothrium and the taxon identified as New Genus 3 by previous authors. It most closely resembles Anthocephaliidae but the facial loculi are arranged in columns anteriorly and rows posteriorly, rather than arranged in multiple rows or entirely lacking. A key to the families is also provided.  PMID:25660771

Ruhnke, Timothy R

2015-01-01

315

Registros taxonômicos de cestóides Trypanorhyncha/Homeacanthoidea em elasmobrânquios coletados na costa do Estado do Paraná, Brasil TAXONOMIC REPORTS OF TRYPANORHYNCHA/HOMEACANTHOIDEA CESTODES IN ELASMOBRANCHS COLLECTED IN THE COAST OF THE STATE OF PARANÁ, BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Espécimes de peixes elasmobrânquios, capturados em 1998 no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, estavam parasitados com cestóides Trypano-rhyncha/Homeacanthoidea: Carcharhinus signatus com Heteronybelinia yamagutii e H. nipponica; Dipturus trachydermus com Mixonybelinia beveridgei Das duas espécies de Heteronybelinia foram obtidos detalhes da morfologia do escólex, que expandiram suas descrições. A distribuição geográfica das espécies foi ampliadaSpecimes of elasmobranch fishes, captured in 1998 in the the State of Paraná, Brazil, were parasitized with Trypanorhyncha/Homeacanthoidea cestodes: Carcharhinus signatus with Heteronybelinia yamagutii (Dollfus, 1960 Palm, 1999 and H. nipponica (Yamaguti, 1952 Palm, 1999; Dipturus trachydermus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975 with Mixonybelinia beveridgei (Palm et al, 1997 Palm, 1999. Details of scolex morphology of the two species of Heteronybelinia that expanded their desciptions were obtained. The known geographical distribution of the species is widened

MARCELO KNOFF

2004-01-01

316

Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

2015-02-01

317

Parasitoses of the human central nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral involvement in parasitoses is an important clinical manifestation of most of the human parasitoses. Parasites that have been described to affect the central nervous system (CNS), either as the dominant or as a collateral feature, include cestodes (Taenia solium (neurocysticerciasis), Echinococcus granulosus (cerebral cystic echinococcosis), E. multilocularis (cerebral alveolar echinococcosis), Spirometra mansoni (neurosparganosis)), nematodes (Toxocara canis and T. cati (neurotoxocariasis), Trichinella spiralis (neurotrichinelliasis), Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. costaricensis (neuroangiostrongyliasis), Gnathostoma spinigerum (gnathostomiasis)), trematodes (Schistosoma mansoni (cerebral bilharziosis), Paragonimus westermani (neuroparagonimiasis)), or protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii (neurotoxoplasmosis), Acanthamoeba spp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris (granulomatous amoebic encephalitis), Naegleria (primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis), Entamoeba histolytica (brain abscess), Plasmodium falciparum (cerebral malaria), Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/rhodesiense (sleeping sickness) or Trypanosoma cruzi (cerebral Chagas disease)). Adults or larvae of helminths or protozoa enter the CNS and cause meningitis, encephalitis, ventriculitis, myelitis, ischaemic stroke, bleeding, venous thrombosis or cerebral abscess, clinically manifesting as headache, epilepsy, weakness, cognitive decline, impaired consciousness, confusion, coma or focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis of cerebral parasitoses is dependent on the causative agent. Available diagnostic tools include clinical presentation, blood tests (eosinophilia, plasmodia in blood smear, antibodies against the parasite), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations, imaging findings and occasionally cerebral biopsy. Treatment relies on drugs and sometimes surgery. Outcome of cerebral parasitoses is highly variable, depending on the effect of drugs, whether they are self-limiting (e.g. Angiostrongylus costaricensis) or whether they remain undetected or asymptomatic, like 25% of neurocysticerciasis cases. PMID:23046708

Finsterer, J; Auer, H

2013-09-01

318

Control of tapeworms by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day + 24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the unirradiated cysticerci is 173,8 mm, while those resulting from cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 kmma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

319

Racemose cysticercus in human brain. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of invasion of the brain of a 48-year-old man, a native of Louisiana, by a larval tapeworm is described. Inasmuch as there were no scolices or rostellar hooks present the parasite was identified as a racemose cysticercus which could be either a sterile coenurus of Taenia multiceps (= Multiceps multiceps), Taenia serialis (= Multiceps serialis), or an aberrant cysticercus of Taenia solium or of a different species of Taenia. Most of the parasite was removed surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of brain tumor. After operation the patient improved, and 32 months after onset of his illness he was working and showed no evidence of a recurrence. PMID:7258483

Jung, R C; Rodriguez, M A; Beaver, P C; Schenthal, J E; Levy, R W

1981-05-01

320

Investigation of effects of some immunoadjuvants and routes of antigen administration in raising antibodies in rabbits against metacestode cyst antigens of Taenia multiceps.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative efficiency of depot (Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and saponin), and non-depot (Corynebacterium parvum strain P. acnes I, C. parvum strain IMI585, and levamisole) immunoadjuvants were compared in raising agglutinating and precipitating antibodies against the metacestode fluid of Taenia multiceps of sheep origin (TMCF). Haemagglutinating but not precipitating antibodies were detectable during the period of primary immunisation. Precipitating antibodies of higher titre were produced for longer when TMCF was injected with immunoadjuvant than when the same volume of TMCF was injected alone. Significantly (P less than 0.05) higher indirect haemagglutination (IHA) titres were produced during the primary response following C. parvum treatment than after FCA treatment. FCA treated rabbits showed significantly (P less than 0.05) higher IHA titres than those receiving C. parvum treatment on day 42 only, during the anamnestic response. Ulcers formed at the sites of injection of depot immunoadjuvants. Significantly (P less than 0.05) higher IHA titres were produced when FCA with TMCF was injected intradermally into 10-12 sites than when the same volume was injected into 4 sites. C. parvum strain IM1585 was a better immunoadjuvant in this system than the strain P. acnes I. The intravenous route of administration yielded better titres than the intraperitoneal route when C. parvum strain P. acnes I was used. PMID:6875260

