WorldWideScience
1

Molecular cloning of Taenia solium genomic DNA and characterization of taeniid cestodes by DNA analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total DNAs, isolated from a range of taeniid cestodes (Taenia solium, T. saginata, T. pisiformis, T. crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. ovis, T. multiceps and T. taeniaeformis), have been subjected to restriction enzyme digestion, Southern transfer and hybridization analysis using cloned fragments of the ribosomal RNA gene of Schistosoma mansoni. Substantial inter-specific genetic differences have been revealed on the basis of characteristic hybridization patterns for each of the taeniid cestode species. Furthermore, a random genomic DNA library has been constructed in the vector plasmid pAT153 using DNA extracted from a pig isolate (Indian origin) of T. solium. A panel of taeniid cestode DNAs including DNA from Echinococcus granulosus, has been used in conjunction with hybridization and restriction enzyme analysis to identify in the library a single recombinant plasmid with a T. solium-specific insert (coded pTS10) and two recombinant plasmids with T. solium inserts having selective specificities for T. solium and T. ovis (coded pTS17) and T. solium, T. saginata, T. ovis and T. multiceps (coded pTS28). These recombinant plasmids and the cloned fragments of the ribosomal RNA gene of S. mansoni have been used in restriction endonuclease, Southern transfer and hybridization analysis to detect intra-specific genetic variation in cysticerci of T. solium from India, Mexico and Zimbabwe. In addition, pTS10 and pTS17 have been used in a simple dot-blot assay to distinguish T. solium from T. saginata. PMID:2845336

Rishi, A K; McManus, D P

1988-08-01

2

Taenia saginata and Taenia solium: reciprocal models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are of such close taxonomic relationship that each can be regarded as a model for the other. In these particular species the only available hosts are either humans or large domesticated animals. This has imposed severe safety and/or economic restrictions on the extent of the experimental work which could be attempted. Furthermore, there is a limit to the relevance of work with less closely related species such as Taenia ovis, Taenia taeniaeformis and Taenia pisiformis with their differing host species, larval forms and locations within the intermediate host tissue. However, the application of both monoclonal antibody based and modern molecular biological techniques to the T. solium and T. saginata systems does much to overcome or circumvent some of the problems. Thus advances made in the analysis, diagnosis or immuno-prophylaxis of one of these species are at least potentially both of direct and immediate or indirect benefit to the work on the other species. PMID:2488993

Harrison, L J; Parkhouse, R M

1989-01-01

3

Differential Diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium Infection by PCR  

OpenAIRE

We have designed species-specific oligonucleotides which permit the differential detection of two species of cestodes, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. The oligonucleotides contain sequences established for two previously reported, noncoding DNA fragments cloned from a genomic library of T. saginata. The first, which is T. saginata specific (fragment HDP1), is a repetitive sequence with a 53-bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1,272-bp fragment. From this sequence...

Gonza?lez, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Parkhouse, R. Michael E.; Garate, Teresa

2000-01-01

4

TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibod...

Assana, E.

2010-01-01

5

Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected ...

Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A. E.

2000-01-01

6

In vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits, sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Activated oncospheres of T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium were incubated in vitro in culture medium, test serum, and a source of complement, and oncosphere killing was assessed after 10 days of culture. In vitro oncosphere killing reflected the presence of specific antibody, and the oncosphere-killing assay typically indicated immunity to the homologous parasite that had been determined in vivo. This study describes the first reliable oncosphere-killing assays for T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium. These assays will be used for further research into the optimization of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis. PMID:16729683

Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Rolfe, Rick A; Velásquez Guzmán, Jeanette C; Farfán Salazar, Marilú J; Verástegui Pimentel, Manuela R; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilmanl, Robert H; Strugnell, Richard A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2006-04-01

7

Renewed hope for a vaccine against the intestinal adult Taenia solium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Review of experimental and observational evidence about various cestode infections of mammalian hosts revives hope for the development of an effective vaccine against adult intestinal tapeworms, the central protagonists in their transmission dynamics. As for Taenia solium, there are abundant immunological data regarding cysticercosis in humans and pigs, but information about human taeniasis is scarce. A single publication reporting protection against T. solium taeniasis by experimental primo infection and by vaccination of an experimental foster host, the immunocompetent female hamster, kindles the hope of a vaccine against the tapeworm to be used in humans, its only natural definitive host. PMID:17918361

Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Hernández, Marisela; Hernándezt, Beatríz; Goldbaum, Fernando A; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

2007-08-01

8

Nested PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Taenia solium Taeniasis?  

OpenAIRE

Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was devel...

Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H.; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P.; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Sterling, Charles R.

2008-01-01

9

Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

1999-01-01

10

State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica  

OpenAIRE

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeni...

Flisser, Ana

2013-01-01

11

Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E, Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

2014-10-01

12

Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium / Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal) y la cisticercosis en humanos y ce [...] rdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes) de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium. Abstract in english Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain i [...] nfection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

Miguel Ángel, Orrego-Solano; Carla, Cangalaya; Theodore E., Nash; Cristina, Guerra-Giraldez.

2014-12-01

13

Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Seth Oâ??Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

2012-04-20

14

The immune response in Taenia solium cysticercosis: protection and injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews current knowledge on the innate and acquired immune responses in human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis, highlighting the conditions that appear to be favourable for the survival or destruction of the parasite and for the benefit or injury to its host. PMID:18042169

Sciutto, E; Chavarria, A; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, C

2007-12-01

15

Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

Pablo Maravilla

2003-12-01

16

Immunocharacterization of Taenia solium oncosphere and metacestode antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A partial immunocharacterization of oncosphere and metacestode antigens of Taenia solium was carried out and compared to antigens from other taeniid species. The results indicated that T. solium metacestode antigen contained epitopes cross reactive with rabbit anti-sera to adult and oncospheral stages of the parasite. Oncospheres, however, consisted largely of stage specific antigens. Western blot analysis indicated that T. solium and T. pisiformis shared several oncospheral antigens; however, this was not the case with T. solium and T. hydatigena. Western blot analysis showed a time-related increase in the number of molecules recognized by antibodies to T. solium oncosphere and metacestode antigens in pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. Oncosphere specific antibodies were detected in pig sera one month after experimental infection whereas antibodies to cystic stage antigens were not present until the 3rd to 5th month post infection. Sera from neurocysticercotic patients as well as naturally infected cysticercotic pigs recognized high molecular weight antigens in the oncospheres. PMID:8960224

Garcia-Allan, C; Martínez, N; Flisser, A; Aluja, A; Allan, J C; Craig, P S

1996-12-01

17

Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand  

OpenAIRE

We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identified T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

Anantaphruti, Malinee T.; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Waikagul, Jitra; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Muennoo, Chatree; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello O.; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2007-01-01

18

Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?  

OpenAIRE

It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, ...

Conlan, Jv; Vongxay, K.; Fenwick, S.; Blacksell, Sd; Thompson, Rc

2009-01-01

19

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata: identification of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control and for epidemiological studies. The purpose of this work was to identify genetic markers that could be used to differentiate these parasites. Out of 120 oligonucleotide decamers tested in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays, 107 were shown to discriminate between the two species of Taenia. Twenty-one DNA fragments that were specific for each species of Taenia were chosen for DNA cloning and sequencing. Seven RAPD markers were converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers with two specific for T. saginata and five specific for T. solium as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis. These markers were developed as potential tools to differentiate T. solium from T. saginata in epidemiological studies. PMID:17466296

Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; Aoki, Sérgio Moraes; Garcia, José Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

2007-09-01

20

Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH show [...] ed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

Pablo, Maravilla; Aldo, Valera; Valeria, Souza; Mario, Martinez-Gordillo; Ana, Flisser.

1049-10-01

21

Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia. PMID:19717341

Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

2009-09-01

22

State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

Flisser, Ana

2013-02-01

23

Nanobodies, a promising tool for species-specific diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major helminth zoonosis in developing countries. Pigs are the intermediate hosts mediating transmission of infection. Specific assays to diagnose living cysts in pigs are lacking. The monoclonal-based antigen detection ELISA is genus-specific and cross-reactions with Taenia hydatigena hamper the use of this test to screen pigs. We, therefore, aimed to introduce nanobodies, camelid-derived single-domain antibodies specific for T. solium cysticercosis, to develo...

Deckers, N.; Saerens, D.; Kanobana, K.; Conrath, K.; Victor, B.; Wernery, U.; Vercruysse, J.; Muyldermans, S.; Dorny, P.

2009-01-01

24

Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.  

OpenAIRE

Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. ...

Chapman, A.; Vallejo, V.; Mossie, K. G.; Ortiz, D.; Agabian, N.; Flisser, A

1995-01-01

25

Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2014-01-01

26

Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

2011-12-31

27

Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or ‘recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs. It is concluded that mass-treatment can result in a short term dramatic reduction in prevalence, whereas interventions targeting interruption of the life cycle lead to long-term reduction in prevalence.

Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang

2007-01-01

28

Multiple genotypes of Taenia solium - ramifications for diagnosis, treatment and control  

OpenAIRE

Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium, isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that the two phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia f...

Ito, A.; Yamasaki, H.; Nakao, M.; Sako, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Sato, M. O.; Nakaya, K.; Margono, S. S.; Ikejima, T.; Kassuku, A. A.; Afonso, S. M. S.; Benitez Ortiz, W.; Plancarte, A.; Zoli, A.; Geerts, S.

2003-01-01

29

La taeniose/cysticercose Taenia solium dans la Menoua (Ouest-Cameroun)  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out between August 1999 and April 2000 with the objective of determining the prevalence of Taenia solium taeniasis in two village communities of Bafou and Bamendou in the Menoua division (West Cameroon). Four (0.13%) out of 3,109 faecal samples were positive for Taenia spp. eggs using the flotation technique. Three of the four worms expelled were T. solium whereas the other one was T. saginata. Two cases of cysticercosis were diagnosed in one of the families with...

Vondou, L.; Zoli, A. P.; Nguekam; Pouedet, S.; Assana, E.; Kamga Tokam, A. C.; Dorny, P.; Brandt, J.; Geerts, S.

2002-01-01

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Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: a historical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis using Taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. Results strongly support that the different versions of S3Pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. The data also support the validity of T. crassiceps murine cysticercosis as an effective tool to identify vaccine candidates against some metacestode infections. PMID:23445359

Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

2013-08-01

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The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana / Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reativida [...] de cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB)". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium Abstract in english Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the [...] Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.

Teresa, Montenegro; Robert H., Gilman; Rosa, Castillo; Victor, Tsang; Joy, Brandt; Angela, Guevara; Hernan, Sanabria; Manuela, Verastegui; Charles, Sterling; Elba, Miranda.

1994-08-01

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The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium

Teresa Montenegro

1994-08-01

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Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies.  

OpenAIRE

Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody...

Nascimento, E.; Tavares, C. A.; Lopes, J. D.

1987-01-01

34

Nanobodies, a promising tool for species-specific diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major helminth zoonosis in developing countries. Pigs are the intermediate hosts mediating transmission of infection. Specific assays to diagnose living cysts in pigs are lacking. The monoclonal-based antigen detection ELISA is genus-specific and cross-reactions with Taenia hydatigena hamper the use of this test to screen pigs. We, therefore, aimed to introduce nanobodies, camelid-derived single-domain antibodies specific for T. solium cysticercosis, to develop unambiguous tests. Nanobodies were cloned following immunization of two dromedaries with T. solium antigen and eight T. solium-specific nanobodies were selected after phage display. Their binding characteristics and potential for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis were investigated. The nanobodies do not cross-react with T. hydatigena, Taenia saginata, Taenia crassiceps or Trichinella spiralis and were categorized into four epitope-binding groups. The target protein was identified as 14kDa diagnostic glycoprotein (Ts14), but the nanobodies also reacted with other proteins of the same family. Nanobodies were tested in a sandwich ELISA with cyst fluid, and one particular nanobody detected its cognate serum antigens in a species-specific inhibition ELISA. Considering their beneficial production and stability properties, these highly specific nanobodies constitute a promising tool to diagnose cysticercosis after further improvement of the sensitivity and future assay validation. PMID:19041315

Deckers, N; Saerens, D; Kanobana, K; Conrath, K; Victor, B; Wernery, U; Vercruysse, J; Muyldermans, S; Dorny, P

2009-04-01

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Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specific...

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki; Gisele Cristina Arruda; Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius Quagliato; Qláudio Lúcio Rossi

2007-01-01

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Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

1995-05-01

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Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata  

OpenAIRE

No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A in...

Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter; Fernando Dias de Ávila Pires

2000-01-01

38

High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01). PMID:16199069

Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

2006-04-01

39

Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens  

OpenAIRE

Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27...

Salazar-anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

2012-01-01

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Efficacy and Safety of Anthelmintics Tested against Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Pigs  

OpenAIRE

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemoth...

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

41

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of eastern Zambia; a community based study  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and househo...

Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N.; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G.; Den Bossche, P.; Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabrie?l, S.

2012-01-01

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Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antipara...

Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

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TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. Chapter 3 reports the investigations that were undertaken to characterise whether the principal antibody specificities raised by TSOL18 in pigs were against linear or conformational determinants. TSOL18 was expressed in two truncated forms representing either the amino terminal portion or the carboxy terminal portion, with the two truncations overlapping in sequence by 25 amino acids. The original protein (designated TSOL18N— and the two truncations (TSOL18N—-1 and TSOL18N—-2 were used in inhibition ELISA to determine their ability to inhibit the binding of protective pig antibodies to TSOL18. TSOL18N— was shown to be capable of completely inhibiting the binding of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies to TSOL18N— in ELISA. However, neither TSOL18N—-1 nor TSOL18N—-2, either alone or combined, was capable of inhibiting any detectable amount of reactivity of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies with TSOL18N—. It is concluded that the dominant antibody specificities, and likely the host-protective specificities, of TSOL18 are conformational epitopes. Chapter 4 describes the development of an antibody detection test for the specific diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. A fraction with a major band of 14 kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid (CF of T. solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration was purified using an anion exchange column on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3 was carried out in an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3 using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense or Sarcoptes

Assana, E.

2010-01-01

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Evidence for high seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in individuals from three rural communities in Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological study was undertaken in 1998 to evaluate levels of Taenia solium cysticercosis in 3 rural Venezuelan communities. Infection with viable metacestodes was diagnosed with a trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects a secreted product of viable parasites. Anti-metacestode antibodies were assayed by ELISA using T. solium vesicular fluid as antigen. A total of 1254 sera was collected from 3 communities (Canoabo, Sanare, and Rio Tocuyo) where previous studies had suggested the presence of T. solium. Our results demonstrate an unusually high seroprevalence of cysticercosis, indicating an attendant risk of transmitting the disease to other areas. The seroprevalence of infection with viable cysts, as indicated by detection of circulating parasite antigen, was 9.1% in Canoabo, 6.1% in Sanare, and 5.7% in Rio Tocuyo. The corresponding frequency of antibodies to T. solium cyst antigens was 36.5% in Canoabo, 36.5% in Sanare, and 4% in Rio Tocuyo. As these communities are probably representative of many others in Venezuela, T. solium cysticercosis may be a significant public health problem and more work is certainly indicated. An important finding was that local knowledge of the disease and its transmission do not necessarily guarantee diminished disease prevalence, indicating a lack of appropriate vigilance towards disease control. PMID:15307416

Ferrer, Elizabeth; Cabrera, Zully; Rojas, Glenda; Lares, Maria; Vera, Andez; de Noya, Belkis Alarcon; Fernandez, Iris; Romero, Haidee Urdaneta; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Cortez, Milagros M

2003-01-01

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Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle.Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great socioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter

2000-06-01

46

Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata / Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consid [...] eradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle. Abstract in english Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great soc [...] ioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

Márcia Regina, Pfuetzenreiter; Fernando Dias de Ávila, Pires.

2000-06-01

47

Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium / Spliced leader gene cloning from expression library of Taenia solium cysticerci  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cisticercosis es una enfermedad causada por el estadio larvario (cisticerco) de Taenia solium. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se ve limitado por la disponibilidad de antígenos del parásito, donde una alternativa sería la clonación de genes codificantes de antígenos. En T. solium, al igual que en [...] otros parásitos, ocurre un mecanismo alternativo en el procesamiento de algunos ARNm, denominado trans-splicing, en el cual una pequeña molécula de ARN conocida como Spliced Leader (SL) es añadida al extremo 5´ de una molécula de pre-ARNm, formando diferentes ARNm maduros que contienen un extremo 5´ común. Debido a las limitaciones que presenta el diagnóstico, además del interés en el estudio de este mecanismo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue clonar moléculas que utilizan este procesamiento posttranscripcional. Para ello, se realizó un cribado mediante PCR a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticerco de T. solium utilizando como cebador directo TSSL-DW2 y como reverso ZAP-3´UP que hibridan con la secuencia SL y con la del vector, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron productos de ADNc de diferentes tamaños, que fueron clonados en un plásmido de mantenimiento (pGEM-Teasy). Posteriormente, mediante PCR de colonias se verificó la presencia de los insertos y se estimó su tamaño, obteniendo un total de 56 clones de tamaño variable (150-1200 pb). Este diseño permitió la identificación de genes de T. solium que utilizan el mecanismo de trans-splicing; y además de ser una estrategia fácil para clonar moléculas completas, abre camino para futuras investigaciones enfocadas en el diagnóstico de cisticercosis. Abstract in english Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus). The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing [...] of some mRNAs called trans-splicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL) is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this posttranscriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-T-easy). The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp). This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

Oswgladys, Garrido; Dayana, Requena; Carlos, Flores Angulo; Teresa, Gárate; Elizabeth, Ferrer.

2012-04-01

48

The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

OpenAIRE

Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), ...

Teresa Montenegro; Gilman, Robert H.; Rosa Castillo; Victor Tsang; Joy Brandt; Angela Guevara; Hernan Sanabria; Manuela Verastegui; Charles Sterling; Elba Miranda

1994-01-01

49

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

OpenAIRE

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immun...

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Herna?ndez, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; Lo?pez-casillas, Fernando; Herna?ndez, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

50

Determinación por medio de marcadores moleculares SSCP y RAPD de la diversidad genética en la especie Taenia solium en Colombia / DETERMINATION BY SSCP AND RAPD OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN Taenia solium ESPECIES, MAIN CAUSATIVE AGENT OF TENIOSIS AND CYSTICERCOSIS IN COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Utilizando las técnicas moleculares de SSCP y RAPD se pudo evidenciar rápida y claramente la variabilidad genética en Colombia de larvas del céstodo Taenia solium analizando fragmentos de genes de ADN mitocondrial y fragmentos aleatorios de ADN nuclear. El ADN estudiado se obtuvo de ocho aislados de [...] cisticercos de cerdo provenientes de tres departamentos de Colombia: Antioquia, Nariño y Sucre. Los fragmentos obtenidos por PCR de los genes NADH deshidrogenasa 1 (ND1) y citocromo oxidasa c subunidad I (COI) al ser denaturados y analizados en geles no denaturantes de acrilamida, mostraron al menos tres patrones diferentes por cada gen analizado, verificando que estos genes conservados mitocondriales son polimórficos en T. solium colombiana. Por otra parte, los cebadores decaméricos de RAPD produjeron patrones polimórficos, corroboraron la diversidad genética entre los diferentes aislamientos analizados Abstract in english SSCP and RAPD techniques were performed in order to detect the genetic variability of Taenia solium cestode, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. The DNA was extracted from eight different cysts isolated of pigs originated from three distant Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Nariño and [...] Sucre. Gene fragments corresponding to NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) were amplified by PCR using total DNA from individual cysts and later run on non denaturing SSCP acrylamide gels. Three different patterns were obtained by SSCP for both genes indicating that ND1 and COI mitochondrial genes are polymorphic in Colombian T. solium species. COI patterns were more polymorphic, related to the geographical origin. Furthermore, RAPD decameric primers showed a nuclear polymorphic DNA, that corroborates the genetic diversity between this isolates

MARCELA, FERNÁNDEZ; AMALIA, MUÑOZ; MAURICIO, CORREDOR.

2006-12-01

51

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania. PMID:23516650

Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

2013-01-01

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Impact of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis on the hormonal levels of free ranging boars.  

Science.gov (United States)

In chronically infected BALBc/AnN male mice, Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis induces changes in the host's sex steroids hormone that lead to their estrogenization and deandrogenization, with possible repercussions on their susceptibility to infections. Here reported are the serum steroid levels in free range cysticercotic male boars. Therefore, the possible effects of Taenia solium cysticerci over the pig steroid levels were evaluated. Herein are described the sex steroids and cortisol levels of non-cysticercotic (n=25) and cysticercotic (n=22) adult boars, as diagnosed by tongue inspection, all free-ranging in a typical village of an endemic rural area in Mexico. A significant reduction of testosterone (P=0.022) and a likely one of 17beta-estradiol (P=0.08) levels were found in the cysticercotic boars in comparison with those non-cysticercotic, whilst no significant differences in the cortisol and DHEA levels were detected. Serum levels of specific antibodies did not correlate with infection nor with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Results suggest that T. solium cysticercosis significantly affects the hormonal status of its porcine host independently of their antibody response. PMID:17716821

Peña, N; Morales, J; Morales-Montor, J; Vargas-Villavicencio, A; Fleury, A; Zarco, L; de Aluja, A S; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

2007-10-21

53

Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes / Duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a duração e viabilidade de ovos de Taenia solium no sistema digestivo do besouro Ammophorus rubripes como portador dos ovos de T. solium. Cem besouros foram distribuídos em cinco caixas de polietileno, contendo um grama de fezes bovina misturada à proglotes grávidas de T. solium [...] trituradas. Após 24 horas, cada grupo de besouros foi transferido para uma caixa limpa e, a cada três dias, cinco besouros foram dissecados para determinar a contagem e viabilidade dos ovos nos intestinos de cada besouro. Ovos de T. solium foram detectados no sistema digestivo até 39 dias (13° dia da amostragem de 20), observando-se uma redução gradativa do número e viabilidade dos ovos, até 36 dias após a infecção. A viabilidade dos ovos foi de 40% após 24 horas da infecção, com uma média de 11 ovos por cada besouro. Besouros coprófagos têm potencial para contribuírem na dispersão dos ovos de T. solium em áreas endêmicas. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglo [...] ttids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P

Luis Antonio, Gomez-Puerta; Maria Teresa, Lopez-Urbina; Hector Hugo, Garcia; Armando Emiliano, Gonzalez.

2014-03-01

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Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data on human and porcine cysticercosis were collected from 2008 to 2009 in Angonia district, and made available for burden assessment. Study subjects were 1723 persons and 661 pigs. Methods included a questionnaire survey, Ag-ELISA detection of human and porcine cysticercosis and human brain computer tomography. All data were compiled in the software for statistical analysis ‘R’. To estimate the DALYs lost due to neurocysticercosis – associated epilepsy and headache a DALY calculator was used. To estimate the total costs a cost analysis model was used. Results: Approximately 5% and 0.8% of the total population of Angonia district was estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and headache, respectively. Around two thirds of the diseased population never received any treatment. The estimates were based on reported prevalence of epilepsy and headache of 15.6% and 30.9%, respectively. Among people with reported epilepsy, 42.5% had NCC. The number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis corresponded to 35% of the total pig population. The estimated average number of DALYs lost due to NCC associated epilepsy and headache was 12.1 per thousand persons per year. The total annual costs due to T. solium cysticercosis were estimated at 1.3 million Euro of which 87% were costs linked to human cysticercosis and 13% were due to pig production losses. The annual monetary burden per case of NCC-associated epilepsy amounted at 51.0 Euro. Conclusions: Twelve DALYs per thousand persons per year and a cost of more than one million Euro per year makes T. solium cysticercosis a serious public health and agricultural threat for Angonia district.

Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas

55

ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci / Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cru [...] zadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF) e extrato total (T) de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) e de extrato de escólex (S) e de cisticercos (T) de Taenia solium (Tso). A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública. Abstract in english In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from [...] Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra) and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra), and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts) and of larvae (T-Ts). A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda, PINTO; Adelaide José, VAZ; Pedro Manuel Leal, GERMANO; Paulo Mutuko, NAKAMURA.

2000-04-01

56

ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas soluções bloqueadora e de lavagem exerceram nítida influência no desempenho do teste ELISA. Todos os antígenos revelaram bom desempenho na diferenciação entre soros positivos e negativos para cisticercose. O antígeno VF-Tcra apresentou as mais altas taxas de desempenho, seguido do T-Tcra. As taxas de desempenho para o antígeno VF-Tcra foram, respectivamente, para pontos de corte com 2sd e 3sd, de 96,0% e 80,0% para sensibilidade e de 97,5% e 100,0% para especificidade. Foi detectada reação cruzada com soros de hidatidose e de ascaridiose. Considerando o bom desempenho observado, o teste padronizado pode ser recomendado em matadouros no diagnóstico de animais suspeitos e no levantamento da ocorrência da doença nos segmentos de criação, sobretudo nos clandestinos, dando suporte às medidas de controle da cisticercose, integradas em toda a cadeia de produção da carne suína, exercendo efetiva contribuição à Saúde Pública.

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

2000-04-01

57

La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES) de [...] T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba), y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control). La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the immunochromatography assay for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) by coproantigen detection. Materials and methods: IgG anti-T. solium excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens were produced in rabbits and IgG anti-rabbit IgG, in Capra hircu [...] s "goat". A portion of the anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens was conjugated with colloidal gold. Immunochromatography was performed in nitrocellulose paper strips in which two transversal bands with capture antibodies were fixed. The first band had rabbit anti-T. solium E/S IgG antigens (test band), and the second band had goat IgG anti-rabbit IgG (control band). The assay was assessed using a pool of three culture media samples with E/S antigens from T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum and of Anisakis simplex larvae, as well a by a pool of three faecal samples from non-infected hamsters, from hamsters infected with H. nana, and from a pool comprising seven hamsters infected with T. solium. Results: Immunochromatography detected T. solium antigens in media samples with T. solium E/S antigens and in stool samples from hamsters infected with T. solium by staining of the test band. Negative results were obtained with culture media samples with E/S antigens from other helminths and in pooled stool samples from hamsters infected with H. nana as well as from non-infected animals. In all strips used the control band got stained. Conclusions: The immunocromatography assay is able to detect T. solium antigens, both in culture media and in stools from infected hamsters, but its sensitivity and specificity should be tested in human fecal samples for diagnosing Tenia infections through coproantigen detection.

Hermes, Escalante A; Obed, Huamanchay C; Kelly, Davelois A.

2001-07-01

58

Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), B [...] ahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p

Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Maria Aparecida, Souza; Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira, Pena; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Lísia Gomes Martins de, Moura; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2012-02-01

59

CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

Sri S. Margono

2012-09-01

60

Study and Ranking of Determinants of Taenia solium Infections by Classification Tree Models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

2015-01-01

61

Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

2012-02-01

62

Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.  

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Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (pPhysocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of Sarcoptes scabiei. In conclusion, IVM at a single dose of 0.3mg/kg was efficacious against ectoparasites but did not effectively cure pigs from T. solium cysticercosis or nematodes. Oxfendazole, on the other hand, killed all nematodes and muscle cysts, but did not have any effect on ectoparasites. A combination of the two drugs would be a most useful treatment option for control of pig parasitoses in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23806569

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-10-01

63

Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs  

OpenAIRE

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired...

Marcela Esquivel-vel Zquez, Carlos Larralde

2011-01-01

64

Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

2013-01-01

65

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

66

Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.  

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This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine cysticercosis. PMID:19963321

Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2010-02-26

67

Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.  

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Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

2012-04-01

68

Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.  

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Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

69

Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez, Carlos Larralde, Julio Morales, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma

2011-01-01

70

Protein and antigen diversity in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from naturally infected pigs.  

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Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

2011-01-01

71

A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.  

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We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

2012-08-01

72

Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis ( [...] NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound ) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound ) and aqueous (AJ unbound ) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista de, Oliveira; Margareth Leitao, Gennari-Cardoso; Jose Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2013-05-01

73

Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by det...

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mo?nica; Rueda, Daniel; Lo?pez, Ce?sar; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Caldero?n, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; Garci?a, He?ctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2009-01-01

74

Clonación de genes por spliced leader a partir de genotecas de expresión de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercus. The diagnosis of the disease is limited by the availability of parasite antigens; an alternative would be the cloning of gene encoding antigens. In T. solium, as in other parasites, an alternative mechanism in the processing of some mRNAs called transsplicing occurs, in which a small RNA known as Spliced Leader (SL is added to the 5´ end of pre-mRNA molecules, forming a common 5´-terminal exon of the mature mRNAs. Due to limitations for diagnosing the disease, in addition to the interest in the study of this mechanism, the aim of this work was to clone molecules that use this post-transcriptional processing. In this study we did a screening by PCR from cDNA library of T. solium cysticerci using the forward primer TSSL-DW2 and the reverse primer ZAP-3´UP that hybridize with SL and vector sequence, respectively. cDNAs of different sizes were obtained that were cloned in maintenance plasmids (pGEM-Teasy. The presence of inserts and their sizes were estimated by colony PCR, obtaining a total of 56 clones of different sizes (500-1200 bp. This design allows the identification of of T. solium genes using the trans-splicing mechanism; and besides being an easy strategy to clone complete molecules, it opens the way for future investigations on the diagnosis of cysticercosis

Oswgladys Garrido

2012-04-01

75

Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

2015-01-30

76

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

2014-06-01

77

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium) / Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultr [...] asonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina de 7 a 0.5% y de 3.6 a 0.3%, estimadas por examen de lengua y ultrasonido, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of ant [...] ibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p

Aline S, de Aluja; Raúl, Suárez-Marín; Edda, Sciutto-Conde; Julio, Morales-Soto; José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Nelly, Villalobos.

2014-06-01

78

Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

79

Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

2012-08-01

80

The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host. PMID:17674048

González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

2007-11-01

81

Purification and ultrastructural localization of surface glycoproteins of Taenia solium (Cestoda) cysticerci.  