Abo-Shehada, M N; Herbert, I V

1983-07-29

321

Modification of cellular immunity by Taenia multiceps (Cestoda): accessory macrophages and CD4+ lymphocytes are affected by two different coenurus factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia multiceps coenurus fluid was analysed by fast protein liquid chromatography in order to separate the factors responsible for previously reported modification of immunological activity in macrophages and T-cells. One factor, F7, was found to be mitogenic for murine L3T4+ T-cells, to be macrophage dependent, to require macrophage compatibility at the I region of the H2 complex, to increase the sensitivity of T-cells to regulatory signals from macrophages and to increase the rate of generation of splenic rosette-forming cells (RFC) against sheep red cells. A second factor, F24, was found to alter macrophages so as to render them suppressive, rather than stimulatory, for parasite-activated and Con A-activated lymphocyte transformation, to depress the rate of generation of RFC and to antagonize the mitogenic effect of F7. The combined actions of these two factors are, therefore, sufficient to explain the known immunomodulatory effects of the metacestode. PMID:1682871

Rakha, N K; Dixon, J B; Jenkins, P; Carter, S D; Skerritt, G C; Marshall-Clarke, S

1991-08-01

322

Differential roles of ryanodine- and thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular CA2+ stores in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. To explore roles of intracellular Ca(2+) stores in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle, we examined the effects of ryanodine, a fixer of ryanodine receptor-Ca(2+) channels to an open state, and thapsigargin, a selective inhibitor of the Ca(2+) pump in the intracellular stores, on smooth muscle contraction in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+) in guinea-pig taenia caeci. 2. In Ca(2+) -free solution, contractions induced by 0.1 mmol/L carbachol and 0.1 mmol/L histamine were reduced to approximately 65% of control by either 1 micro mol/L thapsigargin or 10 micro mol/L ryanodine. In contrast, caffeine-induced contraction was reduced to approximately 40% of control by ryanodine, but was not affected by thapsigargin. 3. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), thapsigargin slowly induced a large and sustained contraction. In contrast, ryanodine did not induce an apparent contraction, but increased the sensitivity of contractile responses to receptor agonists (carbachol, AHR-602 and histamine) or depolarizing high K(+) with no changes in the maximal contraction. 4. These results suggest that there are pharmacological and physiological differences between ryanodine- and thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) stores in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle, which may be responsible for their differential effects on the Ca(2+) -influx pathway. PMID:17184492

Hishinuma, Shigeru; Saito, Masaki

2006-12-01

323

Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in selected districts of eastern and southern provinces of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

To determine the risk factors associated with Taenia solium transmission in humans and pigs in the rural areas of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia, a questionnaire was administered in 788 households from 155 villages. Pigs were examined from 800 households. Tongue examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) for the detection of circulating antigens of T. solium cysticerci were used to measure infection in pigs. A snowballing technique was utilised to select households...

Sikasunge, C. S.; Phiri, I. K.; Phiri, A. M.; Dorny, P.; Siziya, S.; Willingham, A. L.

2007-01-01

324

Treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis with praziquantel and albendazole  

OpenAIRE

Recent methods, doses and results of medical treatment on taeniasis/cysticercosis, a zoo-notic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are discussed. In cases of cysticercosis T. solium, especially neurocysticercosis the optimal length and dose of albendazole is a course of 8 days with doses of 15 mg/kg/day divided in two times added by 50 mg/day of prednisone in the morning. The drug is effective in almost any location of the parasites for 80-90% of macroscopic cysts se...

Abdulbar Hamid; Margono, Sri S.; Toni Wandra; Akira Ito

2005-01-01

325

Inquérito epidemiológico sobre teníase em população do programa saúde da família no município de Uberaba, MG / Epidemiologic survery of teniasis in health and family program in Uberaba, MG  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado inquérito para avaliar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase em 100.144 indivíduos do Programa Saúde da Família. Foram identificados 185 (0,2%) indivíduos com antecedentes de teníase. Destes, 112 (60,5%) receberam tratamento com praziquantel. Em 97 (86,6%) dos casos, houve elimina [...] ção de proglotes que corresponderam a Taenia saginata e Taenia solium em 36 (37,1%) e 4 (4,1%), respectivamente. Abstract in english An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Program to evaluate some Epidemiologic aspects of teniasis. Previous history of passing proglottides was registered in 185(0.2%) of them, and 112 (60.5%) received praziquantel. After this 97 (86.6%) passed proglottides [...] characterized as Taenia Saginata and Taenia Solium in 36 (37.1%) and 4 (4.1%) respectively.

Flavia Maria, Esteves; Mario León, Silva-Vergara; Ângela C.F. Banzatto de, Carvalho.

2005-12-01

326

The economic impact of pig-associated parasitic zoonosis in Northern Lao PDR.  

OpenAIRE

The parasitic zoonoses human cysticercosis (Taenia solium), taeniasis (other Taenia species) and trichinellosis (Trichinella species) are endemic in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study was designed to quantify the economic burden pig-associated zoonotic disease pose in Lao PDR. In particular, the analysis included estimation of the losses in the pork industry as well as losses due to human illness and lost productivity. A Markov-probability based decision-tree model was...

Choudhury, Aak; Conlan, Jv; Racloz, Vn; Reid, Sa; Blacksell, Sd; Fenwick, Sg; Thompson, Arc; Khamlome, B.; Vongxay, K.; Whittaker, M.

2013-01-01

327

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

2003-04-01

328

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

2003-04-01

329

HALLAZGO DE CESTODOS DE LA FAMILIA HYMENOLEPIDIDAE EN EL RATÓN ALGODONERO DEL SUR (Sigmodon hirsutus) EN HUILA, COLOMBIA / CESTODES OF HYMENOLEPIDIDAE FAMILY FOUND IN THE SOUTHERN COTTON RAT (Sigmodon hirsutus) IN HUILA, COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El estudio de la fauna parasitológica de roedores silvestres constituye una clave importante para enfrentar situaciones de riesgo en salud pública, conservación y producción animal, debido al impacto que algunos de estos parásitos pueden producir en la salud de seres humanos, animales silvestres y a [...] nimales de producción y compañía. En mayo de 2011 se colectaron muestras de materia fecal de ratones silvestres en los municipios de Garzón y El Agrado (Huila, Colombia), con el fin de identificar, mediante evaluación coprológica, las especies de parásitos gastrointestinales presentes en roedores de dicha zona. Se capturaron siete ratones de la especie Sigmodon hirsutus, se tomaron muestras de materia fecal y los animales fueron liberados posteriormente. En las muestras se observaron huevos de la familia Hymenolepididae, con características morfológicas que los ubican en los géneros Hymenolepis o Rodentolepis. El hallazgo de estos parásitos en las heces de roedores silvestres en áreas de hábitat compartido con seres humanos sugiere un factor de riesgo zoonótico. Sin embargo, se requieren investigaciones adicionales que permitan establecer asociación entre el parasitismo gastrointestinal en humanos y la presencia de roedores en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The study of parasitological fauna of wild rodents constitutes a significant key to confront situations of risk on public health, conservation and animal production, due to the impact of some parasites on the health of humans, wildlife, farm animals and pets. Fecal samples of wild rodents were colle [...] cted in May 2011 in the area of Garzón and El Agrado, (Huila, Colombia) in order to identify, by parasitological examination, the species of gastrointestinal parasites found in rodents in this area. Seven mices of specie Sigmodon hirsutus, were trapped in order to take fecal samples. Animals were released after this procedure. Eggs of cestodes of the family Hymenolepididae with morphological characteristics of genera Hymenolepis or Rodentolepis were found in the samples. The finding of these parasites in the feces of wild rodents in areas of shared habitat with humans suggests a zoonotic risk factor, but it is necessary to carry out more researches on association between gastrointestinal parasitism in humans and presence of wild rodents in the area.

M. A, Santa-Sepúlveda; M. E, Pardo.

2014-04-01

330

Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization  

Science.gov (United States)

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

331

Rattus norvegicus como indicador de la circulación de Capillaria hepatica y Taenia taeniaeformis en la Plaza Minorista de Medellín, Colombia / Rattus norvegicus as an indicator of circulation of Capillaria hepatica and Taenia taeniaeformis on a groceries trade center of Medellín, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Rattus norvegicus cumple un papel epidemiológico en el mantenimiento y dispersión de agentes zoonóticos bacterianos, virales y parasitarios de interés en salud pública. La presencia de infección por helmintos en especies Rattus cercanas a poblaciones expuestas en condiciones ambientale [...] s propicias, puede convertirse en un factor de riesgo de transmisión. Objetivo. Reportar la frecuencia de infección con Capillaria hepatica y formas larvarias de Taenia taeniaeformis en ratas silvestres (R. norvegicus) capturadas en una zona urbana de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se capturaron 254 ejemplares de R. norvegicus. Los hígados de 54 ejemplares que presentaron lesión hepática macroscópica durante la necropsia, fueron examinados por histopatología convencional. Resultados. La frecuencia de infección por C. hepatica fue de 20,1 % (51/254). Seis hígados fueron también positivos para larvas de T. taeniaeformis con una frecuencia de 2,4 % (6/254). Los hígados infestados con C. hepatica exhibían parásitos en el estadio adulto o juvenil y huevos ovalados con opérculos bipolares, asociados con hepatitis granulomatosa leve a moderada multifocal y acompañada por infiltrado leucocitario. Se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en resolución y fibrosis residual o calcificada que contenía huevos. Donde se encontraron cisticercos de T. taeniaeformis, el hallazgo más frecuente fueron quistes hepáticos que contenían larvas, y lesiones inflamatorias y fibróticas. Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que helmintos de potencial zoonótico circulan en R. norvegicus de ambientes urbanos. Debe investigarse la verdadera distribución de estos parásitos, para determinar el riesgo potencial que corren las poblaciones animales y humanas expuestas a adquirir este tipo de infecciones. Abstract in english Introduction. Rattus norvegicus, the Norway rat, plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and spread of several zoonotic bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens of public health interest. The presence of helminthic infections near susceptible human populations can, under appropriate environmental co [...] nditions, become a risk factor for their transmission. Objective. Frequencies of infection were reported for Capillaria hepatica and larval forms of Taenia taeniaeformis in wild rats (R. norvegicus) captured in an urban area. Materials and methods. Two hundred and fifty-four adult specimens of R. norvegicus were collected in an urban zone of Medellín, Colombia. The livers of 54 specimens that showed macroscopic hepatic lesions during necropsy were examined by conventional histopathology. Results. The frequency of infestation with C. hepatica was 20.1% (51/254). Six livers (2.4%) were also positive for larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Livers infested with C. hepatica exhibited adult or juvenile parasites and oval eggs with bipolar opercula, and were associated with mild to moderate multifocal granulomatous hepatitis with leucocyte infiltrate. Granulomatous lesions and calcified residual fibroses were found with eggs but without adult parasites. Those animals with cysticerci of T. taeniaeformis showed a high frequency of hepatic cysts containing larvae as well as inflammed and fibrotic lesions. Conclusion. Zoonotic helminths circulate at high frequency in R. norvegicus that occur in urban environments. Further research about the distribution of these parasites will determine the level of health threat they present for susceptible human and domestic animal populations.