Science.gov (United States)

A glycoprotein-enriched fraction was obtained by Concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography from a crude extract of T. solium cysticerci. The six most prominent glycoproteins with molecular sizes of 180, 103, 96, 68, 55 and 45 kDa were purified by electro-elution from polyacrylamide gel slices. Ultrastructural localization assays using hyperimmune rabbit sera to each glycoprotein, demonstrated their presence on the tegumentary surface of the bladder wall of T. solium cysticerci. Similar studies showed that the 180 kDa glycoprotein is also present on the surface of the T. solium and T. saginata adult worms, as well as in T. saginata, T. pisiformis and T. crassiceps cysticerci. The 55 kDa glycoprotein, which is one of the most abundant on the cyst surface, was found to correspond to the heavy chain of pig IgG by Western blotting. PMID:8026905

Landa, A; Merchant, M T; Willms, K; Laclette, J P

1994-04-01

82

Further evaluation of the synthetic peptide vaccine S3Pvac against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in an endemic town of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic disease frequently affecting human health and the pig industry in many developing countries. A synthetic peptide vaccine (designated S3Pvac) against porcine cysticercosis has been developed previously as an aid to interrupt transmission and has been shown to be effective. The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the vaccine under endemic field conditions. However, given the time-frame of the vaccination trial, no changes in the local levels of transmission were detectable before and after vaccination using sentinel pigs. Thus, this investigation shows the limited usefulness of single vaccination as the sole means of interrupting Taenia solium transmission in an endemic region. PMID:16948875

Sciutto, E; Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Toledo, A; Villalobos, M N; Cruz-Revilla, C; Meneses, G; Hernández, M; Díaz, A; Rodarte, L F; Acero, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Paniagua, J; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, R; De Aluja, A S; Larralde, C

2007-01-01

83

STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro  

OpenAIRE

To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quant...

Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

2011-01-01

84

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995  

OpenAIRE

Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to ...

Silveira-lacerda, Elisa?ngela Paula; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Arantes, Si?lvio Ce?sar Freitas; Costa-cruz, Julia Maria

2002-01-01

85

[Evaluation of epidemiological situation of cestode infections in Poland in the years 1997-2006 on the basis of data from san-epid stations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1997-2006, 3,523 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 2,748 were caused by Taenia saginata, 41 by T. solium, 533 by Taenia species, 20 by Hymenolepis nana, 5 by Hymenolepis diminuta, 11 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 3 by Dipylidium caninum. Moreover, 350 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 8 cases of cysticercosis were also registered. The obtained results confirmed decreasing frequency of intestinal cestodoses in Poland. PMID:21473070

Waloch, Maria; Sobolewska, Alicja; Dzbe?ski, Tadeusz H

2010-01-01

86

Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoenzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00. Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imunoenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0,95 a 1,00. O antígeno bruto de escolex poderá ser empregado na triagem sorológica enquanto a proteína de 100, 95 ou 26kDa nos testes confirmatórios dos casos positivos de NC.

Francesco Iudici Neto

2007-04-01

87

Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo / Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atza [...] coaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a) temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b) temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c) ebullición (97 ºC) de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous [...] University), Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada) and hot sausage (chorizo). Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a) room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b) temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c) boiling (97ºC) from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p

Ma Isabel, Rivera-Guerrero; Leticia, Sánchez-Rueda; Elvia, Rodríguez-Bataz; Ada Nelly, Martínez-Villalobos; José Juan, Martínez-Maya.

2004-10-01

88

Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo / Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atza [...] coaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a) temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b) temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c) ebullición (97 ºC) de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous [...] University), Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada) and hot sausage (chorizo). Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a) room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b) temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c) boiling (97ºC) from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p

Ma Isabel, Rivera-Guerrero; Leticia, Sánchez-Rueda; Elvia, Rodríguez-Bataz; Ada Nelly, Martínez-Villalobos; José Juan, Martínez-Maya.

2004-10-01

89

Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140) the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into [...] thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for antibody (Ab) detection and for antigen (Ag) detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB), using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag) or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP) as Ag, five (71%) and six (86%) animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP) allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.). The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

Andréia Bartachini, Gomes; Killarney Ataíde, Soares; Ednéia Casagrande, Bueno; Noeli Maria, Espindola; Alberto Hiroshi, Iha; Antônio Augusto Mendes, Maia; Regina Helena Saramargo, Peralta; Adelaide José, Vaz.

2007-09-01

90

Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 sho [...] wed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 %) of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 %) were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years) and in the oldest (51-60 years) group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

Luis, Escalante; Edwin C., Rowland; Malcolm R., Powell.

1995-12-01

91

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995  

OpenAIRE

Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to ...

Silveira-lacerda, Elisa?ngela Paula; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Arantes, Si?lvio Ce?sar Freitas; Costa-cruz, Julia Maria

2002-01-01

92

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and huma [...] n-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

Hector, Palafox-Fonseca; Gerardo, Zuniga; Raul Jose, Bobes; Tzipe, Govezensky; Daniel, Pinero; Laura, Texco-Martinez; Agnes, Fleury; Jefferson, Proano; Graciela, Cardenas; Marisela, Hernandez; Edda, Sciutto; Gladis, Fragoso.

2013-11-01

93

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

2013-01-01

94

Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p<0.05. After 24 hours, the lowest evagination occurred at -10ºC in spicy meat and at 37ºC in hot sausage (p<0.05. At boiling temperature there was no evagination after 10 minutes (p<0.05. In spicy meat, adding salt caused the most significant reduction; in hot sausage, thyme caused the most significant reduction (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Meat with metacestodes should not be eaten, yet, it is being sold and used to prepare spicy meats. Adding spices can hide the metacestode, thus, adequate cooking of these meat products is necessary. These meats may be consumed at least four days after its preparation and spicy meat after a minimum of four days of refrigeration.

Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

2004-10-01

95

Improvement of the synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in search of a more effective, inexpensive and manageable vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions in production costs and in the logistics of its administration are necessary for the feasibility of nationwide control programs. This review highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration. PMID:17188784

Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Morales, Julio; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Blancas, Abel; Acero, Gonzalo; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Bobes, Raul J; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Huerta, Mirna; Diaz-Orea, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; de Aluja, Aline S; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

2007-02-01

96

Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out in an antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3) using serum samples from pigs experimentally infe...

Assana, E.; Kanobana, K.; Tume, C. B.; Zoli, P. A.; Nguekam; Geerts, S.; Berkvens, D.; Dorny, P.

2007-01-01

97

Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out in an antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3) using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense and Sarcoptes scabiei, and with serum samples of rabbits hyper-immunised with metacestode cyst fluid of T. hydatigena and T. solium. Antibody titres of lightly or heavily infected pigs differed in their kinetics. However, the increase in F3-specific antibodies could not be related to the infection level. Analysis of the specificity of the F3 showed that serum samples of pigs infected with other parasites did not recognise this antigen. Cross-reaction with T. hydatigena occurred in ELISA using cyst fluid as antigen, but the F3 antigen fraction was not recognized by rabbit hyper-immune serum samples to T. hydatigena. Evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Ab-ELISA-F3 was done by a non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using 66 serum samples from Zambian village pigs. The total number of cysticerci of these pigs was determined by dissection (28 pigs harboured T. solium cysticerci and 38 were negative at dissection). In addition, 58 serum samples from Cameroonian pigs (28 pigs from cysticercosis-free farms and 30 pigs with cysticerci at tongue inspection) were used in a separate ROC analysis. The results from the ROC analysis yielded a low diagnostic value (area under ROC curve=0.48) with the sera from the Zambian pigs while a relatively high diagnostic value was obtained with the sera from Cameroonian pigs (area under ROC curve=0.78). The main factor contributing to a low diagnostic value based on the Zambian serum samples seemed to be the false-positive reactions that were likely caused by the occurrence of transient antibodies in the non-infected animals. PMID:17101161

Assana, E; Kanobana, K; Tume, C B; Zoli, P A; Nguekam; Geerts, S; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P

2007-06-01

98

Effective protection against experimental Taenia solium tapeworm infection in hamsters by primo-infection and by vaccination with recombinant or synthetic heterologous antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The disease caused by Taenia solium is progressively being recognized as a growing global threat for public human health and pig husbandry that requires the development of effective control measures. A central participant in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission network is the human carrier of the adult tapeworm because of its great potential in spreading the infection. Herein, evidence is presented that a primary infection of golden hamsters with orally administered T. solium cysticerci improved the host's resistance against a secondary infection. Likewise, previous vaccination increased the hamster's resistance. Similar high levels of protection (> 78%) were induced by systemic or oral vaccination with the S3Pvac anticysticercosis synthetic peptide vaccine or the highly immunogenic recombinant chimera based on the protective peptide KETc1 bound to Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS-KETc1). Increased resistance after primo-infection and vaccination possibly results from changes in the immune conditions prevailing in the host's intestine. The contribution to protection from the KETc1 and BLS epitopes in a chimeric vaccine is under study. Preventive vaccination of definitive hosts of T. solium against the tapeworm, the most relevant step in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission, may greatly impact the dynamics of endemic disease and has not been studied or tried previously. PMID:16995407

Cruz-Revilla, C; Toledo, A; Rosas, G; Huerta, M; Flores-Perez, I; Peña, N; Morales, J; Cisneros-Quiñones, J; Meneses, G; Díaz-Orea, A; Anciart, N; Goldbaum, F; Aluja, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

2006-08-01

99

Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

2013-02-01

100

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%), Tupaciguara (5.0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8%) and Uberlândia (4.7%). The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population. PMID:12219116

Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Arantes, Sílvio César de Freitas; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2002-01-01

101

Taenia solium metacestode immunodominant peptides recognized by IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum paired samples from patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to test if serological distinction between patients with active and inactive neurocysticercosis (NCC), could be accomplished by the recognition of immunodominant peptides in total saline antigenic extract of Taenia solium metacestodes by IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid [...] (CSF) and serum paired samples. CSF and serum samples of 10 each, active NCC patients, inactive NCC, and individuals with other neurological disorders, were used to recognize the antigenic peptides by western blot (WB). In the active NCC the 28-32 and 39-42 kDa peptides were more frequently detected in CSF than in sera (p 80 kDa) for diagnosis of NCC. The final conclusions were that the difference between active and inactive NCC may be done with the detection of peptides only in the CSF samples and that the 47-52, 64-68, and 70 kDa bands may be included as specific markers for active NCC when detected in CSF samples by WB using total saline extract of T. solium metacestode.

Ivanildes Solange da Costa, Barcelos; Leandro Pajuaba de, Moura; Vinicius Paulino da, Costa; Marcelo Simão, Ferreira; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2007-09-01

102

Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes  

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Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

Abraham Landa

2010-01-01

103

Taenia solium: the complex interactions, of biological, social, geographical and commercial factors, involved in the transmission dynamics of pig cysticercosis in highly endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

If a programme for the control of pig cysticercosis is to be effective it has to be based on good data on the local epidemiology of Taenia solium. In 2002-2003, in a cross-sectional study of pig cysticercosis in the Mexican state of Morelos, 1747 pigs that had been born and reared in rural areas of the state were checked for T. solium infection by tongue inspection. The prevalence of cysticercosis in the pigs was found to vary from 0% to 30% according to the municipality from which the pigs came. Although prevalence appeared to be unaffected by the socio-economic status of the municipality, it was relatively high in areas that lacked latrines, and in pigs that were castrated, pregnant and/or of the native (rather than an imported) breed. The results of questionnaire-based interviews with pig owners revealed that most (64.5%) of the rural pigs, whether infected or not, are slaughtered and consumed within the locality where they were reared. The other pigs are sold at low prices to organised traffickers who take the uninspected pigs to neighbouring urban areas for sale. The observed complexity in the factors affecting the transmission of T. solium to the pigs of Morelos state calls for an intervention strategy of matching complexity, initially targeted at those villages with the highest prevalences of pig cysticercosis. The road transport of pigs needs to be better regulated, and the vaccination and genetic improvement of the rural pigs, and delaying the castration of the boars, should all be considered. PMID:16492360

Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Garcia-Castella, J; Peña, N; Maza, V; Villalobos, N; Aluja, A S; Fleury, A; Fragoso, G; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E

2006-03-01

104

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995  

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Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

2002-07-01

105

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 / Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo [...] teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%), Tupaciguara (5,0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8%) e Uberlândia (4,7%). Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população. Abstract in english Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence an [...] tibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%), Tupaciguara (5.0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8%) and Uberlândia (4.7%). The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.

Elisângela de Paula, SILVEIRA-LACERDA; Eleuza Rodrigues, MACHADO; Sílvio César de Freitas, ARANTES; Julia Maria, COSTA-CRUZ.

2002-07-01

106

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

Mekonnen Sissay M

2011-06-01

107

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report. PMID:21693001

Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh

2011-01-01

108

Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:23953147

Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

2013-10-18

109

The Asian Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stag...

Gala?n-puchades, Maria Teresa; V Fuentes, Ma?rius

2000-01-01

110

Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan  

OpenAIRE

An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming tria...

Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-mei; Chung, Wen-cheng

2013-01-01

111

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asia...

Gala?n-puchades, M. Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V.

2013-01-01

112

THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES  

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Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T. saginata-\\ike worms from Taiwan and classical T.saginata, differences have been detected in DNA hybridization patterns.

John H. Cross

2012-09-01

113

Substance P signaling contributes to granuloma formation in Taenia crassiceps infection, a murine model of cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 within granulomas in T. crassiceps-infected wild type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SP-precursor (SPP) or the SP-receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1). Granuloma volumes of infected SPP- and NK1-knockout mice were reduced by 31 and 36%, respectively, compared to WT mice (P cystercercosis. PMID:20150970

Garza, Armandina; Tweardy, David J; Weinstock, Joel; Viswanathan, Balaji; Robinson, Prema

2010-01-01

114

Taenia spp.: 18S rDNA microsatellites for molecular systematic diagnosis.  

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The 18S rDNA gene of adult worms of Taenia parva found in Genetta genetta in the Iberian Peninsula and larval stages of T. pisiformis from the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the 18S rDNA gene of T. parva (1768 bp) and T. pisiformis (1760 bp) are reported for the first time (GenBank accession nos. AJ555167-AJ555168 and AJ555169-AJ555170, respectively). In 168 alignment positions microsatellites in the 18S rDNA of both taxa were detected for the first time (TGC in T. parva and TGCT in T. pisiformis) and differences in their sequences with different repetition numbers were observed. The use of nucleotide sequences of this gene in the resolution of systematic problems in cestodes is discussed with reference to the systematic status of Taenia spp. and mainly in human taeniids such as T. solium, T. saginata, and Asian human isolates of Taenia. PMID:15946391

Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Martinez, E; Valladares, B; Feliu, C

2005-06-01

115

Development of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay using two baculovirus expressed recombinant antigens for diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.  

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Taeniasis diagnosis is an important step in the control and elimination of both cysticercosis and taeniasis. We report the development of 2 serological taeniasis diagnostic tests using recombinant antigens rES33 and rES38 expressed by baculovirus in insect cells in an EITB format. In laboratory testing with defined sera from nonendemic areas, rES33 has a sensitivity of 98% (n = 167) and a specificity of 99% (n = 310) (J index: 0.97); rES38 has a sensitivity of 99% (n = 146) and a specificity of 97% (n = 275) (J index: 0.96). Independent field testing in Peru showed 97% (n = 203) of the taeniasis sera were positive with rES33, and 100% of the nontaeniasis sera (n = 272) were negative with rES33; 98% (n = 198) of taeniasis sera were positive with rES38, and 91% (n = 274) of the nontaeniasis sera were negative with rES38. Among the Peruvian sera tested, 17 of 26 Peruvian Taenia saginata sera were false positive with rES38 test. Both tests were also examined with cysticercosis sera, with a positive rate ranging from 21% to 46%. rES33 and rES38 tests offer sensitive and specific diagnosis of taeniasis and easy sample collection through finger sticks that can be used in large-scale studies. They are currently being used in cysticercosis elimination programs in Peru. PMID:17539427

Levine, Min Z; Lewis, Melissa M; Rodriquez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Khan, Azra; Lin, Sehching; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

2007-04-01

116

Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

2013-02-01

117

Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe seasonal variations in sero-prevalence of antigen ELISA positive porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. Methods A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys was carried out in Mbeya Region, Tanzania; the first two six months apart (March/April 2012 and October/November 2012) and the last eight months later (July/August 2013). Venous blood was collected from pigs in 22 villages and analysed using Ag-ELISA. Results In each survey between 800–1000 serum samples were collected. The first survey revealed a cysticercosis sero-prevalence of 15% (n = 822, 95% CI: 13-18%). The sero-prevalence had significantly increased to 24% (p < 0.001, ?2-test, n = 812, 95% CI: 21-27%) at the time of the 6 month follow-up. At 14-months the sero-prevalence had dropped to 20% (p = 0.053, ?2-test, n = 998, 95% CI: 18-23%). Overall, this was a reduction in sero-prevalence compared with a study conducted in 2007 in the same area, where 31% (186/600) of pigs were found positive. Conclusion Confined pigs did not have a lower sero-prevalence compared to free roaming pigs in any of the three surveys. Several factors may have contributed to the observed fluctuations such as African swine fever or seasonal variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of Taenia hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to beelucidated.

Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

2014-01-01

118

Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2014-07-01

119

Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological sp...

Jeon, Hyeong-kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

2013-01-01

120

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland  

Science.gov (United States)

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

121

The nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a source of phylogenetic information in the genus Taenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia. PMID:23183704

Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Li; Ni, Xingwei; Guo, Aijiang; Li, Hongmin; Zheng, Yadong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Jia, Wanzhong

2013-03-01

122

[Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes LINNE 1758) in south Sachsen-Anhalt--1: Cestodes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Between January 1993 and November 1994 a total of 1300 red foxes from the administrative districts Halle and Dessau were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes. Echinococcus multilocularis-infections were detected in only 4 of 1300 (0.3%) foxes. Furthermore the following cestodes were found: Mesocestoides spp. (54.1%), Taenia crassiceps (17.7%), Taenia polyacantha (11.9%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (0.2%), Taenia serialis (0.15%), Taenia pisiformis (0.15%), not determinable taeniids (9.2%), Dipylidium caninum (0.2%) and Hymenolepis spp. (0.08%). PMID:9445786

Pfeiffer, F; Kuschfeldt, S; Stoye, M

1997-10-01

123

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)  

OpenAIRE

The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Prog...

Toral-bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-gonzalez, Diego E.; Garcia-cortes, Ramon; Avila-ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

2011-01-01

124

Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

2013-07-01

125

Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis  

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Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP, a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 within granulomas in T. crassiceps-infected wild type (WT mice and mice deficient in SP-precursor (SPP or the SP-receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1. Granuloma volumes of infected SPP- and NK1-knockout mice were reduced by 31 and 36%, respectively, compared to WT mice (P<.05 for both and produced up to 5-fold less IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 protein. Thus, SP signaling contributes to granuloma development and proinflammatory cytokine production in T. crassiceps infection and suggests a potential role for this mediator in human cystercercosis.

Armandina Garza

2010-01-01

126

NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae. PMID:10961852

Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

1999-12-01

127

Cloning and characterization of Taenia saginata paramyosin cDNA.  

OpenAIRE

A lambdaZAP-express cDNA library of Taenia saginata metacestodes was constructed. Antibody screening yielded a clone with an insert of 3,408 bp, an open reading frame of 2,589 bp, a deduced sequence of 863 amino acid and a molecular mass of 98.89 kDa. Alignments of the predicted amino acid sequence showed identity with paramyosins from several species: 98.8% with Taenia solium, 96.3% with Echinococcus.granulosus and about 70% with Schistosoma spp. The insert was expressed and purified. A coll...

Ferrer, E.; Moyano, E.; Benitez, L.; Gonza?lez, Lm; Bryce, D.; Foster-cuevas, M.; Da?vila, I.; Corte?z, Mm; Harrison, Lj; Parkhouse, Rm; Ga?rate, T.

2003-01-01

128

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.  

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Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

1988-06-01

129

[Teniasis in a child with finding of Taenia saginata proglottids in the school environment: a case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a case of teniasis in a child, associated to the finding of Taenia proglottids in a classroom of a primary school in the area of Cuneo (Local Health Unit Cn-1, Piedmont Region, Italy). Several proglottids had been repeatedly found by cleaners on the bookbox of several schooldesks in the same classroom. Laboratory investigation was able to identify Taenia saginata proglottids and cooperation of the local Public Health Unit with the school management allowed to identify and treat the affected child. Laboratory investigation was crucial to exclude a Taenia solium infection, which should have had important public health implications. In fact, infection among humans can follow the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs and in this case larval forms in several tissues can occur (cysticercosis). Moreover the disease can be particularly severe when cysticerci invade the brain, causing seizures and hydrocephalia. PMID:19653450

Dutto, M; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

2009-01-01

130

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

2013-07-01

131

Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea  

OpenAIRE

In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed ...

Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-jong

2001-01-01

132

First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran  

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Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

2010-10-01

133

A survey of taeniid cestodes in farm dogs in mid-Wales.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1983-1988, dogs on 315 farms in Powys, mid-Wales, were purged once with arecoline acetarsol and the faecal purges were examined for cestodes. A few dogs were examined by autopsy. Ninety-seven farms had at least one infected dog, and cestodes were found in 161 of the 882 dogs examined. The ovine strain of Echinococcus granulosus was found in 41 dogs on 25 farms. Taenia hydatigena, T. pisiformis, T. multiceps, T. serialis, T. ovis and Dipylidium caninum were recovered from 85, 35, 15, 3, 19 and 29 dogs respectively. The results are compared with those of previous surveys in Powys and in other regions of Wales. PMID:1417204

Jones, A; Walters, T M

1992-04-01

134

Effective protection induced by three different versions of the porcine S3Pvac anticysticercosis vaccine against rabbit experimental Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to develop an effective and affordable oral vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis, the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine was expressed in papaya calli. Taenia pisiformis experimental rabbit cysticercosis was used as a model to compare the efficacy of the oral vaccine vs. the injectable S3Pvac-synthetic and S3Pvac-phage versions. Oral S3Pvac-papaya significantly reduced the expected number of hepatic lesions and peritoneal cysticerci to a similar extent than the injectable vaccines. This study reports for the first time an effective oral vaccine against T. pisiformis cysticercosis, possibly useful against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22349522

Betancourt, Miguel Angel; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Hernández, Marisela; Bobes, Raúl J; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Beatriz; Fragoso, Gladis; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Aguilar, Liliana; Flores-Peréz, Iván

2012-04-01

135

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic. PMID:19005142

Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2009-01-01

136

Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760

Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

2014-09-01

137

First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Serbia  

OpenAIRE

The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a ...

Kataranovski Milena; Zolotarevski Lidija; Belij Sandra; Mirkov Ivana; Stoši? Jelena; Popov Aleksandra; Kataranovski D.

2010-01-01

138

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.  

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Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

2013-04-01

139

A defined antigen for the serodiagnosis of Taenia ovis infections in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaginated scolex of Taenia ovis secretes an antigen complex into defined culture medium that has been used to develop a cestode-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We now describe an immunoblot test for antibodies to T. ovis based on the recognition of a 94-kDa antigen band in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile of T. ovis scolex secretions. The test was specific for cestode infections in dogs and was 82% sensitive for the recognition of T. ovis infections. Affinity-purified antibody uniquely recognizing this 94-kDa band was used to screen a cDNA expression library constructed utilizing mRNA from newly evaginated T. ovis scoleces. The cDNA from putative positive bacteriophage were subcloned into the plasmid pGEX and expressed as fusion proteins with schistosome glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The expressed fusion proteins were purified using glutathione-agarose beads. The recombinant parasite antigen was either eluted as a fusion protein with GST or cleaved from GST using a restriction protease. Some dog sera reacted with the GST molecule. However, the recombinant cleaved antigen from 1 clone, T. ovis 40, showed 42% sensitivity and 100% specificity for cestodes in an ELISA using test sera from dogs monospecifically infected with T. ovis and preabsorbed with bacteria. Some sera from dogs monospecifically infected with other cestode species (Taenia pisiformis, 30%; Taenia hydatigena, 30%; Echinococcus granulosus, 20%) reacted with the cloned antigen. PMID:7776128

Ralston, M J; Heath, D D

1995-06-01

140

Occurrence and biochemical characteristics of cestode lymphocyte mitogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cestodes Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. hydatigena, Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniezia expansa and Anoplocephala perfoliata all produced substances that stimulated thymidine incorporation by whole blood lymphocyte cultures. This mitogenic activity was demonstrated in metacestode cyst fluids, live protoscoleces and scoleces, parasite culture supernatants, and extracts of adult parasites. T. multiceps metacestode cyst fluid mitogen adhered to, but would not pass through, cellulose dialysis tubing. This adherence was reduced or prevented by D-glucose and by proteins. The mitogen was weakly anionic. With Sephadex G75 gel filtration, its elution volume was greatly decreased when the elution buffer contained 0.5 M D-glucose. Mitogenic activity was protease resistant and could be separated by gel filtration from all the cyst fluid proteins. PMID:3822512

Judson, D G; Dixon, J B; Skerritt, G C

1987-02-01

141

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments. PMID:21787386

Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

2011-01-01

142

Spermatological characteristics of the genus Taenia inferred from the ultrastructural study on Taenia hydatigena.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study attempts to establish the sperm ultrastructure baseline for Taenia hydatigena, which is essential for the future research on the location of specific proteins involved in spermatogenesis in this species. Thus, the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live tapeworms were obtained from an experimentally infected dog in the Department of Pathology and Public Health of the Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II of Rabat (Morocco). The spermatozoon of T. hydatigena is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, a crested body, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other interesting characteristics are the presence of a 2000 nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of T. hydatigena are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia. PMID:25320046

Miquel, Jordi; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

2015-01-01

143

Characterisation of taeniid cestode species by PCR-RFLP of ITS2 ribosomal DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven species of taeniid cestode (Echinococcus granulosus. E. multilocularis, Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis, T. pisiformis, T. multiceps and T. serialis) were characterised using a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP). The second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was amplified from various geographical isolates of each of the seven species, digested separately with four restriction endonucleases and the fragments were separated by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR-RFLP produced characteristic patterns for each taeniid species examined. No variation in RFLP patterns was observed among different isolates of E. multilocularis and the species of Taenia, but distinct intraspecific variation was detected in E. granulosus. The present study indicates the usefulness of the PCR-RFLP of ITS2 for systematic, epidemiological and diagnostic purposes. PMID:7785524

Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

1995-03-01

144

Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

2013-01-01

145

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

2014-01-01

146

Taenia saginata in Europe  

OpenAIRE

In spite of the EU directives that regulate meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis, Taenia saginata is still present in Europe and causes economic losses due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. The main reasons for this persistence include the low sensitivity of current meat inspection protocols, the dissemination and survival of eggs in the environment and cattle husbandry systems, which allow grazing on pastures and drinking from water streams. It is assu...

Dorny, P.; Praet, N.

2007-01-01

147

Scanning electron microscope and histological studies of rare triradiate forms of Taenia pisiformis from dogs in Cairo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of 5,404 domestic dogs examined for normal and abnormal Taenia pisiformis in Cairo, Egypt, one dog contained 3 triradiate specimens while 3,569 harboured one or more normal cestodes. The study revealed a ratio of one triradiate to 5,620 normal adult worms in the parasite population and a prevalence of 0.02% for the triradiate forms. Polyradiate forms are far less common in this large survey than has been indicated in previous reports. PMID:1578153

Rashed, R M; Lewis, J W; Whitfield, P J

1992-04-01

148

Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: a historical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our work of the last 25 yr was concerned with the development of a vaccine aimed to prevent porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis and was based on cross-reacting Taenia crassiceps antigens that had proved protective against experimental intraperitoneal murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis (EIMTcC). In recent times the efficacy of the vaccine has been considered in need of confirmation, and the use of EIMTcC has been questioned as a valid tool in screening for vaccine candidates among the many antigens possibly involved. A review of our work divided in 2 parts is presented at this point, the first dealing with EIMTcC and the second with porcine T. solium cysticercosis (presented in this issue). Herein, we revise our results using EIMTcC as a measure of the protective capacity of T. crassiceps complex antigen mixtures, of purified native antigens, and of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine composed by 3 protective peptides: GK-1, KETc1, and KETc12 either synthetic or recombinantly expressed and collectively or separately, by diverse delivery systems when administered at different doses and by different routes. Statistical analyses of the data lead confidently to the strong inference that S3Pvac is indeed an effective vaccine against EIMTcC via specific and non-specific mechanisms of protection. PMID:23409920

Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

2013-08-01

149

Taenia saginata in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the EU directives that regulate meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis, Taenia saginata is still present in Europe and causes economic losses due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. The main reasons for this persistence include the low sensitivity of current meat inspection protocols, the dissemination and survival of eggs in the environment and cattle husbandry systems, which allow grazing on pastures and drinking from water streams. It is assumed that water streams and surface water are potentially contaminated with T. saginata eggs. Furthermore, current wastewater management not only fails to halt, but rather contributes to the dissemination of eggs in the environment. Here, the authors discuss an integrated approach for control of this food-borne zoonosis, as well as the potential use of serological methods as a way of improving detection of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17706360

Dorny, P; Praet, N

2007-10-21

150

[Iso-osmotic regulation in cestodes from freshwater fishes].  

Science.gov (United States)

The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions was determined in cestodes Ligula intestinalis, Eubothrium rugosum, and Triaenophorus nodulosus. In freshwater fishes the total concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg ions in cestode tissue water is practically similar to that of fishes muscles and in serum. It was suggested that examined cestodes have isoosmotic regulation of the water-salt balance. PMID:7816510

Natochin, Iu V; Kuperman, B I; Shakhmatova, E I; Izvekova, G I

1994-01-01

151

Evaluation of recombinant HP6-Tsag, an 18 kDa Taenia saginata oncospheral adhesion protein, for the diagnosis of cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the objective of providing inexpensive and reproducible assays for the detection of antibodies indicating exposure to Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of the T. saginata oncosphere adhesion protein (HP6-Tsag), expressed in baculovirus (HP6-Bac) and bacteria (HP6-GST [glutathione S-transferase]), employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sera from T. saginata infected cattle, T. solium infected pigs and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically defined T. solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients. The two recombinant proteins were antigenic in all three systems, with the signal to background ratio of the HP6-Bac ELISA slightly higher than that for the HP6-GST ELISA. Assay performance in cattle was similar to previously described peptide-based ELISA assays, although NCC sample sensitivity/specificity was marginally better. The sensitivity of the HP6-Bac and HP6-GST ELISAs was close for active human NCC (77.4 and 80.6% for serum and 76.9 and 73.1% for CSF samples, respectively). In inactive human NCC, however, the sensitivity of the HP6-Bac ELISA was almost twice that of the HP6-GST ELISA. Because peptides are relatively expensive and recombinant proteins are simple and economical to produce, the latter may provide useful reagents for antibody detection in countries with endemic cysticercosis/NCC. PMID:17351832

Ferrer, Elizabeth; González, Luís Miguel; Martínez-Escribano, José Angel; González-Barderas, María Eugenia; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

2007-08-01

152

The cestodes of foxhounds and foxes in Powys, mid-Wales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cestodes were found in 129 of 875 foxhounds from 20 packs in Powys, mid-Wales, examined by purging in 1983-1988, in the following order of prevalence: Taenia hydatigena in 57 hounds (6.51%), Echinococcus granulosus in 27 (3.09%), Dipylidium caninum in 25 (2.86%), T. ovis in 14 (1.60%), T. pisiformis in 10 (1.14%), T. serialis in five (0.57%) and T. multiceps in four (0.46%). Of 197 foxes examined by autopsy, 22 harboured cestodes: two (1.02%) had E. granulosus, nine (4.57%) T. polyacantha, eight (4.06%) T. pisiformis, two (1.02%) T. serialis, one (0.51%) D. caninum and one (0.51%) Mesocestoides sp. This is the first definite report of T. polyacantha in British foxes. The results are compared with those of previous surveys in Powys and in other parts of Wales, and the reasons for changes in prevalence are discussed. PMID:1417205

Jones, A; Walters, T M

1992-04-01

153

Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in three communities in north Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the response to a serum antigen-detecting ELISA for cysticercosis and a stool coproantigen test for taeniasis in two rural communities (mountainous and coastal areas) and one group of (peri-)urban factory workers; and (2) to examine clinical features of human cysticercosis in northern Vietnam. METHODS: Villagers and factory workers and their families were informed and invited to participate in the study. Blood and faecal samples were collected from the participa...

Somers, R.; Dorny, P.; Nguyen, V. K.; Dang, T. C. T.; Goddeeris, B.; Craig, P. S.; Vercruysse, J.

2006-01-01

154

First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia  

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Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

Kataranovski Milena

2010-01-01

155

An immunoblot for detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Control measures to prevent human infections with the food-borne zoonotic helminth Taenia saginata are currently based on meat inspection, which shows rather low diagnostic sensitivity. To develop an immunoblot for detection of T. saginata-infected cattle, crude proteins of T. saginata cysts were extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. The cyst antigens showed ten protein bands ranging from 260 to 14 kDa. T. saginata cyst proteins 260, 150, 130, 67, 60, 55, 50, and 23 kDa were immunoreactive with known positive sera of T. saginata-infected cattle but cross-reacted with sera from Echinocccus granulosus-infected ruminants. By contrast, 14- and 18-kDa cyst proteins reacted specifically with T. saginata-positive sera and thus might be potential candidates for the development of a T. saginata-specific immunoassay. Proteins of E. granulosus cysts and Taenia hydatigena cysts were also extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. E. granulosus cysts revealed 11 protein bands ranging from 260 to 23 kDa. E. granulosus protein 60 kDa was immunoreactive with E. granulosus-positive sera only. The cyst of T. hydatigena showed 11 protein bands ranging from 290 to 14 kDa. The protein band 35 kDa showed cross-reaction with positive sera from both T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. A protein of 67 kDa was present in all three tested cestode species and was the major antigenic protein detected by sera of T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. Therefore, this protein represents a potential vaccine candidate against both cysticercosis and cystic echinococcosis in cattle. PMID:23483261

Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

2013-05-01

156

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

2008-08-01

157

Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.  

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The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ? 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (Pfipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections. PMID:24703071

Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

2014-04-28

158

The trypanorhynch cestode fauna of Borneo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Borneo is considered a centre for biodiversity in both the terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, information on the diversity of parasites and trypanorhynch cestodes infecting sharks and rays in particular is rather limited at present. During a large-scale study focusing on the parasite diversity of elasmobranchs from Malaysian and Indonesian Borneo a total of 520 spiral intestines of elasmobranchs were collected during seven years of extensive sampling. Trypanorhynch cestodes were discovered in 163 specimens belonging to 43 different elasmobranch species (i.e. 17 species of sharks and 26 species of rays). Overall, 50 species of trypanorhynchs were recovered from the hosts' spiral intestines, some of which represented new species and genera that have been subsequently described. Numerous new host records are added for previously described species. Of the 50 trypanorhynch species present in waters off Borneo 30 (= 60%) were recovered from rays, while 20 species (= 40%) were found in sharks. The geographical distribution of these cestode species was dominated by taxa that occur in the Indo-west Pacific (= 30%) followed by species endemic to Borneo (= 28%). Nine species (= 18%) are found both in Borneo and Australia or have a cosmopolitan distribution. The present study also assessed the host specificity for 16 species belonging to three prominent trypanorhynch genera recovered from elasmobranchs from Borneo (i.e. Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994, Prochristianella Dollfus, 1946 and Parachristianella Dollfus, 1946). Most species (= 63%) were euryxenous utilizing hosts from different orders or even classes, with only a single species (i.e. Dollfusiella imparispinis Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013) being oioxenous utilizing a single host species. The remaining species (= 31%) were mesostenoxenous utilizing different host species from a single genus. The least host specific taxa were the three representatives of Parachristianella and Prochristianella clarkeae Beveridge, 1990. PMID:25543722

Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Beveridge, Ian

2014-01-01

159

Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis / Fração hidrofóbica de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata, ao contrário da fração hidrofílica, contém marcadores imunodominantes para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose humana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando que antígenos alternativos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NC) continua sendo um desafio devido ao aumento da dificuldade em se obter parasitas de suínos naturalmente infectados, para a preparação do antígeno homólogo de Taenia solium, o objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi avaliar frações detergente (D) e aquosa (A), do extrato salino de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata para diagnóstico da NC. MÉTODOS: Bovinos, naturalmente infectados com Taenia saginata, procedentes da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram obtidos de frigoríficos e abatidos de acordo com a técnica de inspeção recomendada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal. As frações D e A foram obtidas utilizando Triton X-114 (TX-114). Amostras de soro foram obtidas de 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de NC, 45 com diagnóstico de outras doenças parasitárias e 30 de indivíduos aparentemente normais. Níveis de IgG foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Imunoblotting. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste ELISA foram 95% e 73,3%, quando utilizado o extrato salino, 95% e 82,6% para fração D, e 65% e 61,3% para a fração A, respectivamente. O ensaio Imunoblotting confirmou os resultados do teste ELISA, sendo a fração D mais eficiente que os outros extratos, observando-se que o componente 70-68kDa se comportou como imunodominante para os pacientes com NC. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados demonstraram que a fração D de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata obtida com TX-114 pode ser utilizada como fração antigênica heteróloga pelo Imunoblotting para o diagnóstico sorológico da NC humana, considerando sua habilidade para selecionar antígenos imunodominantes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

Flávia de Assunção, Gonçalves; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista, Oliveira; Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco, Rezende; José Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

2010-06-01

160

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines / Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido á desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais lev [...] emente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1) anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata) e (2) antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas). A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina. Abstract in english Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typ [...] ically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

Silvana de Cassia, Paulan; Rutilia Marisela Hernandes, Gonzales; Laura Adalid, Peralta; Josy Campanha, Vicentini-Oliveira; Germano Francisco, Biondi; Edda Sciuto, Conde; Robert Michael Evans, Parkhouse; Caris Maroni, Nunes.

2013-06-25

161

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata  

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Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido à desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais levemente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1 anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata e (2 antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas. A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina.

Silvana de Cássia Paulan

162

Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

2014-06-16

163

Macaca mulatta--a new host for Choanotaenia cestodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A juvenile Macacca mulatta that died following a peracute illness was found to be harboring about 25 mature Choanotaenia infundibulum tapeworms. These cestodes commonly infest birds, occasionally insectivores and rodents but have never been reported in nonhuman primates. PMID:7431859

Jones, N D; Brooks, D R; Harris, R L

1980-06-01

164

Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship  

OpenAIRE

Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fas...

Evaldo Nascimento

1982-01-01

165

Red and transparent brine shrimps (Artemia parthenogenetica): a comparative study of their cestode infections  

OpenAIRE

Although the red colour of brine shrimps has previously been supposed to be associated with cestode parasitism, no evidence has been provided that red and transparent brine shrimps differ in their role for cestode circulation. We compared the cestode infections in 100 red and 100 transparent Artemia parthenogenetica collected from the Odiel salt pans in Spain. Seven cestode species were recorded in red, and only four of them were recorded in transparent brine shrimps. The red brine shrimps we...

Sa?nchez, Marta I.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Nikolov, P. N.; Vasileva, G. P.; Green, Andy J.

2006-01-01

166

Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the larval tetraphyllideans and trypanorhynchs lacking evaginated tentacles and other key diagnostic features.

Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

2013-12-01

167

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:23802239

Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Gonzáles, Rutilia Marisela Hernándes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

2013-01-01

168

Anthelmintic efficacy of flubendazole paste against nematodes and cestodes in dogs and cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small dogs and cats, naturally infected with nematodes and cestodes, were used in a critical test under laboratory conditions to determine the palatability and efficacy of flubendazole as a past formulation. Subsequently, a control test in dogs was conducted under field conditions. A 4.4% past formulation was given at a dosage of 22 mg/kg of body weight once a day for 2 or 3 consecutive days. In a critical test in dogs, the efficacy against Toxocara canis was 97.4% after a 2-day administration and 100% after 3 days. Toxascaris leonina seemed to be the most susceptible worm species, since either 2 or 3 treatments were 100% active. The efficacy against Uncinaria stenocephala was 97.5% after 2 treatments; the same dose level for 3 days improved the efficacy to 100%. The efficacy was 100% for the removal of Trichuris vulpis after a daily dosage for 2 days and 96.7% after 3 days. One of 2 dogs infected with Taenia pisiformis was cleared of the infection after a 2-day treatment, and 3 of 4 dogs were cleared after a 3-day regimen. All cats were cleared of Toxocara cati after 2 or 3 days of treatment. One of 2 cats infected with Hydatigera taeniaeformis was cleared of the infection after a 2-day treatment; a 3-day treatment in 7 cats was 100% effective. The results in the laboratory test in dogs were confirmed under field conditions by a control test, based on the reduction of eggs per gram of feces count after treatment. The paste formulation was well accepted by all dogs and cats without any side effects. PMID:4083589

Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; Van der Flaes, L

1985-12-01

169

Expression of the Tpanxb1 gene from Taenia pisiformis and its potential diagnostic value by dot-ELISA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in rabbits that results in economic losses. To date, there has been limited information available on the early detection of infection by this parasite. This study describes a dot-ELISA method based on an autologous antigen annexin B1 (Tpanxb1). Its potential for serodiagnosis of rabbit cysticercosis was also evaluated. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tpanxb1 (rTpanxb1) protein could be specifically recognized by rabbit anti-sera. In serum trials, the antibodies could be detected by dot-ELISA using rTpanxb1 at 14 days post-infection. The positive response was present for up to 49 days post-infection. Based on the necropsy results of 169 rabbit samples, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-ELISA were 94.55% and 92.86%, respectively. This study provides a foundation for studying the immunological function of annexin and its application to control Taenia cestodes. PMID:24325657

Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Wu, Xuhang; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Mei; Chen, Zuqin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-04-01

170

The epidemiology of Taenia pisiformis infections in domestic dogs in Cairo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiology of Taenia pisiformis infections in domestic dogs in Cairo, Egypt. Over 5000 street dogs humanely killed in a culling programme organized by the Egyptian Ministry of the Interior in the winter of 1986 and the spring of 1987 have been utilized to examine the final host epidemiology of the cestode Taenia pisiformis in Cairo. In the winter months the prevalence of infection was 63.4% and the mean intensity 2.82 per dog: by the spring of 1987 these values had risen to 70.8% and 3.78 respectively. These parasite burdens probably represent the highest infection levels with T. pisiformis yet described from urban dog populations anywhere in the world. The dispersion of T. pisiformis within the street dog population was assessed and found to be significantly aggregated and well described by a negative binomial model of overdispersion (variance/mean ratio: 5.16, coefficient k = 0.795). A separate analysis was carried out of infection in each of 18 circumscribed regional areas of Cairo which revealed considerable area-to-area differences with mean intensities varying between 1.62 and 6.54 and prevalences between 43.3% and 91.2%. The size structure of the winter and spring worm samples were very similar with about 45% of worms less than 35 cm in length, about 35% between 35 and 59 cm, about 20% between 60 and 100 cm and less than 5% greater than 100 cm in length. The epidemiological factors which lead to high T. pisiformis infection levels in Cairo dogs have been considered and the consumption of discarded rabbit offal containing Cysticercus pisiformis by street dogs is regarded as a crucial mode of transmission. PMID:1765671

Rashed, R M; Whitfield, P J; Lewis, J W

1991-12-01

171

The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk  

OpenAIRE

Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in seven of the ESA countries. Most of the reported findings are based...

Phiri, I. K.; Ngowi, H.; Afonso, S.; Matenga, E.; Boa, M.; Mukatirwa, S.; Githigia, S.; Saimo, M.; Sikasunge, C.; Maingi, N.; Lubega, G. W.; Kassuku, A.; Michael, L.; Siziya, S.; Krecek, R. C.

2003-01-01

172

Evolution, molecular epidemiology and perspectives on the research of taeniid parasites with special emphasis on Taenia solium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human cysticercosis is known since old historical times in Greece and China; however, human infections by tapeworms have accompanied human beings for more that hundred thousand years. The disease is tightly bound to poverty and lack of hygiene, and has been eradicated in developed countries, but continues being a public health problem in developing countries of Latin-American, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is also remerging in a number of non endemic countries. It is considered a neglected disease. Here we revise a number of key scientific contributions on taeniid biology that open new avenues for more effective approaches to the control of cysticercosis. The evolution of flatworms and class Cestoda is analyzed, with special emphasis on the emergence of taeniid parasites and the colonization of the human species by tapeworms. The complex molecular host-parasite interplay in this relationship as result of co-evolution between two distantly related organisms. The relevant host and parasite's factors, in the prospect of identifying species-specific molecular markers useful in epidemiological studies carried out in endemic countries. The new possibilities arising with the characterization of the genomes for several species of tapeworms, including a deeper understanding of these organisms, as well as improved tools for diagnosis, vaccination and drug treatment. The need to revise the current control and management strategies for this tropical neglected disease. PMID:24560729

Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Fleury, Agnès; García-Varela, Martín; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Laclette, Juan P

2014-04-01

173

A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.  

OpenAIRE

We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms...

Conlan, Jv; Vongxay, K.; Khamlome, B.; Dorny, P.; Sripa, B.; Elliot, A.; Blacksell, Sd; Fenwick, S.; Thompson, Rc

2012-01-01

174

Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution. PMID:23146722

Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

2013-01-01

175

Evidence for strategic egg production in a hermaphroditic cestode.  

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The cestode Schistocephalus solidus is a simultaneous hermaphrodite that grows in 2 intermediate hosts and reproduces rapidly within a few days in the gut of a bird. Reproduction takes place by self- or cross-fertilization. Here, it was tested whether egg production differs between S. solidus that reproduce alone and those that are allowed to reproduce in pairs. Egg production in an in vitro system was found to depend on the cestodes' social situation. When kept alone, larger cestodes produced larger eggs. This was not so when kept in pairs--the difference between these 2 reproductive modes being highly significant in this respect. Further experiments revealed that, within the first 3 days, these hermaphrodites produced a larger total egg mass when kept alone than when kept in pairs. This was also reflected by the energy contents of the cestodes after this time-span: selfers had used up more energy than paired worms. Furthermore, S. solidus appeared to adjust its investment per egg depending on whether the offspring will be the result of self- or cross-fertilization. Selfers produced larger numbers of eggs, but these eggs were smaller and contained even smaller embryos per given egg size than eggs of potentially outbreeding cestodes. Selfed eggs reached lower hatching rates. Although this is to be expected from inbreeding depression it may also be an effect of the reduced maternal investment per egg. The observed phenotypic plasticity in the reproduction of S. solidus is discussed within 4 evolutionary frameworks: local mate competition adjusted for hermaphrodites, the hermaphrodite's dilemma, bet-hedging, and sib-competition. PMID:9820859

Wedekind, C; Strahm, D; Schärer, L

1998-10-01

176

Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells  

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Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

2011-01-01

177

Effects of nitroscanate on adult Taenia pisiformis in dogs with experimentally induced infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four specific-pathogen-free Beagles were each given 50 cysticerci of Taenia pisiformis that had been harvested from experimentally infected rabbits. Quantitative fecal egg counts and fecal screening for recovery of passed segments were performed on postinoculation days 56 through 70. Twenty-three of 24 dogs fed cysticerci developed patent infections. The 23 dogs with patent infections were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and treated with nitroscanate or a placebo 60 days after inoculation. Egg counts in the treated dogs had markedly decreased by the second day after treatment, and by the sixth day after treatment, segments were not found in the feces of any of the treated animals. The control dogs continued to pass eggs and segments in their feces throughout the 9 days after treatment. The dogs were euthanatized and necropsied 70 days after being inoculated. At necropsy, the mean number of scolices recovered from control dogs was 24.6, the mean number of scolices recovered from treated dogs was 0.25. Worms recovered from the control dogs were intact, gravid cestodes. Efficacy of treatment with nitroscanate at a mean dosage of 56 mg/kg of body weight was 98.9%. PMID:1835326

Bowman, D D; Lin, D S; Johnson, R C; Lynn, R C; Hepler, D I; Stansfield, D G

1991-09-01

178

On some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a systematic survey of some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy. The following eight species were recorded: Monobothrium wageneri, Cyathocephalus truncatus, Triaenophorus nodulosus (plerocercoids and adults), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, B. claviceps, Ligula intestinalis (plerocercoids), Schistocephalus sp. (plerocercoids) and Proteocephalus percae from Perca fluviatilis which is reported from freshwater fish in Italy for the first time. All the tapeworms recovered are described and figured. PMID:1339972

Scholz, T; Paggi, L; Di Cave, D; Orecchia, P

1992-12-01

179

Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship  

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Full Text Available Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obtained from rats infected 2,5 months earlier with viable eggs. The humoral immunological response of cats and rats was detected in the second week after infection and the peaks of circulating antibodies occurred in the fourth and fifth weeks, respectively.

Evaldo Nascimento

1982-09-01

180

Differential Release and Phagocytosis of Tegument Glycoconjugates in Neurocysticercosis: Implications for Immune Evasion Strategies  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by the metacestode of the helminth Taenia solium. The severity of the symptoms is associated with the intensity of the immune response. First, there is a long asymptomatic period where host immunity seems incapable of resolving the infection, followed by a chronic hypersensitivity reaction. Since little is known about the initial response to this infection, a murine model using the cestode Mesocestoides corti (syn. M...

Alvarez, Jorge I.; Rivera, Jennifer; Teale, Judy M.

2008-01-01

181

Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1?M, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the ?3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins. PMID:25523293

Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

2015-04-01

182

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

Hove, T.; Mukaratirwa, S.

2012-01-01

183

In vitro Effects of Albendazole on Raillietina echinobothrida, the Cestode of Chicken, Gallus domesticus  

OpenAIRE

Albendazole, a member of benzimidazole group of compounds, has been shown to have a broad spectrum activity against all classes of helminth parasites. Although it has also been experimentally proven to be effective against cestode infection of poultry, the actual effects of the drug are not yet described. The present in vitro study demonstrated that the commercial prescription drug Zentel® was significantly effective against adult Raillietina echinobothrida Mégnin, the major cestode parasit...

Lalchhandama, K.

2010-01-01

184

Taenia saginata: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Taenia saginata metacestode antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is a major cause of economic loss in bovine production due to meat condemnation. Chemotherapy is being used in Brazilian cattle and a diagnostic test to improve the treatment program is desired. We produced monoclonal antibodies against crude (TAEB) and cyst fluid (TAEF) Taenia saginata metacestode antigens using immunized BALB/c mice. After cell fusion, 10 TAEB and nine TAEF hybrids were selected and cloned resulting in 18 IgG(1) and 32 IgM TAEB clones, and 9 IgG(1) and 9 IgM TAEF clones. Ascites was produced and Western blot testing was performed resulting in reactivity to protein fractions of low molecular weight (<18kDa), 43, 55, 66 and 100kDa. The indirect immunofluorescence test, with one monoclonal antibody against crude and one against cyst fluid antigens, recognized antigenic fractions of both the scolex and the bladder wall of metacestodes from naturally infected bovine. PMID:20542032

Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Golim, Marjorie A; de Cássia Paulan, Silvana; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Rossi-Ferreira, Rosana; Deffune, Elenice; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

2010-12-01

185

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Science.gov (United States)

...For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis . (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus...For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (ii) Dosage . Cats 4 pounds...

2010-04-01

186

To avoid or eliminate: cestode infections in copepods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of a parasite infection is the result of the interaction between the host and the parasite. In the system we studied, there are 3 critical stages for the outcome of infection of the (intermediate) host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus, with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. During the establishment phase of the parasite, the host may firstly avoid ingesting the parasite and, secondly, may prevent the parasite from entering the body cavity and, thirdly, during the growth phase of the parasite, the host's immune system may eliminate the parasite from the body cavity. We were able to study the growth phase separately from the establishment phase. The establishment phase was influenced by characteristics of the host as well as characteristics of the parasites. Small copepods and males performed poorly; they were more often infected and had a lower survival. Parasites from different sib-groups differed in infectivity. During the growth phase some disappearance of parasites was observed. However, this could not be related to any of the studied characteristics of the host, and the sib-groups of parasites did not seem to differ in their likelihood to disappear. Instead, we suggest that disappearance of parasites, once they have entered the body cavity, may be due to intrinsic mortality of the parasites, independent of the host or the sib-group that the parasites belong to. This indicates that the crucial interactions between host and parasite determining the outcome of infection takes place in the short time-period between ingestion and penetration of the gut-wall. PMID:12003070

van der Veen, I T; Kurtz, J

2002-04-01

187

Digeneans and cestodes parasitic in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Threskiornithidae) from Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some digeneans and cestodes parasitic in a population of the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot) from Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are presented. The digeneans Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909), Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819), Ascocotyle (Leighia) hadra Ostrowski de Nuñez, 1992 and Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 from the intestine; Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi, 1803) from the cloaca; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899) from the bile ducts and the cestode Hymenolepis megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) from the cloaca, were recorded. The discovery of D. egregia, P. ovatus, A. heterolecithodes and P. nanum constitute new host and/or new geographical records. Adults of A. (L.) hadra, previously described in experimental definitive hosts, are first reported from a naturally infected bird. Hymenolepis megalops, a cestode of Anseriformes is first reported from Ciconiiformes. PMID:11104147

Digiani, M C

2000-01-01

188

Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis. PMID:23333617

Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

2013-04-01

189

Study on Human Taeniasis by Administring Anti-Taenia Drug  

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Full Text Available Mazandaran province, northern Iran, has been an area with highest prevalence of infectivity with human taeniasis during past decades. In order to assess current situation of taeniasis in the province by a method which can yield a correct estimation of infection rate, this study was performed by administrating anti-Taenia drug, during 2003-2004. A total of 417 people were randomly selected from rural areas of Mazandaran province. All of them were at first given a dose of niclosamide (2-4 500 mg tablets and bisacodile (1-3 5 mg tablets; then their 36 h stool passage was collected and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The results revealed that 2 individuals (0.5% were infected with Taenia saginata. Compared with previous decades, there is a sharp drop on human taeniasis in the study area. Infected peoples were followed up till complete treatment.

EB Kia

2005-09-01

190

Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci. PMID:18440675

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-06-01

191

Human infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years.  

OpenAIRE

A case of a 61-year-old woman with a history of infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years is described. The patients repeatedly denied eating raw or inadequately cooked beef. Despite many attempts using different taenicides during those years, the patient continued to pass tapeworm segments until niclosamide was administered. Eighteen months after treatment with niclosamide the patient remains symptom-free.

Wright, E. P.; Jain, S.

1984-01-01

192

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION  

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Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

M. B. Sonune

2012-11-01

193

/ The wild rodent akodon azarae (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) on poultry farms of central Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo informa la presencia de estrobilocercos de Taenia taeniaeformis en el roedor Akodon azarae. Un total de 289 roedores pertenecientes a las especies A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens y Mus musculus fueron capturados en granjas avícolas del centro de Argenti [...] na. Todos los roedores fueron examinados en busca de parásitos. Sólo A. azarae presentó quistes de cestodes en el hígado. Los valores de prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia media de la infestación fueron 8.33%, 2.09 y 0.17, respectivamente, y no se observó ninguna diferencia entre los sexos de los roedores infectados. Se concluye que A. azarae es susceptible de infectarse con T. taeniaeformis cuando frecuenta hábitats domésticos y peridomésticos, ya que en ambientes naturales nunca fue registrada su presencia en estos roedores. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que T. taeniaeformis mantiene tres tipos diferentes de ciclos de vida en el área estudiada: 1) un ciclo doméstico entre Rattus norvegicus y mascotas (perros y gatos), ya que R. norvegicus ha sido encontrada parasitada en las granjas; 2) otro ciclo doméstico entre A. azarae y mascotas cuando estas últimas se acercan a los alambrados de las granjas; y 3) un ciclo silvestre entre A. azarae y Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), ya que se ha observado en el área de estudio que A. azarae es predado por este felino en cuyas heces se han encontrado huevos de Taenia sp. Abstract in english This work reports strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis in the rodent Akodon azarae. A total of 289 rodents were captured on poultry farms in Central Argentina, belonging to the following species: A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Mus musculus. All rodents were e [...] xamined for parasites. Only A. azarae was parasitized with strobilocerci larvae. Prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of the infection in the liver were 8.33%, 2.09 and 0.17, respectively. No differences were observed between the sexes of the infected rodents. Since in natural environments no cysts were reported, A. azarae is susceptible to get infected with T. taeniaeformis when frequents domestic and peridomestic habitats. Taenia taeniaeformis may have three different life cycles in the studied area: 1) one domestic cycle between Rattus norvegicus and pets in the surrounding of the farms, since R. norvegicus was observed to be parasitized; 2) another domestic cycle between A. azarae and the pets when such pets come to the farm fences; and 3) a wild cycle between A. azarae and Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), since it was observed that A. azarae is preyed by this felid and their feces were found parasitized with eggs of Taenia sp. in the study area.

Mariela H, Miño; Elba J, Rojas Herrera; Juliana, Notarnicola.

2013-12-01

194

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

T. Hove

2012-05-01

195

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (f [...] leas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %), followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

S, Mukaratirwa; T, Hove.

196

Segregation and co-occurrence of larval cestodes in freshwater fishes in the Bothnian Bay, Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two autogenic (Triaenophorus crassus and T. nodulosus) and four allogenic (Diphyllobothrium latum, D. dendriticum, D. ditremum and Schistocephalus solidus) larval cestode species were found in 13 out of 31 fish species studied from the Bothnian Bay, NE Baltic. Gasterosteus aculeatus was the most heavily infected fish with 4 larval cestode species; for two of them (D. ditremum and S. solidus) the three-spined stickleback was found to be the required fish intermediate host. Among allogenic cestode species, those restricted to different definitive host species segregated their larval population in relation to the fish host, while, for example, D. ditremum and S. solidus, both maturing in fish-eating birds, had the highest percentage of co-occurrences. D. dendriticum, which had the widest range of definitive hosts, was found in the greatest number (8) of fish species and co-occurred with all other species found except T. crassus. The two autogenic species totally segregated their larval population from each other although they both require pike as definitive host. The ecological and evolutionary relationships behind the patterns found for larval cestodes are discussed. PMID:1614732

Andersen, K I; Valtonen, E T

1992-02-01

197

Field efficacy of praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired equine cestodes in Ethiopia.  

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The efficacy of an oral formulation of praziquantel (Equitape, Horse paste, Fort Dodge) in the reduction of cestode egg counts and serum antibody level against Anoplocephala perfoliata was assessed in 44 donkeys under field conditions. The donkeys were confirmed both by faecal examination and serum antibody assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to have natural infection with tapeworms. The donkeys were randomly allocated into treatment (n?=?22) and control (n?=?22) groups. The treatment group was treated with both praziquantel and ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) at a dose rate of 1 mg/kg and 200 ?g/kg, respectively while the control group was treated only with ivermectin. Faecal samples were collected before treatment (day-0) and 2, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-treatment while blood samples were collected before treatment and 8 and 16 weeks after treatment and analysed. The results of the study demonstrated that praziquantel paste was highly effective in reducing cestode eggs in donkeys and had an efficacy of more than 99 % until week 16 (day?112). No cestode egg reappearance by 16 weeks post-treatment in any animal in the treatment group was observed while donkeys in the control group continued shedding cestode eggs. The immunological assay also showed a significant reduction in serum antibody level against A. perfoliata in treated donkeys compared to the control group (p?=?0.0001). This marked decrease in serum antibody level indicates reduced risk of cestode-associated colic and other gastrointestinal disorders and clinical diseases. No adverse reactions or clinical effects were encountered in any animal within either group throughout the trial period. PMID:23001508

Getachew, A M; Innocent, G; Proudman, C J; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J; Faith, B; Love, S

2013-01-01

198

Study on Human Taeniasis by Administring Anti-Taenia Drug  

OpenAIRE

Mazandaran province, northern Iran, has been an area with highest prevalence of infectivity with human taeniasis during past decades. In order to assess current situation of taeniasis in the province by a method which can yield a correct estimation of infection rate, this study was performed by administrating anti-Taenia drug, during 2003-2004. A total of 417 people were randomly selected from rural areas of Mazandaran province. All of them were at first given a dose of niclosamide (2-4 500 m...

Eb, Kia; Masoud, J.; Yalda, A.; Mahmoudi, M.; Farahani, H.

2005-01-01

199

Comparative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia pisiformis cyst fluid antigens by hyperimmune rabbit sera.  

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Cyst fluid antigens of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T pisiformis were examined by electrophoresis using homologous and heterologous hyperimmune rabbit sera to these antigens. While arc 5 forming antibodies were identified in sera from rabbits immunised with E granulosus and T hydatigena cyst fluids, antibodies responsible for forming precipitating antigen B band were detected in rabbit antisera to E granulosus, T hydatigena and T pisiformis antigens. T hydatigena cyst fluid appears to contain antigen similar to E granulosus antigen 5 and probably antigen B while T pisiformis cyst fluid has mainly an antigen close to hydatid antigen B. PMID:1410812

Liu, D; Rickard, M D; Lightowlers, M W

1992-07-01

200

Cestode Parasites of Free-Range Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in the North-Eastern of Algeria  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out on 144 local chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus, from rural area of El-Tarf to determine the prevalence of cestode parasites in the intestinal tract of the chickens. The overall prevalence rate was 88.19%, in the El-Tarf poultry. At least one species of cestodes was found on every chicken examined. Seven species of cestodes were identified in all; they had the following prevalences: Raillietina echinobothrida (83.33%, Raillietina tetragona (68.75%, Raillietina cesticillus (29.16%, Hymenolepis carioca (12.5%, Choanotaenia infundibulum (11.8%, Davainea proglottina (11.11% and Amoebotaenia cuneata (4.16%. This study showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05 between the prevalence of cestodes in relation to age and sex.