Biviana Andrea, Duque; Diego, Aranzazu; Piedad, Agudelo-Flórez; Andrés F, Londoño; Víctor H, Quiroz; Juan D, Rodas.

2012-12-01

332

Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.  

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The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. PMID:24309372

Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

2014-02-01

333

Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil / Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em peixe introduzido, Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), no reservatório de Volta Grande, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avalia a variação nos índices parasitológicos de 114 espécimes de Cichla piquiti Kullander e Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infectados por duas espécies de proteocefalídeos (Cestoda) entre agosto de 1999 e junho de 2001 no reservatório de Volta Grande, MG, Brasil. A relação entre a parasitose [...] e os valores de pluviosidade e qualidade de água (pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio, clorofila, transparência e temperatura) é discutida. A prevalência de Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) foi 83,3%, intensidade média 110,8 e abundância média 100,7 durante todo o período. Prevalência de 100% foi observada em agosto e dezembro de 1999, abril e dezembro de 2000 e junho de 2001. As maiores intensidades médias foram 122,7 em outubro de 1999; 158,8 em dezembro de 1999; 96,4 em fevereiro de 2000; 400,7 em abril de 2000; 215,6 em outubro de 2000; e 136,4 em dezembro de 2000. Fatores abióticos podem favorecer o desenvolvimento de espécies que sustentam a alimentação do "tucunaré", mas, neste caso, não houve correlação (P > 0,05) entre os valores de prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média com a pluviosidade e qualidade de água no reservatório. Ao mesmo tempo, estes organismos podem constituir hospedeiros intermediários de cestóides. A relação entre o desenvolvimento da espécie hospedeira e a manifestação da parasitose no hospedeiro definitivo pode explicar a falta de correlação entre os índices parasitológicos e os fatores abióticos. A predação de pequenos peixes e o canibalismo descrito para o "tucunaré" explica a elevada prevalência e intensidade de infecção, favorecido pela condição exótica do hospedeiro no reservatório. Abstract in english This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis w [...] ith rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.

ML., Martins; J., Pereira Jr.; A., De Chambrier; MM., Yamashita.

2009-02-01

334

Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em peixe introduzido, Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, no reservatório de Volta Grande, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

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Full Text Available This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999, 158.8 (December 1999, 96.4 (February 2000, 400.7 (April 2000, 215.6 (October 2000 and 136.4 (December 2000 were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05 between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.Este estudo avalia a variação nos índices parasitológicos de 114 espécimes de Cichla piquiti Kullander e Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infectados por duas espécies de proteocefalídeos (Cestoda entre agosto de 1999 e junho de 2001 no reservatório de Volta Grande, MG, Brasil. A relação entre a parasitose e os valores de pluviosidade e qualidade de água (pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio, clorofila, transparência e temperatura é discutida. A prevalência de Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 foi 83,3%, intensidade média 110,8 e abundância média 100,7 durante todo o período. Prevalência de 100% foi observada em agosto e dezembro de 1999, abril e dezembro de 2000 e junho de 2001. As maiores intensidades médias foram 122,7 em outubro de 1999; 158,8 em dezembro de 1999; 96,4 em fevereiro de 2000; 400,7 em abril de 2000; 215,6 em outubro de 2000; e 136,4 em dezembro de 2000. Fatores abióticos podem favorecer o desenvolvimento de espécies que sustentam a alimentação do "tucunaré", mas, neste caso, não houve correlação (P > 0,05 entre os valores de prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média com a pluviosidade e qualidade de água no reservatório. Ao mesmo tempo, estes organismos podem constituir hospedeiros intermediários de cestóides. A relação entre o desenvolvimento da espécie hospedeira e a manifestação da parasitose no hospedeiro definitivo pode explicar a falta de correlação entre os índices parasitológicos e os fatores abióticos. A predação de pequenos peixes e o canibalismo descrito para o "tucunaré" explica a elevada prevalência e intensidade de infecção, favorecido pela condição exótica do hospedeiro no reservatório.