Medjouel Ilyes

2013-01-01

201

Molecular differentiation and development of species specific primers for horse cestodes species Anoplocephala perfoliata and Paranoplocephala mamillana  

OpenAIRE

Objective and intention of this thesis were the differentiation of Europes most widely spread horse cestodes species Anoplocephala perfoliata and Paranoplocephala mamillana by means of PCR and the development of new primers. Based on proglottides of both cestodes species, a sequence of the mitochondrial DNA was amplified by platyhelminthes specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit I primer (COI primer). After sequencing, discriminate primers were constructed based on the amplifications of...

Lo?we-putzig, Christine

2010-01-01

202

Innovative fluorescence detection technique for metals in cestode egg-shells  

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Full Text Available Recent work in the field of parasitology has drawn attention to the application of parasites as pollution-accumulation indicators, particularly cestodes. A discrepancy in metal concentrations within cestode posterior and anterior tissue has led researchers to attribute this phenomenon to metals binding to the shells of their eggs. Thus, the objective of this study was to demonstrate metal presence through the implementation of fluorochromy. Tissue forms of a known metal accumulator, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, were exposed to a Phen Green FL fluorescent probe specific for metal ions and examined with a fluorescence microscope. The results have shown that metal ions bind to the egg-shells of B. acheilognathi and that fluorescence microscopy can be employed successfully to demonstrate metal accumulation in tapeworms.

R. Greenfield

2011-10-01

203

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae), Cestodes from Brazilian Waterfowl  

OpenAIRE

Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) Wolffhügel,1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758) in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion ...

Muniz-Pereira Luís C; Amato Suzana B

1998-01-01

204

Parasite-associated growth enhancement in a fish-cestode system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites impose an energetic cost upon their hosts, yet, paradoxically instances have been reported in which infection is associated with enhanced, rather than diminished, host growth rates. Field studies of these parasite effects are problematic, since the pre-infection condition of the hosts is generally unknown. Here, we describe a laboratory experiment in which the growth rate and body condition of 76 laboratory-reared three-spined stickleback fishes were examined before, during and after each fish was fed the infective stage of the parasitic cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Twenty-one of these fishes went on to become infected by the cestode. Fishes were individually housed and provided with an abundant food supply to eliminate the potentially masking effects of variable competitive ability. Infection occurred independently of fish gender, size, body condition or pre-exposure growth rate. After exposure to the cestode, infected fishes grew faster (excluding parasite weight) and maintained a similar or better body condition compared with uninfected fishes, despite developing enlarged spleens. The accelerated growth could not be explained by reduced gonadal development. This result, one of few demonstrations of parasite-associated growth enhancement in fishes, is discussed with respect to other such parasite systems. PMID:10821609

Arnott, S A; Barber, I; Huntingford, F A

2000-04-01

205

Delayed selfing in relation to the availability of a mating partner in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hermaphroditic individual that prefers to outbreed but that has the potential of selfing faces a dilemma: in the absence of a partner, should it wait for one to arrive or should it produce offspring by selfing? Recent theory on this question suggests that the evolutionary solution is to find an optimal delay of reproduction that balances the potential benefit of outcrossing and the cost of delaying the onset of reproduction. Assuming that resources retained from breeding can be reallocated to future reproduction, isolated individuals, compared with individuals with available mates, are predicted to delay their age at first reproduction to wait for future outcrossing. Here, I present empirical support for this idea with experimental data from the hermaphroditic cestode Schistocephalus solidus. I show that individuals breeding alone delay their reproduction and initially produce their eggs at a slow rate relative to cestodes breeding in pairs. This delay is partly compensated for by a later higher egg production, although singly breeding cestodes still pay a cost of overall lower egg production. PMID:15612301

Schjørring, Solveig

2004-11-01

206

Review of tapeworms of rodents in the Republic of Buryatia, with emphasis on anoplocephalid cestodes  

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Full Text Available Examination of ca. 500 rodents [Microtus spp., Myodes spp., Cricetulus barabensis (Pallas, Apodemus peninsulae Thomas] from 14 localities in the Republic of Buryatia (Russian Federation revealed a minimum of 11 cestode species representing Anoplocephaloides Baer, 1923 s. str. (1 species, Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 s. l. (5 species, Catenotaenia Janicki, 1904 (2 species, Arostrilepis Mas-Coma & Tenora, 1997 (at least 2 species and Rodentolepis Spasskii, 1954 (1 species. At least 5 of these species are previously unknown. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Buryatian Paranoplocephala-species was defined by cytochrome oxidase I (COI sequences (mtDNA. The phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the status of Parandrya Gulyaev & Chechulin, 1996 as a junior synonym of Paranoplocephala s. l.. The species diversity of anoplocephalid cestodes was significantly lower in Buryatia and North-East Siberia (6-7 species than in Europe (17 species. The connections of the anoplocephalid fauna of Buryatia seem to be closer with Beringia (North-East Siberia and Alaska than with Europe. The present study demonstrated high spatial variation (patchiness among study sites in cestodes of Buryatian rodents, with the exception of the ubiquitous Arostrilepis horrida (von Linstow, 1901-complex.

Voitto Haukisalmi

2009-04-01

207

Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

2006-07-31

208

Cestodes of the Brown-banded Bamboo Shark Chiloscyllium punctatum (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscylliidae from the Gulf of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Specimens of cestode parasites were collected from 120 brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected from Chon Buri province, in the Gulf of Thailand. All fish specimens were found to be infected with cestodes. Eight species in 4 genera of cestodes were recorded, Caulopatera pagei, Orectolobicestus tyleri, Spiniloculus mavensis, Yorkeria hilli, Y. kelleyae, Y. saliputium, Y. yubodohensis and Y. chonburiensis. In this study, 3,834 specimens of cestodes were found in C. punctatum of which 1,539 specimens (40.14 % were Yorkeria spp. O. tyleri (51.41 % with Y. chonburiensis the lowest (0.05 %. The prevalence of the cestode infection was highest in August (61.9 parasites per fish followed by October (57.9 parasites per fish and July (57.6 parasites per fish, whereas infection was lowest in February (21.6 parasites per fish. O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. hilli, Y. kelleyae and Y. yubodohensis were found in all seasons. Five species; C. pagei, O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. saliputium and Y. yubodohensis were the first records in Thailand.

Watchariya PURIVIROJKUL

2013-12-01

209

Experimental studies on the lead accumulation in the cestode Moniezia expansa (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and its final host (Ovis aries).  

Science.gov (United States)

The tapeworm Moniezia expansa and naturally infected sheep were investigated with respect to their lead accumulation. Lead-Pb(CH(3)COO)(2) was added to the distilled water and administered orally to the sheep every day for a period of 1 week. After the exposure period the sheep were killed and the metal levels were determined in the muscle, liver, kidney and blood of the sheep as well as in the cestode parasites (Moniezia expansa). The impact of an infection with the cestode Moniezia expansa and a simultaneous Pb exposure, on the concentrations of heavy metals in the host kidney, liver, muscle, blood and cestodes was studied. The concentration of lead in the cestodes was on average 458, 5 and 4-fold higher in the cestodes than in the muscle, liver and kidney of the host, respectively. Parasitised sheep accumulated significantly less lead in their tissues than their uninfected conspecifics (ANOVA test, P host's tissues and tapeworms were found to be significant (ANOVA test, P host-parasite-system sheep-Moniezia expansa appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system especially in farming (rural, agricultural) and the natural ecosystem. PMID:20213435

Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; Száková, J; Miholová, D; Kunc, P; Knízková, I; Langrová, I

2010-06-01

210

21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

...For removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and...For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (iii) Limitations. For...

2010-04-01

211

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae, Cestodes from Brazilian Waterfowl  

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Full Text Available Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781 Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829 Wolffhügel,1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758 in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed.

Luís C Muniz-Pereira

1998-11-01

212

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae), cestodes from Brazilian waterfowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) Wolffhügel, 1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758) in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed. PMID:9921301

Muniz-Pereira, L C; Amato, S B

1998-01-01

213

Multiple infections: relatedness and time between infections affect the establishment and growth of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its stickleback host.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied experimental double infections of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its stickleback host. In particular, we were interested in how two important components of the cestode's transmission success-establishment and growth within the fish host-were affected by the relatedness of the two parasites in a double exposure and by the timing of the two exposures, that is, whether they occurred simultaneously or sequentially. We found that male sticklebacks more often became infected (singly or doubly) if the two cestodes in the exposures were related, whereas female sticklebacks were more easily infected (singly or doubly) when exposed to two unrelated cestodes. Irrespective of the fish's gender, successful infections more often contained both cestodes when they were related. In sequential exposures with related as well as unrelated cestodes, the cestode in the later exposure survived better and also grew larger than the cestode from the first exposure, despite being one week younger. Our results emphasize that within-host dynamics and factors acting at this level can play an important role in determining a parasite's transmission success. PMID:16637505

Jäger, Ilonka; Schjørring, Solveig

2006-03-01

214

In vivo efficacy of the anthelmintic tribendimidine against the cestode Hymenolepis microstoma in a controlled laboratory trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tribendimidine has been registered for the treatment of human soil transmitted helminthiases in China. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans it is an agonist of L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and therefore shares its mode of action with levamisole and pyrantel. Besides its broad spectrum of nematicidal efficacy, tribendimidine is efficacious against several trematodes and has been attributed to have anti-cestodal effects. However, there are few published data available for the latter. The efficacy of tribendimidine and its nematicidal metabolite deacylated amidantel against Hymenolepis microstoma were examined for their anti-cestodal potential. Doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight deacylated amidantel and 10, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg tribendimidine were administered orally on three consecutive days to mice experimentally infected with eight cysticercoids. Necropsy was performed and the worm burdens were determined one day after the last treatment. Furthermore, levamisole was used in combination with tribendimidine (100mg/kg levamisole plus 10 and 25mg/kg tribendimidine, respectively) and alone (50 and 100mg/kg) to investigate any possible interactions of the partner compounds against cestodes. Tribendimidine showed a very high efficacy at dosages of 50mg/kg or higher. Surprisingly, deacylated amidantel led to no reduction of the worm burden in any of the treatments. Combinations of levamisole with tribendimidine did not augment the effects of tribendimidine alone and as expected levamisole alone also showed no anti-cestodal activity. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time activity of tribendimidine against a cestode in a controlled laboratory study. Due to the excellent cure rates observed here, multiple tribendimidine treatments might be considered as useful scheme for treatments of cestode, nematode and trematode infections although this would significantly increase both costs and management efforts. Moreover, the differences between tribendimidine and deacylated amidantel indicate at least a strong difference in sensitivity of H. microstoma or a strong difference in drug availability. PMID:22487754

Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Welz, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Harder, Achim

2012-08-01

215

Specificity of scolex and oncosphere antigens for the serological diagnosis of taeniid cestode infections in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Groups of dogs raised free of helminths were monospecifically infected with the common nematodes Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis. Serums from these dogs, and a group of dogs of unknown history but infected with Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum, had levels of antibody to their homologous nematode antigens readily detectable by ELISA. No cross-reactions were apparent when these serums were tested by ELISA using oncosphere antigens of Taenia hydatigena, T. pisiformis and T. ovis, scolex excretory/secretory antigens of T. hydatigena, T. pisiformis and Echinococcus granulosus or protoscolex antigen of E. granulosus. PMID:2421704

Jenkins, D J; Rickard, M D

1986-02-01

216

Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

2010-12-01

217

Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú / Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrol [...] lado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a s [...] eries of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

Hector H., Garcia; Armando E., Gonzalez; Silvia, Rodriguez; Guillermo, Gonzalvez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Víctor C.W., Tsang; Robert H., Gilman.

2010-10-01

218

Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf  

OpenAIRE

A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle.

Ogunremi, O.; Macdonald, G.; Scandrett, B.; Geerts, S.; Brandt, J.

2004-01-01

219

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)author)

220

An unusual migration of Taenia hydatigena larvae in a lamb.  

Science.gov (United States)

The liver and lungs of an four month old, female dead lamb was referred to Veterinary clinic of Shahrekord, Iran by a sheepherder due to outbreak of an unknown disease that caused four deaths in the livestock over a period of one week. Post-mortem examination of the liver showed a massive infection of Taenia hydatigena larvae. Diffuse, spiral and haemorrhagic tracts made by migrating larvae were seen throughout the liver. Large brown to red areas of haemorrhages also appeared on the liver cut surfaces. All the recovered T. hydatigena larvae from migratory canals and hepatic surfaces were all immatures. There was no mature cyst formation. No evidence of pulmonary involvement was found. Histopathological examinations of the liver revealed numerous sections of migratory tracts filled with red blood cells, fibrin and tissue debris. Sections of T. hydatigena larvae were observed at the ends of migratory canals. Hepatocellular degeneration, necrosis, fatty change and infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages were associated with these tracts. This article reports outbreak of an unusual and severe hepatitis cysticercosa with striking hepatic lesions that caused mortality in a livestock. PMID:21399607

Nourani, H; Pirali Kheirabadi, K H; Rajabi, H; Banitalebi, A

2010-12-01

221

Taenia coenurus in the orbit of a chinchilla.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-year old, male intact, captive-bred chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was presented due to progressive exophthalmos of the right eye over a 5-month period. Ophthalmic examination revealed exophthalmos with dorsal displacement of the right globe. Retropulsion was decreased and a fluctuant, subcutaneous mass could be palpated posterior and dorsal to the central aspect of the zygomatic bone. Transdermal ultrasonography revealed a fluid-filled mass consistent with a cyst located within the ventral right orbit. Computed tomography demonstrated dorsal displacement of the globe, lateral displacement of the zygomatic arch, and numerous mineral-dense foci within the lumen of the cyst. The cyst was removed en bloc by ventral transpalpebral orbitotomy. Histopathology revealed a single capsulated cyst with multiple invaginated protoscolices, characterized by a prominent scolex with refractile hooklets, suckers, and abundant calcareous corpuscles consistent with a Taenia coenurus. Exophthalmos resolved with surgical therapy and there was no evidence of recurrence or postoperative complications over a period of 2 years. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of an orbital cyst of parasitic origin in a chinchilla. PMID:17204129

Holmberg, Bradford J; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Osofsky, Anna; Tell, Lisa A

2007-01-01

222

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

2010-02-15

223

Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice / Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC) com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialme [...] nte com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals wer [...] e intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.

Hidelberto, Matos-Silva; Bruno Pereira, Reciputti; Élbio Cândido de, Paula; André Luiz, Oliveira; Vânia Beatriz Lopes, Moura; Marina Clare, Vinaud; Milton Adriano Pelli, Oliveira; Ruy de Souza, Lino-Júnior.

2012-04-01

224

Influence of Intestinal Cestodes on the Blood Picture of the Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was performed to determined the changes in the blood picture of the brown rats Rattus norvegicus naturally infected with intestinal cestodes. The results are based on the examination of 82 brown rats captured at random from Hyderabad city and its adjacent areas. Blood profiling of cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana infected male and female rats showed significantly lower values of Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb concentration, Haematocrit (Hct, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC as compared to their control (non-infected rats of both sexes. The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV value for infected male and female rats was found significantly higher than those of their control rats. A significantly higher Total Leukocyte Count (TLC in male and female infected rats was noted as against the non-infected (control rats of both sexes. The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC revealed significant increase in absolute number of each type of cell in cestode infected male and female rats. However, lymphocyte and basophil counts recorded from male infected rats were similar to the counts of their control rats. Conspicuous changes in the blood picture of cestode infected male and female rats indicate host-parasite interaction as well as the triggering of defense mechanism in the host against infection.

Nasreen Gill

2007-01-01

225

Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Cloacotaenia megalops (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae), Cestodes from Brazilian Waterfowl  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) Wolffhügel,1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758) in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are desc [...] ribed. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed.

Luís C, Muniz-Pereira; Suzana B, Amato.

1998-11-01

226

Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e-Shereen) and anticestodal effect of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction similar to 10 mg/kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40 mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested. PMID:1942479

Akhtar, M S; Riffat, S

1991-08-01

227

A glance at Taenia saginata infection, diagnosis, vaccine, biological control and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taenia saginata taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a cosmopolitan zoonosis of great medical, veterinary and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage and cattle as carrier of the larval stage of the parasite. Here we reviewed aspects concerning diagnosis, vaccine development, biological control and treatment of the disease. PMID:20701576

Silva, Claudio V; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2010-10-01

228

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangtfer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland.

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad M

2012-01-01

229

Molecular identification of Taenia specimens after long-term preservation in formalin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of Taenia tapeworm specimens in the museum collections are usually kept in a formalin fixative for permanent preservation mainly for use in morphological examinations. This study aims to improve Taenia tapeworm identification even of one preserved in formalin for a maximum of 81 years. Taenia tapeworms were collected by the parasite collection unit of the Swiss Natural History Museum and from units in Indonesia, Japan and Korea. A small amount of formalin-fixed tissue (100 mg) was crushed in liquid nitrogen and then soaked in a Tris-EDTA buffer for 3-5h. The sample was then digested in SDS and proteinase K (20 mg/ml) for 3-5h at 56 °C. After the addition of proteinase K (20mg/ml), SDS and hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB), incubation was continued for another 3h at 65 °C. A maximum yield of genomic DNA was obtained from this additional step and the quality of genomic DNA obtained with this extraction method seemed to be independent of the duration of storage time in the formalin fixative. The molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by using PCR and DNA sequences corresponding to position 80-428 of cox1 gene. T. asiatica was detected in the isolates of Indonesia, Japan and Korea. Improvements in the genomic DNA extraction method from formalin fixed museum collections will help in the molecular identification of parasites. PMID:21163367

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Eom, Keeseon S

2011-06-01

230

Sterilisation of cysticerci with gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticerci of Taenia solium and of Taenia saginata were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 0,2 - 1,4 kGy. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of nine days in T. solium and after six days in T. saginata. Some cysticerci of T. solium treated with low doses (0,2 - 0,8 kGy) evaginated 24 days after treatment but no T. saginata cysticerci evaginated after 15 days. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 0,2 - 1,2 kGy are as infective to golden hamsters as untreated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely and are excreted or digested from Day +12 onwards. Such tapeworms do not grow but are resorbed and finally consist of only a scolex. It appears that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells to divide and the cells do not recover from this treatment. Carcasses lightly infested with cysticercosis could be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to low doses (0,2 - 0,6 kGy) of gamma radiation

231

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Protection against the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps  

OpenAIRE

To determine the role of endogenous migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulation of immune response during murine cysticercosis caused by the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we analyzed the course of T. crassiceps infection in MIF?/? BALB/c mice. MIF?/? mice were highly susceptible to T. crassiceps and developed significantly higher parasite loads compared to similarly infected MIF+/+ mice. Throughout the course of infection, Taenia crassiceps soluble antigen-stimulated spleen...

Rodri?guez-sosa, Miriam; Rosas, Lucia E.; David, John R.; Bojalil, Rafael; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

2003-01-01

232

Determinants of the prevalence of the cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops in teal wintering in the French Camargue  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Eurasian teal Anas crecca (n?=?46,581) were inspected during ringing operations for the presence of the hymenolepidid cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops between 1954 and 1971 while wintering in the Camargue, Southern France. These birds become infected when ingesting seed shrimps (Ostracoda) that act as intermediate hosts, largely while on migration across Western Europe. The prevalence ranged from 4% to 14% per year and increased significantly over time. This long-...

2010-01-01

233

In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Carex baccans (Cyperaceae): ultrastructural, histochemical and biochemical alterations in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida  

OpenAIRE

The aqueous juice of the root extract of Carex baccans (Family: Cyperaceae) is used as an anthelmintic in Meghalaya, India. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the extent of ultrastructural, histochemical and biochemical alterations caused by the plant derived component(s) on Raillietina echinobothrida, a cestode parasite of domestic fowl. Live tapeworms, collected from the freshly slaughtered host, were exposed to different concentrations of the crude ethanolic root extract...

Challam, M.; Roy, B.; Tandon, V.

2012-01-01

234

Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch. PMID:25475253

Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

2014-12-01

235

Copulation order, density cues and variance in fertilization success in a cestode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous hermaphrodites maximize their fitness by optimizing their investment into male or female functions. Allocation of resources to male function (tissues, traits, and/or behaviours increasing paternity) is predicted to increase as density, and the associated level of sperm competition, increases. We tested whether the simultaneous hermaphroditic cestode Schistocephalus solidus uses cues of potential partner densities in its fish intermediate host to improve its male reproductive success in the final host. We had two worms, one originating from a multiple infection in the fish intermediate host and one from a single infection, sequentially compete to fertilize the eggs of a third worm. The fertilization rates of the two competitors nearly always differed from the 50-50 null expectation, sometimes considerably, implying there was a 'winner' in each experimental competition. However, we did not find a significant effect of density in the fish host (single vs multiple) or mating order on paternity. Additional work will be needed to identify the traits and environmental conditions that explain the high variance in male reproductive success observed in this experiment. PMID:24560286

Andreou, D; Benesh, D P

2014-06-01

236

Congruent and synchronic patterns in biogeography and speciation among seabirds, pinnipeds, and cestodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congruence in biogeographic patterns among diverse assemblages of taxa indicates uniformity in the historical determinants of biotic distributions. Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies and the elucidation of distributional area relationships are requisite components of analyses in historical biogeography. Host-parasite associations with broad geographic ranges are often archaic and have been structured largely by coevolutionary processes. In contrast, the origins and radiation of the primary cestode faunas of some seabirds (Alcataenia spp./Alcidae) and pinnipeds (Anophryocephalus spp./Phocidae and Otariidae) are associated with colonization. These young colonizing faunas, in the Holarctic Region, were influenced by a common history during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. Periodic range contraction, with isolation in refugial centers, and subsequent expansion into postglacial habitats for hosts and parasites coincided with the cyclic pattern of stadials and interstadials. During the past 2-3 million years following colonization, these dramatic climatic fluctuations strongly influenced the continuity of ecological associations in marine habitats and appear to have been the determinants of congruent and synchronic patterns of speciation among these disparate taxa of marine homeotherms and eucestodes. PMID:1635019

Hoberg, E P

1992-08-01

237

Purification and characterization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Raillietina echinobothrida, a cestode parasite of the domestic fowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, EC 4.1.1.32) is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in helminths in contrast to its role in gluconeogenesis in their host. Previously we have reported that phytochemicals from Flemingia vestita (Family: Fabaceae), genistein in particular, have vermifugal action and are known to affect carbohydrate metabolism in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. In order to determine the functional differences of PEPCK from the parasite and its avian host (Gallus domesticus), we purified the parasite enzyme apparently to homogeneity, and characterized it. The native PEPCK is a monomer with a subunit molecular weight of 65 kDa. The purified enzyme displayed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km value of 42·52 ?M for its substrate PEP. The Ki for the competitive inhibitors GTP, GMP, ITP and IMP for the carboxylation reaction were determined and discussed. In order to identify putative modulators from plant sources, phytochemicals from F. vestita and Stephania glabra were tested on the purified PEPCK, which resulted in alteration of its activity. From our results, we hypothesize that PEPCK may be a potential target site for anthelmintic action. PMID:22906884

Das, B; Tandon, V; Saxena, J K; Joshi, S; Singh, A R

2013-01-01

238

Cerebral coenurosis in a cat caused by Taenia serialis: neurological, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features.  

Science.gov (United States)

CLINICAL SUMMARY: A 4-year-old Birman cat was presented with marked obtundation and non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Two well-demarcated, intra-axial T2-hyperintense, T1-hypointense structures, which did not contrast enhance, were evident on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histopathology of the structures revealed metacestodes that were morphologically indicative of larval stages of Taenia species. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fragment within the 12S rRNA gene confirmed the subspecies as Taenia serialis. PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of MRI findings of cerebral coenurosis caused by T serialis in a cat. Early MRI should be considered an important part of the diagnostic work-up for this rare clinical disease, as it will help guide subsequent treatment and may improve the prognosis. PMID:22918847

Jull, Philip; Browne, Elizabeth; Boufana, Belgees S; Schöniger, Sandra; Davies, Emma

2012-09-01

239

Verapamil does not block the spastic response of Praziquantel on the larvae of Taenia pisiformis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes that the previous addition of Verapamil does not block the spastic response to Praziquantel (Pz) in larvae of Taenia pisiformis kept in vitro, where opposite results were found in the literature using mammalian tissue. It is possible that Pz stimulates other Ca++ transport channels not sensitive to Verapamil action and promotes Ca++ liberation from calcareous corpuscles stimulating phospholipase C of the tegument surface generating inositol triphosphate. These hypotheses require experimental approaches to define the exact mechanism of action. PMID:1308797

Martínez Zedillo, G; Hoyo Badillo, C; Amezcua, J; González Barranco, D

1992-01-01

240

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Differentiation and Rapid Detection of Taenia Species?  

OpenAIRE

Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infe...

Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2009-01-01

241

Sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Belgian cattle  

OpenAIRE

A sero-epidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence of the infection in cattle presented for slaughter in Belgium. Between November 1997 and June 1998, a total of 1164 serum samples were collected in 20 export abattoirs. Meat inspection was routinely carried out by veterinary inspectors. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). Thi...

Dorny, P.; Vercammen, F.; Brandt, J.; Vansteenkiste, W.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.

2000-01-01

242

Validation of meat inspection results for Taenia saginata cysticercosis by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism  

OpenAIRE

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Infected cattle is an important food safety issue besides an economic concern. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat containing viable cysticerci. Visual meat inspection of bovines is the only public health measure implemented to control transmission to humans, but it lacks sensitivity and objectivity. It may underestimate the prevalence of the disease by a factor...

Geysen, D.; Kanobana, K.; Victor, B.; Rodri?guez-hidalgo, R.; Borchgrave, J.; Brandt, J.; Dorny, P.

2007-01-01

243

Results of an artificial feeding of eggs of Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782 to various beetle species.  

Science.gov (United States)

We confirmed in experiments with four beetle species--Carabus granulatus L., Pterostichus vulgaris (L.), Aphodius fimetarius (L.) and A. luridus (L.)--that these can carry and disseminate eggs of Taenia saginata. The eggs pass the digestive tract of these beetle species. Difficulties in entering the digestive tube proper have been explained by the presence of filtrating and triturating organs in the mouth parts of the beetles. PMID:568099

Bílý, S; St?rba, J; Dyková, I

1978-01-01

244

Expression and motor functional roles of voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) channels in the human taenia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels modulate the excitability of neurons and muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the motor effects of KV7 channel modulators and the expression of KV7 channels in the human taenia coli. The effects of KV7 channel modulators on the muscle tone of human taenia coli strips were investigated under nonadrenergic non-nitrergic conditions by organ bath studies. Gene expression and tissue localisation of channels were studied by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Under basal conditions, the KV7 channel blocker XE-991 induced concentration-dependent contractions, with mean EC50 and Emax of 18.7 ?M and 30.5% respectively of the maximal bethanechol-induced contraction, respectively. The KV7 channel activators retigabine and flupirtine concentration-dependently relaxed the taenia coli, with mean EC50s of 19.2 ?M and 29.9 ?M, respectively. Retigabine also relaxed bethanechol-precontracted strips, with maximal relaxations of 79.2% of the bethanecol-induced precontraction. The motor effects induced by the KV7 channel modulators were not affected by tetrodotoxin or ?-conotoxin GVIA. XE-991 greatly reduced retigabine- and flupirtine-induced relaxations. Transcripts encoded by all KCNQ genes were detected in the taenia coli, with KCNQ4 showing the highest expression levels. KV7.4 channels were clearly visualised by immunohistochemistry in colonic epithelium, circular muscle layer and taenia coli. KV7 channels appear to contribute to the resting muscle tone of the human taenia coli. In addition, KV7 channel activators significantly relax the taenia coli. Thus, they could be useful therapeutic relaxant agents for colonic motor disorders. PMID:24120659

Adduci, Alice; Martire, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Arena, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Gianluca; Coco, Claudio; Currò, Diego

2013-12-01

245

Scolex morphology of monozoic cestodes (Caryophyllidea) from the Palaearctic Region: a useful tool for species identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study of the scoleces of caryophyllidean tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasitic in cypriniform fishes in the Palaearctic Region, was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. Three-dimensional pictures of the scoleces of 18 species of caryophyllidean cestodes of the Capingentidae (1 species), Caryophyllaeidae (7) and Lytocestidae (10), and outlines of the scoleces and anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles of 19 Palaearctic taxa were documented. Both species of Atractolytocestus Anthony, 1957 possess a bulboacuminate scolex, whereas species of Archigetes Leuckart, 1876 have fossate scoleces of the bothrioloculodiscate type, with loculi, bothrium-like depressions and an apical disc. Breviscolex orientalis Kulakovskaya, 1962, the only member of the Capingentidae, has a cuneiform scolex, as do both taxa of the lytocestid genus Caryophyllaeides Nybelin, 1922. The scoleces of two species of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 are flabellate, whereas that of the congeneric C. fimbriceps Annenkova-Chlopina, 1919 is cuneicrispitate. Khawia Hsü, 1935, the most specious Palaearctic genus, with seven taxa that we consider to be valid, has the highest diversity in scolex morphology: semi-bulbate, flabellate, cuneiform, cuneifimbriate, truncated cuneiform-flabellate and festoon-like. Species of Monobothrium Nybelin, 1922 have either a digitiform scolex with widened posterior part or cuneiform, with lateral auricular extensions. Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi (Motomura, 1927) is characteristic in its possessing a bulbate scolex, whereas Paraglaridacris limnodrili (Yamaguti, 1934) has a fossate scolex of the bulboloculate type with bothrium-like depressions and feebly developed lateral loculi. Anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles and their mutual position show a somewhat higher variability than scolex shape, with intraspecific variation in some taxa, such as Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya et Akhmerov, 1965), B. orientalis, Khawia armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915) and K. sinensis Hsii, 1935. Based on scolex morphology and relative position of the anterior testes and vitelline follicles, a key is provided to facilitate the routine identification of 20 Palaearctic caryophyllidean taxa. PMID:20449998

Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Mackiewicz, John S

2010-03-01

246

Epidemiological studies on equine cestodes in central Spain: infection pattern and population dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological study on equine cestodosis was carried out in central Spain. A total of 372 digestive tracts from equids slaughtered in abattoirs located in central Spain were studied from November 2001 to May 2004. Anoplocephala perfoliata was detected in 24% of the animals and Anoplocephala magna in 18%. Individual tapeworm burden was from 1 to 491 tapeworms for A. perfoliata and from 1 to 64 tapeworms for A. magna. Low tapeworm burdens (less than 30 cestodes) predominated significantly (pperfoliata was significantly higher (pperfoliata infection was detected in three different periods throughout the 3 year study: autumn 2001-winter 2002, summer 2002-spring 2003 and autumn 2003-spring 2004. This epidemiological pattern seems to describe the dependence of A. perfoliata to humidity in warm dry climate. In our conditions, A. perfoliata appears to follow a pattern of having only one generation per year, with a marked dependence on humidity. According to the results, autumn rainfall would influence the length, and late spring rainfall the appearance, of each annual generation. A. magna showed a different pattern. Infection was detected throughout the whole study period. Seasonal prevalence was higher in autumn (25.5%) than in winter (14.9%), spring (12.1%) and summer (10.5%), but the differences were not statistically significant. Non-gravid A. magna tapeworms could be detected almost throughout the year but percentages were significantly higher (p<0.01) in autumn (50.2%), indicating recent ingestion, than in the other seasons (30% in summer, 12.8% in winter and 0% in spring). However, data from spring were not enough to discard the season as a risk period for A. magna infection. PMID:15908124

Meana, Aránzazu; Pato, Nélida F; Martín, Raquel; Mateos, Aránzazu; Pérez-García, Jorge; Luzón, Mónica

2005-06-30

247

Two cestode species in Brazilian turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae): pathology induced by Hymenolepis cantaniana and occurrence of Raillietina tetragona  

OpenAIRE

The pathology induced in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) by one cestode species Hymenolepis cantaniana is described together with data on prevalence, mean infection and range of worm burdens. H. cantaniana occurred with a prevalence of 5.0 % in the 40 examined hosts in a range of 14-21 specimens and a mean intensity of 17.5. Gross lesions were not observed in the parasitized birds. Lesions due to H cantaniana mainly consisted of multiple segments of parasites, together with a mild mixed inflamm...