ML. Martins

2009-02-01

335

[Introduction of ongoing research projects on echinococcosis at Asahikawa Medical College and some comments on the surveillance, prevention and control of alveolar echinococcosis in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

All researchers working at Department of Parasitology, Asahikawa Medical College (AMC) have been involved in either basic or applied research on echinococcosis (alveolar echinococcosis; AE, cystic echinococcosis; CE) and neurocysticercosis (NCC). As these parasitic diseases are 1) most serious helminthic infections threatening human life, 2) caused by the larval stage of very closely related taeniid cestodes and 3) recognized as global emerging parasitic diseases, we have to establish research reference center for differentiation of these diseases, since the recommendations for the treatment of these three diseases differ critically. We at AMC have already established highly reliable differential serodiagnosis for these all using native antigens and recombinant antigens for AE and NCC. Based on such scientific contribution, we have been involved in many international collaboration projects on AE, CE and NCC in Asia, Europe, Africa and America. Basic research from mitochondrial DNA analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) and Taenia solium (NCC) has revealed and/or implied the origin of the polymorphism of these parasites in the world and diversity of pathogenicity. Epidemiological surveillance of AE in China has strongly suggested that the risk factor is dog carer but not dog feces, dog owned, wild herbs or fox hunting. As the ongoing serology in Hokkaido carried out by the Hokkaido Institute of Public Health is for the primary screening of AE, it is impossible to identify AE patients. It is, therefore, recommended that serology for identification of AE without surgical confirmation is the key to be introduced for differentiation of AE patients, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, in order to recognize the incidence of AE in Hokkaido. Without the true incidence of AE, it is impossible to establish any reliable systems for the surveillance, prevention and control of AE in Hokkaido, Japan. PMID:11235210

Ito, A

2001-01-01

336

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (Pvulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

337

The present situation and towards the prevention and control of neurocysticercosis on the tropical island, Bali, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, was common in Bali, Indonesia until the early 1990s. However, improved education on hygiene and sanitation, a move to keeping pigs indoors, and improvement of economic and living conditions have substantially reduced the occurrence of NCC in Bali. Since 2011, T. solium tapeworm carriers (T. solium taeniasis) and heavily infected pigs and dogs have exclusively been detected from villages in mountainous regions of northeastern Bali where NCC and ocular cysticercosis (OCC) cases have also been identified. In response to this continued area of high infection, a one-day workshop was convened to discuss how to prevent and control this potentially lethal zoonotic parasitic infection in Bali. This review presents an overview of the current status of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Indonesia and proposes a strategy for the prevention and control of this zoonosis in Bali. PMID:25779290

Wandra, Toni; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Sudarmaja, I Made; Yoshida, Takahiko; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Eka Diarthini, Ni Luh Putu; Sri Laksemi, Dewa Ayu Agus; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira

2015-12-01

338

Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes  

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Full Text Available Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothrium latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentosA clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

MARISA TORRES

2001-01-01

339

Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothriu [...] m latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentos Abstract in english A clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking [...] medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

MARISA, TORRES; CARLOS, PEREZ; ERCIRA, GALDAMEZ; MELVIN, GABOR; CLAUDIO, MIRANDA; XIMENA, COFRE; PAULA, TELLEZ.

2001-01-01

340

Helminth parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Italy  

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Helminths are reported from stone martens (Martes foina Erxleben 1777), road-killed between 1997 and 1999 in the province of Turin (North-Western Italy). Out of 10 adult martens, seven were infected by helminths. One cestode (Taenia martis) and three nematode (Molineus patens, Capillaria sp. and Angiostrongylus sp.) species were identified.

Ferroglio, Ezio

2001-01-01

341

THE CURRENT SITUATION OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available Parasitic infections are highly prevalent in Indonesia, especially in rural areas, suburbs and slums of big cities. Twenty two species of protozoa and 32 species of helminths have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 16 species of intestinal protozoa, nine are constantly found in stool surveys, but only Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are real pathogens. Among the blood and tissue protozoa, the most important are the malaria parasites. The most frequently encountered and widely distributed species are Plasmodium falciparum, and P. vivax. P. malariae is at present more difficult to find, while P. ovale has been reported only from Flores, Timor and Irian Jaya. The non human parasites so far has not been diagnosed in human. Among the 80 species of Anopheline mosquitoes in Indonesia, 16 have been reconfirmed as vectors. Among the other tissue protozoa, Trichomonas vaginalis is frequenUy found in the Gynaecological clinic, while Toxolasma gondii is found only in special studies. Among the 13 species of intestinal nematodes, five are highly prevalent namely : Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is getting more difficult to find. Filariasis is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in certain areas. Both urban and rural Wuchereria bancrofti are prevalent, but B. malayi is causing more public health problems in rural areas. Both the human and the zoonotic type are prevalent. B. timori so far has been described only from the south eastern part of Indonesia. The filarial worms have different vectors and are therefore different in epidemiology and distribution. Non human filarial worms have not been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 12 species of Trematodes, only Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in Central Sulawesi, and recently an endemic area oiFasciolopsis buski was discovered in a restricted area in South Kalimantan. Echinostoma lindoense which was highly endemic in lake Lindu area has disappeared completely. Among the 8 species of Cestodes, Taenia saginata and T. solium with its cysticercus are found more often. While endemic in a few areas only, cases been reported from many places. Infections with other Cestodes have been reported occasionally. On the whole, parasitic infections in Indonesia have been decreasing. Some parasites which were prevalent in the older days, have dissappeared, and human infections with animal parasites have been reported occasionally because of the difficult diagnosis.