ROBERTO MAGALHÃES PINTO; BEATRIZ BRENER; RODRIGO CALDAS MENEZES; ROGÉRIO TORTELLY

2008-01-01

248

Reduction of egg size in natural populations of threespine stickleback infected with a cestode macroparasite.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manifestations of infectious disease may represent host adaptations to avoid or reduce the effects of infection on host fitness, parasite manipulations that benefit the pathogen's fitness, or nonadaptive side effects of parasitism. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Alaska and the cestode macroparasite Schistocephalus solidus provide an excellent system for study of the effects of parasitism on host egg size because females in populations there are capable of producing clutches of eggs in the face of substantial infection, contrary to the inhibition of reproduction that has been observed in other stickleback populations or other species of fish. A side effect resulting in reduction of mean ovummass among infected females was predicted based on the egg production process in female stickleback, the considerable energy and resource demands of S. solidus, and the chronic and progressive nature of the effects the macroparasite should have on the host fish. In each of 9 populations of G. aculeatus representing replicate natural experiments in lakes scattered across the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula of south-central Alaska and among all populations combined, the mean ovum mass of infected female fish is significantly reduced in comparison with that of uninfected females taken from the same population at the same time. Reduction in mean female egg mass ranged from 8 to 32% across all populations. To examine whether reduction in mean female ovum mass was a nonadaptive side effect or an adaptation, relatively large data sets from 2 of the populations were used. Mean ovum mass of infected females was predicted to decrease directly in relation to parasite index (PI) if the diminution in mean egg mass were the result of a nonadaptive side effect resulting from host nutrient loss. Alternatively, the absence of a relationship between PI and reduction in ovum mass is predicted if decreases in mean female ovum mass result from host or parasite adaptation (or both) because lightly infected hosts should show a response similar to that of heavily infected ones. In each of the 2 populations, there is a significant, negative relationship between mean female ovum mass and PI, demonstrating a correlation between the decrease in ovum mass and the level of infection. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reductions in mean female egg mass represent side effects of parasitism involving nutrient theft. Moreover, the proportional decline in egg mass with increasing PI apparently differed between the 2 populations, and there was no significant relationship between mean percent decrease in mean female ovum mass and mean PI across populations. These observations suggest that unknown ecological and evolutionary factors influence the degree of reduction in mean ovum mass in a population-specific manner. PMID:12659295

Heins, David C; Baker, John A

2003-02-01

249

Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea.  

Science.gov (United States)

When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements. PMID:20064654

Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Hoitinga, Leo; Kraak, Michiel H S

2010-03-01

250

Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

251

Metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobolaargentea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determine the effect of the parasites on the metal balance of the fish. To this purpose the host-parasite assemblage was analysed for several metals at sites in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria differing in metal contamination. Our results showed that some elements (Ca, Sr, and Mg) reflected the physiological differences of bone formation and ionic balance and pointed to physiological disturbances of infested R. argentea. Other essential metals including Cu and Co were subject of element competition between fish and parasite, while only a micro-element (Cr) and a non-essential metal (Cd) displayed a partitioning with high concentration in the parasite. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of the large cestodes on their small fish hosts and it is concluded that the partitioning of metals in the assemblage of R. argentea and L. intestinalis is subject to metal specific mechanisms for essential and non-essential elements.

Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM (Netherlands); Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM (Netherlands); Osano, Odipo [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Hoitinga, Leo [Department of Earth Surface Process and Materials, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kraak, Michiel H.S., E-mail: M.H.S.Kraak@uva.nl [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya)

2010-03-01

252

The rise and fall of an epizootic of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus pungitii infecting the ninespine stickleback.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epizootics of diphyllobothriidean cestodes appear to be simple, but deceptive similarity conceals the myriad ways in which these events are shaped by complex abiotic and biotic interactions. In Dog Bone Lake, Alaska, an epizootic of Schistocephalus pungitii infecting the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) was short-lived. Its duration, with a peak that lasted only 1 yr, was shorter than for previously documented epizootics in Schistocephalus solidus . The ability of the ninespine stickleback to sustain infections, which appears to be related to species-specific characteristics of the host, may have played an important role in shaping the epizootic. Moreover, the epizootic of S. pungitii was not coincident with those observed for S. solidus in earlier studies within this region, supporting the hypothesis that processes involved in epizootics largely reflect local (lake-level) influences on population dynamics of the parasite. The outbreak occurred at a time when the host population was not relatively dense, which is inconsistent with epidemiological theory and may be a consequence of the parasite's indirect life cycle. The variability of the unregulated and unstable epizootic events of diphyllobothriidean cestodes presents a challenge to understand the ecological and evolutionary factors influencing the prevalence of infections in host populations. PMID:21895527

Heins, David C; Ecke, Johanna K

2012-02-01

253

Molecular identification of Taenia serialis coenurosis in a wild Ethiopian gelada (Theropithecus gelada).  

Science.gov (United States)

Since morphological identification of a larval Taeniid in geladas (Theropithecus gelada) has produced inconsistent results, genetic information is pivotal for species identification. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a coenurus in a wild gelada were compared to published sequences from multiple Taeniid species, confirming the identification of this parasite as Taenia serialis. A demographic analysis finds age to be a strong predictor of coenuri. Tapeworms rarely employ primates as intermediate hosts, and the presence of T. serialis in a wild gelada population may indicate a substantial ecological shift in this parasite's life cycle. PMID:24050944

Schneider-Crease, India A; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Jarvey, Julie C; Bergman, Thore J

2013-11-15

254

Coproantigen detection for immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and taeniasis in dogs and humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three ELISA assays, based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of Taenia- and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen extract, was used in a time-course of T. pisiformis experimental infection in dogs. The assay was shown to be considerably more sensitive than microscopical detection of eggs in faeces. Antigen was present in faeces before patency and antigen levels were independent of T. pisiformis egg output. The second assay, involving a test for human taeniasis based on antibodies against T. solium, was applied in two field studies carried out in China and Guatemala. The test was highly specific, no false positive reactions occurred with human faecal samples and the test was capable of diagnosing individuals who would not have been detected by coproscopy or treatment to recover the tapeworm. A third assay was designed for E. granulosus and demonstrated 87.5% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity with samples from naturally and experimentally infected dogs with Echinococcus or Taenia infections. In both the human Taenia and canine Echinococcus studies antigen could be detected in faecal samples from infected hosts stored in 5% formalin for 6 months. Further refinements to these tests for field application are discussed. PMID:1594298

Allan, J C; Craig, P S; Garcia Noval, J; Mencos, F; Liu, D; Wang, Y; Wen, H; Zhou, P; Stringer, R; Rogan, M

1992-04-01

255

Cestóides proteocefalídeos de "cachara", Pseudoplatystoma fasciatus (L. (Pisces, Pimelodidae de Mato Grosso Proteocephalid cestodes from Pseudoplatystoma fasciatus (L. (Pisces, Pimelodidae from Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The author describes three species of protcocephalid cestodes from the Pimelodid fish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatus (L. from rivers of Mato Grosso, Brazil: Nomimoscolex lopesi sp. n., Peltidocotyle rugosa Diesing, 1850 and Spatulifer rugosa (Woodland, 1935. P. rugosa is for the first time referred in this fish species. One hyperparasite nematode specimen was found in a strobila of S. rugosa.

A. Arandas Rêgo

1989-01-01

256

Effect of leukotriene C4 on electromechanical activity and Ca2+ uptake in taenia coli  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actions of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) on electromechanical activity and 45Ca2+ uptake in guinea pig taenia coli were investigated. The contractile action of LTC4 was abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. LTC4 concentrations eliciting a maximal contraction in normal medium produced no response in preparations depolarized with KCl. In single sucrose gap studies, LTC4 increased both the frequency of electrical spiking and tension. These effects were blocked by the dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel antagonist PY 108-068 and by the leukotriene receptor antagonist FPL 55712. In double sucrose gap experiments, LTC4 caused a small depolarization without measurable change in membrane conductivity; increased spontaneous electrical activity was again accompanied by an increase in tension. LTC4 caused a detectable increase in 45Ca2+ uptake only at extracellular Ca2+ concentrations less than 1 mM, and this was again inhibited by PY 108-068 or FPL 55712. It is concluded that the contractile effects of LTC4 in guinea pig taenia coli occur as a consequence of its ability to open voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, an effect that may occur independently of membrane depolarization

257

Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliada a taxa de recuperação e localização de cisticercos em bovinos experimentalmente infectados com ovos de Taenia saginata. Três bezerros de 6,5 meses e um adulto com 19 meses de idade foram infectados, por via oral, com 2 x 10(4) ovos de Taenia saginata. Um quinto bezerro serviu como teste [...] munha. Após 90 dias da infecção, os animais foram abatidos. Fez-se inspeção, de todos os animais, por fatiamento de órgãos e musculatura esquelética, com intervalo entre os cortes de, no máximo, cinco milímetros. Dos quatros bezerros desafiados foram recuperados 702 cisticercos sendo 570 (81,20%) vivos e 132 (18,80%) degenerados. A taxa de recuperação foi de 0,01% a 1,43% com média de 0,88%. Os 702 cistos encontrados apresentaram a seguinte distribuição anatômica: músculos hióideos 02 (0,28%), rins 03 (0,43%), língua 07 (1,00%), fígado 12 (1,71%), pulmões 15 (2,14%), diafragma 18 (2,56%), músculos da mastigação 25 (3,56%), coração 49 (6,98%), musculatura dianteira 323 (46,00%) e musculatura traseira 248 (35,33%). Na infecção experimental os cistos encontraram-se distribuídos por toda a musculatura dos animais, não mostrando predileção pelos tecidos normalmente pesquisados pelo serviço de inspeção (língua, coração, diafragma, músculos mastigatórios). Os dados da inspeção de rotina pode não estimar a real incidência da cisticercose bovina. Os bovinos adultos são mais resistentes a infecção por ovos de Taenia saginata, apresentando menor número de cisticercos e com maior número de cistos calcificados. Abstract in english Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4) eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of i [...] nfection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2%) were alive and 132 (18.8%) were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%), kidneys 03 (0.43%), tongue 07 (1.00%), liver 12 (1.71%), lungs 15 (2.14%), diaphragm 18 (2.56%), mastication muscles 25 (3.56%), heart 49 (6.98%), anterior muscle 323 (46.00%) and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%).

João Carlos, Minozzo; Rubens L. Ferreira, Gusso; Edilene A. de, Castro; Oscar, Lago; Vanete Thomaz, Soccol.

2002-12-01

258

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI Neurocisticercose: relação entre antígeno da Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano e ressonância magnética  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC. METHOD: Sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. RESULTS: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%. A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions. Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions, 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. CONCLUSION: According to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: (1 TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; (2 in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; (3 TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; (4 TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC.OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre a detecção de antígeno de Taenia (TA no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR e achados de ressonância magnética (RM em pacientes com diagnóstico definitivo de neurocisticersose. MÉTODO: Sessenta e três pacientes com diagnóstico de NC foram submetidos a exame de RM e exame de LCR com pesquisa de antígeno de Taenia por método imunoenzimático. RESULTADOS: A detecção de TA foi positiva em 36 pacientes (57,1%. Um total de 836 lesões foram analizadas sendo 98,7% intraparemquimatosas, 50,4% dos cistos encontravam-se íntegros, 22,1% degenerados e 19,5% calcificados. Foi observada relação significativa entre a presença dos níveis de TA detectados com o número total dos cistos e também com o número de cistos íntegros. Não foi observada relação com cistos calcificados. CONCLUSÃO: (1 a detecção de TA permite o diagnóstico etiológico em formas transicionais na NC com imagem pouco característica; (2 em estágio evolutivo final de um cisticerco no sistema nervoso, este pode não aparecer na tomografia computadorizada ou RM sendo a presença do antígeno importante para confirmação diagnóstica; (3 a detecção do TA permite também o diagnóstico de NC nos casos em que as reações inumológicas são negativas; (4 a detecção do TA representa um marcador de atividade da doença nas formas epiléticas da NC.

Ronaldo Abraham

2010-02-01

259

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI / Neurocisticercose: relação entre antígeno da Taenia no líquido cefalorraquidiano e ressonância magnética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre a detecção de antígeno de Taenia (TA) no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e achados de ressonância magnética (RM) em pacientes com diagnóstico definitivo de neurocisticersose. MÉTODO: Sessenta e três pacientes com diagnóstico de NC foram submetidos a exame de RM e [...] exame de LCR com pesquisa de antígeno de Taenia por método imunoenzimático. RESULTADOS: A detecção de TA foi positiva em 36 pacientes (57,1%). Um total de 836 lesões foram analizadas sendo 98,7% intraparemquimatosas, 50,4% dos cistos encontravam-se íntegros, 22,1% degenerados e 19,5% calcificados. Foi observada relação significativa entre a presença dos níveis de TA detectados com o número total dos cistos e também com o número de cistos íntegros. Não foi observada relação com cistos calcificados. CONCLUSÃO: (1) a detecção de TA permite o diagnóstico etiológico em formas transicionais na NC com imagem pouco característica; (2) em estágio evolutivo final de um cisticerco no sistema nervoso, este pode não aparecer na tomografia computadorizada ou RM sendo a presença do antígeno importante para confirmação diagnóstica; (3) a detecção do TA permite também o diagnóstico de NC nos casos em que as reações inumológicas são negativas; (4) a detecção do TA representa um marcador de atividade da doença nas formas epiléticas da NC. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). METHOD: Sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI [...] of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. RESULTS: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. CONCLUSION: According to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: (1) TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; (2) in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; (3) TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; (4) TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC.

Ronaldo, Abraham; José Antonio, Livramento; Cláudia da Costa, Leite; Alessandra Xavier, Pardini; Adelaide José, Vaz; Luís dos Ramos, Machado.

2010-02-01

260

Gilquiniid cestodes (Trypanorhyncha) from elasmobranch fishes off New Caledonia with descriptions of two new genera and a new species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cestodes were collected from deep-sea sharks caught off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Vittirhynchus squali n. g., n. sp. (Trypanorhyncha: Gilquiniidae) is described from the spiral valve of Squalus melanurus Fourmanoir & Rivaton. The new genus possesses four bothria and a typical heteroacanthous metabasal armature but has a file of three macrohooks forming a short chainette on the internal surface of the basal armature. Sagittirhynchus aculeatus n. g., n. sp., from the spiral valve of Centrophorus sp. (undescribed), also has four bothria and a typical heteroacanthous armature but lacks a distinctive basal swelling and has the final hooks of each principal row prominently enlarged. Gilquinia minor n. sp., from the spiral valve of Centrophorus sp. (undescribed), is distinguished by the presence of only five hooks per principal row compared with eight in congeners. Gilquinia sp. is reported from Squalus melanurus. G. robertsoni Beveridge, 1990 is reported from S. megalops (Macleay). PMID:16955336

Beveridge, I; Justine, J-L

2006-11-01

261

The clearance of hidden cestode infection triggered by an independent activation of host defense in a teleost fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites often elude effective recognition or attack (or both) by the host immune system, for example, though a tegument that possesses nonimmunogenic features. However, a general activation of host defense due to independent stimuli may increase immune activity to a level where such disguises are no longer effective, resulting in the clearance of an infection. We experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. To independently foster a general immune response a few days later, we cut the tips of spines in some fish and sham-treated other fish. Cutting spines significantly reduced the prevalence of the infection. The injury evoked a physiological reaction that helped to clear a hidden parasite infection. PMID:15715223

Wedekind, Claus; Little, Tom J

2004-12-01

262

[A new species of cestode, Vampirolepis insula sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from bats of the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands].  

Science.gov (United States)

Description of a new cestode species Vampirolepis insula sp. n. parasitizing Ambliotus nilssonni (Keyserling et Blasius, 1839 and Plecotus auritus Linnaeus, 1758 from the islands Sakhalin and Kunashir is given. The new species is closely related to the species group within the genus Vampirolepis having 30 rostellar hooks 0.020-0.022 mm length with the blades shorter than guard. The group includes V. balsaci (Joyeux et Baer, 1934) Spassky, 1954, Sawada, 1974 and V. ozensis Sawada, 1974. The main differential character of the new species is the position of genital pores on the left side of proglottides. Moreover, the new species differs from V. balsaci and V. ozensis by almost twice larger size ofscolex, suckers, and rostellum. Vampirolepis insula sp. n. also differs from V. ogaensis and V ozensis by a larger size of ovary and vitelline gland. PMID:20536008

Makarikova, T A; Guliaev, V D; Tiunov, M P

2010-01-01

263

Effects of hydralazine and verapamil on phosphorylase activity and guanosine cyclic 3?,5?-monophosphate levels in guinea-pig taenia coli  

OpenAIRE

1 The roles of guanosine cyclic 3?,5?-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and calcium in the relaxation produced by hydralazine and verapamil in potassium-depolarized guinea-pig taenia coli have been investigated.

Diamond, Jack; Janis, Ronald A.

1980-01-01

264

Foodborne and waterborne parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 72 species of protozoan and helminth parasites can reach humans by food and water, and most of these infections are zoonoses. Some parasites show a cosmopolitan distribution, others a more restricted distribution due to their complex life cycles, which need the presence of one or more intermediate hosts. Of this large number of pathogens, only Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans by two different ways, i.e., by cysts present in infected meat and by oocysts contaminating food and water. Eleven helminthic species (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Trichinella spiralis, Tr. nativa, Tr. britovi, Tr. pseudospiralis, Tr. murrelli, Tr nelsoni, Tr. papuae and Tr. zimbabwensis) can grow in meat of different animal species and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw meat or meat products. Twenty trematode species, four cestode species and seven nematode species can infect humans through the consumption of raw sea- and/or fresh-water food (fishes, molluscs, frogs, tadpoles, camarons, crayfishes). Six species of Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar can contaminate food and water. Among the helminths, seven trematode species, seven cestode species and five species of nematodes can reach humans by contaminated food and water. Diagnostic and detection methods that can be carried out routinely on food and water samples are available only for few parasites (Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., Anisakidae, Trichinella sp., Taenia sp.), i.e., for parasites which represent a risk to human populations living in industrialised countries. The majority of food and waterborne infections of parasitic origin are related to poverty, low sanitation, and old food habits. PMID:15058817

Pozio, Edoardo

2003-01-01

265

Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis. PMID:24690153

Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

2014-04-01

266

Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena in caribou in north-central Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are few data on the prevalence and infection intensity of parasites in large samples of caribou (Rangifer tarandus. Therefore, differences related to sex, age, and season are unknown. The effect of parasites on the health and condition of caribou also is poorly known. From 1980 through 1987, 1258 barren-ground caribou (R.t. groenlandicus were collected from the Beverly herd in north-central Canada. The prevalence in lungs of cysts of the hydatid tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus increased significantly with age of caribou. Prevalence in females was 2% in the 2-5 year class and 8% in older individuals. Cysts were more prevalent in young females compared with young males. Reductions in physical condition and fecundity were not statistically significant. The prevalence of Taenia hydatigena cysts in livers increased significantly with age of host but not with sex and condition of the hosts. The use of parasite prevalence as an index of predation rate is discussed.

Donald C. Thomas

1996-01-01

267

Seroprevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on ELISA results from randomly selected serum samples taken from 128 cattle from different administrative and urban districts in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany a seroprevalence estimate of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in this area was derived. This estimate was subsequently used to calculate the sample size required in an epidemiological study to determine the actual prevalence of this infection in the cattle population (n = 2 604 767) in this federal state. The sample size was calculated as 1518 and the samples were collected according to the distribution of cattle among the 48 administrative and urban districts in Lower Saxony. The samples were tested with an evaluated antibody ELISA. The results showed a positive antibody titre rate of 8.83% from the total tested samples. PMID:21038810

Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Probst, Dieter; Kühne, Michael; Epe, Christian; Doherr, Marcus G; Schnieder, Thomas

2010-01-01

268

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

269

Effects of Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa on functional characteristics of Raillietina echinobothrida (Phylum: Platyhelminthes; Class: Cestoidea), a poultry cestode parasite.  

Science.gov (United States)

The histochemical distribution and quantification of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase have been investigated in the adult cyclophyllidean cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida after treatment with crude ethanol extract of traditionally used medicinal plants Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa. Estimation of free amino acid pool and vital trace elements like calcium and magnesium were also performed to study the effect of the plant extracts on the parasite. A decrease in the levels of phosphatases and trace elements was noticed in the treated parasites when compared to control groups. At the same time, a lot of disparity was noted in the free amino acid pool as the levels of many amino acids were seen to increase or decrease in relation to the levels observed in control parasites. Role of phyto-products in the changed physiology of cestode and their possible chemotherapeutic targets are discussed. PMID:24431553

Dasgupta, Shyamashree; Roy, Bishnupada; Venkataswamy, Manivel; Giri, Bikash Ranjan

2013-04-01

270

MONTHWISE PREV ALENCE OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL TREMATODES, CESTODES AND NEMATODES INFECTING DAMANI SHEEP AND GOATS IN DISTRICT D.I.KHAN  

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Full Text Available During this study 48 positive gastro-intestinal tracts each of sheep and goats were examined to determine the month wise prevalence of trematodes, cestodes and nematodes. Trematodes infection was 16.66% both in sheep and goats in May whereas in June, July and August it increased to 25% in sheep and similar increase was recorded in June and July .in goats which dropped to 8.33% in August. Cestodal infections in sheep and goats showed highest record in June 33.33% and August 41.16% respectively. Nematodal infections in sheep showed the lowest rec9rds in June 41.66% which increased in July 50%. May 58.33% and August 58.33%. In goats the lowest records were observed in June 41.66% with an equal increase in May and August i.e. 50%.

Najeeb-ur-Rehman and Akhtar Ali

2001-02-01

271

Effects of Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa on functional characteristics of Raillietina echinobothrida (Phylum: Platyhelminthes; Class: Cestoidea), a poultry cestode parasite  

OpenAIRE

The histochemical distribution and quantification of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase have been investigated in the adult cyclophyllidean cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida after treatment with crude ethanol extract of traditionally used medicinal plants Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa. Estimation of free amino acid pool and vital trace elements like calcium and magnesium were also performed to study the effect of the plant extracts on the parasite....

Dasgupta, Shyamashree; Roy, Bishnupada; Venkataswamy, Manivel; Giri, Bikash Ranjan

2012-01-01

272

Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effect on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in two closely related small barbs and the effects of the parasites on the barbs life histories in Lake Tana (Ethiopia) during 1 year. In all affected barbs L. intestinalis c...

Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F. A.

2006-01-01

273

Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

S. Mukaratirwa

2010-09-01

274

Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran  

OpenAIRE

Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09%) revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral...

Reza Kheirandish; Masoud Sami; Shahrzad Azizi; Mohammad Mirzaei

2012-01-01

275

Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris) and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river  

OpenAIRE

Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010), aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris) belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research...

Roukbi, M.; Al-saloum, M.

2014-01-01

276

Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis by immunohistochemical test on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bovine lesions  

OpenAIRE

A new method of diagnosing cysticercus or larval stage of the human tapeworm, Taenia saginata, also known as Cysticercus bovis, in formalin-fixed bovine tissue was developed using a monoclonal antibody to T. saginata and avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry. Grossly recognizable viable and degenerate cysts were identifiable after immunohistochemical staining and could be differentiated from Sarcocystis, Actinobacillus, or non-cyst, normal bovine structures. Thenew test should permit lab...

Ogunremi, O.; Macdonald, G.; Geerts, S.; Brandt, J.

2004-01-01

277

Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by detecting live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA  

OpenAIRE

An ante mortem antigen-ELISA-based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n = 24) and naturally (n = 25) infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in naturally infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number ...

Wanzala, W.; Onyango-abuje, J. A.; Kang’ethe, E. K.; Ochanda, H.; Harrison, L. J. S.

2012-01-01

278

Distribución y viabilidad de cisticercos de Taenia saginata en los cortes de carne de la canal de bovinos naturalmente infectados / Distribution and viability of cyticerci of Taenia saginata in meat cuts from naturally infected beef  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la distribución anatómica y viabilidad de los cisticercos de Taenia saginata en bovinos naturalmente infectados, faenados en el sur de Chile. Los animales fueron inspeccionados post mórtem según los procedimientos chilenos oficiales en los puntos obligatorios: corazón, lengua, maseteros [...] , esófago, diafragma y superficie de canal. Se tomaron al azar 20 canales de bovinos diagnosticados positivos a la inspección, y sus mitades izquierdas fueron despostadas en los 33 cortes oficiales; éstos fueron completamente disecados en láminas de aproximadamente 0,5 cm de grosor, contabilizando el número de cisticercos encontrados por inspección visual en cada corte. Lesiones compatibles con cisticercos de Taenia saginata se encontraron a la inspección oficial en 148 bovinos (0,5% de prevalencia), encontrando 64,9% en corazón, 33,8% en músculos maseteros, 0,7% en esófago y 0,7% en la canal. Al examen histológico de las lesiones, se encontró que 82,9% eran cisticercos no viables (degenerados) y sólo 5,1% eran viables; 10,7% correspondieron a otros diagnósticos (principalmente miositis, seguido de miocarditis en corazón y actinobacilosis en lengua) y en 1,3% de los casos no se encontraron alteraciones. Se encontraron 14 lesiones compatibles con cisticercosis en las 20 canales positivas a cisticercos de Taenia saginata a la inspección; todas fueron confirmadas positivas al análisis histológico y todas eran quistes degenerados. Estos cisticercos estaban distribuidos en filete, tapapecho, asiento, ganso, plateada, asado de tira, posta negra, tapabarriga, posta de paleta y entraña. Se concluye que la posibilidad de encontrar cisticercos en cortes de carne es limitada, especialmente en animales infectados en forma leve, como sucede en Chile. Abstract in english The anatomical distribution and viability of cysticerci of Taenia saginata in naturally infected cattle slaughtered in southern Chile was determined. The cattle were inspected post mortem according to official chilean procedures, where mandatory inspection sites are: heart, tongue, masseter, oesopha [...] gus, diaphragm and superficial observation of the carcass. Twenty carcasses diagnosed as positive during inspection were chosen at random and their left half sides were separated into the 33 official meat cuts; these were completely dissected into approximately 0.5 cm thick slices and number of cysts determined by visual inspection. Lesions compatible with cysticerci of Taenia saginata were diagnosed according to official procedures in 148 cattle (0.5% prevalence) at mandatory sites, finding that 64.9% of them were located in heart, 33.8% in masseter muscles, 0.7% in oesophagus and 0.7% in the carcasses. At histological examination, 82.9% of the lesions were diagnosed as nonviable cysts and only 5.1% were viable; 10.7% corresponded to other diagnoses (mostly myositis and myocarditis, followed by schwannoma in heart and actynomycosis in tongue) and in 1.3% no alteration could be found. Fourteen cysts were found in the meat cuts of the 20 positive to cysticerci of Taenia saginata in carcasses, all were nonviable; cysts were found in tenderloin, point end brisket, rump heart, silverside, cube roll cover, ribs, topside, flanck meat, bolar and thin skirt. It is concluded that chances of finding cysticerci in meat cuts of cattle diagnosed positive to cysticerci of Taenia saginata at slaughter inspection is limited, especially when animals are infected in a mild form, as it happens in Chile.

F, Cayo; G, Valenzuela; E, Paredes; V, Ruíz; C, Gallo.