Sri Oemijati

2012-09-01

342

ESTANDARIZACIÓN DE LA PRUEBA DE ELISA PARA EL INMUNODIAGNÓSTICO DE HIDATIDOSIS HUMANA EMPLEANDO ANTÍGENOS DE PRODUCCIÓN LOCAL  

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Full Text Available Se describe una prueba cualitativa. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) para el inmunodiagnóstico de hidatidosis. El ELISA fue estandarizado usando líquido hidatídico proveniente de quistes desarrollados naturalmente en hígado de oveja. El ELISA -HID fue usado como test de screening para detec [...] tar anticuerpos específicos anti IgC en muestras de sueros de 17 pacientes confirmados por cirugía; fueron empleadas como sueros controles positivos, 26 muestras de sueros de personas sanas y 9 sueros de pacientes con otras infecciones por cestodos u otras infecciones. Los resultados del test de ELISA- HID mostraron que el test tiene una sensibilidad y especificidad del 100 % y 96 % respectivamente. Nosotros observamos una relativa frecuencia de reacciones cruzadas con otras enfermedades parasitarias (cisticercosis). Estas reacciones cruzadas con otros cestodos pueden ser resueltos testando estos con pruebas más específicas complementarias como el Inmunobloting. No se encontró reacciones cruzadas con muestras de sueros de pacientes con Hymenolepis nana, T. cruzi y T. gondii. La excelente sensibilidad y especificidad del ELISA- HID hace que el test sea una importante herramienta de diagnóstico para detectar anticuerpos específicos contra la equinococosis, cuyos resultados positivos pueden ser valorados por test confirmatorios como el Inmunobloting. Abstract in english A quatitative enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the immunodiagnosis of hidatidosis is described. The ELISA was standardized using Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid antigen -ELISA obtained from Sheep Liver. (ELISA-HID) were used to screen for cyst hidatic-specific IgC antibidies in serum [...] samples from 17 patients with surgycally confirmed hydatic disease, 26 serum samples of patients healthy and 9 samples of serum from patients whit other cestode infections or with an another illess were used as controls. The sensitivity and specificity the ELISA -HID was 100% and 96% respectively. We observed relatively frequent cross-reactions with other parasitic diseases (cysticecosis). Cestode- related cross-reactivity can be resolved by the complementary use of Taenia solium cysticercosis-specitic immunoblotting. No cross reacction were noted in patients infected with Hymenolepis nana, T. cruzy and T. gondii. The excellent sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-HID make the assay a potentially usefull tool in screening for antibodies agains Equinococosis.

Amilcar A., Flores L.; Patricia, Rodriguez H..

343

Cisticercosis cerebral: a propósito de un caso / Neurocysticercosis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la neurocisticercosis es una enfermedad parasitaria del sistema nervioso central causada por la forma larvaria del céstodo Taenia solium. Se adquiere debido a las malas condiciones de higiene y al fecalismo. Se identifica un caso complejo no habitual en Cuba, detectado en el cumplimiento [...] del programa integral de salud en Honduras. Objetivo: contribuir al conocimiento de enfermedades que son un problema de salud en centroamérica basados en la presentación de un caso. Caso clínico: se presenta un paciente con síndrome tumoral cerebral convulsivo que se atiende en el hospital regional de San Marcos de Ocotepeque en Honduras, se le realizó un estudio y se diagnosticó neurocisticercosis. Se trató y estabilizó pero quedó con las secuelas inherentes a la enfermedad. Conclusiones: en el paciente evaluado hubo manifestaciones clínicas que podían corresponder a varias enfermedades nosológicas, pero basados en estudios como la tomografía se pudo demostrar la enfermedad, a fin de evitar esta afección. Es importante la educación de las personas sobre sus hábitos higiénicos y alimentarios, pues las secuelas sobre el sistema nervioso central son permanentes y muchas veces si se diagnostican de forma tardía pueden traer graves consecuencias. Abstract in english Background: neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system caused by the cestode Taenia soliumin larval stage. It is acquired due to bad hygienic conditions and the ingestion of food with feces. A complex case, not frequent in Cuba, was detected and identified during the ful [...] fillment of the comprehensive health program in Honduras. Objective: to contribute to the awareness of some diseases which constitute a health problem in Central America, based on this case presentation. Clinical case: a patient with a convulsive brain tumor syndrome was attended at San Marcos Regional Hospital of Ocotopeque, Honduras. The patient underwent a study and was diagnosed with neurocysticercosis. The patient was treated and his condition became stable but he was left with the inherent aftereffects of the illness. Conclusions: the treated patient presented clinical manifestations that could correspond with several nosologic diseases, but based on studies like tomography the disease could be established in order to avoid this complaint. The education of the population about their hygienic practices and eating habits is important because the aftereffects of the disease in the central nervous system are permanent and sometimes, if it is diagnosed belatedly, may have very grave consequences.

Jorge Julián, Sánchez Fernández; Ana Lilia, Cabrera Menéndez.

2014-02-01

344

Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry se...

Assana, E.; Amadou, F.; Thys, E.; Lightowlers, M. W.; Zoli, A. P.; Dorny, P.; Geerts, S.

2010-01-01

345

Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae, of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites Aspectos da ecologia de cestóides proteocefalídeos parasitas de Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae do alto Rio Paraná, Brasil: II. Associações interespecíficas e distribuição gastrintestinal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78% were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935. The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.No período de março de 1992 a fevereiro de 1996 foram coletados 107 espécimes de Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 na planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná, sendo que 95 (88,78% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de cestóide proteocefalídeo. Foi coletado um total de 7.573 espécimes de parasitos (intensidade média de 79,71 parasitos/hospedeiro de quatro espécies diferentes: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 e Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935. As duas espécies mais prevalentes, S. maringaensis e P. itaipuensis, foram encontradas parasitando todo o trato gastrintestinal do Sorubim lima e Nupelia portoriquensis foi encontrado parasitando somente o intestino anterior e posterior do hospedeiro.