279

Spatial and temporal changes in prevalence of a cloacal cestode in wintering waterfowl along the Gulf Coast of Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cloacal cestode Cloacotaenia megalops is one of the most common helminths of waterfowl. We investigated the effect of this parasite on the body condition of wintering waterfowl populations and compared prevalence among age-sex classes, over time and between habitat types on the upper Gulf Coast of Texas (USA) from October 1986-February 2000. Greater than 9,500 birds of 25 waterfowl species were examined for the parasite. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) in body condition between birds with and without the parasite. Average prevalence was lowest for geese (mean = 3.7%) versus 21 to 71% in duck species. Average prevalence was similar (P = 0.81) between diving ducks (mean = 46.9%) and puddle ducks (mean = 43.9%). Prevalence varied among age-sex classes and was related to sex rather than age. Variation among age-sex classes suggests differences in diet between sexes of duck species on the wintering grounds. There was no evidence for declining prevalence over the wintering period. Prevalence differed (P megalops for diving ducks and increasing prevalence for puddle ducks. The increasing trend for puddle ducks may indicate declining habitat conditions resulting in increased exposure to the intermediate ostracod host. PMID:12685079

Haukos, David A; Neaville, Jim

2003-01-01

280

Cestode parasitic infestation: intracranial and spinal hydatid disease--a clinicopathological study of 29 cases from South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In developing countries hydatidosis is both a medical and economic problem related to environmental hygiene and healthy veterinary practice. This cestode parasitic infestation, uncommonly involving the nervous system, presents with varied clinical manifestation, at times causing diagnostic dilemmas. Multiple intracranial and spinal hydatidosis is rare. A series of 29 histologically confirmed cases of hydatidosis of neuraxis (21 intracranial and 8 spinal) from South India are presented. Among the 21 cases of intracranial hydatidosis, 12 cases were in pediatric age, while only 1 spinal lesion was noted in a 5-year-old child. The clinical presentation of intracranial lesions was predominantly that of raised intracranial pressure and visual symptoms, while spinal hydatidosis manifested with severe back pain, weakness and sphincter disturbances. The cranial cysts were usually single and uniloculated (12 cases), multiple in 7 and single but multiloculated in 2. In spinal hydatidosis, the cysts are usually multiple and extradural, rare ones being intramedullary and intradural. Based on clinical features and imaging, the differential diagnosis for intracranial lesions were cystic tumors and arachnoid cyst while metastasis and tuberculosis were considered in cases of spinal hydatidosis because of vertebral bony involvement. The majority of the cysts could be surgically resected totally and some were aspirated under control suction and resected. None of the cases had anaphylactic reaction, with no significant post-operative morbidity and no mortality. One intracranial and 2 spinal lesions caused by fertile cysts recurred to undergo repeated surgery. PMID:16550744

Rumana, M; Mahadevan, A; Nayil Khurshid, M; Kovoor, J M E; Yasha, T C; Santosh, V; Indira, B; Shankar, S K

2006-01-01

281

Contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna Helmintológica da região Amazônica - Cestódeos / On some Cestodes of the Amazon Region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Do material proveniente da Região Amazônica, os autores iniciam uma série de publicações, que atualizem o conhecimento de sua fauna helmintológica. Apresentando a parte referente aos Cestódeos, eles redescrevem três espécies: Raillietina (R.) alouattae baylis, 1947, Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 190 [...] 4), Fuhrmann, 1921 e Anomotaenia brasiliensis (Fuhrmann, 1908) e fazem referência a duas outras: Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 e Mathevotaenia bivittata (Janicki, 1904). Abstract in english Concerning to the Amazon Region, everything about it arises the greatest interest when one deals with its natural resources. For this reason, the authors, introducing this work, present its first part, which consists of some cestodes recovered from Vertebrates in 1969. So, three species, are redesc [...] ribed and two only refered. Raillietina (R.) alouattae Baylis, 1947 is marked for the first time in Brazil. The authors ratify the original descriptions of Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 1904) Fuhrmann, 1921 and Anomotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908, presenting original camera lucida drawings in order to accomplish their knowledge. Of Anomotaenia brasiliensis they also rectify the year of its proposition from 1907 to 1908, when the work was printed. Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 and Mathevotaenia bivittata Janicki, 1904) are only listed for they are well known by now, to justify a revision.

R. Magalhães, Pinto; Delir Corrêa, Gomes.

282

Contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna Helmintológica da região Amazônica - Cestódeos On some Cestodes of the Amazon Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Do material proveniente da Região Amazônica, os autores iniciam uma série de publicações, que atualizem o conhecimento de sua fauna helmintológica. Apresentando a parte referente aos Cestódeos, eles redescrevem três espécies: Raillietina (R. alouattae baylis, 1947, Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 1904, Fuhrmann, 1921 e Anomotaenia brasiliensis (Fuhrmann, 1908 e fazem referência a duas outras: Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 e Mathevotaenia bivittata (Janicki, 1904.Concerning to the Amazon Region, everything about it arises the greatest interest when one deals with its natural resources. For this reason, the authors, introducing this work, present its first part, which consists of some cestodes recovered from Vertebrates in 1969. So, three species, are redescribed and two only refered. Raillietina (R. alouattae Baylis, 1947 is marked for the first time in Brazil. The authors ratify the original descriptions of Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 1904 Fuhrmann, 1921 and Anomotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908, presenting original camera lucida drawings in order to accomplish their knowledge. Of Anomotaenia brasiliensis they also rectify the year of its proposition from 1907 to 1908, when the work was printed. Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 and Mathevotaenia bivittata Janicki, 1904 are only listed for they are well known by now, to justify a revision.

R. Magalhães Pinto

1976-01-01

283

The consequences of self-fertilization and outcrossing of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its second intermediate host.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many hermaphroditic parasites reproduce by both cross-fertilization and self-fertilization. To understand the maintenance of such mixed mating systems it is necessary to compare the fitness consequences of the two reproductive modes. This has, however, almost never been done in the context of host-parasite coevolution. Here we show the consequences of outcrossing and selfing in an advanced life-stage of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus, i.e. in its second intermediate host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Each juvenile stickleback was simultaneously exposed to 2 experimentally infected copepods, one harbouring outcrossed the other selfed parasites. At 60 days p.i. parasites were removed from the fish's body cavity and, with microsatellite markers, assigned to either outcrossed or selfed origin. Prevalence was not significantly higher in outcrossed parasites. However, those fish that were infected contained significantly more out-crossed than selfed parasites. Thus the probability of a selfed parasite to progress in the life-cycle is reduced in the second intermediate host. Furthermore, we found that even the multiply infected fish increased in weight during the experiment. Nevertheless, total worm weight in multiply infected fish was significantly lower than in singly infected ones, which thus might be a parasite life-history strategy. PMID:12741516

Christen, M; Milinski, M

2003-04-01

284

The infectivity, growth, and virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an experiment to study the infectivity, growth and virulence of Schistocephalus solidus in their first intermediate host, copepods of the species Macrocyclops albidus were kept singly and exposed to up to 9 coracidia. Eleven or 14 days post-infection (p.i.) the presence and growth of the cestode larvae relative to survival, growth and reproduction of their host was determined. As expected, the probability of a copepod becoming infected increased with increasing numbers of parasites administered. However, the chances of a single coracidium establishing in a copepod also increased with increasing numbers of coracidia administered, which indicates that the parasites profit from a dilution effect of the host's defence. Copepod size or developmental stage had no significant effect on the infection, but 14 days p.i., constraining effects of copepod size on the growth of the parasites were apparent. Moreover, procercoids in multiple infections grew smaller and developed their cercomer at a smaller size than those in single infections. No significant effect of the parasite on host mortality was found within the observation period. However, growth between the 5th copepodid stage and adult stage was negatively affected by infection. An infection with S. solidus was also strongly linked with host reproduction: infected females were more likely to bear an egg sac at the end of the experiment than non-infected ones. These egg sacs, however, contained fewer eggs. PMID:9300470

Wedekind, C

1997-09-01

285

The "crowding effect" in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus: density-dependent effects on plerocercoid size and infectivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of the crowding effect was demonstrated in plerocercoids of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus infecting threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from Walby and Scout lakes, Alaska. Contrary to an earlier report, relatively large numbers of parasites (>3-4 plerocercoids) were observed to grow large enough in an intermediate host fish to become competent to infect and to mature in the definitive host under any of 3 assumed threshold values and 1 scenario of graded sizes for parasite competency. In Walby Lake, intensity and host body mass were significant predictors of mean plerocercoid mass per host, whereas intensity, host body mass, and combined parasite index were significant predictors in Scout Lake. Slopes of equations expressing the relationship between mean parasite mass and intensity for both lakes were less than 1, implying that processes other than or in combination with simple resource limitation might be producing the observed crowding effect. The causal mechanism for the crowding effect could include exploitative competition, interference competition, and host immune response. There were significant differences in infection between the two lakes, including different distributions of parasite intensities among hosts and different expressions of the crowding effect; however, an explanation of the differences awaits further investigation. PMID:12054002

Heins, David C; Baker, John A; Martin, Hillery C

2002-04-01

286

The cestode Atractolytocestus huronensis (Caryophyllidea) continues to spread in Europe: new data on the helminth parasite of the common carp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The caryophyllidean tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958, originally described from the common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio L. from North America, has recently been introduced into Europe (UK, Hungary). In the present study, the dispersion of the tapeworm in other countries of Central Europe (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) is described, including its first observation in the common carp of the Tisa River, southeastern Slovakia. Because of the transboundary location of the river, there are possible consequences of the rapid distribution of the parasite to other regions throughout the Danube River basin. The parasite has also been found in cultured carp from fishponds in South Bohemia, from where the carp are imported to many European countries. Rapid dissemination of this cestode in Europe indicates its ability to colonise new regions, and represents another example of man-made introduction of potential pathogens of carp and other farmed fish. The morphology of the A. huronensis specimens found is compared with that of specimens from Hungary and North America as well as that of Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya and Akhmerov, 1965) from the same fish host in eastern Asia. PMID:15648838

Oros, M; Hanzelová, V; Scholz, T

2004-11-23

287

Acute intestinal obstruction due to taenia saginata infestation: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Infection with Taenia saginata or taeniasis is an uncommon parasitic infection in Iran with a prevalence rate of 2-3% and it is more seen in the northern parts of the country. Epigastric pain, nervousness, dizziness, nausea and loss of appetite may be the only presenting symptoms but secondary appendicitis, acute intestinal obstruction and necrosis of the pancreas are its serious and rare complications."n"nCase presentation : A 62-year old woman was admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital with signs of acute abdomen. She had a past history of infection with hydatid cyst and its subsequent surgery, eight years ago. At the time of admission, she suffered from persistent abdominal pain and loss of appetite for two years. Despite having the epidemiological evidence of working along the banks of rivers contaminated with human sewage and working on farms fertilized with human waste and presence of signs hinting at the disease, parasitic infection had not been considered in its diagnosis."n"nConclusion: Although signs and symptoms of taeniasis are non-specific but a complete history, physical examination and detailed patient notes, especially by considering epidemiological factors, are very important to the early diagnosis of taeniasis. "n"nKeywords: Abdominal pain, beef tapeworm, cysticercosis, intestinal obstruction, taenia saginata, taeniasis.

Soleimani A

2011-05-01

288

Cloning and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia pisiformis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbit cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, is a serious parasitic disease of rabbits. It was reported that some cysteine peptidases have potential roles in the pathogenesis of various parasitic infections. To investigate the biochemical characteristics and roles in the pathogenesis/host-invasion of cysteine peptidases, a cDNA sequence encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (TpCP) was cloned and identified from the T. pisiformis metacestodes. This sequence was 1220 bp in its length, which included a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding a 339 amino acid peptide. Multiple sequence alignments revealed a 28.9-88.5% similarity with cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other helminth parasites and mammals. The recombinant TpCP expressed in Escherichia coli did not show the proteolytic activity by zymography gel assay. However, the TpCP expressed in Pichia pastoris had typical biochemical activities that could hydrolyze rabbit immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin and fibronectin. Substrate studies indicated pronounced cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. This activity was sensitive to cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and immunohistochemistry results also indicated that TpCP was distributed as an intense positive reaction in the bladder wall. Our results gave us insights into future studies of TpCP's roles in the infection. PMID:23411373

Wang, Qiuxia; Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

2013-05-01

289

Analysis of codon usage patterns in Taenia pisiformis through annotated transcriptome data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia pisiformis (Cestoidea; Cyclophyllidea; Taeniidae) tapeworms infect the small intestine of canids and felines, such as dogs and foxes. Synonymous codon usage in T. pisiformis was examined through 8118 reconstructed annotations of transcriptome sequences. The mean value of GC content for the reconstructed genes was 49.48%. Twenty-four codons were determined as "optimal codons". Approximately all translational optimal codons (except CGU) ended on G or C. The gene positions on the primary axis were strongly positively correlated with GC content at the third codon positions and GC content of individual genes. At the same time, the gene expression level assessed by the CAI, the hydrophobicity and aromaticity of encoded proteins were correlated with the GC content at the third codon positions and the effective number of codons (ENC), respectively. We infer that the gene expression level, the hydrophobicity and the aromaticity of the encoded proteins also influenced codon usage in T. pisiformis. Knowledge of the codon usage pattern in T. pisiformis can improve our understanding of the mechanisms of biased usage of synonymous codons and can help in selecting appropriate host expression systems for potential vaccine genes of T. pisiformis. PMID:23268345

Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianfei; Yang, Deying; Nong, Xiang; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Huang, Xing; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2013-01-25

290

Genetic variation of Taenia pisiformis collected from Sichuan, China, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288

Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2013-08-01

291

Protection against Taenia pisiformis larval infection induced by a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia pisiformis larvae cause significant health problems to rabbits. At present, it is not known whether the recombinant antigen from the T. pisiformis oncosphere is able to confer protective immunity against T. pisiformis larval infection. The full-length cDNA was cloned into a pET32a (+) vector, and the recombinant protein was then expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. Vaccination with the purified rTpUbc2 coupled with QuilA was carried out in New Zealand rabbits to evaluate the immunoprotective effect against T. pisiformis infection. The full-length open reading frame of the TpUbc2 gene was 444 bp, and encoded a 16.63-kDa protein. Finally, rTpUbc2 was used to evaluate the ability to induce immunoprotective responses in rabbits. A 79.3-90.8% reduction (P 0.05). Our data support the use of rTpUbc2 as a potential candidate to develop a vaccine against T. pisiformis larvae. PMID:24615100

Chen, L; Yang, D Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Huang, X; Fu, Y; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

2014-01-01

292

Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 ?m and 135.9 ?m, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1. PMID:24103709

Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

2015-03-01

293

Validation of meat inspection results for Taenia saginata cysticercosis by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Infected cattle is an important food safety issue besides an economic concern. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat containing viable cysticerci. Visual meat inspection of bovines is the only public health measure implemented to control transmission to humans, but it lacks sensitivity and objectivity. It may underestimate the prevalence of the disease by a factor 3 to 10. Furthermore, the success of the method depends on the expertise of the meat inspector as well as on the stage of development of the cysticerci. The focus of this study was to develop and explore the usefulness of a PCR assay as an objective alternative to evaluate the meat inspector's visual inspection results. Hereto, a PCR was developed for the detection of T. saginata DNA in muscle lesions. Based on the laboratory classification of lesions, almost 97% of viable cysts were confirmed by PCR, while for dead cysts, the percentage was approximately 73%. Taken together, these data demonstrate the difficulties of visual meat inspection and their objective interpretation, emphasizing the need to improve current assays to strengthen the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17265888

Geysen, Dirk; Kanobana, Kirezi; Victor, Bjorn; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; De Borchgrave, Jean; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre

2007-01-01

294

Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and classified as viable or degenerating (dead). The DNA was extracted from these cysts and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for evaluation of the detection methods used and to make certain that the cysts did indeed belong to C. bovis, as indicated at the slaughterhouses. Two sets of primers were used with different sensitivity levels. The first, HDP1, was able to detect 200 fg of Taenia saginata DNA and 100 pg of C. bovis DNA. The other primer set, HDP2, was able to detect 1 pg of T. saginata DNA and 1 ng of C. bovis DNA. No more than 52.4% of the samples tested positive for C. bovis in the PCR using both primers, while 20% of the viable cysts and 49.2% of the degenerating cysts tested negative with both primers. PMID:16583204

Abuseir, S; Epe, C; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Kühne, M

2006-09-01

295

An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031

Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

2013-04-27

296

Incindência de Himenolepíase nana e Taenia sp. no Instituto de Medicina Tropical da U. F. Pernambuco no período de 1968 a 1970  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os Autores realizando um levantamento coproparasitológico no Instituto de Medicina Tropical da U.F.Pe., com relação a incidência de Hymenolepis nana e Taenia sp no período de 1968 a 1970, encontram índice de infestação muito baixo, em tôrno de 0,05% a 2,7% para Taenia sp e 0,36% para Hymenolepis nan [...] a. Abstract in english The Authors present the results of 2469 stool examinations performed in the Institute of Tropical Medicine Federal University of Pernambuco, Brasil, specially regarding H. nana and Taenia sp - There mas a positivity of 0,36% and 0.05 to 2.7% respectively. [...

Donald, Huggins; Mauro W., Siqueira; Eva M., Souza; Síria M. da, Silva.

1971-10-01

297

[Vitamin PP, nicotinamide nucleotides and neuro-muscular transmission in guinea pig cecum longitudinal muscle (taenia coli)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The membrane potential, inhibition postsynaptic potentials, resistance of the guinea pig taenia coli membrane were studied as affected by exogenic vitamin PP and its derivatives of nucleotide nature. It is shown that nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH evoke the membrane hyperpolarization and a decrease in the amplitude of the inhibition postsynaptic potentials. Nicotinamid dinucleotides cause a decrease in the membrane resistance, whereas nicotinic acid and nicotinamide do not affect this parameter. The character of the observed effects does not depend on the degree of nicotinamide dinucleotides oxidation. PMID:6455000

Romanenko, A V

1980-01-01

298

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons. PMID:23298567

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-09-01

299

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

2013-01-01

300

Development and field evaluation of a new serological test for Taenia saginata cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle infected with the tapeworm cyst, Taenia saginata metacestode (synonym: Cysticercus bovis) are a source of human infection if affected beef is eaten raw or undercooked. Control measures targeted at individual cattle rather than all animals in a T. saginata-exposed herd should help reduce costs and alleviate current constraints associated with managing an outbreak. To that end, we have developed a reliable diagnostic test for use in live animals that would enable veterinary regulators to focus disease control strategies. The test detects bovine anti-T. saginata immunoglobulin G1 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the excretory-secretory antigens of T. saginata. Animals were inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 viable T. saginata eggs in order to simulate the parasite burden of field-infected animals (parasite load=1-86; n=28). By testing sera obtained from the inoculated animals 84 days post-inoculation, test sensitivity was estimated to be 92.9% (95% confidence interval or CI=83.4-100.0%). Another 17 animals inoculated with 5000 or 10,000 viable eggs of T. saginata and shown to harbour metacestodes at post-mortem, all tested positive in the ELISA. Test specificity estimated from a herd of field animals with no historical, epidemiological, or post-mortem evidence of infection was 90.6% (95% CI=87.0-94.2%; n=256 field cattle). Using the test on samples (n=347) from a T. saginata-infected feedlot, the Bayesian approach estimate of seroprevalence was 4.6% (95% probability intervals=0.5-10.3%). The test performance characteristics of the ELISA suggest that it will be adequate for field application in bovine cysticercosis outbreaks. PMID:20083357

Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane

2010-04-19

301

The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

2014-04-01

302

Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n?=?10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n?=?3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n?=?3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n?=?4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079

Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

2010-10-01

303

Two cestode species in Brazilian turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae): pathology induced by Hymenolepis cantaniana and occurrence of Raillietina tetragona  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Duas especies de cestóides em perus, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae), no Brazil: patologia induzida por Hymenolepis cantaniana e ocorência de Raillietina tetragona. A patologia induzida em perus pelo cestóide H. cantaniana é descrita, com dados sobre prevalência, intensidade media e a [...] mplitude das cargas parasitarias. H. cantaniana ocorreu com urna prevalência de 5.0% ñas 40 aves examinadas, com intensidade media de 17.5 e amplitude de 14-21 espécimes de cestóides. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas nos perus parasitados. As lesões provocadas por H. cantaniana eram representadas, principalmente, ou por múltiplos segmentos dos parásitos, acompanhados por discreta reação inflamatoria mista com a presera de células mononucleares e heterófilos, ou por severos processos inflamatorios transmurais, caracterizados pela presera de células mononucleares, ao longo das carnadas muscular e serosa das vilosidades e criptas intestinais. Estes representam os primeiros achados patológicos relacionados a presera de cestóides em perus a serem relatados no Brasil. Raillietina tetragona, não patogênica para as aves investigadas, ocorreu com baixa prevalência e amplitude de infecção de 2.5% e 1-2 parásitos, respectivamente. Abstract in english The pathology induced in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) by one cestode species Hymenolepis cantaniana is described together with data on prevalence, mean infection and range of worm burdens. H. cantaniana occurred with a prevalence of 5.0 % in the 40 examined hosts in a range of 14-21 specimens and a [...] mean intensity of 17.5. Gross lesions were not observed in the parasitized birds. Lesions due to H cantaniana mainly consisted of multiple segments of parasites, together with a mild mixed inflammatory reaction with the presence ofmononuclear cells and heterophils or severe transmural inflammatory processes, characterized by the presence ofmononuclear cells along the muscular and serosa layers of the intestinal villi and crypts. These are the first pathological findings related to the presence ofcestodes in turkeys to be reported in Brazil so far. Raillietina tetragona, not pathogenic to the present investigated turkeys, occurred with a low prevalence and range of infection of 2.5% and 1-2 worms, respectively.

ROBERTO, MAGALHÃES PINTO; BEATRIZ, BRENER; RODRIGO, CALDAS MENEZES; ROGÉRIO, TORTELLY.

2008-12-01

304

Two cestode species in Brazilian turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae: pathology induced by Hymenolepis cantaniana and occurrence of Raillietina tetragona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pathology induced in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo by one cestode species Hymenolepis cantaniana is described together with data on prevalence, mean infection and range of worm burdens. H. cantaniana occurred with a prevalence of 5.0 % in the 40 examined hosts in a range of 14-21 specimens and a mean intensity of 17.5. Gross lesions were not observed in the parasitized birds. Lesions due to H cantaniana mainly consisted of multiple segments of parasites, together with a mild mixed inflammatory reaction with the presence ofmononuclear cells and heterophils or severe transmural inflammatory processes, characterized by the presence ofmononuclear cells along the muscular and serosa layers of the intestinal villi and crypts. These are the first pathological findings related to the presence ofcestodes in turkeys to be reported in Brazil so far. Raillietina tetragona, not pathogenic to the present investigated turkeys, occurred with a low prevalence and range of infection of 2.5% and 1-2 worms, respectively.Duas especies de cestóides em perus, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae, no Brazil: patologia induzida por Hymenolepis cantaniana e ocorência de Raillietina tetragona. A patologia induzida em perus pelo cestóide H. cantaniana é descrita, com dados sobre prevalência, intensidade media e amplitude das cargas parasitarias. H. cantaniana ocorreu com urna prevalência de 5.0% ñas 40 aves examinadas, com intensidade media de 17.5 e amplitude de 14-21 espécimes de cestóides. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas nos perus parasitados. As lesões provocadas por H. cantaniana eram representadas, principalmente, ou por múltiplos segmentos dos parásitos, acompanhados por discreta reação inflamatoria mista com a presera de células mononucleares e heterófilos, ou por severos processos inflamatorios transmurais, caracterizados pela presera de células mononucleares, ao longo das carnadas muscular e serosa das vilosidades e criptas intestinais. Estes representam os primeiros achados patológicos relacionados a presera de cestóides em perus a serem relatados no Brasil. Raillietina tetragona, não patogênica para as aves investigadas, ocorreu com baixa prevalência e amplitude de infecção de 2.5% e 1-2 parásitos, respectivamente.

ROBERTO MAGALHÃES PINTO

2008-12-01

305

Trypanorhyncha cestodes of hygienic-sanitary importance infecting flounders Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan, 1889 and Xystreurys rasile (Jordan, 1891) of the Neotropical region, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

From February 2007 to July 2010, 27 specimens of Paralichthys patagonicus, and from September to December 2010, 30 specimens of Xystreurys rasile were purchased from fish markets in the municipalities of Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fishes were measured, necropsied, filleted, and further had their organs investigated. In P. patagonicus, 19 (70, 3 %) were parasitized with metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha species: Nybelinia erythraea, N. lingualis, Heteronybelinia nipponica, Pterobothrium crassicolle, Grillotia carvajalregorum, and Callitetrahynchus gracilis. In X. rasile, 17 (56, 6 %) were parasitized with metacestodes: N. erythraea, N. lingualis, H. nipponica, and G. carvajalregorum. The parasitological indices of prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, abundance, mean abundance, range of infection, and infection sites of each parasite species are presented. This is the first report of Trypanorhyncha cestodes parasitizing specimens of P. patagonicus and X. rasile. These cestodes were studied due to their importance during fish sanitary inspection, if one considers the harm that the repulsive aspect of infected meat causes to consumers. PMID:22488201

da Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves; de São Clemente, Sergio Carmona; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Knoff, Marcelo

2012-08-01

306

Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010, aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06% for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid. Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64, Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62, Gambusia affinis (female: 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51, Gambusia affinis(males: 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(. A

M. Roukbi

2014-06-01

307

Analysis of codon usage pattern in Taenia saginata based on a transcriptome dataset.  

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BackgroundCodon usage bias is an important evolutionary feature in a genome and has been widely documented in many genomes. Analysis of codon usage bias has significance for mRNA translation, design of transgenes, new gene discovery, and studies of molecular biology and evolution, etc. However, the information about synonymous codon usage pattern of T. saginata genome remains unclear. T. saginata is a food-borne zoonotic cestode which infects approximataely 50 million humans worldwide, and causes significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. In this study, synonymous codon usage in T. saginata were examined.MethodsTotal RNA was isolated from T. saginata cysticerci and 91,487 unigenes were generated using Illumina sequencing technology. After filtering, the final sequence collection containing 11,399 CDSs was used for our analysis.ResultsNeutrality analysis showed that the T. saginata had a wide GC3 distribution and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. NC-plot showed most of genes on or close to the expected curve, but only a few points with low-ENC values were below it, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified twenty-three optimal codons in the T. saginata genome, all of which were ended with a G or C residue. These results suggest that mutational and selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in T. saginata genome. Meanwhile, other factors such as protein length, gene expression, GC content of genes, the hydropathicity of each protein also influence codon usage.ConclusionsHere, we systematically analyzed the codon usage pattern and identified factors shaping in codon usage bias in T. saginata. Currently, no complete nuclear genome is available for codon usage analysis at the genome level in T. saginata. This is the first report to investigate codon biology in T. sagninata. Such information does not only bring about a new perspective for understanding the mechanisms of biased usage of synonymous codons but also provide useful clues for molecular genetic engineering and evolutionary studies. PMID:25440955

Yang, Xing; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

2014-12-01

308

Distribution of Taenia saginata cysticerci in tissues of experimentally infected cattle.  

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Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease warranting routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcass predilection sites, although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In order to evaluate the efficacy of current inspection protocols, this study determined the distribution and number of cysticerci in the tissues of experimentally infected cattle. Forty-two commercial beef cattle were divided into five groups of 5-12 animals each and inoculated with either 10,000, 5000, 1000, 100 or 10 T. saginata eggs. At time points ranging from 47 to 376 days post-inoculation (DPI), 10 animals inoculated with 5000 eggs were killed and the carcasses partitioned into 31 tissue sites. These consisted of the traditionally inspected tissue sites of heart, masseter and pterygoid muscles, tongue, oesophagus, and diaphragm (membranous and crura); as well as non-traditional sites of lung, liver and an additional 20 individual muscles or muscle groups. After performing the Canadian Food inspection Agency's (CFIA) routine inspection protocol for cysticerci on traditional tissue sites, tissues from all sites were cut into approximately 0.5 cm thick slices and the total number of parasitic cysts and cyst density (number of cysts/g of tissue) determined for each site. Traditional sites were similarly evaluated for the remaining 32 animals killed between 117 and 466 DPI. Sites were ranked based on cyst density. Infection was confirmed in 37 animals, of which only 20 were detected by routine inspection, and of which 7 harboured no cysts in traditional sites. For the animals in which additional non-traditional sites were evaluated, none yielded higher cyst densities than those traditionally inspected. When only traditional sites (for all animals) were compared, the heart ranked highest overall, although it was not significantly different from the masseter muscle, and was the most frequently affected site. The traditional site of oesophagus was one of the least rewarding of all sites for detection of cysticerci. The heart was confirmed as the preferred site for detection of bovine cysticercosis based on high cyst density and frequency of infection, and greater visibility of gross lesions due to the early inflammatory response in cardiac muscle. More extensive examination of the heart is recommended to improve detection of infected animals. PMID:19524368

Scandrett, Brad; Parker, Sarah; Forbes, Lorry; Gajadhar, Alvin; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Haines, Deborah

2009-10-14

309

Preferential growth of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in female mice holds across several laboratory mice strains and parasite lines.  

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A retrospective study of our 14-yr records on experimental Taenia crassiceps (ORF(fast) line) cysticercosis (n = 1,198) shows that in 16 of 17 different mice strains, female mice are more frequently infected and carry larger individual parasite loads than males. However, sexual differences in parasite loads significantly varies between strains in relation to their different genetic backgrounds (BALB > C57Bl = OTHERS > C3H). The coefficient of variation in all female mice is significantly smaller than that of all males, an indication of males' more potent, but erratically effective, restraint of cysticercus growth. Similar positive growth bias for female mice is shown by other lines of cysticerci, i.e., HYG(slow) and WFU(slow). These results contravene the usual expectation of female hosts being more resistant than males to parasite infections, and they point to the multiple factors that combined determine sex related differences of mice to experimental cysticercosis infection. PMID:18564762

Fragoso, G; Meneses, G; Sciutto, E; Fleury, A; Larralde, C

2008-04-01

310

Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone in vivo and in vitro inhibits reproduction, growth and viability of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes.  

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The aim of this work was to explore the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the establishment, growth and reproduction of the metacestode stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps, both in vivo and in vitro. Administration of DHEA prior to infection in mice of both sexes reduced the parasite load by 50% compared with untreated mice. This protective effect was not associated with the immune response, since there was no effect of DHEA treatment on mRNA levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-10. DHEA treatment of infected mice increased androgen receptor expression in splenocytes of both sexes. Moreover, in vitro treatment of T. crassiceps with DHEA reduced reproduction, motility and viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Results indicate that DHEA has strong negative direct modulatory effects on murine cysticercosis. We suggest the use of hormonal-analogues for protective purposes as a therapeutic approach to prevent murine cysticercosis. PMID:18082750

Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Larralde, Carlos; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2008-06-01

311

Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication  

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Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

E.V. Schwan

2012-07-01

312

Taeniasis/cysticercosis in a Tibetan population in Sichuan Province, China.  

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The results of a preliminary survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Yajiang County, Ganze Tibetan Prefecture in southwest Sichuan Province, China, indicated a very high prevalence of taeniasis (22.5%), with Taenia saginata as the dominant species. There was also a significant occurrence of late-onset epilepsy (8.5% prevalence and 16.4% seropositive for Taenia solium antibodies) attributable in large part to probable neurocysticercosis caused by T. solium. The poor sanitation and hygiene in this Tibetan community likely contributed to a high risk of human cysticercosis despite a low level of T. solium taeniasis (actually no T. solium carriers were detected amongst the 21 proven Taenia carriers). In addition, three taeniasis cases were confirmed by DNA genotyping as Taenia asiatica, which is the first report of this tapeworm in Tibetans, the first report for Sichuan Province and only the third report for mainland China. PMID:17166477

Li, Tiaoying; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Qiu, Jiamin; Sato, Marcello O; Wandra, Toni; Bradshaw, Helen; Li, Li; Yang, Yun; Wang, Qian

2006-12-01

313

Changes in behavioural and physiological parameters associated with Taenia pisiformis infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that may improve early detection of sick rabbits  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present experiment was to describe rabbits' early behavioral responses to illness, and its relation with physiological changes to help improve early detection of infection, particularly those induced by Taenia pisiformis in rabbits. Twenty adult female New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated in two groups, to determine whether changes in behavior and some physiological parameters can be induced in rabbits after a T. pisiformis infection. Infected animals were orally ino...