G. C. PAVANELLI

2000-11-01

346

Taeniosis-cysticercosis in man and animals in the Sierra of Northern Ecuador  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium is endemic in the Andean region of Ecuador. The recent rediscovery of Taenia saginata in humans urges to reconsider some assumptions in relation to the epidemiology of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex in this country.Therefore, data were compiled on the infection of both tapeworms in man and animals in Pichincha and Imbabura provinces in the Andean region, north of Quito. On post mortem inspection 3 out of 806 (0.37%) carcasses had T. saginata metacestodes, however, 35 sera o...

Rodri?guez-hidalgo, R.; Ben¡tez-ortiz, W.; Dorny, P.; Geerts, S.; Geysen, D.; Ron-roma?n, J. W.; Proan?o-pe?rez, F.; Cha?vez-larrea, M. A.; Barrionuevo-samaniego, M.; Celi-erazo, M.; Vizcai?no-ordo?n?ez, L.; Brandt, J.

2003-01-01

347

[Imaging findings in neurocysticercosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, is the parasitic infection that most commonly involves the central nervous system in humans. Neurocysticercosis is endemic in practically all developing countries, and owing to globalization and immigration it is becoming more common in developed countries like those in western Europe. The most common clinical manifestations are epilepsy, focal neurologic signs, and intracranial hypertension. The imaging findings depend on the larval stage of Taenia solium, on the number and location of the parasites (parenchymal, subarachnoid, or intraventricular), as well as on the host's immune response (edema, gliosis, arachnoiditis) and on the development of secondary lesions (arteritis, infarcts, or hydrocephalus). The diagnosis of this parasitosis must be established on the basis of the clinical and radiological findings, especially in the appropriate epidemiological context, with the help of serological tests. PMID:22632836

Sarria Estrada, S; Frascheri Verzelli, L; Siurana Montilva, S; Auger Acosta, C; Rovira Cañellas, A

2013-01-01

348

Current Status of Human Taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

2013-01-01

349

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Considerando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México.

Agnès Fleury

2012-12-01

350

Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation  

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Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

Gagandeep Singh

1997-09-01

351

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico / La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Cons [...] iderando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México. Abstract in english In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been dev [...] eloped for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.

Agnès, Fleury; Edda, Sciutto; Carlos, Larralde.

2012-12-01

352

Neurocisticercose nodular calcificada com sinais de reativação / Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A neurocisticercose é uma doença caracterizada pelo envolvimento do sistema nervoso central pelo estágio larval intermediário do parasita Taenia solium. O processo de degeneração da larva e a reação inflamatória do organismo causam os sintomas clínicos. Relatamos a reativação clínica e radiológica d [...] e uma forma nodular calcificada e assintomática há mais de 20 anos. O tratamento antiparasitário mostrou boa resposta. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and r [...] adiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response.

Gustavo Nunes Medina, Coeli; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Tiengo; Afonso Carlos da, Silva; José Otávio Meyer, Fernandes; Guilherme Carlos da, Silva; Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, Silva.

2012-10-01

353

Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland. PMID:16870858

Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

2006-04-01

354

Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Bareilly, Northern India  

OpenAIRE

Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs slaughtered at makeshift houses in Bareilly, Northern India. Materials and Methods: Local makeshift slaughter houses were visited weekly in Bareilly to explore the prevalence of the porcine cysticercosis in this area. 175 pigs were screened for cysticercosis and prevalence was correlated to age, sex and breed of pigs. Results: A total of 175 pigs were examined for cysticercosis out ...

Saravanan, B. C.; Manjunathachar, H. V.; Tewari, A. K.; Gupta, S. C.; Karthik, K.; Tamilmahan, P.; Sudhakar, N. R.

2014-01-01

355

Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: Role of High Resolution Ultrasound in Diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Though the commonest site of extraintestinal infestation with Taenia solium is brain, Subcutaneous cysticercosis is fairly common in asia. The advent of high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, and a heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated soft tissue cysticerci has probably supplanted the need for surgical intervention and excision biopsy in asymptomatic subcutaneous cysts, as cysts have high rate of spontaneous resolution. OBJECTIVES: - To observe role of high reso...

Sachin Lohra; Sonia Barve; Parul Lohra; Sandeep Nanda; Navtej Nalwa; Priyanka Sharma

2014-01-01

356

Efficacy of Diverse Antiparasitic Treatments for Cysticercosis in the Pig Model  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquan...

Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Ramirez, Mercy G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

357

Doxycycline Treatment Decreases Morbidity and Mortality of Murine Neurocysticercosis : Evidence for Reduction of Apoptosis and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity  

OpenAIRE

Murine neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection transmitted through the direct ingestion of Taenia solium eggs, which differentially disrupts the barriers that protect the microenvironment of the central nervous system. Among the host factors that are involved in this response, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been recently described as important players. Doxycycline is a commonly prescribed antimicrobial drug that acts as an anti-inflammatory agent with broad inhibitory properties ag...

Alvarez, Jorge I.; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Teale, Judy M.

2009-01-01

358

Human Neurocysticercosis: Comparison of Different Diagnostic Tests Using Cerebrospinal Fluid ?  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnos...

Michelet, Lorraine; Fleury, Agne?s; Sciutto, Edda; Kendjo, Eric; Fragoso, Gladis; Paris, Luc; Bouteille, Bernard

2010-01-01

359

Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation  

OpenAIRE

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host's inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC), the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possibl...