Betancourt-alonso, Miguel-angel; Orihuela, Agusti?n; Aguirre, Virginio; Va?zquez, Reyes; Flores-pe?rez, Fernando-iva?n

2011-01-01

314

Management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen Taenia crassiceps.  

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A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24914004

Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

2014-09-01

315

Budding of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci In Vitro Is Promoted by Crowding in Addition to Hormonal, Stress, and Energy-Related Signals  

OpenAIRE

Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts) reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1?ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in ...

Pedro Ostoa-Saloma; Pedro Ostoa-Jacobo; Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez; Silvana Bazúa; Carlos Larralde

2010-01-01

316

Receptor for catecholamines responding to catechol which potentiates voltage-dependent calcium current in single cells from guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

OpenAIRE

1. Single isolated cells were obtained from the taenia of the guinea-pig's caecum by enzymic digestion and held under voltage clamp. The effects of various catecholamines, sympathomimetics and related compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate the voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) evoked in these cells by a depolarizing step. 2. ICa was potentiated by up to 60% by isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline which were equipotent. The EC50 for isoprenaline was about 40 nM. 3. ...

Muraki, K.; Bolton, T. B.; Imaizumi, Y.; Watanabe, M.

1994-01-01

317

Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA) after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba liv [...] ia), weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG); with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG); with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG); with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG), and with daily handling (naive group; NG). The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P

I., Brito; L.R.G., Britto; E.A.M., Ferrari.

2011-08-01

318

Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation  

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Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.

I. Brito

2011-08-01

319

Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2013-01-01

320

Surface-associated proteins and host IgG on early and late metacestode stages of Taenia pisiformis.  

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125I-labelled proteins associated with the surface of the oncosphere and metacestode stages of Taenia pisiformis were investigated, together with the presence of host immunoglobulin G on the parasite surface. Rabbit IgG was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the acid washes (pH 3.0) of viable 3-week migratory metacestodes and 8-week mature cystic metacestodes from the liver and peritoneal cavity, respectively, of rabbits orally infected with eggs of T. pisiformis. However, specific anti-T. pisiformis IgG antibodies could not be detected in these washes using ELISA. When intact and washed hatch-activated oncospheres and 3-week and 8-week metacestode stages were iodinated with Bolton-Hunter 125I reagent and examined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, there appeared to be a marked loss and/or reduction of labelled proteins on the mature cystic metacestode compared to the oncosphere and 3-week juvenile metacestode stages. Six-week post-infection rabbit sera strongly immunoprecipitated a 43 kD iodinated protein from oncospheres together with others including a 65 kD polypeptide. Only the 65 kD polypeptide, which is the major iodinated protein on 3-week liver metacestodes, was immunoprecipitated from these juvenile or the mature metacestode stages. The results are discussed in relation to survival of metacestodes in the host, and as to how acquired resistance might result from both frequent egg challenge and concomitant immunity. PMID:3412783

Craig, P S

1988-05-01

321

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch  

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Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

2014-01-01

322

Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

2014-11-01

323

Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (pfipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent safety profile and demonstrated high levels of efficacy when administered once as topical solution to cats infected with nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:24703070

Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevi?ius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin

2014-04-28

324

Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: I. Structure and influence of host's size and sex  

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Full Text Available Between March 1992 and February 1996, 107 specimens of Sorubim lima were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná river. Ninety-five (88.78% specimens were parasitized with at least one species of proteocephalid cestodes. 7,573 specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera Woodland, 1935. S. maringaensis was the most prevalent and abundant. There were three dominant species P. itaipuensis, S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis and one co-dominant species (S. spinulifera. The three environments (lotic, semilotic and lentic in which collection was undertaken showed high similarity with regard to parasitic fauna. A high Simpson index value (0.359 indicates dominance tendency among species of parasites. Concerning S. maringaensis significant positive correlation was observed between parasite intensity and standard length of hosts. No species had negative correlation. With regard to S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis prevalence was positive and significantly correlated with standard length of hosts. No species had negative correlation. In the case of S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis influence of host's sex was noted on parasite intensity. There was no sex influence on parasite prevalence in any species.

TAKEMOTO R. M.

2000-01-01

325

Redescription and systematic position of Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a cestode species parasitic in shrews of the genus Sorex, including erection of Gulyaevilepis gen. n.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from the type host Sorex araneus Linnaeus from Lithuania, Latvia and Russia (Republic of Karelia and Republic of Komi - a new geographical record) as well as from Sorex satunini Ognev and Sorex volnuchini Ognev from Russia (Nalchik Area in the Caucasus Mountains). The strobilar morphology of S. tripartita is compared with that of other hymenolepidid cestodes of shrews with an unarmed scolex and serial development of proglottides in the strobila, i.e. species of Mathevolepis Spassky, 1948, Ditestolepis Soltys, 1952, Spasskylepis Schaldybin, 1964, Ecrinolepis Spassky et Karpenko, 1983 and Diorchilepis Lykova, Gulyaev, Melnikova et Karpenko, 2006. It was noted that S. tripartita does not correspond to any of the known genera. The following unique characters are found for S. tripartita: heteronomous serial strobilation with one or two sterile proglottides at the end of each series in the strobila and the whole copulatory part of the vagina covered with numerous, fine spines. Therefore, the new genus Gulyaevilepis is erected, with Gulyaevilepis tripartita (Zarnowski, 1955) comb. n. as its type and only species. Since the type material of Soricinia tripartita is not known to exist, a neotype from the same host species and from a locality close to the type locality is designated. PMID:24822320

Kornienko, Svetlana A; Binkiene, Rasa

2014-04-01

326

Cestodos de quirópteros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Perú / Cestodes of bats from the National Park Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En septiembre 2006, en el Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, departamento de Tumbes, Perú; 39 individuos de murciélagos, pertenecientes a 16 especies fueron capturados. El análisis parasitológico determino que solo dos individuos de las especies Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae) y Noctilio lepo [...] rinus (Noctilionidae) estaban parasitados. Los cestodos fueron colectados del intestino delgado e identificados como Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae) y Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae). Atriotaenia hastati es un nuevo registro para el Perú y Vampirolepis sp. es registrado por primera vez en Tumbes y en un nuevo huésped, Noctilio leporinus. Abstract in english In September 2006, at Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, department of Tumbes, Peru, 39 individuals of bats belonging to 16 species were captured. Parasitological analysis determined that only two individuals of the species Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae) and Noctilio leporinus (Noctilionidae [...] ) were parasitized. The cestodes were collected from the small intestine and identified as Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae) and Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae). Atriotaenia hastati is a new record for Peru and Vampirolepis sp. is registered for the first time in Tumbes and a new host, Noctilio leporinus.

Marina, Vargas C.; Rosa, Martínez R.; Manuel, Tantaleán V..

2009-08-01

327

Suramin antagonizes responses to P2-purinoceptor agonists and purinergic nerve stimulation in the guinea-pig urinary bladder and taenia coli.  

OpenAIRE

1. Suramin, an inhibitor of several types of ATPase, was investigated for its ability to antagonize responses mediated via P2X-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig urinary bladder and P2Y-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig taenia coli. 2. In isolated strips of bladder detrusor muscle, suramin (100 microM-1 mM) caused a non-competitive antagonism of responses to alpha, beta-methylene ATP with an estimated pA2 of approximately 4.7, and inhibited responses to stimulation of the intramural purinergic ner...

Hoyle, C. H.; Knight, G. E.; Burnstock, G.

1990-01-01

328

Bradykinin receptors in the guinea-pig taenia caeci are similar to proposed BK3 receptors in the guinea-pig trachea, and are blocked by HOE 140.  

OpenAIRE

1. Bradykinin (BK) receptors of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were compared with those of the guinea-pig trachea, a preparation proposed to possess novel BK3 receptors. 2. Bradykinin-evoked contractile responses were unaffected in both preparations by the selective BK1 receptor antagonist [des-Arg9,Leu8]-BK (1 microM-10 microM). The BK2 receptor antagonists, D-Arg-[Hyp3,D-Phe7]-BK and D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-BK, both had low affinities (apparent pKB estimates less than 6) which did not diffe...

Field, J. L.; Hall, J. M.; Morton, I. K.

1992-01-01

329

Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09%) revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral organs. The coenuri, of variable sizes, were found mainly in the muscles of the thigh, shoulder and neck, and were less common in the abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Coenuri were also found in the diaphragm, tongue, intercostal muscles, lung, parotid area and tunica adventitia of the aorta in a goat with severe infection. The brains of slaughtered goats that had coenuri in their skeletal muscles were examined and coenuri were found in two specimens (8.69%). The coenuri were located in the occipital lobe, the anterior part of the right cerebrum and the parietal lobe of the left cerebrum. Histopathologically, coenuri in the brain caused pressure atrophy and liquefactive necrosis in the surrounding tissues, hyperaemia, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration, neuronophagia, satellitosis, diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis. Coenuri in the skeletal muscles caused degenerative and necrotic changes, hyalinisation and myositis. In the lung, tissues around the coenurus revealed atelectasis and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the present study, concurrent occurrence of coenuri in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles supports the hypothesis that C. cerebralis and C. gaigeri are different names for the metacestodes of the same species of tapeworm. PMID:23327321

Kheirandish, Reza; Sami, Masoud; Azizi, Shahrzad; Mirzaei, Mohammad

2012-01-01

330

Kinase-related protein/telokin inhibits Ca2+-independent contraction in Triton-skinned guinea pig taenia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

KRP (kinase-related protein), also known as telokin, has been proposed to inhibit smooth muscle contractility by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the rMLC (regulatory myosin light chain) by the Ca2+-activated MLCK (myosin light chain kinase). Using the phosphatase inhibitor microcystin, we show in the present study that KRP also inhibits Ca2+-independent rMLC phosphorylation and smooth muscle contraction mediated by novel Ca2+-independent rMLC kinases. Incubating KRP-depleted Triton-skinned taenia coli with microcystin at pCa>8 induced a slow contraction reaching 90% of maximal force (Fmax) at pCa 4.5 after approximately 25 min. Loading the fibres with KRP significantly slowed down the force development, i.e. the time to reach 50% of Fmax was increased from 8 min to 35 min. KRP similarly inhibited rMLC phosphorylation of HMM (heavy meromyosin) in vitro by MLCK or by the constitutively active MLCK fragment (61K-MLCK) lacking the myosin-docking KRP domain. A C-terminally truncated KRP defective in myosin binding inhibited neither force nor HMM phosphorylation. Phosphorylated KRP inhibited the rMLC phosphorylation of HMM in vitro and Ca2+-insensitive contractions in fibres similar to unphosphorylated KRP, whereby the phosphorylation state of KRP was not altered in the fibres. We conclude that (i) KRP inhibits not only MLCK-induced contractions, but also those elicited by Ca2+-independent rMLC kinases; (ii) phosphorylation of KRP does not modulate this effect; (iii) binding of KRP to myosin is essential for this inhibition; and (iv) KRP inhibition of rMLC phosphorylation is most probably due to the shielding of the phosphorylation site on the rMLC. PMID:20459395

Shcherbakova, Olga V; Serebryanaya, Daria V; Postnikov, Alexander B; Schroeter, Mechthild M; Zittrich, Stefan; Noegel, Angelika A; Shirinsky, Vladimir P; Vorotnikov, Alexander V; Pfitzer, Gabriele

2010-07-15

331

Evaluation of a serological method for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis using serum and meat juice samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two peptides, HP6-2 and Ts45S-10, were used as antigens for the detection of antibodies against Taenia saginata cysticercosis in serum and meat juice samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive control samples were obtained from animals experimentally infected (serum) and from animals naturally infected (meat juice). The two peptides and a pooled preparation of both peptides were evaluated, and their cut-off points with both sample categories were calculated. ELISA results from these different peptides were compared. Sensitivity and specificity of HP6-2 using serum were calculated as being 100 and 98%, respectively, showing to be higher than the values for the other antigens used. The average optical density (OD) value for negative samples was 0.646, whereas it was 1.702 for the positive control samples. This peptide was used to examine serum samples from animals with cysts and random field serum samples. For meat juice samples the pooled peptides showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, as they were 100 and 95%, respectively. The average OD values for the negative and the positive reference meat juice samples were 0.379 and 1.291, respectively. The optimal dilution of the meat juice samples for the ELISA was very low, as it was 1:20 using the pooled peptides, compared with 1:800 serum dilution using HP6-2. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a successful testing for T. saginata cysticercosis using meat juice. PMID:17216238

Abuseir, S; Kühne, M; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Epe, C

2007-06-01

332

Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by detecting live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ante mortem antigen-ELISA-based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n = 24 and naturally (n = 25 infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in naturally infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificial infections it was above 14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves, and 1 and 2 live cysticerci in naturally infected steers, escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harbouring dead cysticerci gave negative reactions in the assay as was the case in non-infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially infected calves (r = 0.798, n = 24 ; P < 0.05 and naturally infected steers (r = 0.631, n = 25 ; P < 0.05. These results clearly show the potential effectiveness of ante mortem monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in cattle. Its value lies in the diagnosis of infection in cattle as a screening test in a herd, rather than as a diagnostic test at the individual level, due to false positive and negative reactions. In a herd of heavily infected cattle, the assay may, however, provide for individual diagnosis. Nevertheless, more work is recommended to increase its sensitivity so as to be able to diagnose light infections consistently in the field.

W. Wanzala

2012-07-01

333

Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never fou...

Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj

2013-01-01

334

Excretory products of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, modulate in vitro responses of leukocytes from its specific host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminth parasites have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate the immune system of their hosts. During infections of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus prominent immunological changes occur, presumably due to manipulative activity of the parasite. We hypothesise that excretory/secretory products of the parasite are involved in the manipulation of the stickleback's immune system and that this may depend on the individual parasite and its origin. We therefore produced S. solidus conditioned cell culture media (SSCM) with parasites from different origins (Norway, Spain and Germany) and exposed head kidney leukocytes (HKL) from un-infected sticklebacks in cell cultures to SSCM. After in vitro culture, HKL were subjected to differential cell counts (granulocytes/lymphocytes) by means of flow cytometry. Leukocyte sub-populations were analysed for cell viability and changes in cell morphology. The respiratory burst activity was measured with a luminescence assay. Exposure of HKL to SSCM induced an up-regulation of respiratory burst activity after already 1 h, which was still elevated at 24 h, but which was in some cases significantly down-regulated after 96 h. Respiratory burst was positively correlated with the number of live granulocytes in the culture, suggesting that the respiratory burst activity was changed by SSCM effects on granulocyte viability. After 1 h and 24 h of HKL culture, no lymphocyte responses to SSCM were detectable, but after 96 h lymphocyte viability was significantly decreased with SSCM from Spanish S. solidus. In these cultures, residual lymphocytes increased in size, suggesting that cell death and activation might have occurred in parallel. The highest respiratory burst activity was induced by SSCM from Spanish parasites, in particular when they were grown in sympatric sticklebacks. The in vitro HKL responses to SSCM depended on the individual parasite and its population of origin, suggesting that in vivo, S. solidus excretory products are regulated individually, possibly to balance the interplay of each individual host-parasite pair. PMID:24036333

Scharsack, Jörn Peter; Gossens, Anabel; Franke, Frederik; Kurtz, Joachim

2013-12-01

335

DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR  

OpenAIRE

Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their causative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yielded evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American/African and Asian genotypes of Taenia solium with molecular sizes of 827, 269, 720, and 984 bp, respectively. In the PCR-based detection of tapeworm carriers using fecal samples, t...

Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Allan, James C.; Sato, Marcello Otake; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Mamuti, Wulamu; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

2004-01-01

336

Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Prevalence of Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the rural area of Viçosa-MG, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

A teníase é uma doença que se manifesta no ser humano em decorrência da presença da forma adulta da Taenia sp., enquanto a cisticercose decorre da infecção pelo estágio larvar da Taenia sp. ou Taenia solium, no caso dos suínos e humanos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visando a determinar a prevalência de cisticercose em suínos e de teníase em 176 propriedades localizadas na zona rural de Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG). Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 226 suínos e fezes de...

Adriana Felix Iasbik; Paulo Sérgio Arruda Pinto; Paula Dias Bevilacqua; Luis Augusto Nero; Tatiane Oliveira Santos; Adriano Groppo Felippe

2010-01-01

337

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Science.gov (United States)

...milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use . Removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis . (2) Cats —(i) Amount . 1.25 milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for...

2010-04-01

338

Proteocephalid cestode infection in tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) from Paraná River, São Paulo / Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp. (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), no Rio Paraná, São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a ocorrência de cestóides proteocefalídeos em tucunaré Cichla sp., capturados mensalmente, entre agosto de 2000 e agosto de 2001, no rio Paraná, em Presidente Epitácio, SP. Um total de 128 espécimes foram analisados, dos quais 71 (55,6%) estavam parasitados por Proteocephalus macrophallus [...] (Diesing, 1850) e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935). A abundância e intensidade média total foram de 157,08 e 223,41, respectivamente. A maior prevalência (90%), juntamente com os maiores índices de abundância (1122,4) e intensidade média (1247,11) ocorreram no mês de fevereiro 2001, enquanto no mês de setembro 2000 não foram observados animais parasitados por cestóides. Não houve relação entre o sexo do hospedeiro e os índices parasitológicos. Abstract in english The occurrence of proteocephalid cestodes in tucunaré Cichla sp., captured monthly, between August 2000 and August 2001, in Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, SP, was evaluated. From 128 specimens, 71 (55.6%) were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Wo [...] odland, 1935). Total mean abundance and intensity were 157.08 and 223.41, respectively. The highest prevalence (90%) mean abundance (1,122.4) and intensity indexes (1,247.11) occurred in February 2001, while in September 2000 there were no observed animals infected by cestodes. No relationship between the sex of the host and parasitological indexes was found.

R.S., Santos; K., Roumbedakis; N.G., Marengoni; H.K., Takahashi; F.D.A., Pimenta; C.M.R., Melo; M.L., Martins.

2011-06-01

339

Budding of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci In Vitro Is Promoted by Crowding in Addition to Hormonal, Stress, and Energy-Related Signals  

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Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1?ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17ß-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments.

Pedro Ostoa-Saloma

2010-01-01

340

Budding of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro is promoted by crowding in addition to hormonal, stress, and energy-related signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts) reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1 ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding) stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17beta-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments. PMID:20168999

Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Bazúa, Silvana; Larralde, Carlos

2010-01-01

341

Helminth Induced Suppression of Macrophage Activation Is Correlated with Inhibition of Calcium Channel Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminth parasites cause persistent infections in humans and yet many infected individuals are asymptomatic. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the cestode Taenia solium, has a long asymptomatic phase correlated with an absence of brain inflammation. However, the mechanisms of immune suppression remain poorly understood. Here we report that murine NCC displays a lack of cell surface maturation markers in infiltrating myeloid cells. Furthermore, soluble parasite ligands (PL) failed to induce maturation of macrophages, and inhibited TLR-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, PL treatment abolished both LPS and thapsigargin-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Moreover, electrophysiological recordings demonstrated PL-mediated inhibition of LPS or Tg-induced currents that were TRPC1-dependent. Concomitantly STIM1-TRPC1 complex was also impaired that was essential for SOCE and sustained Ca2+ entry. Likewise loss of SOCE due to PL further inhibited NFkB activation. Overall, our results indicate that the negative regulation of agonist induced Ca2+ signaling pathway by parasite ligands may be a novel immune suppressive mechanism to block the initiation of the inflammatory response associated with helminth infections. PMID:25013939

Chauhan, Arun; Sun, Yuyang; Pani, Biswaranjan; Quenumzangbe, Fredice; Sharma, Jyotika; Singh, Brij B.; Mishra, Bibhuti B.

2014-01-01

342

Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

2015-02-01

343

Helminth induced suppression of macrophage activation is correlated with inhibition of calcium channel activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminth parasites cause persistent infections in humans and yet many infected individuals are asymptomatic. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the cestode Taenia solium, has a long asymptomatic phase correlated with an absence of brain inflammation. However, the mechanisms of immune suppression remain poorly understood. Here we report that murine NCC displays a lack of cell surface maturation markers in infiltrating myeloid cells. Furthermore, soluble parasite ligands (PL) failed to induce maturation of macrophages, and inhibited TLR-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, PL treatment abolished both LPS and thapsigargin-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Moreover, electrophysiological recordings demonstrated PL-mediated inhibition of LPS or Tg-induced currents that were TRPC1-dependent. Concomitantly STIM1-TRPC1 complex was also impaired that was essential for SOCE and sustained Ca2+ entry. Likewise loss of SOCE due to PL further inhibited NFkB activation. Overall, our results indicate that the negative regulation of agonist induced Ca2+ signaling pathway by parasite ligands may be a novel immune suppressive mechanism to block the initiation of the inflammatory response associated with helminth infections. PMID:25013939

Chauhan, Arun; Sun, Yuyang; Pani, Biswaranjan; Quenumzangbe, Fredice; Sharma, Jyotika; Singh, Brij B; Mishra, Bibhuti B

2014-01-01

344

Parasitoses of the human central nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral involvement in parasitoses is an important clinical manifestation of most of the human parasitoses. Parasites that have been described to affect the central nervous system (CNS), either as the dominant or as a collateral feature, include cestodes (Taenia solium (neurocysticerciasis), Echinococcus granulosus (cerebral cystic echinococcosis), E. multilocularis (cerebral alveolar echinococcosis), Spirometra mansoni (neurosparganosis)), nematodes (Toxocara canis and T. cati (neurotoxocariasis), Trichinella spiralis (neurotrichinelliasis), Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. costaricensis (neuroangiostrongyliasis), Gnathostoma spinigerum (gnathostomiasis)), trematodes (Schistosoma mansoni (cerebral bilharziosis), Paragonimus westermani (neuroparagonimiasis)), or protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii (neurotoxoplasmosis), Acanthamoeba spp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris (granulomatous amoebic encephalitis), Naegleria (primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis), Entamoeba histolytica (brain abscess), Plasmodium falciparum (cerebral malaria), Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/rhodesiense (sleeping sickness) or Trypanosoma cruzi (cerebral Chagas disease)). Adults or larvae of helminths or protozoa enter the CNS and cause meningitis, encephalitis, ventriculitis, myelitis, ischaemic stroke, bleeding, venous thrombosis or cerebral abscess, clinically manifesting as headache, epilepsy, weakness, cognitive decline, impaired consciousness, confusion, coma or focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis of cerebral parasitoses is dependent on the causative agent. Available diagnostic tools include clinical presentation, blood tests (eosinophilia, plasmodia in blood smear, antibodies against the parasite), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations, imaging findings and occasionally cerebral biopsy. Treatment relies on drugs and sometimes surgery. Outcome of cerebral parasitoses is highly variable, depending on the effect of drugs, whether they are self-limiting (e.g. Angiostrongylus costaricensis) or whether they remain undetected or asymptomatic, like 25% of neurocysticerciasis cases. PMID:23046708

Finsterer, J; Auer, H

2013-09-01

345

Registros taxonômicos de cestóides Trypanorhyncha/Homeacanthoidea em elasmobrânquios coletados na costa do Estado do Paraná, Brasil TAXONOMIC REPORTS OF TRYPANORHYNCHA/HOMEACANTHOIDEA CESTODES IN ELASMOBRANCHS COLLECTED IN THE COAST OF THE STATE OF PARANÁ, BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Espécimes de peixes elasmobrânquios, capturados em 1998 no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, estavam parasitados com cestóides Trypano-rhyncha/Homeacanthoidea: Carcharhinus signatus com Heteronybelinia yamagutii e H. nipponica; Dipturus trachydermus com Mixonybelinia beveridgei Das duas espécies de Heteronybelinia foram obtidos detalhes da morfologia do escólex, que expandiram suas descrições. A distribuição geográfica das espécies foi ampliadaSpecimes of elasmobranch fishes, captured in 1998 in the the State of Paraná, Brazil, were parasitized with Trypanorhyncha/Homeacanthoidea cestodes: Carcharhinus signatus with Heteronybelinia yamagutii (Dollfus, 1960 Palm, 1999 and H. nipponica (Yamaguti, 1952 Palm, 1999; Dipturus trachydermus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975 with Mixonybelinia beveridgei (Palm et al, 1997 Palm, 1999. Details of scolex morphology of the two species of Heteronybelinia that expanded their desciptions were obtained. The known geographical distribution of the species is widened

MARCELO KNOFF

2004-01-01

346

Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?  

OpenAIRE

History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area o...

Chai, Jong-yil

2013-01-01

347

Uma nova espécie de cestóide proteocefalídeo, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasita de Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes (Pisces, Doradidae, do reservatório de Itaipu e rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil A New species of proteocephalidean cestode, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasite of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes (Pisces, Doradidae from Itaipu reservoir and Paraná river, Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper the authors describe and illustrate a new species of proteocephalidean cestode, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasite of a freshwater siluriform fish (thorny catfish. Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1833, from the Itaipu Reservoir and Paraná River, in the region of Porto Rico. This is the first reference of a proteocephalid in this host. The values of prevalence and mean intensity of infection are given and the life cycle is discussed.

Gilberto C Pavanelli

1994-01-01

348

Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali and North Sumatra, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that three human Taenia species are distributed in Indonesia: Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. T. asiatica is well known in North Sumatra, especially on Samosir island in Lake Toba. T. solium and T. saginata are known from Bali. T. solium is most serious public health issue in Papua (former Irian Jaya). In this report, we briefly review the present situation of these three human Taenia species mainly in Bali and North Sumatra. For community based epidemiological survey, we have adopted and applied questionnaire, microscopic observation of eggs, coproantigen tests, coproDNA tests, mitochondrial DNA analysis and morphology for isolated specimens, serology for cysticercosis and taeniasis. For detection of taeniasis cases of both T. saginata and T. asiatica, questionnaire by expert doctors is perfect to detect worm carriers. Corpoantigen test developed for detection of taeniasis of T. solium is also highly reliable to detect taeniasis carriers in the community. Epidemiological data from these two islands 2002-2005 are reviewed with backgrounds of historical culture, religions and customs. PMID:16376140

Wandra, Toni; Depary, A A; Sutisna, Putu; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

2006-01-01

349

The economic impact of pig-associated parasitic zoonosis in Northern Lao PDR.  

OpenAIRE

The parasitic zoonoses human cysticercosis (Taenia solium), taeniasis (other Taenia species) and trichinellosis (Trichinella species) are endemic in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study was designed to quantify the economic burden pig-associated zoonotic disease pose in Lao PDR. In particular, the analysis included estimation of the losses in the pork industry as well as losses due to human illness and lost productivity. A Markov-probability based decision-tree model was...

Choudhury, Aak; Conlan, Jv; Racloz, Vn; Reid, Sa; Blacksell, Sd; Fenwick, Sg; Thompson, Arc; Khamlome, B.; Vongxay, K.; Whittaker, M.