Laura Adalid-Peralta; Asiel Arce-Sillas; Gladis Fragoso; Amp Xe Rdenas, Graciela C.; Marcos Rosetti; Didier Casanova-Hernández; Claudia Rangel-Escareño; Laura Uribe-Figueroa; Agnes Fleury; Edda Sciutto

2013-01-01

360

Neurocysticercosis, a Persisting Health Problem in Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Human neurocysticercosis is a severe parasitic disease caused by the installation of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is still deeply rooted in Latin-America, Africa and Asia, where it develops its complete life cycle promoted by poor sanitary conditions. It is also emerging in developed countries due to human migration. Although hard data on the evolution of the disease incidence in endemic countries are lacking, its presence is being obscured by the gro...

Fleury, Agne?s; Moreno Garci?a, Jael; Valdez Aguerrebere, Paulina; Sayve Dura?n, Mari?a; Becerril Rodri?guez, Paola; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2010-01-01

361

Intramuscular cysticercosis diagnosed on ultrasonography in thigh: A rare case report  

OpenAIRE

Context: Cysticercosis is an infection with the larval (cysticercus) stage of Taenia solium. It is difficult to diagnose cysticercosis on ultrasonography. Ultrasonography was done on Logiq 500 Pro machine with convex probe at 3.5 MHz frequency and diagnosed as cysticercosis with surrounding inflammation in the right vastus medialis muscle of thigh with a linear probe at 9.6 MHz frequency. In this case, we are discussing the role of high resolution sonography which helped in non-invasive diagn...

Rikki Singal; Amit Mittal; Sanjeev Gupta; Raman Gupta; Pradep Sahu; Anupama Gupta

2010-01-01

362

The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

363

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis.  

OpenAIRE

Central nervous system cysticercosis is common in countries where Taenia solium occurs in pigs and the level of hygiene and sanitation is low. The clinical presentation may include epileptic seizures, focal neurological deficits, hydrocephalus, or aseptic meningitis. The disease is frequently seen in California residents of Hispanic origin. It sometimes occurs in whites from homes that employ Hispanic cooks. Diagnosis is often difficult. Computerized tomography scan and brain biopsy are the m...

Mohammad, I. N.; Heiner, D. C.; Miller, B. L.; Goldberg, M. A.; Kagan, I. G.

1984-01-01

364

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in Neurocysticercosis.  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a parasitic infectious disease caused by Taenia solium eggs that set in the brain. Its incidence is increasing both in the developing and the developed world, as a result of low economical and hygiene levels and immigration, respectively. Clinical manifestation of disease varies from no symptoms to epilepsy, increased intra-cranial pressure, arachnoiditis and dementia. In order to evaluate function (perfusion) of affected brains, we studied 40 patients (21 females a...

Braga, Francisco Jose? H. N.; Santos, Antonio C.; Takanayagui, Oswaldo M.; Agapejev, Svetlana; Maes, A.

2002-01-01

365

The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

Rahalkar, M.D.; Shetty, D.D.; Kelkar, A.B.; Kelkar, A.A.; Kinare, A.S.; Ambardekar, S.T

2000-09-01

366

Neurocysticercosis case with tuberculoma-like epithelioid granuloma strongly suspected by serology and confirmed by mitochondrial DNA  

OpenAIRE

An Indian woman with multiple and nodular cerebral lesions presenting epithelioid granulomas was diagnosed as suspected malignant tumours and the biopsy was carried at local hospital in Japan. The specimen was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculoma. However, due to her nationality, the authors suspected it to be neurocysticercosis (NCC) and carried out serology and applied mitochondrial DNA analysis of Taenia solium. These diagnostic tools revealed it as NCC radiologically and pathologically...

Maeda, Takuya; Ito, Akira; Sako, Yasuhito; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Oyaizu, Naoki; Odawara, Takashi; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Fujii, Takeshi

2011-01-01

367

Prevalence and risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and incurs sizeable economic losses to pig production. Because data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique are scarce, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 11 villages in Angónia district, Tete province in northwestern Mozambique. Between Septembe...

Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luis; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, So?nia; Fafetine, Jose?; Willingham Iii, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

2010-01-01

368

Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surg...

Singh, Gagandeep; Chowdhary, Ashwani Kumar

2014-01-01

369

Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

2012-09-15

370

Albendazole versus Praziquantel in the Treatment of Neurocysticercosis: A Meta-analysis of Comparative Trials  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, when the larval form of the parasite lodges in the central nervous system. This disease is most commonly found among members of agricultural societies with poor sanitary conditions and economies based on breeding livestock (especially pigs) with low hygiene standards. It is a disease with long history in humans, and the usual therapeutic intervention was surgery until the development of antiparasitic cystici...

Matthaiou, Dimitrios K.; Panos, Georgios; Adamidi, Eleni S.; Falagas, Matthew E.

2008-01-01

371

Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic ...

Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

2011-01-01

372

Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 60-year-old male, presented with insidious onset, gradually progressive, burning paresthesia over the saddle area, sphincteric disturbance, impotence and paraparesis. Investigations revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the conus medullaris suggestive of neurocysticercosis . This was supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci. On treatment with steroids he showed marked improvement.

Singh N

2003-01-01

373

Kirurgisk behandling af neurocysticerkose hos et 12-årigt barn  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a case of neurocysticercosis in a 12-year old refugee from Zambia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a solitary, ring enhancing cystic lesion located subcortically in the left parietal lobe. Despite extensive diagnostic workup it was not possible to rule out alternative differential diagnoses. Serological tests for neurocysticercosis came out negative. The lesion was removed en bloc using microsurgical technique. Subsequent histological examination revealed a thick-walled cyst containing a cysticercus identifiable as a Taenia solium.

Cortnum, SØren; Knudsen, Kristine Bach

2011-01-01