2013-01-01

350

Diel vertical movements, and effects of infection by the cestode Schistocephalus solidus on daytime proximity of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus to the surface of a large Alaskan lake.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a field study in Iliamna Lake, Alaska, to test the hypothesis that proximity of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus to the lake's surface during the daytime varies with macroparasitic cestode parasite Schistocephalus solidus infection in a manner consistent with enhanced vulnerability to avian predators. Extensive sampling in the lake and likelihood-based modeling revealed that sticklebacks displayed a diel vertical migration, being closer to the surface at night than during the evening and early morning. Additional sampling, also coupled with a likelihood-based modeling approach, showed that fish caught at the surface of the lake during the day were more often parasitized (76 vs. 65%), more heavily parasitized (26.8 vs. 22.7% of their body mass), and had larger individual parasites (0.24 vs. 0.20 g) than those caught at night. Parasite infection was related, non-linearly, to fish size, which also differed between day and night sampling at the surface. We performed statistical competitions among nested hierarchies of models that accounted for this effect of length. The most likely models indicated that fish captured during the day had greater parasite prevalence, higher parasite burdens, and larger parasites than did fish captured at night. Proximity to the surface during the day in this very clear lake would likely increase the vulnerability of sticklebacks to predation from birds, enabling completion of the parasite's lifecycle. PMID:21748321

Quinn, T P; Kendall, N W; Rich, H B; Chasco, B E

2012-01-01

351

Evaluation of a novel Dot-ELISA assay utilizing a recombinant protein for the effective diagnosis of Taenia pisiformis larval infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in domestic breeds of the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus that results in economic losses. At present, there is no convenient and effective method for the rapid detection of T. pisiformis larvae. Here, we developed and tested the efficacy of a Dot-ELISA assay for the diagnosis of T. pisiformis larval infections in rabbits, based on the expression of the recombinant fusion protein (rTp1) from the Tp1 gene. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to amplify the 3' ends of the Tp1 gene, based on the unigene similar to Ts1 gene (EU009656.1) which comes from transcriptome sequencing of T. pisiformis. The Tp1 gene was successfully amplified, cloned and expressed in BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tp1 protein is specifically recognized by rabbit T. pisiformis cysticercosis antisera. This purified recombinant fusion protein, rTp1, was probed by Dot-ELISA with sera from rabbits infected with T. pisiformis larvae and with other parasitic infections. Results showed that this Dot-ELISA assay had both high sensitivity (92.9-97.6%) and specificity (95.2-98.4%) to detect T. pisiformis larval infections. We also found very low levels of cross-reaction with other parasitic infections. This study has revealed that our novel Dot-ELISA assay utilizing the recombinant fusion protein, rTp1, has a strong potential for the effective diagnosis of T. pisiformis infections in rabbits. PMID:24909076

Chen, Lin; Yang, Deying; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-08-29

352

Strategies of statistical image analysis of 2D immunoblots: the case of IgG response in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure is described to measure the diversity and enrich the meaning and usefulness of the information contained in 2D immunoblot images of the reaction between a complex mixture of parasite antigens and the complex set of antibodies usually present in the sera of infected individual hosts. The procedure and results are illustrated by the experimental infection of 30 mice (three strains, both sexes, 5 mice in each strain x sex combination) with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, thirty days after the challenge. The exercise revealed a significant positive correlation of parasite loads with the hosts' IgG response, in association with their genetic background and less clearly with their sex, all in the midst of a remarkable diversity of both response variables among individual mice. After superimposing a 10 x 10 grid upon the 2D immunoblots some 10% of the positive grid-cells (those who had at least one spot) were positively correlated, suggesting shared epitopes between different antigen spots and/or similar factors controlling different antibody-producing cell clones. Also, a significant correlation was found between many of the positive grid-cells with high values of [Sigma]parasites, but none with low. Thus, the procedure provided many clues for the selection of antigen spots useful to improve immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis and weakened the inclusion of any as vaccine candidate(s). However, some 16 antigen spots were shared almost exclusively by the resistant strains and could relate to protection. The procedure here illustrated may be used in other infections to assess and identify the relevance of antibodies in diagnosis and prevention, as well as provides a measurement of the expected diversity in the hosts' antibody response to the pathogen and of the possible relations between the individual responses towards different antigens contained in the mixture. PMID:19800348

Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Larralde, Carlos

2009-12-31

353

Cyanide-resistant respiration in Taenia crassiceps metacestode (cysticerci) is explained by the H2O2-producing side-reaction of respiratory complex I with O2.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of the cyanide-resistant respiration of Taenia crassiceps metacestode was studied. Mitochondrial respiration with NADH as substrate was partially inhibited by rotenone, cyanide and antimycin in decreasing order of effectiveness. In contrast, respiration with succinate or ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was more sensitive to antimycin and cyanide. The saturation kinetics for O2 with NADH as substrate showed two components, which exhibited different oxygen affinities. The high-O2-affinity system (Km app=1.5 microM) was abolished by low cyanide concentration; it corresponded to cytochrome aa3. The low-O2-affinity system (Km app=120 microM) was resistant to cyanide. Similar O2 saturation kinetics, using succinate or ascorbate-TMPD as electron donor, showed only the high-O2-affinity cyanide-sensitive component. Horse cytochrome c increased 2-3 times the rate of electron flow across the cyanide-sensitive pathway and the contribution of the cyanide-resistant route became negligible. Mitochondrial NADH respiration produced significant amounts of H2O2 (at least 10% of the total O2 uptake). Bovine catalase and horse heart cytochrome c prevented the production and/or accumulation of H2O2. Production of H2O2 by endogenous respiration was detected in whole cysticerci using rhodamine as fluorescent sensor. Thus, the CN-resistant and low-O2-affinity respiration results mainly from a spurious reaction of the respiratory complex I with O2, producing H2O2. The meaning of this reaction in the microaerobic habitat of the parasite is discussed. PMID:15958286

del Arenal, I Patricia; Rubio, M Esther; Ramírez, Jorge; Rendón, Juan L; Escamilla, J Edgardo

2005-09-01

354

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

2003-04-01

355

Teniosis y detección de anticuerpos anticisticerco en personas de una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero / Taeniosis and detection of antibodies against cysticerci among inhabitants of a rural community in Guerrero State, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de portadores de Taenia sp. y su relación con el diagnóstico de cisticercos en humanos en una comunidad rural del estado de Guerrero, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para detectar portadores de Taenia sp. se analizaron 403 muestras de heces de personas, por medio de EL [...] ISA para coproantígenos de Taenia sp., así como 92 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos anticisticerco mediante inmunoelectrotransferencia. El diseño del estudio fue transversal y se llevó a cabo durante 1998. Se hizo estadística descriptiva y se estimó razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 403 muestras de heces evaluadas, cinco resultaron positivas (1.2 %). Sólo en dos de las cinco personas positivas se obtuvo el cestodo adulto. En 3 (3.26%) de los 92 sueros se encontraron anticuerpos anticisticerco. Del total de sueros, 17 fueron de las personas con diagnóstico positivo a teniosis por coproantígenos o que cohabitaban con ellos (primer grupo), los restantes 75 provenían de personas en quienes no se detectaron casos en las viviendas (segundo grupo). En el primer grupo se detectaron 2 (11.8%) sueros positivos, mientras que en el segundo sólo 1 (1.3%) (RM= 9.87, I.C 0.64-295.56, p= 0.086). CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener el parásito adulto en las personas positivas a coproantígenos puede deberse a características propias de éste que dificultan su expulsión, a que la permanencia del cestodo en su huésped es menor a la esperada o a que el tratamiento fue insuficiente para obtener el parásito, o bien, a problemas de especificidad de la prueba. Es necesario realizar estudios tendientes a evaluar estas posibilidades, lo cual permitiría conocer mejor la dinámica de transmisión de esta parasitosis, con el fin de establecer medidas de prevención y control, además de poder comparar con mayor veracidad la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas en condiciones de campo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of Taenia solium carriers and its relationship with human cysticercosis in a Mexican locality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998, in a locality of Guerrero State, Mexico. Four hundred and three fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme [...] -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Taenia sp coproantigen. Ninety two serum samples were also analyzed for antibodies against cisticerci using the immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (IET). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. RESULTS: Five of the 403 fecal samples were positive (1.2%). The adult cestode was recovered in only two people. Three (3.26%) out of the 92 serum samples that were analyzed for anticysticercus antibodies were positive. Seventeen serum samples corresponded to people living with a person positive to the coproantigen test (first group), the remaining 75 were obtained from people without a history of releasing taenia proglottids (second group). In the first group, 2 positive sera were detected (11.8%), while in the second only 1 was positive (1.3%) (odds ratio= 9.87, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 295.56, p= 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty to obtain the adult parasite in persons positive to coproantigens, may be due to difficult expulsion, a shorter permanence of the parasite in the host, insufficient dosage of treatment, or to lack of specificity of the diagnostic test. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possibilities; a better knowledge of parasite transmission dynamics will allow the implementation of prevention and control measures and a better assessment of diagnostic tests under field conditions.

José Juan, Martínez-Maya; Aline S de, Aluja; Guillermina, Avila-Ramírez; Laura, Aguilar-Vega; Agustín, Plancarte-Crespo; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo-Arango.

2003-04-01

356

Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

2013-11-01

357

Public Health Implications of Cysticercosis Acquired in the United States  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dr. Patricia Wilkins, a research microbiologist at CDC, discusses an infection caused by the larvae of taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.  Created: 1/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/6/2011.

2011-01-06

358

Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization  

Science.gov (United States)

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

359

La cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y en el Ecuador (Porcine cysticercosis in Latin America and Ecuador)  

OpenAIRE

Resumen.El presente trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de la cisticercosis porcina en América Latina y el Ecuador, donde el Cysticercus cellulosae (metacestodo de Taenia solium) es conocido vulgarmente como: “triquina”, “coscoja”, “alverjilla”, “quinua”, “grano” o “pepa”. Las fuentes de información provienen de artículos científicos publicados en revistas indexadas y de observaciones encontradas en de tesis de grado o trabajos científicos publicad...

Rodri?guez-hidalgo, Richar; Beni?tez-ortiz, Washington

2007-01-01

360

Neurocysticercosis in a European traveler returning from India primarily suspected as neoplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A woman with a history of cured breast cancer and multiple trips to India presented with a cervical nodule. Primarily suspected as metastasis of breast cancer, histopathology, however, showed the scolex of Taenia solium. Although the patient was neurologically asymptomatic neuroimaging showed multiple cysts. During treatment with praziquantel, albendazole, and dexamethason the patient developed seizures. PMID:23992578

Salzer, Helmut J F; Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Krause, Robert

2013-01-01

361

Human neurocysticercosis: immunological features involved in the host's susceptibility to become infected and to develop disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. Herein, the immunological and endocrinological features involved in resistance to infection and severe forms of the disease are reviewed, and their clinical relevance is discussed. PMID:23542217

Sciutto, Edda; Cárdenas, Graciela; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Fleury, Agnes

2013-06-01

362

Human cysticercosis and taeniasis: molecular approaches for specific diagnosis and parasite identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The construction and antibody screening of Taenia solium cDNA libraries, generated in the Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda gt11, with the identification of clones putatively expressing antigen B, T. solium-specific and other antigens is described. Lysogens were produced from a number of selected clones and beta-galactosidase fusion peptides ranging in Mr of approximately 135,000-150,000 were demonstrated. These proteins were shown by immunoblotting to be reactive with a pool of sera from cysticercotic patients originally used in the cDNA library screening. We report a method whereby Taenia (T. saginata and T. pisiformis) eggs can be detected with high sensitivity in a specific DNA dot-blot hybridisation assay using total parasite DNA as probe. We show also that intra-specific DNA variability occurs in T. solium isolates obtained from different geographical areas and discuss the potential significance of this heterogeneity. PMID:2489006

McManus, D P; Garcia-Zepeda, E; Reid, A; Rishi, A K; Flisser, A

1989-01-01

363

Rattus norvegicus como indicador de la circulación de Capillaria hepatica y Taenia taeniaeformis en la Plaza Minorista de Medellín, Colombia / Rattus norvegicus as an indicator of circulation of Capillaria hepatica and Taenia taeniaeformis on a groceries trade center of Medellín, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Rattus norvegicus cumple un papel epidemiológico en el mantenimiento y dispersión de agentes zoonóticos bacterianos, virales y parasitarios de interés en salud pública. La presencia de infección por helmintos en especies Rattus cercanas a poblaciones expuestas en condiciones ambientale [...] s propicias, puede convertirse en un factor de riesgo de transmisión. Objetivo. Reportar la frecuencia de infección con Capillaria hepatica y formas larvarias de Taenia taeniaeformis en ratas silvestres (R. norvegicus) capturadas en una zona urbana de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se capturaron 254 ejemplares de R. norvegicus. Los hígados de 54 ejemplares que presentaron lesión hepática macroscópica durante la necropsia, fueron examinados por histopatología convencional. Resultados. La frecuencia de infección por C. hepatica fue de 20,1 % (51/254). Seis hígados fueron también positivos para larvas de T. taeniaeformis con una frecuencia de 2,4 % (6/254). Los hígados infestados con C. hepatica exhibían parásitos en el estadio adulto o juvenil y huevos ovalados con opérculos bipolares, asociados con hepatitis granulomatosa leve a moderada multifocal y acompañada por infiltrado leucocitario. Se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en resolución y fibrosis residual o calcificada que contenía huevos. Donde se encontraron cisticercos de T. taeniaeformis, el hallazgo más frecuente fueron quistes hepáticos que contenían larvas, y lesiones inflamatorias y fibróticas. Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que helmintos de potencial zoonótico circulan en R. norvegicus de ambientes urbanos. Debe investigarse la verdadera distribución de estos parásitos, para determinar el riesgo potencial que corren las poblaciones animales y humanas expuestas a adquirir este tipo de infecciones. Abstract in english Introduction. Rattus norvegicus, the Norway rat, plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and spread of several zoonotic bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens of public health interest. The presence of helminthic infections near susceptible human populations can, under appropriate environmental co [...] nditions, become a risk factor for their transmission. Objective. Frequencies of infection were reported for Capillaria hepatica and larval forms of Taenia taeniaeformis in wild rats (R. norvegicus) captured in an urban area. Materials and methods. Two hundred and fifty-four adult specimens of R. norvegicus were collected in an urban zone of Medellín, Colombia. The livers of 54 specimens that showed macroscopic hepatic lesions during necropsy were examined by conventional histopathology. Results. The frequency of infestation with C. hepatica was 20.1% (51/254). Six livers (2.4%) were also positive for larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Livers infested with C. hepatica exhibited adult or juvenile parasites and oval eggs with bipolar opercula, and were associated with mild to moderate multifocal granulomatous hepatitis with leucocyte infiltrate. Granulomatous lesions and calcified residual fibroses were found with eggs but without adult parasites. Those animals with cysticerci of T. taeniaeformis showed a high frequency of hepatic cysts containing larvae as well as inflammed and fibrotic lesions. Conclusion. Zoonotic helminths circulate at high frequency in R. norvegicus that occur in urban environments. Further research about the distribution of these parasites will determine the level of health threat they present for susceptible human and domestic animal populations.

Biviana Andrea, Duque; Diego, Aranzazu; Piedad, Agudelo-Flórez; Andrés F, Londoño; Víctor H, Quiroz; Juan D, Rodas.

2012-12-01

364

Rattus norvegicus as an indicator of circulation of Capillaria hepatica and Taenia taeniaeformis on a groceries trade center of Medellín, Colombia Rattus norvegicus como indicador de la circulación de Capillaria hepatica y Taenia taeniaeformis en la Plaza Minorista de Medellín, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Rattus norvegicus plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and spread of some zoonotic bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens of public health interest. The presence of helminthic infections near to susceptible populations under appropriate environmental conditions might become a risk factor for their transmission.Objective. To report the frequency of infection with Capillaria hepatica and larval forms of Taenia taeniaeformis on wild rats (R. norvegicus, captured in an urban zone of Medellín.Materials and methods. 254 adult specimens of R. norvegicus were collected. The livers of 54 specimens that showed macroscopic hepatic lesions during necropsy were examined by conventional histopathology.Results. The frequency of infestation with C. hepatica was 20.1% (51/254. Six livers were also positive for larvae of T. taeniaeformis, a frequency of 2.4% (6/254. Livers infested with C. hepatica, exhibited adult or juvenile parasites, and oval eggs with bipolar opercula, associated with mild to moderate multifocal granulomatous hepatitis, accompanied by leukocitary infiltrate. We found also resolving granulomatous lesions without adult parasites and eggs and residual fibrosis or containing-eggs calcified lesions. On those animals that had cysticerci of T. taeniaeformis, the most frequent finding was the presence of hepatic cysts containing larvae and inflammatory and fibrotic lesions.Conclusion. These results indicate that potentially zoonotic helminths circulate in R. norvegicus in urban environments. The current study suggests that more research about the distribution of these parasites is required in order to determine whether this is a real or potential threat for human and animal susceptible populations.

Introducción. Rattus norvegicus cumple un papel epidemiológico en el mantenimiento y dispersión de agentes zoonóticos bacterianos, virales y parasitarios de interés en salud pública. La presencia de infección por helmintos en especies de Rattus cercanas a poblaciones susceptibles en condiciones ambientales propicias, puede convertirse en un factor de riesgo de transmisión.Objetivo. Reportar la frecuencia de infección con Capillaria hepatica y formas larvarias de Taenia taeniaeformis en ratas silvestres (R. norvegicus capturadas en una zona urbana de Medellín.Materiales y métodos. Se capturaron 254 ejemplares de R. norvegicus. Los hígados de 54 ejemplares que presentaron lesión hepática macroscópica durante la necropsia, fueron examinados por histopatología convencional.Resultados. La frecuencia de infección por C. hepatica fue de 20,1% (51/254. Seis hígados fueron también positivos para larvas de T. taeniaeformis con una frecuencia de 2,4% (6/254. Los hígados infestados con C. hepatica, exhibían parásitos en el estadío adulto o juvenil y huevos ovalados con opérculos bipolares, asociados con hepatitis granulomatosa leve a moderada multifocal y acompañada por infiltrado leucocitario. Se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en resolución y fibrosis residual o calcificadas conteniendo huevos. Donde se encontraron cisticercos de T. taeniaeformis, el hallazgo más frecuente fue quistes hepáticos que contenían  larvas y lesiones inflamatorias y fibróticas.Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que helmintos de potencial zoonótico circulan en R. norvegicus de ambientes urbanos. Debe investigarse la verdadera distribución de estos parásitos, para determinar el riesgo potencial que corren las poblaciones animales y humanas susceptibles de adquirir este tipo de infecciones.

Biviana Andrea Duque

2012-05-01

365

HALLAZGO DE CESTODOS DE LA FAMILIA HYMENOLEPIDIDAE EN EL RATÓN ALGODONERO DEL SUR (Sigmodon hirsutus) EN HUILA, COLOMBIA / CESTODES OF HYMENOLEPIDIDAE FAMILY FOUND IN THE SOUTHERN COTTON RAT (Sigmodon hirsutus) IN HUILA, COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estudio de la fauna parasitológica de roedores silvestres constituye una clave importante para enfrentar situaciones de riesgo en salud pública, conservación y producción animal, debido al impacto que algunos de estos parásitos pueden producir en la salud de seres humanos, animales silvestres y a [...] nimales de producción y compañía. En mayo de 2011 se colectaron muestras de materia fecal de ratones silvestres en los municipios de Garzón y El Agrado (Huila, Colombia), con el fin de identificar, mediante evaluación coprológica, las especies de parásitos gastrointestinales presentes en roedores de dicha zona. Se capturaron siete ratones de la especie Sigmodon hirsutus, se tomaron muestras de materia fecal y los animales fueron liberados posteriormente. En las muestras se observaron huevos de la familia Hymenolepididae, con características morfológicas que los ubican en los géneros Hymenolepis o Rodentolepis. El hallazgo de estos parásitos en las heces de roedores silvestres en áreas de hábitat compartido con seres humanos sugiere un factor de riesgo zoonótico. Sin embargo, se requieren investigaciones adicionales que permitan establecer asociación entre el parasitismo gastrointestinal en humanos y la presencia de roedores en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The study of parasitological fauna of wild rodents constitutes a significant key to confront situations of risk on public health, conservation and animal production, due to the impact of some parasites on the health of humans, wildlife, farm animals and pets. Fecal samples of wild rodents were colle [...] cted in May 2011 in the area of Garzón and El Agrado, (Huila, Colombia) in order to identify, by parasitological examination, the species of gastrointestinal parasites found in rodents in this area. Seven mices of specie Sigmodon hirsutus, were trapped in order to take fecal samples. Animals were released after this procedure. Eggs of cestodes of the family Hymenolepididae with morphological characteristics of genera Hymenolepis or Rodentolepis were found in the samples. The finding of these parasites in the feces of wild rodents in areas of shared habitat with humans suggests a zoonotic risk factor, but it is necessary to carry out more researches on association between gastrointestinal parasitism in humans and presence of wild rodents in the area.

M. A, Santa-Sepúlveda; M. E, Pardo.

2014-04-01

366

Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. PMID:24309372

Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

2014-02-01

367

Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?  

Science.gov (United States)

History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

Chai, Jong-Yil

2013-02-01

368

Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

2014-04-01

369

Prevalence of teniasis-cysticercosis complex in a rural area of Matias Barbosa-MG
Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural de Matias Barbosa-MG
 

OpenAIRE

The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is an important disease to the public and animal health. The man plays an important role in the life cycle, because he is the unique definitive host. The adult forms of the Taenia solium or Taenia saginata holds in gut, and the larvae forms develops in the muscle of cattle and swine, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex transmission in rural area of Matias Barbosa ?...

Patrícia Santana Ferreira; Emilio Campos Acevedo Nieto; Tatiane Oliveira Santos; Rafaella Paola Meneguete Guimarães Peixoto; Letícia Ferreira Silva; Adriano Groppo Fellipe; Paulo Sérgio Arruda Pinto; Jonatas Felipe Barbosa Caldi

2012-01-01

370

Taeniosis-cysticercosis in man and animals in the Sierra of Northern Ecuador  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium is endemic in the Andean region of Ecuador. The recent rediscovery of Taenia saginata in humans urges to reconsider some assumptions in relation to the epidemiology of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex in this country.Therefore, data were compiled on the infection of both tapeworms in man and animals in Pichincha and Imbabura provinces in the Andean region, north of Quito. On post mortem inspection 3 out of 806 (0.37%) carcasses had T. saginata metacestodes, however, 35 sera o...

Rodri?guez-hidalgo, R.; Ben¡tez-ortiz, W.; Dorny, P.; Geerts, S.; Geysen, D.; Ron-roma?n, J. W.; Proan?o-pe?rez, F.; Cha?vez-larrea, M. A.; Barrionuevo-samaniego, M.; Celi-erazo, M.; Vizcai?no-ordo?n?ez, L.; Brandt, J.

2003-01-01

371

Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

2013-04-01

372

[Imaging findings in neurocysticercosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, is the parasitic infection that most commonly involves the central nervous system in humans. Neurocysticercosis is endemic in practically all developing countries, and owing to globalization and immigration it is becoming more common in developed countries like those in western Europe. The most common clinical manifestations are epilepsy, focal neurologic signs, and intracranial hypertension. The imaging findings depend on the larval stage of Taenia solium, on the number and location of the parasites (parenchymal, subarachnoid, or intraventricular), as well as on the host's immune response (edema, gliosis, arachnoiditis) and on the development of secondary lesions (arteritis, infarcts, or hydrocephalus). The diagnosis of this parasitosis must be established on the basis of the clinical and radiological findings, especially in the appropriate epidemiological context, with the help of serological tests. PMID:22632836

Sarria Estrada, S; Frascheri Verzelli, L; Siurana Montilva, S; Auger Acosta, C; Rovira Cañellas, A

2013-01-01

373

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Considerando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México.

Agnès Fleury

2012-12-01

374

Neurocysticercosis in the pediatric age: description and five years of experience  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused bythe parasitic Taenia Solium, the most common parasites of this system and the principalcause of adquired epilepsy.Objective: To know which are the epidemiological and clinical characteristics in a seriesof children and adolescents with neurocysticercosis diagnosis.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of medical histories, case series type ofpediatric patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosis that w...

González-Velásquez Tania; Barbosa-Ubarnes Myriam

2012-01-01

375

New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission  

OpenAIRE

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposu...

Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

376

Accuracy of Serological Testing for the Diagnosis of Prevalent Neurocysticercosis in Outpatients with Epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Epilepsy is a significant contributor to morbidity world-wide in persons of all ages. Little is known, however, about its causes. In the developing world, parasitic infections of the brain, in particular Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) are thought to be important factors. Determining whether or not there is infection in the brain is difficult since to be certain, specialized imaging studies, such as CT scans, are required. These are expensive and not widely available. In addition, they...

Foyaca-sibat, Humberto; Cowan, Linda D.; Carabin, He?le?ne; Targonska, Irene; Anwary, Mushtaq A.; Serrano-ocan?a, Gilberto; Krecek, Rosina C.; Willingham Iii, Arve Lee

2009-01-01

377

Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation  

OpenAIRE

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host's inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC), the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possibl...

Laura Adalid-Peralta; Asiel Arce-Sillas; Gladis Fragoso; Amp Xe Rdenas, Graciela C.; Marcos Rosetti; Didier Casanova-Hernández; Claudia Rangel-Escareño; Laura Uribe-Figueroa; Agnes Fleury; Edda Sciutto

2013-01-01

378

Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru  

OpenAIRE

La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convulsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y...

Herbert Saavedra; Isidro Gonzales; Alvarado, Manuel A.; Porras, Miguel A.; Victor Vargas; Cjuno, Roma?n A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Manuel Martinez, S.

2010-01-01

379

Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses) e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100%...

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio Rossi

2013-01-01

380

Neurocisticercosis con lesiones cerebrales únicas: Presentación de dos casos documentados por Resonancia Magnética y revisión de la literatura Neurocysticercosis with single brain lesions: Report of two cases documented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and literature review  

OpenAIRE

La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es una infección del sistema nervioso central (SNC) originada por el estadio larvario de Taenia solium. Esta importante parasitosis es la causa más frecuente de epilepsia adquirida del adulto. Las manifestaciones clínicas más comunes de las formas parenquimatosas son la cefalea y las convulsiones, mientras que las formas extraparenquimatosas suelen presentarse con hidrocefalia. En este aspecto, es importante destacar que las manifestaciones clínicas de la enfe...

Marcelo Corti; Villafan?e, Mari?a F.; Claudio Yampolsky; Omar Palmieri

2012-01-01

381

Cisticercosis cerebral: a propósito de un caso  

OpenAIRE

Fundamento: la neurocisticercosis es una enfermedad parasitaria del sistema nervioso central causada por la forma larvaria del céstodo Taenia solium . Se adquiere debido a las malas condiciones de higiene y al fecalismo. Se identifica un caso complejo no habitual en C uba, detectado en el cumplimiento del programa integral de salud en Honduras. Objetivo: contribuir al conocimiento de enfermedades que son un problema de salud en centroamérica basados en la presentación de un caso. Caso clí...

Ndez, Jorge Juli U. E. N. S. U. E. Nchez Fern U. E.; Ndez, Ana Lilia Cabrera Men U. E.

2014-01-01

382

Neurocisticercosis: Una enfermedad emergente Neurocysticercosis: An emergent disease  

OpenAIRE

La neurocisticercosis es una afectación del sistema nervioso central por las larvas de la Taenia solium. Aunque en nuestro país su diagnóstico era excepcional, en los últimos años se ha observado un notable incremento en el número de casos diagnosticados, debido al fenómeno de la inmigración desde países donde la enfermedad es endémica. La forma de presentación más frecuente de la neurocisticercosis es la crisis epiléptica, seguida de la cefalea. Para el diagnóstico de sospecha ...

Imirizaldu, L.; Miranda, L.; Garci?a-gurtubay, I.; Gasto?n, I.; Urriza, J.; Quesada, P.

2004-01-01

383

Neurocisticercosis en pediatría  

OpenAIRE

Cisticercosis: enfermedad parasitaria que afecta en México al 3% de la población. Se considera que hay más de 50 millones de infectados en el mundo, endémica en México, Centro y Sudamérica, Africa, Asia e India. Considerada la enfermedad infecciosa neurológica más importante mundialmente por sus manifestaciones clínicas. El agente causal en cerdos y humanos es el cisticerco de la Taenia solium, que puede alojarse en músculo, cerebro y ventrículos. Si se ingiere carne de cerdo conta...

Jorge Malagón Valdez

2009-01-01

384

Diagnóstico laboratorial da neurocisticercose: revisão e perspectivas Laboratory diagnosis of neurocysticercosis: review and perspectives  

OpenAIRE

A neurocisticercose é causada por Cysticercus cellulose, a forma larval de Taenia solium, quando este se aloja no sistema nervoso central. O seu diagnóstico é realizado com base em dados clínicos, epidemiológicos, demonstração do agente etiológico pelas técnicas de imagem e testes laboratoriais. No presente estudo, apresentamos uma revisão do diagnóstico laboratorial, com ênfase no desempenho dos testes para pesquisa de anticorpos específicos e detecção de antígenos circulante...

Silvia Yukari Togoro; Edna Malona de Souza; Neuza Satomi Sato

2012-01-01

385

Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

2012-09-15

386

Herniated Lumbar Disc Combined with Spinal Intradural Extramedullary Cysticercosis  

OpenAIRE

Spinal cysticercosis is a very uncommon manifestation of neurocysticercosis which is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. However, it can develop as a primary infection through blood stream or direct larval migration. It can result in high recurrence and severe neurologic morbidity if not treated appropriately. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with severe lower back pain and left leg radiating pain in recent 2 weeks. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) of lumbar spine demo...

Choi, Kyeong Bo; Hwang, Byeong-wook; Choi, Won Gyu; Lee, Sang-ho

2010-01-01

387

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico. PMID:23318900

Fleury, Agnès; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos

2012-01-01

388

Neurocysticercosis, a Persisting Health Problem in Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Human neurocysticercosis is a severe parasitic disease caused by the installation of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is still deeply rooted in Latin-America, Africa and Asia, where it develops its complete life cycle promoted by poor sanitary conditions. It is also emerging in developed countries due to human migration. Although hard data on the evolution of the disease incidence in endemic countries are lacking, its presence is being obscured by the gro...

Fleury, Agne?s; Moreno Garci?a, Jael; Valdez Aguerrebere, Paulina; Sayve Dura?n, Mari?a; Becerril Rodri?guez, Paola; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2010-01-01

389

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

OpenAIRE

In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reporta...

Agnès Fleury; Edda Sciutto; Carlos Larralde

2012-01-01

390

Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: Role of High Resolution Ultrasound in Diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Though the commonest site of extraintestinal infestation with Taenia solium is brain, Subcutaneous cysticercosis is fairly common in asia. The advent of high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, and a heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated soft tissue cysticerci has probably supplanted the need for surgical intervention and excision biopsy in asymptomatic subcutaneous cysts, as cysts have high rate of spontaneous resolution. OBJECTIVES: - To observe role of high reso...

Sachin Lohra; Sonia Barve; Parul Lohra; Sandeep Nanda; Navtej Nalwa; Priyanka Sharma

2014-01-01

391

RARE CASE OF CYSTICERCOSIS OF RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE PRESENTING AS PELVI ABDOMINAL LUMP DURING PUERPERIUM  

OpenAIRE

Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium. It is a major public health problem indeveloping countries. Infection is acquired through ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containingthe cysticercus. Man is the intermediate host and pig is definitive host. Cases usually present withvague abdominal discomfort, indigestion and diarrhoea. Cysticerci can be found anywhere in the body, but are most commonly detected in brain, eye, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue.Diagnosis i...

Bangal V; Kwatra A; Garg S

2010-01-01

392

Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 60-year-old male, presented with insidious onset, gradually progressive, burning paresthesia over the saddle area, sphincteric disturbance, impotence and paraparesis. Investigations revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the conus medullaris suggestive of neurocysticercosis . This was supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci. On treatment with steroids he showed marked improvement.

Singh N

2003-01-01

393

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in Neurocysticercosis.  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a parasitic infectious disease caused by Taenia solium eggs that set in the brain. Its incidence is increasing both in the developing and the developed world, as a result of low economical and hygiene levels and immigration, respectively. Clinical manifestation of disease varies from no symptoms to epilepsy, increased intra-cranial pressure, arachnoiditis and dementia. In order to evaluate function (perfusion) of affected brains, we studied 40 patients (21 females a...

Braga, Francisco Jose? H. N.; Santos, Antonio C.; Takanayagui, Oswaldo M.; Agapejev, Svetlana; Maes, A.

2002-01-01

394

Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

395

Neurocysticercosis as a Cause of Epilepsy and Seizures in Two Community-Based Studies in a Cysticercosis-Endemic Region in Peru  

OpenAIRE

Epilepsy is a chronic disease affecting more than 50 million people around the world. In many countries neurocysticercosis (NCC), a parasitic disease of the central nervous system, is a frequent cause of seizures and epilepsy. After a human ingests poorly cooked pork with cysts of the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larvae develops in the small intestine as an adult tapeworm. The tapeworm carrier becomes a source of infective eggs which are released with the stools and can infect humans or pigs w...

Moyano, Luz M.; Saito, Mayuko; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Olaya, Sandra; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonza?lez, Isidro; Larrauri, Luis; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Llanos, Fernando; Rodri?guez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

2014-01-01

396

Racemose Cysticercosis in the Cerebellar Hemisphere  

OpenAIRE

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system in humans, caused by infection of the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. However, cerebellar involvement is rarely reported. We report of a case of racemose cysticercosis in the cerebellar hemisphere. A 44-year-old man presented with headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hydrocephalus and an ill-defined, multicystic cerebellar mass with hypersignal on T2-weighted images, hy...

Kim, Sang-wook; Kim, Moon-kyu; Oh, Sae-moon; Park, Se-hyuck

2010-01-01

397

Kirurgisk behandling af neurocysticerkose hos et 12-årigt barn  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a case of neurocysticercosis in a 12-year old refugee from Zambia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a solitary, ring enhancing cystic lesion located subcortically in the left parietal lobe. Despite extensive diagnostic workup it was not possible to rule out alternative differential diagnoses. Serological tests for neurocysticercosis came out negative. The lesion was removed en bloc using microsurgical technique. Subsequent histological examination revealed a thick-walled cyst containing a cysticercus identifiable as a Taenia solium.

Cortnum, SØren; Knudsen, Kristine Bach

2011-01-01

398

Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland. PMID:16870858

Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann,