WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the central nervous system by larvae of Taenia solium, is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries. This cestode is a public health problem in most developing countries where pigs are raised and its occurrence is strongly associated with poverty. The development of immunodiagnostic tools has contributed to our knowledge on the importance of this parasite by enabling seroepidemiological surveys and community-based studies to be conducted. Here, we ...

Deckers, N.; Dorny, P.

2010-01-01

2

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Rural Pigs of Northern Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine ...

Jayashi, Ce?sar M.; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Garci?a, He?ctor H.; Rodri?guez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2012-01-01

3

Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis.

Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernandez, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vazquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

1999-01-01

4

Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Seth Oâ??Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

2012-04-20

5

The Disease Burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the present study was undertaken to calculate the impact of this neglected zoonosis. Methods: Both t...

2009-01-01

6

Taenia solium cysticerci synthesize androgens and estrogens in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticerci from Taenia solium develop in the pig muscle and cause severe diseases in humans. Here we report on the capacity of T. solium cysticerci to synthesize sex steroid hormones. T. solium cysticerci were dissected from infected pork meat. Parasites were incubated for different periods in culture media plus antibiotics and tritiated steroid precursors. Blanks and parasite culture media were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. In some experiments, the scoleces were incubated separately. Results showed that T. solium cysticerci transform [(3)H]androstenedione to [(3)H]testosterone in a time-dependent manner. The production was confirmed in two different solvent systems. The incubation with [(3)H]testosterone yielded only small amounts of [(3)H]androstenedione. The recrystallization procedure further demonstrated that the metabolite identified by TLC was testosterone. The isolated scoleces incubated in the presence of [(3)H]androstenedione yielded [(3)H]testosterone and small quantities of [(3)H]17beta-estradiol. The results reported here demonstrate that T. solium cysticerci have the capacity to synthesize steroid hormones. PMID:16416116

Valdéz, R A; Jiménez, P; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Romano, M C

2006-04-01

7

Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effec...

Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-arreola, M. Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; Lo?pez-griego, Lorena; Morales-montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

8

A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from t...

2011-01-01

9

Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH show [...] ed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

Maravilla, Pablo; Valera, Aldo; Souza, Valeria; Martinez-Gordillo, Mario; Flisser, Ana.

10

Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3' foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3' e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3' e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3' para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (ndegrees AB020399 e ndegrees AB020395. As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa.

Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga

2006-01-01

11

Steroid hormone production by parasites: the case of Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many examples of reciprocal endocrine interactions between parasites and hosts have been found in insects, arthropods and mammals. Cysticercosis produced by Taenia solium metacestodes is a widely distributed parasite infection that affects the human and the pig. Taenia crassiceps experimental murine cysticercosis has been used to explore the role of biological factors involved in host-parasite interactions. We had shown that T. crassiceps cysticercosis affects the serum concentration of steroid hormones and the reproduction behavior of the male mice host. In an effort to understand the biology of the parasite, we had investigated the parasite capacity to produce sex steroids. For this purpose, T. crassiceps cysticerci were incubated in the presence of different steroid precursors. TLC and recrystallization procedures showed that testosterone is produced from 3H-androstenedione in cysticerci. The conversion of 3H-testosterone to androstenedione, although present is much less significant. In addition, we had studied the production of testosterone by T. solium cysticerci. For this purpose, cysticerci were dissected from pork meat and incubated as above described. The results showed that T. solium cysticerci also produce testosterone. We have speculated about the importance of androgens in the growth of T. crassiceps cysticerci and found that the addition of the antiandrogen flutamide to the culture media of the parasites significantly decreased 3H-thymidine incorporation. We therefore hypothesized, that the ability of cysticerci to produce testosterone from steroid precursors might be important for the parasite growth and development. PMID:12943707

Romano, M C; Valdéz, R A; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Larralde, C

2003-06-01

12

Comparison of the peptidase activity in the oncosphere excretory/secretory products of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the peptidase activities of the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of oncospheres of Taenia solium and related, but nonpathogenic, Taenia saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata oncospheres were cultured, and the spent media of 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-hr fractions were analyzed. Activities for serine peptidases (chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and elastase-like), cysteine peptidases (cathepsin B-, cathepsin L-, and calpaine-like), and aminopeptidase (B-like peptidases) were tested fluorometrically with peptides coupled to 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. In both species, the E/S antigens showed cysteine, serine, and aminopeptidase activities. Although no particular peptidase had high activity in T. solium, and was absent in T. saginata, or vice versa, different patterns of activity were found. A chymotrypsin-like peptidase showed the highest activity in both parasites, and it had 10 times higher activity in T. solium than in T. saginata. Trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like activities were significantly higher in T. solium. Minimal levels of cathepsin B were present in both species, and higher levels of elastase-like and cathepsin L-like activity were observed in T. saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata have different levels and temporal activities of proteolytic enzymes that could play a modulator role in the host specificity for larval invasion through penetration of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:17918349

Zimic, Mirko J; Infantes, Jesús; López, César; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilú; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Verastegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; Garciá, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

2007-08-01

13

The key steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps (WFU).  

Science.gov (United States)

Larval and adult stages of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU strain were analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the existence of steroid pathways. The presence of the key enzyme 3beta-hydroxisteroid-dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) was examined in frozen sections of cysticerci obtained from mice and segments of tapeworms obtained from the intestine of hamsters. 3beta-HSD activity was detected by nitroblue-tetrazolium products after incubation with dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendiol, or pregnenolone. Tapeworm tissues exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary areas of the neck and immature proglottids following incubation with androstendiol, as well as surrounding the testes in mature proglottids. T. solium cysticerci exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary tissues. The synthesis of steroid hormones involving the activity of 3beta-HSD was studied in cysticerci or tapeworms incubated in the presence of tritiated steroid precursors. The culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and showed synthesis of androstendiol, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol by cysticerci, androstendiol, and 17beta-estradiol by tapeworms. The results strongly suggest the activity of 3beta-HSD in taeniid parasites that have at least a part of the enzymatic chain required for androgen and estrogen synthesis and that the enzymes are present in the larval stage and from the early strobilar stages to the mature proglottids. PMID:18626663

Fernández Presas, Ana María; Valdez, Ricardo A; Willms, Kaethe; Romano, Marta C

2008-09-01

14

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06). The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09), and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37). Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67). Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic. PMID:22816002

Jayashi, César M; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Lightowlers, Marshall W; García, Héctor H; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E

2012-01-01

15

TSOL18/HP6-Tsol, an immunogenic Taenia solium oncospheral adhesion protein and potential protective antigen.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we employed Taenia solium mRNA extracted from a tapeworm of Venezuelan origin to clone express and test the recombinant protein of the T. solium homologue of the 18-kDa oncospheral adhesion molecule of Taenia saginata (HP6-Tsag/TSA18). We first confirm the conserved nature of the sequence of the T. solium homologue (TSOL18/HP6-Tsol) and demonstrate that the recombinant protein, which, as with its T. saginata homologue, is characterised by a fibronectin type III homology region, functions as an adhesion molecule. This emphasises the possible importance of TSOL18/HP6-Tsol in tissue invasion, thus providing a rational explanation for its efficacy as a vaccine. As protection against Taenia spp., oncospheres is antibody mediated, logically, therefore, TSOL18/HP6-Tsol may also serve as a diagnostic antigen, as is indeed the case for recombinant HP6-Tsag/TSA18. PMID:18214543

Parkhouse, R Michael E; Bonay, Pedro; González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Gárate, Teresa; Aguilar, Cruz M; Cortez A, Milagros M; Harrison, Leslie J S

2008-04-01

16

Taenia solium Oncosphere Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells In Vitro?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 c...

2007-01-01

17

The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana a 49 e 66K-Da e no E.granulosus a 17-21 K-Da e 27-32 K-Da. No extrato não purificado de cisticercose uma banda específica não glicoproteica estava presente a 61-67 K-Da além das bandas de glicoproteínas específicas de 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14 e 13 K-Da. Nenhum destes soros de pacientes com infecção por H.nana ou E.granulosus reagiu de forma cruzada com estas sete bandas de glicoproteína consideradas específicas à infecção por T.solium

Teresa Montenegro

1994-08-01

18

Genetic Vaccination against Murine Cysticercosis by Using a Plasmid Vector Carrying Taenia solium Paramyosin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A plasmid vector carrying the immunoprotective amino-terminal fragment of Taenia solium paramyosin (VW2-1) was designed for genetic vaccination studies. Mice that were genetically immunized with VW2-1 and challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci showed 43 to 48% reductions in the parasite burden, values which were similar to values obtained previously when the recombinant protein was used.

Soli?s, Carlos F.; Ostoa-saloma, Pedro; Lugo-marti?nez, Vero?nica H.; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Laclette, Juan Pedro

2005-01-01

19

Solitary Neurocysticercosis Case Caused by Asian Genotype of Taenia solium Confirmed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Japanese woman presenting with neurologic symptoms was presumptively diagnosed with neurocysticercosis based on imaging findings. Hooklets in the scolex of the resected lesion were not confirmed through histopathological observation. However, the illness was confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis to be a solitary neurocysticercosis case caused by the Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

2004-01-01

20

Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specific...

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki; Gisele Cristina Arruda; Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius Quagliato; Qláudio Lúcio Rossi

2007-01-01

22

Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-?-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships. PMID:22657393

Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

2012-09-01

23

TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence inclu...

2011-01-01

24

Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR / Specific discrimination between Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by one step PCR assay and duplex-PCR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso [...] n° AB020399 para T. saginata e n° AB020395 para T. solium) referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr) de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt) de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (n° AB020399 e n° AB020395). As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada quando testados com DNAt de Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana e Moniezia expansa, nem frente ao DNAt dos hospedeiros Homo sapiens, Bos taurus e Sus scrofa. Abstract in english This study was conducted to evaluate a protocol and to select novel primers for the species-specific identification of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium by PCR and duplex-PCR assays. Sequences of the LSU rRNA gene of taenids were obtained from the GenBank (T. saginata access n° AB020399 and T. s [...] olium access n° AB020395). The sequences were aligned and then used for primer design. The generic primer TBR3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3') was selected from a conserved region. The T. saginata specific primer TBR-4 (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3') as well as T. solium specific primers TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3') and TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3') were selected from different semi-conserved regions. The selected sequences were examined in for similarities with other organisms through the GenBank Blast procedure and experimentally by PCR using total DNA (tDNA) extracted from cysticerci and proglottids from both parasites. The primer pair TBR-3/TBR-4 amplified specific fragments of 328 bp from T. saginata tDNA. The pairs TBR-3/TBR5 and TBR-3/TBR-6 amplified, respectively, the expected and specific fragments of 310bp and 286bp from the T. solium tDNA. Sequencing of the amplicons followed by comparison to GenBank reference sequences confirmed the identities of the PCR products. The detection sensitivity was equivalent to 1fg of T. solium tDNA and 0,2fg of T. saginata tDNA. The combination of primers TBR-3/TBR-4 and TBR3/TBR-6 and the size of amplicons allowed the establishment of a duplex-PCR assay to detect T. saginata and T. solium DNA. No cross reaction was observed with any combination of primers in reactions with tDNA of the parasites Taenia hydatigena, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Anoplocephala magna, Paranopl

Jardim, Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; Araújo, José Luiz de Barros; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro.

25

Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesquisados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose.

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

2007-04-01

26

Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples / Avaliação de antígenos de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose por ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A eficácia de extratos antigênicos de parasitas totais e líquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose foi avaliada por meio de reações de ELISA em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano. Anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos foram pesqui [...] sados em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de 23 pacientes com neurocisticercose e 35 pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. A reação ELISA com o extrato bruto total de cisticercos de Taenia solium apresentou 91,3% de sensibilidade e 94,3% de especificidade, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA com o extrato total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps foram 87% e 94,3%, respectivamente. As reações ELISA com o líquido vesicular de Taenia solium ou Taenia crassiceps mostraram 91,3% de sensibilidade e 97,1% de especificidade. Considerando os resultados obtidos com as quatro preparações antigênicas, o liquido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps pode ser útil como fonte de antígenos em reações imunológicas usadas para detectar anticorpos específicos em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose. Abstract in english The efficacy of whole parasite and vesicular fluid antigen extracts from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis was evaluated using ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Anticysticercal IgG antibodies were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from [...] 23 patients with neurocysticercosis and 35 patients with other neurological disorders. The ELISA reaction for the whole Taenia solium cysticercal extract showed 91.3% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for the whole Taenia crassiceps cysticercal extract were 87% and 94.3%, respectively. The ELISA reactions for vesicular fluid from Taenia solium or Taenia crassiceps showed 91.3% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Considering the results obtained from the four antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci may be useful as a source of antigens for immunological reactions that are used for detecting specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Arruda, Gisele Cristina; Quagliato, Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius; Rossi, Qláudio Lúcio.

27

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia: a community based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and hous...

Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; Den Bossche, Peter; Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabrie?l, Sarah

2012-01-01

28

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of eastern Zambia; a community based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and househo...

Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N.; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G.; Den Bossche, P.; Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabrie?l, S.

2012-01-01

29

Taenia solium Cysticercosis Hotspots Surrounding Tapeworm Carriers: Clustering on Human Seroprevalence but Not on Seizures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, common in areas with limited sanitation or with migration from these populations. The adult parasite is hosted in the human intestine and releases large numbers of eggs with the feces. Human beings sometimes ingest eggs due to poor hygiene, and then eggs sometimes lodge on the brain and after a few years can cause intense headaches and seizures. During a study in seven rural communities in Peru, individuals exposed to ...

Lescano, Andres G.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Villaran, Manuel V.; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2009-01-01

30

Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium is a parasite that infects humans. The parasite eggs are released into the environment with human feces in villages with inadequate sanitation. Pigs might ingest the parasite eggs and develop the larval stage named cysticercosis (cysts), mainly in the muscles and heart. If a human accidentally ingests the parasite eggs, then the cysts develop principally in the central nervous system, a serious public health problem. Serological results in pigs do not always correlate with what ...

Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2013-01-01

31

Infection with versus exposure to Taenia solium: what do serological test results tell us?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium cysticercosis is an endemic zoonosis in many developing countries. Serological tests are the most appropriate diagnostic tools to understand the transmission dynamics of the parasite, but the performances of these methods in such a setting are not known. A south Ecuadorian human population living in an endemic area was tested using three common serological tests. Because none of them is a gold standard, a Bayesian Latent Class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristi...

Praet, N.; Rodriguez-hidalgo, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Ahounou, S.; Benitez-ortiz, W.; Berkvens, D.; Hul, A.; Barrionuevo-samaniego, M.; Saegerman, C.; Dorny, P.

2010-01-01

32

Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27...

Salazar-anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

2012-01-01

33

Detection of Taenia solium antigens and anti-T. solium antibodies in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with intraparenchymal or extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a frequent cause of epilepsy worldwide. Compared with the more common parenchymal brain cysts, extraparenchymal infections are difficult to manage and have a poor prognosis. Serological assays are used to detect circulating Taenia solium antigens or anti-T. solium antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. There are no guidelines on whether to use serum or CSF specimens for a particular assay. Methods. We obtained paired serum and CSF sam...

Rodriguez, S.; Dorny, P.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pretell, E. J.; Brandt, J.; Lescano, A. G.; Gonzalez, A. E.; Gilman, R. H.; Garcia, H. H.

2009-01-01

34

Taenia solium infection in a rural community in the Peruvian Andes.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological study was conducted in a highland, rural community in Peru, to determine the seroprevalences of human and porcine infection with Taenia solium and the risk factors associated with human infection. The seroprevalences, determined using an assay based on enzyme-linked-immuno-electrotransfer blots (EITB), were 21% (66/316) in the humans and 65% (32/49) in the pigs. The human subjects aged <30 years were more likely to be positive for anti-T. solium antibodies than the older subjects (P < 0.001). The risk factors associated with human seropositivity were lack of education beyond the elementary level [odds ratio (OR)=2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09-6.65] and pig-raising (OR=1.68; CI=0.96-2.92). Curiously, sheep-raising was inversely associated with human T. solium infection (OR=0.50; CI=0.28-0.90). The study site appears to be a new endemic focus for T. solium in the central Peruvian Andes. Although, in earlier studies, the seroprevalence of T. solium infection has generally been found to increase with age, the opposite trend was observed in the present study. The results of follow-up studies should help determine if the relatively high seroprevalence in the young subjects of the present study is the result of a transient antibody response. PMID:12831523

Moro, P L; Lopera, L; Bonifacio, N; Gilman, R H; Silva, B; Verastegui, M; Gonzales, A; Garcia, H H; Cabrera, L

2003-06-01

35

A novel sigma-like glutathione transferase of Taenia solium metacestode.  

Science.gov (United States)

GSTs are a group of multifunctional enzymes, whose major functions involve catalysis of conjugation of glutathione thiolate anion with a multitude of bi-substrates or transportation of a range of hydrophobic ligands. Helminth GSTs are intimately involved in the scavenging of endogenously/exogenously-derived toxic compounds and xenobiotics. In this study, we identified a novel GST gene of Taenia solium metacestodes (TsMs), which is a causative agent of neurocysticercosis. The 804 bp-long cDNA encoded a 639 bp open reading frame (212 amino acid polypeptide), which exhibited the structural motif and domain organisation characteristic of GST. It formed a strong clade with trematode and insect sigmaGSTs. We designated this cDNA as TsM sigma-like GST (TsMsigmaGST). Native TsMsigmaGST identified through gel filtration combined with compatible immunoproteomics consisted of four isoforms at approximately 25 kDa with different pIs between 8.2 and 8.7. TsMsigmaGST showed an enzyme activity as a homodimer and was specifically expressed in the scolex cytosol. The recombinant TsMsigmaGST expressed in Escherichia coli showed sigma-like activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The Vmax and Km for CDNB and glutathione (GSH) were 1.08 and 0.78 micromol/min/mg, and 0.16 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Its optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0 and at 40 degrees C. The enzyme activity was potently inhibited by bromosulfophthalein, and to a lesser extent by rose bengal and triphenyltin chloride. Albendazole and praziquantel non-competitively inhibited both G- and H-sites of the enzyme. To our knowledge this is the first description of the sigma-class GST in cestode parasites. The enzyme might be involved in scavenging of intracellularly generated xenobiotics during homeostatic processes and anthelminthic metabolisms. Revelation of biochemical and biological properties of TsMsigmaGST might allow us to understand pathobiological events inherent to this long-standing parasitic disease, and thus to target therapeutic intervention. PMID:20385139

Nguyen, Hung Anh; Bae, Young-An; Lee, Eung-Goo; Kim, Seon-Hee; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

2010-08-01

36

The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), ...

Teresa Montenegro; Gilman, Robert H.; Rosa Castillo; Victor Tsang; Joy Brandt; Angela Guevara; Hernan Sanabria; Manuela Verastegui; Charles Sterling; Elba Miranda

1994-01-01

37

Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2012-06-01

38

Short report: seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the prevalence and etiologic factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, we performed serological surveys in Salvador, the capital of the state, and in two local towns, Santo Amaro and Jequié. Residents raising free-roaming pigs in the study areas were randomly selected. Sera were obtained from the pigs and examined by the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB). The prevalence of antibodies to T. solium was 4.4% (2 of 45) in Salvador, 3.2% (3 of 93) in Santo Amaro, and 23.5% (24 of 102) in Jequié. A significantly high seroprevalence in Jequié was associated with poor sanitary conditions, such as an open sewer system and no inspection process of pork before marketing. PMID:11463114

Sakai, H; Barbosa, H V; Silva, E M; Schlabitz, F O; Noronha, R P; Nonaka, N; Franke, C R; Ueno, H

2001-01-01

39

Similar diagnostic performance for neurocysticercosis of three glycoprotein preparations from Taenia solium metacestodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of antibodies to Taenia solium metacestodes is very important in the differential diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, an electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) assay that uses an elaborate protocol with metacestode glycoproteins as antigens was compared with two other Western blots that use glycoproteins obtained using simpler methods, including an eluate from a lectin column, or the vesicular fluid (VF) of the parasite. The concordance between the three assays was 91% in patients with active NCC and 100% in patients with suspected NCC and previous documentation of negative serology. The specificities for the Western blots and the EITB assay were 98% and 100%, respectively (98% concordance). These data suggest that the simplest of these immunoassays, the one that uses the VF of T. solium metacestodes in a Western blot format, can be reliably used for the serologic diagnosis of NCC in developing countries where access to the EITB assay is difficult. PMID:12685629

Villota, Guido E; Gomez, Diana I; Volcy, Michel; Franco, Andrés F; Cardona, Edgar A; Isaza, Rodrigo; Sanzón, Fernando; Teale, Judy M; Restrepo, Blanca I

2003-03-01

40

Structural and Binding Properties of Two Paralogous Fatty Acid Binding Proteins of Taenia solium Metacestode  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis (NC), an infection of the central nervous system with Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), constitutes a leading cause of adult-onset seizures in endemic areas. Like other helminths, TsM is incapable of synthesizing lipid molecules. It should be equipped with a specialized system for lipid transportation from the host to ensure its long-survival. Such a transport system may be a target for function-associated drug design. We characterized two novel fatty-acid (FA)-binding TsM p...

Kim, Seon-hee; Bae, Young-an; Yang, Hyun-jong; Shin, Joo-ho; Diaz-camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Molecular Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Taenia solium Low-Molecular-Weight Antigen Genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by infection with the larvae of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. In order to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for this infection using recombinant proteins, we carried out molecular cloning and identified four candidates as diagnostic antigens (designated Ag1, Ag1V1, Ag2, and Ag2V1). Except for Ag2V1, these clones could encode a 7-kDa polypeptide, and Ag2V1 could encode a 10-kDa polypeptide. All of the...

2000-01-01

42

Characterization and Protective Potential of the Immune Response to Taenia solium Paramyosin in a Murine Model of Cysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paramyosin has been proposed as a vaccine candidate in schistosomiasis and filariasis. However, limited information is available about its protective potential against cysticercosis and the immune response it induces. Immunization of mice with recombinant full-length paramyosin of Taenia solium (TPmy) results in about a 52% reduction in parasite burden after a subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Immunization assays using recombinant fragments o...

Va?zquez-talavera, Jose?; Soli?s, Carlos F.; Terrazas, Luis I.; Laclette, Juan P.

2001-01-01

43

Serological evidence for recent exposure to Taenia solium in Venezuelan Amerindians.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the seroprevalence and serum antibody isotype profile for Taenia solium cysticercosis in an Amerindian community in the Amazonas state of Venezuela. An antigen-trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) was used to detect viable cysticercosis. Indirect ELISA (Ab-ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed by using antigens prepared from T. solium metacestodes to detect anti-parasite antibodies. The Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISAs revealed 64.7% and 79.0% seropositivity, respectively, in the Amerindian population. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M was the predominant antibody class, suggesting recent infection. In comparison sera from, clinically defined, hospital neurocysticercosis cases revealed only 27% seropositivity by Ag-ELISA, compared with 86-92% seropositivity by Ab-ELISA, and IgG4 was the predominant antibody subclass detected. The EITB antigen recognition patterns of the hospitalized patients were very similar to that of the Amerindians, confirming exposure to the parasite. These results, combined with the predominance of IgM antibody responses and the marked detection of secreted products of viable parasites, strongly suggest that recent exposure to T. solium had occurred in the Amerindian population. PMID:12135289

Ferrer, E; Cortez, M M; Perez, H; De la Rosa, M; de Noya, B Alarcon; D'Avila, I; Harrison, L J S; Foster-Cuevas, M; Parkhouse, R M E; Cabrera, A

2002-02-01

44

Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. PMID:24380893

Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

2014-01-01

45

CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

Sri S. Margono

2012-09-01

46

A population-based, case-control study of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-phase study was conducted in a rural community in Honduras, to evaluate the association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosed by computed tomography (CT), epilepsy, seropositivity for antibodies to the cysticerci of Taenia solium [determined by enzyme-linked-immunoelectrotransfer-blot (EITB) assays], intestinal infection with this parasite, and various epidemiological factors. Of the 480 individuals studied in the first phase, 17% were seropositive and 2.5% supplied faecal samples which contained T. solium eggs. In the second phase, 148 individuals (74 of the seropositive subjects from the first phase and 74 matched controls from the seronegatives) underwent CT and neurological examinations. The CT results appeared normal in 110 (74%) of the 148, showed anatomical abnormality in seven (5%), and active or calcified lesions compatible with NCC in 31 (23% of the seropositives and 19% of the seronegatives). Only five of the latter had neurological symptoms (two being epileptics) and only five lived in households in which intestinal taeniasis had been detected. Subject age was significantly associated with NCC-compatible lesions but all the other factors investigated, including seropositivity, showed no significant association with the CT findings. The overall sensitivity of the EITB assays was found to be 55%. Taken together, the present results indicate that, even though it is a valuable tool in determining transmission levels in sero-epidemiological studies, the EITB assay should not be used to predict the existence of NCC or to estimate the prevalence of NCC. The results do provide further evidence that taeniasis and cysticercosis are widely prevalent in Honduras, and indicate that much larger studies of hyper-endemic communities may be necessary if the factors associated with the transmission of T. solium are to be elucidated. PMID:10562826

Sánchez, A L; Lindbäck, J; Schantz, P M; Sone, M; Sakai, H; Medina, M T; Ljungström, I

1999-04-01

47

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis.

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernandez, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Hernandez, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

48

Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) binding fraction from Taenia solium metacestode improves the neurocysticercosis serodiagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most important diseases caused by parasites affecting the central nervous system. We fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose resin the total saline extract (S) from Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluated obtained fractions (DEAE S1 and DEAE S2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, n?=?123) and immunoblotting (IB, n?=?22) to detect human NC in serum. Diagnostic parameters were established by ROC and TG ROC curves for ELISA tests. IB was qualitatively analyzed. S and DEAE S1 presented sensitivity of 87. 5 % and DEAE S2 90 %. The best specificity was observed for DEAE S2 (90.4 %). In IB, using DEAE S2 samples from NC patients presented bands of 20-25, 43-45, 55-50, 60-66, 82, 89, and 140 kDa. The great diagnostic parameters reached by DEAE S2 suggest the potential applicability of this fraction in NC immunodiagnosis. PMID:24777340

da S Ribeiro, Vanessa; da S Nunes, Daniela; Gonzaga, Henrique T; da Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2014-07-01

49

Transcriptome analysis of Taenia solium cysticerci using Open Reading Frame ESTs (ORESTES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed.

Tyler Kevin M

2009-07-01

50

Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ?8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection.

Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2013-01-01

51

Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27, a commercial ELISA, and Western blot Tsol-p27/TsolHSP36, and compared them with a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) that we regarded as the gold standard method. The analyzed serum samples were obtained from 160 patients: 94 epileptics suspected of NCC, six individuals confirmed NCC-positive, and 60 with positive (30) or negative (30) serology for Chagas diseases. Of the 100 serum samples from epileptic patients, 13 were positive and 87 negative by EITB. Compared to Western blot Tsol-p27, immunodot blot Tsol-p27 offered similar specificity (97.8% vs. 95.6%) but better sensitivity (86.7% vs. 76.4%). The ELISA was similar to the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 regarding both sensitivity and specificity. Western blot TsolHSP36 provided the lowest sensitivity (61.9%) and specificity (86.1%). None of the antibodies in the serum samples from the Chagas control groups were recognized by immunodot blot Tsol-p27. Our results indicate that the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 provides good sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, considering the simplicity and low cost of this test, it might be preferable as a diagnostic method in poorly equipped laboratories in endemic countries. PMID:22215187

Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

2012-06-01

52

Immune responses to a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a Taenia solium oncosphere antigen TSOL18.  

Science.gov (United States)

A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain ?4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium ?4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain ?4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (pvaccinated mice. In addition, the high levels of specific anti-TSOL18 antibodies were also observed in pigs administrated with S. typhimurium ?4558. Collectively, these results demonstrate the possibility of use of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain as a vector to deliver protective antigens of T. solium. PMID:23219684

Ding, Juntao; Zheng, Yadong; Wang, Ying; Dou, Yongxi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenyong; Hou, Junling; Zhai, Junjun; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

2013-01-01

53

The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host. PMID:17674048

González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

2007-11-01

54

Observaciones al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido del Interior de un Proglótido de un Parásito Adulto de Taenia solium / Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations of the Cross-Section of a Taenia solium Adult Tapeworm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish No existen, hasta el momento, imágenes que muestren la disposición de la citoarquitectura de parásitos adultos de Taenia solium, parásitos los cuales se encuentran en el intestino de portadores humanos asintomáticos. Las causas de ello podrían tener como base el que cuando se recuperan los parásitos [...] , ellos han sufrido alteraciones debidas a la respuesta inmune de sus hospederos o bien, por el efecto que han producido en los parásitos los fármacos antihelmínticos que hayan sido usados en el tratamiento de los pacientes. Una de las alternativas que se han encontrado para la obtención de parásitos adultos, es la obtención de tenias a partir del modelo de teniosis experimental en hámsteres dorados e inmunosuprimidos y que gracias a este modelo se han podido efectuar diferentes tipos de estudios de los parásitos de esta fase infectiva. El propósito de este reporte es presentar imágenes de ultraestructura, obtenidas mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, de un corte transversal obtenido de un proglótido de una tenia recuperada de una infección experimental. Las imágenes se obtuvieron a diferentes aumentos y muestran aspectos relacionados con la superficie tegumentaria, el tegumento sincicial continuo, la capa germinal que incluye el soma de algunas células subtegumentarias y los ductos del sistema protonefridial tanto vacíos como llenos con corpúsculos calcáreos. Las imágenes ultraestructurales obtenidas muestran una forma de observación de la anatomía microscopica de los parásitos en estudio y ello contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento de los mismos en relación a aspectos de su biología celular y su fisiología. Abstract in english There are no clear morphological evidences of the cytoarchitecture of intestinal adult tapeworms of Taenia solium recovered from infected humans. Parasites could be altered because of the host´s immunological response or by the direct action of drugs used for antihelminthic treatment. Experimental t [...] aeniosis in immunosuppressed golden hamsters is a useful way for recovering and studying adult parasites. The purpose of this report is to show images, taken at the ultrastructural level by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), of a cross-sectioned strobilar chain from an adult tapeworm. The parasite was recovered from an experimental infection. Images were taken at several magnifications; they show the brush border tegumental surface, the syncytial tegument, the germinal layer, some cell bodies and the protonephridial system ducts: empty or filled with calcareous corpuscles. Ultrastructural images taken using SEM of T. solium adult parasites, recovered from experimental infections, could be a new way for observing the microscopic anatomy of these parasites and for increasing the knowledge of aspects related to their cellular biology and physiology.

Javier R, Ambrosio; Armando, Zepeda-Rodríguez; Araceli, Ferrer; Olivia, Reynoso-Ducoing; Teresa I, Fortoul.

55

Efecto de diferentes temperaturas (calor y frío en carne de cerdo sobre la viabilidad del metacestodo de Taenia solium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En muchas áreas rurales de México se consume la carne de cerdo infectada con el metacestodo de Taenia solium debido a la falta de inspección sanitaria de los animales que matan en forma clandestina o domiciliaria. Como consecuencia, la teniasis- cisticercosis constituye un problema importante de salud, tanto para la población humana que padece de teniasis y de neurocisticercosis, como para la producción porcina por las pérdidas económicas para el país. Con el objetivo de recomendar un método simple y efectivo a las amas de casa en zonas rurales y marginadas, para la destrucción de los metacestodos, se expusieron trozos de 4 cm de grosor, de carne de cerdo infectada con cisticercos, a diferentes temperaturas y durante diferentes tiempos de cocción. Se realizaron pruebas de evaginación e inoculación en hámsteres con las larvas tratadas. Con base en los resultados se recomienda la cocción de la carne infectada en trozos pequeños (4 cm de grosor durante 15 minutos, o la congelación a 0ºC por 96 horas; o bien la congelación a -20ºC durante 48 horas, esta última resulta impráctica en medios rurales. La cocción y la congelación a 0°C en un refrigerador doméstico, se recomiendan como procedimiento sencillo en áreas marginales para evitar el crecimiento de T. solium en el humano, de esa manera se rompe el ciclo del parásito.

Aline S. de Aluja

2009-01-01

56

Taenia solium: molecular cloning and serologic evaluation of 14- and 18-kDa related, diagnostic antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

We are attempting to design a simpler assay based on synthetic or recombinant antigens to replace the labor-intensive enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-C), which is currently used to diagnose Taenia solium cysticercosis. From the lentil lectin-bound fraction of cyst glycoproteins (the LLGP fraction used in the EITB-C), we previously identified and purified 2 related polypeptides of 14- and 18-kDa that demonstrated diagnostic usefulness. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to amino acid sequences of these polypeptides and a cDNA library prepared from T. solium cysticerci, we amplified cDNA clones that represent the 14- and 18-kDa polypeptides. These clones share sequence homology at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Synthetic polypeptides that represented the full-length, mature proteins (sTS14 and sTS18) were assessed for serologic potential using an ELISA. sTS14, but not sTS18, demonstrated utility as a diagnostic antigen. sTS14 was recognized by antibodies in a majority of the sera from patients with cysticercosis and none of the sera from persons with other helminth infections or uninfected human sera. Furthermore, polyclonal antibodies to sTS14 reacted with 6 discrete proteins present in the LLGP cyst fraction, suggesting that TS14 is a subunit of other previously described antigens used for diagnosing cysticercosis. PMID:11128471

Greene, R M; Hancock, K; Wilkins, P P; Tsang, V C

2000-10-01

57

Further evaluation of the synthetic peptide vaccine S3Pvac against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in an endemic town of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic disease frequently affecting human health and the pig industry in many developing countries. A synthetic peptide vaccine (designated S3Pvac) against porcine cysticercosis has been developed previously as an aid to interrupt transmission and has been shown to be effective. The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the vaccine under endemic field conditions. However, given the time-frame of the vaccination trial, no changes in the local levels of transmission were detectable before and after vaccination using sentinel pigs. Thus, this investigation shows the limited usefulness of single vaccination as the sole means of interrupting Taenia solium transmission in an endemic region. PMID:16948875

Sciutto, E; Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Toledo, A; Villalobos, M N; Cruz-Revilla, C; Meneses, G; Hernández, M; Díaz, A; Rodarte, L F; Acero, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Paniagua, J; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, R; De Aluja, A S; Larralde, C

2007-01-01

58

Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

Krecek, R. C.; Michael, L. M.; Schantz, P. M.; Ntanjana, L.; Smith, M. F.; Dorny, P.; Harrison, L. J. S.; Grimm, F.; Praet, N.; Willingham, A. L.

2008-01-01

59

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to ...

2002-01-01

60

Production of monoclonal antibodies anti-Taenia crassiceps cysticerci with cross-reactivity with Taenia solium antigens / Produção de anticorpos monoclonais anti-cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps com reatividade cruzada com antígenos de Taenia solium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese É descrita a produção de potenciais anticorpos monoclonais (MoAbs) usando camundongos BALB/c imunizados com antígenos de líquido vesicular de T. crassiceps (VF-Tcra). O soro imune apresentou anticorpos IgM e IgG anti-VF-Tcra para os peptídeos [...] e 18kDa de T. solium (Tso). Após a fusão, foram selecionados 33 clones IgM com reatividade anti-Tcra e anti-Tso e 53 clones IgG com reatividade específica, sendo que destes, 5 apresentaram reatividade cruzada com antígeno de Tso. Dois clones identificaram os peptídeos 8-14 e 18kDa de VF-Tcra. Abstract in english We describe the production of the potential monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) using BALB/c mice immunized with vesicular fluid (VF)-Tcra (T. crassiceps) antigen. Immune sera presented anti-VF-Tcra ([...] ter cell fusion, we selected 33 anti-Tcra and anti-Tso reactive IgM-clones and 53 anti-Tcra specific IgG-clones, 5 of them also recognizing Tso antigens. Two clones identified the 8-14 and 18kD peptides of VF-Tcra.

Noeli M., ESPÍNDOLA; Elizabeth N., DE GASPARI; Paulo M., NAKAMURA; Adelaide J., VAZ.

 
 
 
 
61

Short report: Evidence and potential for transmission of human and swine Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Piracuruca region, Piauí, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study conducted in the Cocal dos Alves municipality, located in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, Brazil in November of 2003 was based on both a socio-behavioral survey and analysis of serum antibodies and parasitic materials. Pig raising is the main economic activity with 91.4% using extensive farming. On the studied population, 54.3% of people did not apply any sanitary measures to wastewater, 45.7% used septic tanks, and 69.1% consumed water without treatment. The data collected indicated the occurrence and active transmission of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the region. One of seven voluntary persons was positive in antibody-ELISA tests using both native and recombinant antigens. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of cyst samples obtained from a pig revealed the presence of the Afro-American genotype of Taenia solium. This study revealed the occurrence of human and porcine cysticercosis in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, middle-north of Brazil. PMID:17123990

Sato, Marcello Otake; Cavalcante, Tânia Vasconcelos; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2006-11-01

62

Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin) for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina) para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography) from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders) and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocys...

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio Rossi

2011-01-01

63

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to ...

2002-01-01

64

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and huma [...] n-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

Hector, Palafox-Fonseca; Gerardo, Zuniga; Raul Jose, Bobes; Tzipe, Govezensky; Daniel, Pinero; Laura, Texco-Martinez; Agnes, Fleury; Jefferson, Proano; Graciela, Cardenas; Marisela, Hernandez; Edda, Sciutto; Gladis, Fragoso.

65

Human and porcine Taenia solium infection in a village in the highlands of Cusco, Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological survey was performed using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) in a village in the highlands of Peru where there are three distinct but close neighborhoods, to determine if there is a direct relationship between human and porcine Taenia solium infection. One hundred and eight out of 365 individuals were sampled, and 14 were seropositive (human seroprevalence 13%). Most seropositive individuals were neurologically asymptomatic. Thirty-eight out of 89 sampled pigs (43%) were seropositive. There was a clear geographical clustering of cases, and positive correlation between human and porcine seroprevalence found when comparing the three neighborhoods. Cysticercosis is an important cause of neurological morbidity in most developing countries, and control/eradication trials are now being increasingly applied. Porcine serology provides an appropriate indicator of T. solium environmental contamination and should be used to estimate the risk of infection when evaluating control measures. PMID:10379814

Garcia, H H; Gilman, R H; Gonzalez, A E; Pacheco, R; Verastegui, M; Tsang, V C

1999-05-25

66

Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were established using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: At room temperature the lowest evagination occurred after 100 hours for both products (p<0.05. After 24 hours, the lowest evagination occurred at -10ºC in spicy meat and at 37ºC in hot sausage (p<0.05. At boiling temperature there was no evagination after 10 minutes (p<0.05. In spicy meat, adding salt caused the most significant reduction; in hot sausage, thyme caused the most significant reduction (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Meat with metacestodes should not be eaten, yet, it is being sold and used to prepare spicy meats. Adding spices can hide the metacestode, thus, adequate cooking of these meat products is necessary. These meats may be consumed at least four days after its preparation and spicy meat after a minimum of four days of refrigeration.

Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

2004-10-01

67

Improvement of the synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in search of a more effective, inexpensive and manageable vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions in production costs and in the logistics of its administration are necessary for the feasibility of nationwide control programs. This review highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration. PMID:17188784

Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Morales, Julio; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Blancas, Abel; Acero, Gonzalo; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Bobes, Raul J; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Huerta, Mirna; Diaz-Orea, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; de Aluja, Aline S; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

2007-02-01

68

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

69

Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis / Cathepsin L Cysteine Protease from Taenia solium: Its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisti [...] cercosis (NCC). Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis. Abstract in english Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, a [...] n adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

Nancy, León; Carlos, Padilla; Mónica, Pajuelo; Patricia, Sheen; Mirko, Zimic.

70

Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%), Tupaciguara (5.0%), Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8%) and Uberlândia (4.7%). The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population. PMID:12219116

Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Arantes, Sílvio César de Freitas; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2002-01-01

71

Evaluation of excretory secretory and 10-30 kDa antigens of Taenia solium Cysticerci by EITB assay for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the presence of Taenia solium Cysticerci in the Central Nervous System is the most common neurological disease of parasite aetiology. The serodiagnostic methods available at present have variable sensitivity and specificity depending upon the antigen and technique used. The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of T. solium Cysticerci excretory secretory (ES) and lower molecular mass (LMM) 10-30 kDa antigenic fractions for antibody detection in serum and urine samples by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the diagnosis of NCC. Serum and urine samples were collected from 125 clinically suspected and radiologically proven NCC children (111 patients with single lesion and 14 with multiple lesions) and 125 control subjects. With the use of ES and LMM antigenic fractions, the sensitivity of the EITB assay was 85.6% and 80.8% with serum and 76.8% and 50.4% with urine, respectively. The specificity was 64% and 61.6% with serum and 48% and 33.6% with urine samples, respectively. The study suggests that antibody detection to ES antigen in serum by EITB assay may serve better purpose for the serodiagnosis of human NCC. PMID:19222787

Atluri, S R V; Singhi, P; Khandelwal, N; Malla, N

2009-03-01

72

Evaluation of the performance of 5 commercialized enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium antibodies and for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate 5 enzyme immunoassays for detecting human antibodies against Taenia solium in human serum and for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC): DRG™, RIDASCREEN™, NOVATECH™, CYPRESS™, and IVD™. A collection of 114 reference serum samples were used. All sera were tested both by ELISA and by an immunoblot method (enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]). When compared with EITB, the Ridascreen™ test had the best positive concordance rate (85.1-91.2%) and the NovaLisa test™ showed the optimal negative concordance rate (93.7-95.6%). All tests had a sensitivity under 72% and a specificity above 60%. The best sensitivity was obtained using Ridascreen™ test (71.4%). An optimal specificity was achieved by the NovaLisa test™. T. solium-positive sera all cross-reacted with E. granulosus positive samples. In the commercial assays evaluated here, the most appropriate ELISA test for screening may be the Ridascreen™ assay. Antibody detection seems to be not appropriate for NCC diagnosis because of its overall lack of sensitivity. PMID:22085773

Carod, Jean-François; Randrianarison, Mickaël; Razafimahefa, Julien; Ramahefarisoa, Rondro Mamitiana; Rakotondrazaka, Mahenintsoa; Debruyne, Monique; Dautigny, Mélanie; Cazal, Pierrette; Andriantseheno, Marcellin Lalaoarisoa; Charles, Emile Ramarokoto

2012-01-01

73

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

Mekonnen Sissay M

2011-06-01

74

Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

75

Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control. PMID:18440704

Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

2008-06-14

76

Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Avaliação de duas preparações antigênicas de cisticercos de Taenia solium (líquido vesicular e uma fração glicoprotéica com afinidade para lentil lectina para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose usando uma técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de duas preparações antigênicas (líquido vesicular - LV e uma fração glicoprotéica, fração LL a-Gp, purificada do extrato total dos parasitas por cromatografia de afinidade com lentil lectina de cisticercos de Taenia solium para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose. MÉTODO: Cinquenta e seis amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose e 34 de pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas e 57 amostras de soro (22 de pacientes com neurocisticercose, 18 de pacientes com outras infecções e 17 de pessoas presumivelmente sadias foram analisadas quanto à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-cisticercos com uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA. RESULTADOS: A reação ELISA LV apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade em amostras de LCR e soro, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação ELISA LLa-Gp em amostras de LCR e soro foram de 90,9% e 97,1% e 95,5% e 100%, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade e especificidade das duas preparações antigênicas utilizadas, tanto para amostras de LCR como para amostras de soro. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a complexidade e o alto custo de obtenção da fração LLa-Gp, o LV pode ser mais adequado para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos por ELISA em amostras de LCR e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose.

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

2011-06-01

77

The Asian Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stag...

Gala?n-puchades, Maria Teresa; V Fuentes, Ma?rius

2000-01-01

78

A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effe...

Herna?ndez-bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

79

[Cestode infections in Poland in 2009].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the year 2009, 26 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 20 were caused by Taenia saginata, 4 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 1 by Hymenolepis diminuta. Moreover, 23 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. PMID:21913477

Waloch, Maria

2011-01-01

80

Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming tria...

Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-mei; Chung, Wen-cheng

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Estudio de la respuesta inmune humoral en cerdos infectados con huevos y posoncosferas de Taeina solium Study on immune humoral response in pigs infected with eggs and posoncospheresof Taenia solium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the importance of cysticercosis in Mexico and Latin America and to the fact that in the last years another mechanism of infection for this disease has been proposed, i.e. through postoncospheres and immunosuppression of the host, we have considered relevant to perform the present work, which consisted in assessing the immune response induced by dexamethasone as well as that produced by parasites in pigs infected with T. solium eggs, or postoncosphere-infected, and in postoncosphere-infected and dexamethasone-treated animals. We used 10 recently weaned pigs, three were used as controls, two of them without the drug and one with it; two were infected with T. solium eggs; five with postoncospheres receiving also dexamethasone three of them.We evaluated the humoral response against parasite antigen using indirect haemagglutination (IH and ELISA methods Results of the immune humoral response revealed titres of up to 1:128 in T. solium eggs infected animals, of 1:16 in postoncosphere infected animals, and of 1:32 towards the end of the experiment in postoncosphere plus dexamethasone animals. Absorbance titres with ELISA confirmed these findings. Data obtained by IH show that the antibody titres of the pigs challenged with postoncospheres and postoncospheres plus dexamethasone are positive as compared to the titres obtained in the pigs infected with T. solium eggs. Results from the ELISA confirmed this finding, since, from weeks 14 to 17, the pigs became positive, behaving as those pigs that developed cysticercosis. This is relevant as it indicates that the antiposcosphere antibodies recognized antigens of T. solium larvae.

Gloria Rojas Wastavino

1999-07-01

82

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asia...

Gala?n-puchades, M. Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V.

2013-01-01

83

THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T. saginata-\\ike worms from Taiwan and classical T.saginata, differences have been detected in DNA hybridization patterns.

John H. Cross

2012-09-01

84

Cestode genomics - progress and prospects for advancing basic and applied aspects of flatworm biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of the first tapeworm genome, Echinococcus multilocularis, is now nearly complete, and genome assemblies of E. granulosus, Taenia solium and Hymenolepis microstoma are in advanced draft versions. These initiatives herald the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology and underpin a diverse set of research agendas targeting both basic and applied aspects of tapeworm biology. We discuss the progress in the genomics of these species, provide insights into the presence and composition of immunologically relevant gene families, including the antigen B- and EG95/45W families, and discuss chemogenomic approaches toward the development of novel chemotherapeutics against cestode diseases. In addition, we discuss the evolution of tapeworm parasites and introduce the research programmes linked to genome initiatives that are aimed at understanding signalling systems involved in basic host-parasite interactions and morphogenesis. PMID:21793855

Olson, P D; Zarowiecki, M; Kiss, F; Brehm, K

2012-01-01

85

2D-PAGE analysis of Taenia solium metacestode 10-30 kDa antigens for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by T. solium metacestode is an increasingly important health issue in Indian children. The sensitivity and specificity of available serological techniques were low in case of single cysticercus granuloma cases which is a more common feature in Indian patients who are children. Serum samples were collected from 13 clinically and radiologically suggestive NCC children and seropositive by ELISA, 25 clinically and radiologically suggestive NCC children and seronegative by ELISA and 25 control subjects. The 10-30 kDa antigens of T. solium metacestode were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to detect antibody in serum. Analysis of 10-30 kDa antigenic fraction 2D-PAGE map showed 31 proteins between 10 and ?28 kDa and innumerable proteins between >28 and 30 kDa with the Isoelectric point of 3-10. All the 13 (100%) NCC seropositive and 15 (60%) out of 25 NCC seronegative samples were reactive with 2D fraction antigens. In the control group, none of the serum was reactive except 2 hydatid samples (92% specificity). The sensitivity and specificity of 2D-PAGE EITB assay were significantly higher than the ELISA which is the routine diagnostic method used in the endemic countries for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. PMID:21354092

Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Singhi, Pratibha D; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Malla, Nancy

2011-05-01

86

Development of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay using two baculovirus expressed recombinant antigens for diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taeniasis diagnosis is an important step in the control and elimination of both cysticercosis and taeniasis. We report the development of 2 serological taeniasis diagnostic tests using recombinant antigens rES33 and rES38 expressed by baculovirus in insect cells in an EITB format. In laboratory testing with defined sera from nonendemic areas, rES33 has a sensitivity of 98% (n = 167) and a specificity of 99% (n = 310) (J index: 0.97); rES38 has a sensitivity of 99% (n = 146) and a specificity of 97% (n = 275) (J index: 0.96). Independent field testing in Peru showed 97% (n = 203) of the taeniasis sera were positive with rES33, and 100% of the nontaeniasis sera (n = 272) were negative with rES33; 98% (n = 198) of taeniasis sera were positive with rES38, and 91% (n = 274) of the nontaeniasis sera were negative with rES38. Among the Peruvian sera tested, 17 of 26 Peruvian Taenia saginata sera were false positive with rES38 test. Both tests were also examined with cysticercosis sera, with a positive rate ranging from 21% to 46%. rES33 and rES38 tests offer sensitive and specific diagnosis of taeniasis and easy sample collection through finger sticks that can be used in large-scale studies. They are currently being used in cysticercosis elimination programs in Peru. PMID:17539427

Levine, Min Z; Lewis, Melissa M; Rodriquez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Khan, Azra; Lin, Sehching; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

2007-04-01

87

Cestode cysts in two African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple cestode cysts identified as Taenia serialis were present in the bodies of two wild-caught African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) at necropsy. This rodent species can be an intermediate host for this parasite. Exotic rodents kept as pets in the United States may be affected. PMID:17315463

Lacasse, Claude; Travis, Erika; Gamble, Kathryn C; Craig, Thomas

2005-03-01

88

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Prog...

Toral-bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-gonzalez, Diego E.; Garcia-cortes, Ramon; Avila-ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

2011-01-01

89

First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938 in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the ces­todes as Taenia acinonyxi.

BA Zaheri

2011-09-01

90

First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

Hosseini, Sh; Youssefi, Mr; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba

2011-12-01

91

Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Kore...

2009-01-01

92

Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed ...

Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-jong

2001-01-01

93

First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

2010-10-01

94

Immunoblot patterns of Taenia asiatica taeniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and 21.5 kDa against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia saginata revealed 110-100, 66, 58-56, and 46 kDa immunoblot bands against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia solium also revealed 99-97, 68-66, and 46 kDa bands against T. asiatica infected sera. The immunoblot band of 21.5 kDa exhibited specificity to T. asiatica. PMID:19290097

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

2009-03-01

95

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Differentiation and Rapid Detection of Taenia Species?  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic.

Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2009-01-01

96

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic. PMID:19005142

Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2009-01-01

97

Taenia saginata Metacestode Antigenic Fractions without Affinity to Concanavalin A Are an Important Source of Specific Antigens for the Diagnosis of Human Neurocysticercosis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by ...

Oliveira, Heliana B.; Machado, Gleyce A.; Mineo, Jose? R.; Costa-cruz, Julia M.

2010-01-01

98

Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and in EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Paraná-Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the cerebral presence of Taenia solium metacestode (Cysticercus cellulosae), is responsible for neurological disorders worldwide. In order to validate an immunodiagnosis for public-health patients in the State of Parana-Brazil, crude antigen of Taenia crassicepsmetacestode (Cysticercus longicollis) was used as an alternative heterologous antigen to be used in ELISA and in electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) for active and inactive NCC diagnosis. Indirect ELISA was ...

João Carlos Minozzo; Juliana de Moura; Sérgio Monteiro Almeida; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol

2008-01-01

99

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species. PMID:23428901

Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2013-05-01

100

The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

Maravilla Pablo

2011-07-01

102

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

2014-01-01

103

Seroincidence of porcine T. solium infection in the Peruvian highlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed repeated serological sampling of pigs in an endemic area of the Peruvian highlands (eight villages) to assess the feasibility of detecting incident cases of Taenia solium infection as indicators of ongoing transmission of the parasite. A total of 2245 samples corresponding to 1548 pigs were collected in three sampling rounds (n=716, 926, and 603, respectively). Village-period specific seroprevalences of antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay varied from 39% (95% CI: 34, 44) to 76% (95% CI: 72, 79). The prevalence of cysticercosis increased with the age of the pigs (similarly for both sexes). Around 40% of pigs were re-sampled at the end of each 4-month period. Crude incidence risks were 48% (57/120, 95% CI: 43-52) and 58% (111/192, 95% CI: 54-61) for each period. A proportion of seropositive animals became seronegative at the end of each period (23 and 15%). Incidence varied by the village, and the exposure period, and was higher in males than females (but did not differ by age). PMID:12609467

Garcia, H H; Gonzalez, A E; Gavidia, C; Falcon, N; Bernal, T; Verastegui, M; Rodriguez, S; Tsang, V C W; Gilman, R H

2003-04-15

104

Epidemiological study and control trial of taeniid cestode infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5-10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

Guo, Zhihong; Li, Wei; Peng, Mao; Duo, Hong; Shen, Xiuying; Fu, Yong; Irie, Takao; Gan, Tiantian; Kirino, Yumi; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

2014-03-01

105

Evaluation of recombinant HP6-Tsag, an 18 kDa Taenia saginata oncospheral adhesion protein, for the diagnosis of cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the objective of providing inexpensive and reproducible assays for the detection of antibodies indicating exposure to Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of the T. saginata oncosphere adhesion protein (HP6-Tsag), expressed in baculovirus (HP6-Bac) and bacteria (HP6-GST [glutathione S-transferase]), employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sera from T. saginata infected cattle, T. solium infected pigs and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically defined T. solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients. The two recombinant proteins were antigenic in all three systems, with the signal to background ratio of the HP6-Bac ELISA slightly higher than that for the HP6-GST ELISA. Assay performance in cattle was similar to previously described peptide-based ELISA assays, although NCC sample sensitivity/specificity was marginally better. The sensitivity of the HP6-Bac and HP6-GST ELISAs was close for active human NCC (77.4 and 80.6% for serum and 76.9 and 73.1% for CSF samples, respectively). In inactive human NCC, however, the sensitivity of the HP6-Bac ELISA was almost twice that of the HP6-GST ELISA. Because peptides are relatively expensive and recombinant proteins are simple and economical to produce, the latter may provide useful reagents for antibody detection in countries with endemic cysticercosis/NCC. PMID:17351832

Ferrer, Elizabeth; González, Luís Miguel; Martínez-Escribano, José Angel; González-Barderas, María Eugenia; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

2007-08-01

106

Detecting spatial clusters of Taenia solium infections in a rural block in South India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of seizures/epilepsy in countries endemic for the disease. The objectives of this study were to spatially map the burden of active epilepsy (AE), NCC, taeniasis, seroprevalence for cysticercal antibodies and positivity to circulating cysticercal antigens in Kaniyambadi block (approximately 100 villages comprising 100 000 population) of Vellore district and to detect spatial clusters of AE, NCC, taeniasis and seroprevalence. Using geographic informatio...

Raghava, M. V.; Prabhakaran, V.; Jayaraman, T.; Muliyil, J.; Oommen, A.; Dorny, P.; Vercruysse, J.; Rajshekhar, V.

2010-01-01

107

PET Reveals Inflammation around Calcified Taenia solium Granulomas with Perilesional Edema  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Neurocysticercosis, an infection with the larval form of the tapeworm, Taeniasolium, is the cause of 29% of epilepsy in endemic regions. Epilepsy in this population is mostly associated with calcified granulomas; at the time of seizure recurrence 50% of those with calcifications demonstrate transient surrounding perilesional edema. Whether edema is consequence of the seizure, or a result of host inflammation directed against parasite antigens or other processes is unknown. To investigate whether perilesional edema is due to inflammation, we imaged a marker of neuroinflammation, translocater protein (TSPO), using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective ligand 11C-PBR28. Methods In nine patients with perilesional edema, degenerating cyst or both, PET findings were compared to the corresponding magnetic resonance images. Degenerating cysts were also studied because unlike perilesional edema, degenerating cysts are known to have inflammation. In three of the nine patients, changes in 11C-PBR28 binding were also studied over time. 11C-PBR28 binding was compared to the contralateral un-affected region. Results 11C-PBR28 binding increased by a mean of 13% in perilesional edema or degenerating cysts (P = 0·0005, n = 13 in nine patients). Among these 13 lesions, perilesional edema (n=10) showed a slightly smaller increase of 10% compared to the contralateral side (P = 0·005) than the three degenerating cysts. In five lesions with perilesional edema in which repeated measurements of 11C-PBR28 binding were done, increased binding lasted for 2-9 months. Conclusions Increased TSPO in perilesional edema indicates an inflammatory etiology. The long duration of increased TSPO binding after resolution of the original perilesional edema and the pattern of periodic episodes is consistent with intermittent exacerbation from a continued baseline presence of low level inflammation. Novel anti-inflammatory measures may be useful in the prevention or treatment of seizures in this population.

Fujita, Masahiro; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Ferraris Araneta, Maria Desiree; Hong, Jinsoo; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Nash, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

108

Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

1991-04-01

109

Evaluation of an antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here the evaluation of an antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus as a potential reagent in an enzyme-immunoelectrotransfer blotting assay (EITB) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC) using clinical specimens obtained from patients in different phases of the disease. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 64 patients suspected of having NC according to clinical manifestation and brain computed tomography were tested by ELISA with Taenia solium total saline antigen (ELISA-Tso) and by immunoblotting with T. crassiceps glycoproteins antigen (EITB-gpTcra). Forty-five serum samples were also tested immunoblotting with T. solium glycoproteins antigen (EITB-gpTso) and 30 were tested by ELISA with T. crassiceps 14 kDa glycoprotein (ELISA-gp14Tcra). Serum samples from apparently healthy individuals without any parasitic disease and from patients with other parasitic diseases were included as controls. The results of ELISA-Tso analysis with CSF obtained from 64 patients with NC showed that 53 (83%) were reactive. EITB-gpTcra analysis with serum from the same group of patients showed a sensitivity of 91%. Results of EITB-gpTso and EITB-gpTcra analysis with serum samples demonstrated an agreement of 100% between both tests. ELISA-gp14Tcra was positive in 23 (77%) sera, 22 with paired CSF positive. When ELISA-gp14Tcra results were compared to EITB-Tso results, a relative sensitivity of 95% was observed. All serum samples from the control group were negative in ELISA-gp14Tcra and only one serum from an individual with Taenia saginata was reactive in this assay, showing a specificity of 99% for ELISA-gp14Tcra. This fraction was purified in only one step with a good yield for use in immunoassays. We suggest that the gp14Tcra antigen can be used for detecting anti-cysticercus antibodies in serum samples for epidemiological investigation purposes and also for diagnostic screening of NC patients. PMID:12088857

Peralta, Regina H S; Vaz, Adelaide J; Pardini, Alessandra; Macedo, Heloísa W; Machado, Luis R; De Simone, Salvatori G; Peralta, José M

2002-08-01

110

Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis / Fração hidrofóbica de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata, ao contrário da fração hidrofílica, contém marcadores imunodominantes para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose humana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando que antígenos alternativos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NC) continua sendo um desafio devido ao aumento da dificuldade em se obter parasitas de suínos naturalmente infectados, para a preparação do antígeno homólogo de Taenia solium, o objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi avaliar frações detergente (D) e aquosa (A), do extrato salino de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata para diagnóstico da NC. MÉTODOS: Bovinos, naturalmente infectados com Taenia saginata, procedentes da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram obtidos de frigoríficos e abatidos de acordo com a técnica de inspeção recomendada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal. As frações D e A foram obtidas utilizando Triton X-114 (TX-114). Amostras de soro foram obtidas de 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de NC, 45 com diagnóstico de outras doenças parasitárias e 30 de indivíduos aparentemente normais. Níveis de IgG foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Imunoblotting. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste ELISA foram 95% e 73,3%, quando utilizado o extrato salino, 95% e 82,6% para fração D, e 65% e 61,3% para a fração A, respectivamente. O ensaio Imunoblotting confirmou os resultados do teste ELISA, sendo a fração D mais eficiente que os outros extratos, observando-se que o componente 70-68kDa se comportou como imunodominante para os pacientes com NC. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados demonstraram que a fração D de metacestódeo de Taenia saginata obtida com TX-114 pode ser utilizada como fração antigênica heteróloga pelo Imunoblotting para o diagnóstico sorológico da NC humana, considerando sua habilidade para selecionar antígenos imunodominantes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

Flávia de Assunção, Gonçalves; Gleyce Alves, Machado; Heliana Batista, Oliveira; Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco, Rezende; José Roberto, Mineo; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

111

Analysis of the expression of cytoskeletal proteins of Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci (Cestoda).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taenia crassiceps ORF strain is used to generate a murine model of cysticercosis, which is used for diagnosis, evaluation of drugs, and vaccination. This particular strain only exists as cysticerci, is easily maintained under in vivo and in vitro conditions, and offers an excellent model for studying the cytoskeletons of cestodes. In this study, several experimental approaches were used to determine the tissue expression of its cytoskeletal proteins. The techniques used were microscopy (video, confocal, and transmission electron), one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, immunochemistry, and mass spectrometry. The tissue expression of actin, tubulin, and paramyosin was assessed using microscopy, and their protein isoforms were determined with 1D and 2D electrophoresis and immunochemistry. Nineteen spots were excised from a proteomic gel and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and immunochemistry. The proteins identified were classic cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes, and proteins with diverse biological functions, but mainly involved in detoxification activities. Research suggests that most noncytoskeletal proteins interact with actin or tubulin, and the results of the present study suggest that the proteins identified may be involved in supporting the dynamics and plasticity of the cytoskeleton of T. crassiceps cysticerci. These results contribute to our knowledge of the cellular biology and physiology of cestodes. PMID:24652446

Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Paredes-Salomon, Cristina; Pérez-Reyes, América; Landa, Abraham; Robert, Lilia; Mendoza, Guillermo; Ambrosio, Javier R

2014-05-01

112

Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines / Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido á desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, n [...] ão possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais levemente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1) anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata) e (2) antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras negativas). A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes diagnósticos foram diferentes dependendo do valor de ponto de corte assumido e, sobretudo, se a infecção era intensa ou leve. Apesar destas observações, no entanto, tanto o ensaio ELISA para anticorpos séricos quanto para antígeno de parasita constituem importante ferramenta para propósitos epidemiológicos e no estabelecimento de prioridades no controle da cisticercose bovina. Abstract in english Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typ [...] ically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

Paulan, Silvana de Cassia; Gonzales, Rutilia Marisela Hernandes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanha; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Caris Maroni.

113

Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

2014-06-16

114

Polycystic echinococcosis in Colombia: the larval cestodes in infected rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described are the characteristics of the polycystic larval cestodes found in an endemic area of echinococcosis in the Easter Plains of Colombia and the tissue reaction evoked in infected rodents. Of 848 free-ranging animals examined, polycystic hydatids were found in 44/93 Cuniculus paca and 1/369 Proechimys sp. None of 20 Dasyprocta fuliginosa examined was infected, but hunters provided a heart with hydatid cysts and information about two additional animals with infected livers. Recognition of an endemic area of polycystic echinococcosis provides a means to investigate the life cycle of the parasites and to study the histogenesis of the larval cestodes in susceptible laboratory animals. PMID:501848

Morales, G A; Guzman, V H; Wells, E A; Angel, D

1979-07-01

115

The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in seven of the ESA countries. Most of the reported findings are based...

Phiri, I. K.; Ngowi, H.; Afonso, S.; Matenga, E.; Boa, M.; Mukatirwa, S.; Githigia, S.; Saimo, M.; Sikasunge, C.; Maingi, N.; Lubega, G. W.; Kassuku, A.; Michael, L.; Siziya, S.; Krecek, R. C.

2003-01-01

116

Immunoblot Patterns of Taenia asiatica Taeniasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and ...

Jeon, Hyeong-kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

2009-01-01

117

Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian M. O.

2011-01-01

118

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis, a major cause of acquired seizures and epiilepsy, is caused by infection with the larval cystic form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. CT and MRI imaging, development of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, and discovery of relatively effective anti-cestode drugs, revolutionized knowledge of the burden of infection and disease and led to effective treatments. Here we review the rationale of treatment, the essential role of inflammation in the genesis of disease and its...

Nash, Theodore E.; Garcia, Hector H.

2011-01-01

119

Avian cestodes affect the behaviour of their intermediate host Artemia parthenogenetica: An experimental study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) is intermediate host for several cestode species whose final hosts are waterbirds. Previous field studies have shown that brine shrimps infected with cestodes have a bright red colour and are spatially segregated in the water column. However, the ethological mechanisms explaining such field observations are unknown. Changes in appearance and behaviour induced by trophically transmitted parasites have been shown to increase th...

Sa?nchez, Marta I.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Green, Andy J.

2007-01-01

120

Concomitant Infection of Appendix with Taenia and Enterobius vermicularis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical disease in children and young adult. There are many reports in the world, concerning the infectivity of appendix with different parasites. However, concomitant infection of appendix with Taenia and Enterobius vermicularis is a rare case. A twelve years old boy, living in Islam-shahr, Iran, admitted to a hospital, presenting symptoms suggestive of appendicitis. Following surgically resection of the appendix, histopathological examination was performed on H&E stained sections. In the lumen of the appendix, section of E. vermicularis adult female and eggs of Taenia were visible.

A.R. Meamar

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Efeito do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata / Effect of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de demonstrar a eficácia do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata em condições laboratoriais, foi montado ensaio em placas de Petri com agar - água 2%. Houve atividade ovicida (p[...] os ovos de 25,5%. Abstract in english With the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs under laboratory conditions, a trial was set up in Petri dishes with water-agar 2%. There was ovicidal activity (p [...] an internal colonization rate of 25.5% in the eggs.

Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Silva, André Ricardo.

122

Efeito do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata Effect of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de demonstrar a eficácia do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata em condições laboratoriais, foi montado ensaio em placas de Petri com agar - água 2%. Houve atividade ovicida (pWith the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs under laboratory conditions, a trial was set up in Petri dishes with water-agar 2%. There was ovicidal activity (p < 0.05 in relation to the control group on the tenth day of interaction and an internal colonization rate of 25.5% in the eggs.

Fabio Ribeiro Braga

2008-12-01

123

First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using mor...

Hosseini, Sh; Youssefi, MR; Mobedi, I.; Hosseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba

2011-01-01

124

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

M. B. Sonune

2012-11-01

125

Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the ...

Mcfadden, A. M. J.; Heath, D. D.; Morley, P. C. M.; Dorny, P.

2011-01-01

126

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

T. Hove

2012-05-01

127

The wild rodent akodon azarae (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) on poultry farms of central Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo informa la presencia de estrobilocercos de Taenia taeniaeformis en el roedor Akodon azarae. Un total de 289 roedores pertenecientes a las especies A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens y Mus musculus fueron capturados en granjas avícolas del centro de Argenti [...] na. Todos los roedores fueron examinados en busca de parásitos. Sólo A. azarae presentó quistes de cestodes en el hígado. Los valores de prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia media de la infestación fueron 8.33%, 2.09 y 0.17, respectivamente, y no se observó ninguna diferencia entre los sexos de los roedores infectados. Se concluye que A. azarae es susceptible de infectarse con T. taeniaeformis cuando frecuenta hábitats domésticos y peridomésticos, ya que en ambientes naturales nunca fue registrada su presencia en estos roedores. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que T. taeniaeformis mantiene tres tipos diferentes de ciclos de vida en el área estudiada: 1) un ciclo doméstico entre Rattus norvegicus y mascotas (perros y gatos), ya que R. norvegicus ha sido encontrada parasitada en las granjas; 2) otro ciclo doméstico entre A. azarae y mascotas cuando estas últimas se acercan a los alambrados de las granjas; y 3) un ciclo silvestre entre A. azarae y Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), ya que se ha observado en el área de estudio que A. azarae es predado por este felino en cuyas heces se han encontrado huevos de Taenia sp. Abstract in english This work reports strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis in the rodent Akodon azarae. A total of 289 rodents were captured on poultry farms in Central Argentina, belonging to the following species: A. azarae, Calomys laucha, C. musculinus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Mus musculus. All rodents were e [...] xamined for parasites. Only A. azarae was parasitized with strobilocerci larvae. Prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of the infection in the liver were 8.33%, 2.09 and 0.17, respectively. No differences were observed between the sexes of the infected rodents. Since in natural environments no cysts were reported, A. azarae is susceptible to get infected with T. taeniaeformis when frequents domestic and peridomestic habitats. Taenia taeniaeformis may have three different life cycles in the studied area: 1) one domestic cycle between Rattus norvegicus and pets in the surrounding of the farms, since R. norvegicus was observed to be parasitized; 2) another domestic cycle between A. azarae and the pets when such pets come to the farm fences; and 3) a wild cycle between A. azarae and Leopardus geoffroyi (Carnivora: Felidae), since it was observed that A. azarae is preyed by this felid and their feces were found parasitized with eggs of Taenia sp. in the study area.

Miño, Mariela H; Rojas Herrera, Elba J; Notarnicola, Juliana.

128

Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci. PMID:18440675

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-06-01

129

Antigens and antibodies in sera from human cases of epilepsy or taeniasis from an area of Mexico where Taenia solium cysticercosis is endemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human neurocysticercosis is an important parasitic disease in developing countries. Most epidemiological studies on the disease have used antibody-based assays that allow the detection of transmission 'hot spots' and the identification of the main risk factors for transmission. However, such assays have low predictive value in the detection of active cases of neurocysticercosis. The screening potential of the most commonly used antibody-detection technique, the electroimmunotransfer blot assay (EITB), has now been compared with an antigen-capture assay, in an endemic region of Mexico. The subjects were 68 patients with late-onset epilepsy, 35 cases of taeniasis and a randomly selected, control group of 133 individuals from the same region. Parasite-specific antibodies and antigens were more common among the epileptics and taeniasis cases than among the controls. The antigens appeared to be associated with late-onset epilepsy and the antibodies with the presence of subcutaneous nodules. The sensitivities of both tests, to detect epilepsy or taeniasis, were low, but the specificity and the positive predictive value of the antigen-capture assay was high when used with the epileptics. As late-onset epilepsy and neurocysticercosis seem to be associated in endemic regions, antigen-capture assays are probably the most reliable method of detecting active cases of neurocysticercosis in epidemiological studies. PMID:10492673

Correa, D; Sarti, E; Tapia-Romero, R; Rico, R; Alcántara-Anguiano, I; Salgado, A; Valdez, L; Flisser, A

1999-01-01

130

Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of Felis catus from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Materials were obtained from a naturally infected road-killed cat (Felis catus) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It is characterised by the presence of (1) a single spirallised crested body about 140 nm thick, (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, (3) a twisted (40 degrees ) layer of submembranous cortical microtubules, (4) a periaxonemal sheath surrounding the axoneme, (5) transverse intracytoplasmic walls and (6) a spirallised nucleus encircling the axoneme. The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is also characterised by the presence of an apical cone in its anterior extremity and by the disorganisation of the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on other representatives of the family Taeniidae. PMID:19205741

Miquel, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Torres, Jordi; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Feliu, Carlos

2009-06-01

131

Cestodes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a W Norwegian hatchery:Infection dynamics, aspects of development and pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many cestodes use copepods as first intermediate hosts, and some may infect juvenile salmonids in hatcheries that use water from sources that are inhabited by native salmonids. Little is known about their infection dynamics and development under these artificial conditions.

Sundnes, Glenn Arve

2003-01-01

132

First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes usin...

Sh, Hosseini; MR Youssefi; Mobedi, I.; Sm, Hosseini; Ba, Zaheri

2011-01-01

133

The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR). 1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae) cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% ), Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% ), Hymenolepis scutigera (54% ), Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% ), Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% ), Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% ), Choanotaenia hepa...

Novikov, Michael V.

1992-01-01

134

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the pres...

Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S.; Swastika, Kadek I.; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M.; Negasi, Zerihun H.; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito

2011-01-01

135

Review of tapeworms of rodents in the Republic of Buryatia, with emphasis on anoplocephalid cestodes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examination of ca. 500 rodents [Microtus spp., Myodes spp., Cricetulus barabensis (Pallas, Apodemus peninsulae Thomas] from 14 localities in the Republic of Buryatia (Russian Federation revealed a minimum of 11 cestode species representing Anoplocephaloides Baer, 1923 s. str. (1 species, Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 s. l. (5 species, Catenotaenia Janicki, 1904 (2 species, Arostrilepis Mas-Coma & Tenora, 1997 (at least 2 species and Rodentolepis Spasskii, 1954 (1 species. At least 5 of these species are previously unknown. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Buryatian Paranoplocephala-species was defined by cytochrome oxidase I (COI sequences (mtDNA. The phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the status of Parandrya Gulyaev & Chechulin, 1996 as a junior synonym of Paranoplocephala s. l.. The species diversity of anoplocephalid cestodes was significantly lower in Buryatia and North-East Siberia (6-7 species than in Europe (17 species. The connections of the anoplocephalid fauna of Buryatia seem to be closer with Beringia (North-East Siberia and Alaska than with Europe. The present study demonstrated high spatial variation (patchiness among study sites in cestodes of Buryatian rodents, with the exception of the ubiquitous Arostrilepis horrida (von Linstow, 1901-complex.

Voitto Haukisalmi

2009-04-01

136

In vitro uptake of "1"4C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

"1"4C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

1980-01-01

137

Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Ta...

Sonia Vázquez-Flores; Gilberto Ballesteros-Rodea; Ana Flisser; Schantz, Peter M.

2001-01-01

138

In vivo efficacy of the anthelmintic tribendimidine against the cestode Hymenolepis microstoma in a controlled laboratory trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tribendimidine has been registered for the treatment of human soil transmitted helminthiases in China. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans it is an agonist of L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and therefore shares its mode of action with levamisole and pyrantel. Besides its broad spectrum of nematicidal efficacy, tribendimidine is efficacious against several trematodes and has been attributed to have anti-cestodal effects. However, there are few published data available for the latter. The efficacy of tribendimidine and its nematicidal metabolite deacylated amidantel against Hymenolepis microstoma were examined for their anti-cestodal potential. Doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight deacylated amidantel and 10, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg tribendimidine were administered orally on three consecutive days to mice experimentally infected with eight cysticercoids. Necropsy was performed and the worm burdens were determined one day after the last treatment. Furthermore, levamisole was used in combination with tribendimidine (100mg/kg levamisole plus 10 and 25mg/kg tribendimidine, respectively) and alone (50 and 100mg/kg) to investigate any possible interactions of the partner compounds against cestodes. Tribendimidine showed a very high efficacy at dosages of 50mg/kg or higher. Surprisingly, deacylated amidantel led to no reduction of the worm burden in any of the treatments. Combinations of levamisole with tribendimidine did not augment the effects of tribendimidine alone and as expected levamisole alone also showed no anti-cestodal activity. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time activity of tribendimidine against a cestode in a controlled laboratory study. Due to the excellent cure rates observed here, multiple tribendimidine treatments might be considered as useful scheme for treatments of cestode, nematode and trematode infections although this would significantly increase both costs and management efforts. Moreover, the differences between tribendimidine and deacylated amidantel indicate at least a strong difference in sensitivity of H. microstoma or a strong difference in drug availability. PMID:22487754

Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Welz, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Harder, Achim

2012-08-01

139

Influence of Intestinal Cestodes on the Blood Picture of the Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was performed to determined the changes in the blood picture of the brown rats Rattus norvegicus naturally infected with intestinal cestodes. The results are based on the examination of 82 brown rats captured at random from Hyderabad city and its adjacent areas. Blood profiling of cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana infected male and female rats showed significantly lower values of Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb concentration, Haematocrit (Hct, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC as compared to their control (non-infected rats of both sexes. The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV value for infected male and female rats was found significantly higher than those of their control rats. A significantly higher Total Leukocyte Count (TLC in male and female infected rats was noted as against the non-infected (control rats of both sexes. The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC revealed significant increase in absolute number of each type of cell in cestode infected male and female rats. However, lymphocyte and basophil counts recorded from male infected rats were similar to the counts of their control rats. Conspicuous changes in the blood picture of cestode infected male and female rats indicate host-parasite interaction as well as the triggering of defense mechanism in the host against infection.

Nasreen Gill

2007-01-01

140

Taenia pisiformis: protective immunization of rabbits with solubilized oncospheral antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antigens were derived from hatched and activated oncospheres of Taenia pisiformis which had been separated from embryophoric debris by centrifugation on Percoll. Crude oncospheral antigen was prepared by freeze-thawing and sonication of oncospheres at 4 C, and a supernatant of crude antigen was collected following centrifugation at 100,000g. Other antigens tested were the supernatants collected after 100,000g centrifugation of crude antigen solubilized in Triton X-100, butanol, lithium diiodosalicylic acid, KCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or sodium deoxycholate. When groups of rabbits were immunized with the various antigens and challenged with T. pisiformis eggs, both sodium deoxycholate- and Triton X-100-solubilized antigens stimulated a level of protection similar to the crude antigen. All other antigens failed to stimulate significant protective immunity. When sodium deoxycholate-solubilized antigen was fractionated using high-performance liquid chromatography, the major host-protective components were in the fractions with molecular weight greater than 140,000. Levels of the enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.2), in the serum of rabbits challenged with T. pisiformis eggs closely reflected the degree of liver damage caused by migrating larvae, and were not markedly elevated in those rabbits effectively immunized using the crude or sodium deoxycholate-solubilized antigens. PMID:3996524

Rajasekariah, G R; Rickard, M D; O'Donnell, I J

1985-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice / Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC) com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialme [...] nte com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals wer [...] e intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.

Matos-Silva, Hidelberto; Reciputti, Bruno Pereira; Paula, Élbio Cândido de; Oliveira, André Luiz; Moura, Vânia Beatriz Lopes; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli; Lino-Júnior, Ruy de Souza.

142

Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade.

Hidelberto Matos-Silva

2012-04-01

143

Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e-Shereen) and anticestodal effect of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction similar to 10 mg/kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40 mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested. PMID:1942479

Akhtar, M S; Riffat, S

1991-08-01

144

Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4) eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of infection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 57...

2002-01-01

145

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangtfer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland.

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad M

2012-01-01

146

Myostimulating Effect of Sesamum Radiatum Aqueous Leaf Extract in Isolated Guinea-Pig Taenia Caeci Contractile Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried to examine the effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Sesamum radiatum, a laxative plant on the contractile activity of Taenia caeci, an intestinal smooth muscle. Strips of Taenia caeci were rapidly removed from guinea-pig and were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath with Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the Taenia caeci strips were recorded by using a strain gauge. S. radiatum aqueous leaf extract (ESera) is a...

2011-01-01

147

Why are taeniae, haustra, and semilunar folds differentiated in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, including man?  

Science.gov (United States)

When a small change, either contraction or dilation, of the surface area of a digestive tube coincides with a considerable change in internal volume, this can be considered an effective influence of surface on volume. This study discusses the effects of anatomical differences between those types of digestive tracts where the longitudinal musculature is reduced to small bands, the taeniae, and those where such differentiations are not found. With the help of a geometric model the efficiency of transport (eta = net volume expelled aborally / volume of the tube) from haustra in tubes with two, three, four, and six taeniae was determined. It could be shown that efficiency of transport from haustra decreases when the number of taeniae increases. The second model applies the program "Surface Evolver" (author K.A. Brakke). The program is applied to investigate the relationships between changes in surface area of tubes with different numbers of taeniae (0, 2, 3, 4, and 6) and the respective changes of the internal volumes of tubes. Both haustra formation and formation of semilunar folds between haustra are considered. Tubes with two or three taeniae reduce their internal volume more efficiently than all others, namely, with a relatively small reduction of the surface area and contraction of the Tunica muscularis at a relatively low rate. In addition to chemical and mechanical decomposition of digesta the gastrointestinal tube has three tasks: propagation, storage, and retention of digesta. A tube without taeniae, i.e., with a complete longitudinal muscular layer, propagates contents with peristaltic movements. Storage can take place in areas of the tract with a dilated cross-section. Finally, folds can retain digesta. In many sections of the gastrointestinal tract folds are differentiated as permanent structures. However, folds formed with relatively little contraction of the musculature, i.e., little change in the surface area, represent an effective means of retention and thus of flow regulation. Tubes with taeniae and semilunar folds are adaptations for this effective type of regulation of digesta transit through the tract. PMID:14994329

Langer, Peter; Takács, Aron

2004-03-01

148

Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the paruterinid cestode Notopentorchis sp. (Cyclophyllidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrastructural characters of the spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Notopentorchis sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Paruterinidae), a parasite from Apus affinis (Aves, Apodiformes, Apodidae) from Gabon, are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Cytochemical analysis for detection of glycogen was applied. Vestigial striated roots associated with the two centrioles are present in the zone of differentiation. The spermiogenesis is characterized by an external growth of free flagellum followed by a proximodistal fusion of the latter with cytoplasmic protrusion, thus, corresponding to the cestode spermiogenesis of the type III pattern described by Bâ and Marchand (Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 166:87-95, 1995). In the final stage of spermiogenesis, a single crested body appears at the base of the forming spermatozoon. The mature spermatozoon of Notopentorchis sp. is filiform and tapering at both extremities. It consists of five regions differing in their ultrastructural characteristics. The anterior extremity of the mature spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of an apical cone and a single crested body. The cytoplasm contains one axoneme of 9 + "1" type of the trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, a periaxonemal sheath, a layer of twisted cortical microtubules, transverse intracytoplasmic walls, and granules of glycogen. The nucleus is coiled in spiral around the axoneme. The posterior extremity of the spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of electron-dense material. This structural organization corresponds to the morphology of cestode spermatozoon of type VII as defined by Levron et al. (Biol Rev 85: 523-543, 2010). The comparison of the results with those of the two previous studies on paruterinids suggests that several characters of the spermiogenesis and the mature spermatozoon are invariable, i.e. the type III spermiogenesis and the presence of vestigial striated roots, a single crested body, a periaxonemal sheath, and intracytoplasmic walls. The main differences of the sperm cells among members of this family are the lack of dense granules (as in Triaenorhina rectangula) and the presence of electron-dense material in the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon (as in Notopentorchis sp.). PMID:22246370

Yoneva, Aneta; Levron, Céline; Nikolov, Pavel N; Mizinska, Yana; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

2012-07-01

149

Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Cephalochlamys namaquensis (Cohn, 1906).  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution provides the first ultrastructural and cytochemical data on the mature spermatozoon of a diphyllobothriidean cestode belonging to the family Cephalochlamydidae. The mature spermatozoon of Cephalochlamys namaquensis (Cohn, 1906), a parasite of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Daudin, 1802), from southern California, USA, has been examined using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. The male gamete is a filiform cell tapered at both extremities. Its moderately electron-dense cytoplasm possesses two parallel axonemes of unequal lengths with a 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, four electron-dense plaques/attachment zones, and electron-dense granules of glycogen. The crested body is absent. The anterior extremity of the cell exhibits a centriole surrounded by a semiarc of four parallel cortical microtubules. The number of cortical microtubules reaches its maximum (up to 37) at the beginning of the anucleated two-axoneme region II of the spermatozoon. In contrast to other diphyllobothriideans, a small membranous element appears in the anucleated region II. In addition, the nucleus is surrounded by a few cortical microtubules in region V. The distal extremity of the mature spermatozoon exhibits only one nucleus. Variations of spermatozoa ultrastructural characters within diphyllobothriideans as well as other Eucestoda are discussed. PMID:22576853

Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Matey, Victoria; Nebesá?ová, Jana

2012-09-01

150

Copulation order, density cues and variance in fertilization success in a cestode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous hermaphrodites maximize their fitness by optimizing their investment into male or female functions. Allocation of resources to male function (tissues, traits, and/or behaviours increasing paternity) is predicted to increase as density, and the associated level of sperm competition, increases. We tested whether the simultaneous hermaphroditic cestode Schistocephalus solidus uses cues of potential partner densities in its fish intermediate host to improve its male reproductive success in the final host. We had two worms, one originating from a multiple infection in the fish intermediate host and one from a single infection, sequentially compete to fertilize the eggs of a third worm. The fertilization rates of the two competitors nearly always differed from the 50-50 null expectation, sometimes considerably, implying there was a 'winner' in each experimental competition. However, we did not find a significant effect of density in the fish host (single vs multiple) or mating order on paternity. Additional work will be needed to identify the traits and environmental conditions that explain the high variance in male reproductive success observed in this experiment. PMID:24560286

Andreou, D; Benesh, D P

2014-06-01

151

Knowledge and Practices Related to T. solium Cysticercosis -Taeniasis among Smallholder Farmers in Selected Villages in Kilolo District in Iringa Region in Southern Highlands of Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding farmers/community knowledge and practices towards T. solium Cysticercosis- Taeniasis is key for successful eradication strategy. This study was carried out in three selected villages in T. solium endemic areas in Southern highlands of Tanzania namely Kihesamgagao, Masege and Lulanzi from Kilolo district in Iringa region. The study aimed at determining farmers’ knowledge on T. solium Cysticercosis- Taeniasis, including life-cycle of the parasite and practices related to the infection as well as factors influencing farmers’ knowledge on life- cycle of the parasite in the study area. The study was a crosssectional survey involved 80 randomly selected households with 45 households being pig keepers and 35 being non- pig keepers. Three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs, one in each village were also conducted to gather some qualitative information for the study. Quantitative data were analyzed for descriptive statistics such as percentages, as well as for inferential statistics i.e. ,Chi-square tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results from this study indicated substantial proportion of respondents were aware of the problems in their area that can be linked to T. solium infections. The most known problem was Porcine Cysticercosis (75%, followed by Tapeworm in human (Taeniasis (31.2% and Epilespy (20%, indicating T. solium infections to be a serious problem in the area. Despite significant portion of the respondents were aware of T. solium related infections in their area, however, there was still a noticeable proportion of respondents (32.5% who didn’t have a proper knowledge on life cycle of T. solium, a situation fueled practices that encourage spread of T. solium infections. Fifteen percent of the surveyed households had no latrines and nearly two- third of pig keepers practiced free range or semi- indoor pig rearing system, practices which allows pig to have access to human faeces and hence continued life-cycle of the parasite. Furthermore, findings from this study indicated that most pig farmers (69% slaughter their pigs at home in which meat inspection is rarely done or non-existent. Main source of pork meat by majority of respondents was local brew bars/shops where it is served as fried meat and consumed on the spot. It was revealed during Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that pork meat in local brew bars is sometimes saved undercooked if no close supervision of a frying process, practice which predisposes consumers to the risk of T. solium infections. Several socio- demographic factors were noted to have influence on knowledge on life cycle of T. solium by framers. Male and older respondents/farmers, being from other ethnic groups other than Hehe, as well as more educated farmers were more likely to have a proper knowledge of life-cycle of T. solium than their counterpart. Based on these findings it was recommended that more education to farmers and a community as whole on T. solium infections and its control is needed in the area. For the T. solium eradication strategy/campaigns in the study area to be effective it should put special emphasis on female, younger and less educated farmers, as well as Hehe; that is the less knowledgeable groups.

A.F. Maridadi

2011-06-01

152

Sterilisation of cysticerci with gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticerci of Taenia solium and of Taenia saginata were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 0,2 - 1,4 kGy. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of nine days in T. solium and after six days in T. saginata. Some cysticerci of T. solium treated with low doses (0,2 - 0,8 kGy) evaginated 24 days after treatment but no T. saginata cysticerci evaginated after 15 days. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 0,2 - 1,2 kGy are as infective to golden hamsters as untreated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely and are excreted or digested from Day +12 onwards. Such tapeworms do not grow but are resorbed and finally consist of only a scolex. It appears that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells to divide and the cells do not recover from this treatment. Carcasses lightly infested with cysticercosis could be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to low doses (0,2 - 0,6 kGy) of gamma radiation

1979-10-05

153

Antagonism of calcium by zinc in guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci and trachealis muscle.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1 In guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci and trachealis bathed in a K+-rich, Ca2+-free medium, CaCl2 (0.01-10 mM) produced a concentration-dependent contraction. Zn2+ (0.01-1 mM), Cd2+ (0.01-1 mM), verapamil (0.01-100 microM) and trifluoperazine (1-100 microM) were effective antagonists of CaCl2-induced responses. 2 Zn2+ and Cd2+ in concentrations from 0.01 to 1 mM were without effect on the tone of taenia and trachea in normal Tris solution. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cd2+, in concentrations of 1 mM,...

Sarria?, B.; Cortijo, J.; Marti?-cabrera, M.; Morcillo, E.; Esplugues, J.

1989-01-01

154

The effect of some anticholinesterases on the response of the taenia to sympathetic nerve stimulation  

Science.gov (United States)

1. A preparation of the taenia from the caecum of the guinea-pig has been used. Acetylcholine caused contraction and noradrenaline caused relaxation. When the perivascular nerves running to the taenia were stimulated, at low frequencies there was sometimes contraction and sometimes relaxation. At high frequencies there was always relaxation. In the presence of hyoscine there was relaxation at all frequencies, the relaxation increasing as the frequency rose up to 20/sec. The relaxation was not affected by the presence of hexamethonium, but was blocked by bretylium. 2. When stimulation was applied in the presence of hyoscine, the addition of physostigmine, Mipafox or Dyflos increased the relaxation to stimulation of low frequency, the increase becoming smaller as the frequency rose. At high frequencies Mipafox decreased the relaxation.

Ng, K. K. F.

1966-01-01

155

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Differentiation and Rapid Detection of Taenia Species?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infe...

2009-01-01

156

Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

2009-08-01

157

Two cestode species in Brazilian turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae): pathology induced by Hymenolepis cantaniana and occurrence of Raillietina tetragona  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pathology induced in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) by one cestode species Hymenolepis cantaniana is described together with data on prevalence, mean infection and range of worm burdens. H. cantaniana occurred with a prevalence of 5.0 % in the 40 examined hosts in a range of 14-21 specimens and a mean intensity of 17.5. Gross lesions were not observed in the parasitized birds. Lesions due to H cantaniana mainly consisted of multiple segments of parasites, together with a mild mixed inflamm...

ROBERTO MAGALHÃES PINTO; BEATRIZ BRENER; RODRIGO CALDAS MENEZES; ROGÉRIO TORTELLY

2008-01-01

158

Myostimulating effect of sesamum radiatum aqueous leaf extract in isolated Guinea-pig Taenia caeci contractile activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried to examine the effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Sesamum radiatum, a laxative plant on the contractile activity of Taenia caeci, an intestinal smooth muscle. Strips of Taenia caeci were rapidly removed from guinea-pig and were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath with Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the Taenia caeci strips were recorded by using a strain gauge. S. radiatum aqueous leaf extract (ESera) is a spasmogenic substance. This myostimulant effect is characterized by the increase of the rhythm and the amplitude of isolated guinea-pig Taenia caeci smooth muscle in normal solution and by the development of contracture in modified solution and in solution without calcium. A similar effect was observed with ACh which caused a graded increase of the contractile activity of Taenia caeci. The effects induced by ESera and ACh were reversed in the presence of atropine. The spasmogenic effect induced by ESera could justify partially the use of S. radiatum as laxative in traditional medicine. PMID:22654214

Konan, André B; Amonkan, Augustin K; Ahui, Marie-Louise B; Bouafou, Guy-Marcel K; Kouakou, Léandre K; Kpahé, Fidèle Z; Datté, Jacques Y

2011-01-01

159

Parasites and Foodborne Illness  

Science.gov (United States)

... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Parasites and Foodborne Illness Introduction Giardia duodenalis or intestinalis ... gondii Trichinella spiralis Taenia saginata/Taenia solium (Tapeworms) Parasites may be present in food or in water ...

160

Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis wa...

C?elikso?z, Ali; Acio?z, Mehmet; Deg?erli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, C?etin

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Cestóides proteocefalídeos de "cachara", Pseudoplatystoma fasciatus (L. (Pisces, Pimelodidae de Mato Grosso Proteocephalid cestodes from Pseudoplatystoma fasciatus (L. (Pisces, Pimelodidae from Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author describes three species of protcocephalid cestodes from the Pimelodid fish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatus (L. from rivers of Mato Grosso, Brazil: Nomimoscolex lopesi sp. n., Peltidocotyle rugosa Diesing, 1850 and Spatulifer rugosa (Woodland, 1935. P. rugosa is for the first time referred in this fish species. One hyperparasite nematode specimen was found in a strobila of S. rugosa.

A. Arandas Rêgo

1989-01-01

162

Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental Taenia crassiceps infection.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout ...

Sciutto, E.; Fragoso, G.; Baca, M.; La Cruz, V.; Lemus, L.; Lamoyi, E.

1995-01-01

163

Calcium-induced calcium release mechanism in guinea pig taenia caeci  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fura-2 was used to measure the amount of Ca released from the intracellular Ca store of a saponin-skinned smooth muscle fiber bundle of the guinea pig taenia caeci (width, 150-250 microns) placed in a capillary cuvette at 20-22 degrees C. The amount of Ca actively loaded into the store was assayed when released by the application of 50 mM caffeine and/or 10 microM inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in the absence of ATP, and was found to have a biphasic dependence on the loading [Ca2+] with a...

1989-01-01

164

Calcium and the activation of the alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. The actions of phenylephrine (0.1-100 mumol l-1) and methoxamine (0.1-100 mumol l-1) were compared with that of adrenaline (0.01-10 mumol l-1) using the single sucrose gap method and mechanical recording in the guinea-pig taenia caeci. Drugs were applied for variable periods of time. 2. The characteristics of the inhibitory effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists were the same when exposure time did not exceed 5 min. When the exposure was prolonged, in contrast to the sustained effects of a...

Rusko, J.; Bauer, V.

1988-01-01

165

Spermatozoon ultrastructure of the pseudophyllidean cestode Paraechinophallus japonicus, a parasite of deep-sea fish Psenopsis anomala (Perciformes, Centrolophidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides the first ultrastructural data on the spermatozoon of a pseudophyllidean cestode belonging to the family Echinophallidae, Paraechinophallus japonicus, parasitizing deep-sea fish Psenopsis anomala from Japan. The mature spermatozoon contains two axonemes of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, cortical microtubules, and electron-dense granules. Its anterior extremity exhibits a single electron-dense crested body. One of the most interesting features of the mature spermatozoon is the presence of a ring of tubular structures encircling the axoneme. This character, previously reported in species of the families Bothriocephalidae and Triaenophoridae, may be unique to pseudophyllideans of the group "Bothriocephalidea", thus supporting the assumption that the order Pseudophyllidea is formed in fact by two unrelated clades; "Bothriocephalidea" and "Diphyllobothriidea". The posterior extremity contains the posterior part of the nucleus and the disorganized axoneme--a character previously not described in the Eucestoda. PMID:16835797

Levron, Céline; Brunanská, Magdaléna; Kuchta, Roman; Freeman, Mark; Scholz, Tomás

2006-12-01

166

Potential existence of a sylvatic cycle of Taenia ovis krabbei in Patagonia, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are consistent with Taenia ovis ovis or T. o. krabbei. Although it is not possible to differentiate between T. o. ovis and T. o. krabbei on morphological grounds with certainty, several biological characteristics indicate the cysticercus may belong to T. o. krabbei. Red deer have been reported to be refractory to T. o. ovis infection whereas other potential intermediate hosts like cattle, goats, pigs and sheep have been shown to be refractory to T. o. krabbei. Other native ungulates sympatric with red deer in Patagonia include Lama guanicoe and the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus). Possible or known definitive hosts include native felids like Puma concolor, Felis colocolo, F. guigna and canids like Dusicyon griseus, D. culpaeus, and domestic dogs. PMID:16289565

Flueck, Werner T; Jones, Arlene

2006-02-18

167

Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliada a taxa de recuperação e localização de cisticercos em bovinos experimentalmente infectados com ovos de Taenia saginata. Três bezerros de 6,5 meses e um adulto com 19 meses de idade foram infectados, por via oral, com 2 x 10(4) ovos de Taenia saginata. Um quinto bezerro serviu como teste [...] munha. Após 90 dias da infecção, os animais foram abatidos. Fez-se inspeção, de todos os animais, por fatiamento de órgãos e musculatura esquelética, com intervalo entre os cortes de, no máximo, cinco milímetros. Dos quatros bezerros desafiados foram recuperados 702 cisticercos sendo 570 (81,20%) vivos e 132 (18,80%) degenerados. A taxa de recuperação foi de 0,01% a 1,43% com média de 0,88%. Os 702 cistos encontrados apresentaram a seguinte distribuição anatômica: músculos hióideos 02 (0,28%), rins 03 (0,43%), língua 07 (1,00%), fígado 12 (1,71%), pulmões 15 (2,14%), diafragma 18 (2,56%), músculos da mastigação 25 (3,56%), coração 49 (6,98%), musculatura dianteira 323 (46,00%) e musculatura traseira 248 (35,33%). Na infecção experimental os cistos encontraram-se distribuídos por toda a musculatura dos animais, não mostrando predileção pelos tecidos normalmente pesquisados pelo serviço de inspeção (língua, coração, diafragma, músculos mastigatórios). Os dados da inspeção de rotina pode não estimar a real incidência da cisticercose bovina. Os bovinos adultos são mais resistentes a infecção por ovos de Taenia saginata, apresentando menor número de cisticercos e com maior número de cistos calcificados. Abstract in english Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4) eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of i [...] nfection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2%) were alive and 132 (18.8%) were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%), kidneys 03 (0.43%), tongue 07 (1.00%), liver 12 (1.71%), lungs 15 (2.14%), diaphragm 18 (2.56%), mastication muscles 25 (3.56%), heart 49 (6.98%), anterior muscle 323 (46.00%) and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%).

João Carlos, Minozzo; Rubens L. Ferreira, Gusso; Edilene A. de, Castro; Oscar, Lago; Vanete Thomaz, Soccol.

168

[Cestode of the family Hymenolepididae from ducks of Chukotka: Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n.--a widely distributed parasite of eider ducks].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new species of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942 is described. The material was collected from eider ducks (Somateria mollissima, S. fischeri, and S. spectabilis) in the Chaunskaya lowland (North-Western Chukotka). Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n. differs from the closest species of this genus (M. polystictae Regel, 1988, M. sobolevi Spassky et Jurpalova, 1964; M. strictophalius Tolkatchieva, 1966) by the structure and size of the copulatory organ. Wide distribution of the new species was detected based on the cestodes collections from eider ducks of the Eastern Chukotka, Lena River mouth (in the museum of the Institute of the Parasitology RAS) and Iceland (Karl Skirnisson's cestode collection of the common eider). Furthermore, this species was reported once of the common eider in Newfoundland and Labrador, but erroneously identified as Hymenglejns (Microsomacanthnis) formosoides Spasskaja et Spassky, 1961 by Bishop and Threlfall (1974). PMID:15907028

Regel', K V

2005-01-01

169

MONTHWISE PREV ALENCE OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL TREMATODES, CESTODES AND NEMATODES INFECTING DAMANI SHEEP AND GOATS IN DISTRICT D.I.KHAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During this study 48 positive gastro-intestinal tracts each of sheep and goats were examined to determine the month wise prevalence of trematodes, cestodes and nematodes. Trematodes infection was 16.66% both in sheep and goats in May whereas in June, July and August it increased to 25% in sheep and similar increase was recorded in June and July .in goats which dropped to 8.33% in August. Cestodal infections in sheep and goats showed highest record in June 33.33% and August 41.16% respectively. Nematodal infections in sheep showed the lowest rec9rds in June 41.66% which increased in July 50%. May 58.33% and August 58.33%. In goats the lowest records were observed in June 41.66% with an equal increase in May and August i.e. 50%.

Najeeb-ur-Rehman and Akhtar Ali

2001-02-01

170

Effects of Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa on functional characteristics of Raillietina echinobothrida (Phylum: Platyhelminthes; Class: Cestoidea), a poultry cestode parasite.  

Science.gov (United States)

The histochemical distribution and quantification of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase have been investigated in the adult cyclophyllidean cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida after treatment with crude ethanol extract of traditionally used medicinal plants Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa. Estimation of free amino acid pool and vital trace elements like calcium and magnesium were also performed to study the effect of the plant extracts on the parasite. A decrease in the levels of phosphatases and trace elements was noticed in the treated parasites when compared to control groups. At the same time, a lot of disparity was noted in the free amino acid pool as the levels of many amino acids were seen to increase or decrease in relation to the levels observed in control parasites. Role of phyto-products in the changed physiology of cestode and their possible chemotherapeutic targets are discussed. PMID:24431553

Dasgupta, Shyamashree; Roy, Bishnupada; Venkataswamy, Manivel; Giri, Bikash Ranjan

2013-04-01

171

Comparative effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on contraction and 45Ca uptake in the smooth muscle of rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on muscle tension and 45Ca uptake activated in different ways were compared in rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli. In rabbit aorta, K-induced contraction was specifically inhibited by verapamil and noradrenaline-induced contraction by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K-induced and noradrenaline-induced contractions were inhibited by verapamil or by sodium nitroprusside also. In taenia, both K- and histamine-induced sust...

Karaki, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Urakawa, N.

1984-01-01

172

Interaction and ovicidal activity of nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Taenia saginata eggs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4), Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (isolate NF34) on Taenia saginata eggs was evaluated under laboratory conditions. T. saginata eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with fungal isolates and controls without fungus and examined after 5, 10 and 15 days. At the end of the experiment P. chlamydosporia showed ovicidal activity against T. saginata eggs (p<0.05), mainly for internal egg colonization with results of 12.8% (VC1) and 2.2% (VC4); 18.1% (VC1) and 7.0% (VC4); 9.76% (VC1) and 8.0% (VC4) at 5, 10 and 15 days, respectively. The other fungi showed only lytic effect without morphological damage to the eggshell. Results demonstrated that P. chlamydosporia was effective in vitro against T. saginata eggs unlike the other fungi. PMID:19141298

Araújo, Juliana M; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Carvalho, Rogério O; Silva, André R; Campos, Artur K

2009-04-01

173

Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, ces...

Pfukenyi, D. M.; Willingham, A. L.; Mukaratirwa, S.; Monrad, J.

2010-01-01

174

Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

S. Mukaratirwa

2010-09-01

175

Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the diphyllidean cestode Echinobothrium euterpes (Neifar, Tyler and Euzet 2001) Tyler 2006, a parasite of the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of Echinobothrium euterpes are described by means of transmission electron microscopy, including cytochemical analysis for glycogen. Materials were obtained from a common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos caught in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia). Spermiogenesis in E. euterpes is characterized by the orthogonal development of two unequal flagella followed by the flagellar rotation and the proximodistal fusion of these flagella with the median cytoplasmic process. The most interesting pattern characterizing the diphyllidean cestodes is the presence of a triangular body constituted by fines and dense granules without visible striation and assimilated at the striated rootlets. This pattern, only related in the Diphyllidea cestodes may be a synapomorphy of this order. Spermiogenesis is also characterized by the presence of a very short flagellum (around 1 ?m long), observed in all the stages of spermiogenesis. This type of flagellum has never been commented in the diphyllidean cestodes and should be considered as an evolved character in this group. In the latest stage of spermiogenesis, this short axoneme probably degenerates. Thus, the mature spermatozoon of E. euterpes possesses only one axoneme of 9?+?"1" trepaxonematan pattern. It also exhibits a single helical electron-dense crested body, a spiraled nucleus, few parallel cortical microtubules, and ?-glycogen granules. Similitudes and differences between spermatozoa of diphyllideans are discussed. PMID:21416171

Marigo, Adji Mama; Eira, Catarina; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi

2011-09-01

176

Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the cestode Mosgovoyia ctenoides (Cyclophyllidea: Anoplocephalidae), an intestinal parasite of Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrastructural characters in spermiogenesis and spermatozoa are considered important tools to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within the Platyhelminthes. In the Anoplocephalidae, ultrastructural data refer to the spermatozoon of 14 species, whereas data on spermiogenesis refer to only 7 species. The present study focused on the spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of the anoplocephalid cestode Mosgovoyia ctenoides, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Type IV spermiogenesis was detected, beginning with the formation of a differentiation zone containing 2 centrioles, with a centriolar adjunct and vestigial striated rootlets. Different forms of the latter character have been described in other anoplocephalids. This study supports spermiogenesis of type IV as the most frequent in the Anoplocephalidae and confirms the presence of a centriolar adjunct in yet another type IV spermiogenesis species. The spermatozoon of M. ctenoides possesses 1 axoneme of the 9+ '1' trepaxonematan type, 2 crestlike bodies, dense plates, and granules of electron-dense cytoplasmic material, nucleus, and twisted cortical microtubules. It was again confirmed that the presence of granular material and the absence of both a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls are constant characters in the spermatozoa of all the Anoplocephalinae. PMID:16995386

Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Vingada, José; Torres, Jordi

2006-08-01

177

Phytochemicals from Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae) and Stephania glabra (Menispermeaceae) alter cGMP concentration in the cestode Raillietina echinobothrida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) mediates various physiological functions of nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). A crude peel extract and purified fraction of Flemingia vestita, as well as a crude rhizome extract of Stephania glabra and fractions were tested with respect to the activity of NOS, NO efflux and cGMP concentration in the cestode Raillietina echinobothrida in order to find out the possible mode of anthelmintic action of these plant-derived components. For comparison purposes, the parasites were also treated with pure genistein, sodium nitroprusside (SNP-a known NO donor), and the reference drug, praziquantel (PZQ). At the time of onset of paralysis in the parasites, a significant increase (32%-87%) in the NOS activity and a two to three fold increase of NO efflux into the incubation medium were observed in the treated parasites in comparison to their respective controls. The cGMP concentration in the treated parasites' tissue was also increased by 44%-103%. However, in the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a potent inhibitor of NOS, there was no increase in the cGMP concentration in the parasite tissue. This study indicates that the phytochemicals, in particular genistein and tetrahydropalmatine, from F. vestita and S. glabra, respectively, disturb the downstream signalling pathway of NO, as indicated by the change in cGMP concentration in the parasite tissue. PMID:18854226

Das, Bidyadhar; Tandon, Veena; Lyndem, Larisha M; Gray, Alexander I; Ferro, Valerie A

2009-04-01

178

Immunoblot analysis using antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis Análisis del inmunoblot usando antígeno de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps en el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se utilizó la técnica del inmunoblot para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina usando un antígeno total de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. Fueron analizados 13 sueros del cerdo con cisticercosis, 30 sueros controles negativos y ocho sueros del cerdo con hidatidosis, así como nueve del suino con macracantorincosis, 10 con ascaridiosis y ocho con pulmonía. El uso de este antígeno en el inmunoblot con suero de cerdos no se había publicado previamente. El ...

Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto; Adelaide José Vaz; Paulo Mutuko Nakamura; Pedro Manuel Leal Germano

2001-01-01

179

Effects of local anaesthetics on short-term desensitization of guinea-pig taenia caecum to histamine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1 Short-term desensitization to histamine was induced by incubating guinea-pig taenia caecum with 10(-4)M histamine for 30 min (desensitizing incubation) in normal Locke-Ringer solution or Ca-free Locke-Ringer solution containing 0.2 mM EGTA. This desensitization was measured as a reduction of the maximal contractile response. 2 The effects of the presence of local anaesthetics during the desensitizing incubation were examined. Results showed that tetracaine, procaine, procainamide, oxybuproc...

Hishinuma, S.; Uchida, M. K.

1987-01-01

180

A STAT4-Dependent Th1 Response Is Required for Resistance to the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the role of STAT4-dependent Th1 responses in the regulation of immunity to the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we monitored infections with this parasite in resistant mice lacking the STAT4 gene. While T. crassiceps-infected STAT4+/+ mice rapidly resolved the infection, STAT4?/? mice were highly susceptible to infection and displayed large parasite loads. Moreover, the inability of STAT4?/? mice to control the infection was associated with the induction of an antigen...

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method Using Fecal Specimens for Differential Detection of Taenia Species from Humans? ‡  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compared the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with that of a multiplex PCR method for differential detection of human Taenia parasites in fecal specimens from taeniasis patients. The LAMP method, with no false positives, showed a higher sensitivity (88.4%) than the multiplex PCR (37.2%). Thus, it is expected that the LAMP method has a high value for molecular diagnosis of taeniasis.

2010-01-01

182

Concomitant Infection of Appendix with Taenia and Enterobius vermicularis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical disease in children and young adult. There are many reports in the world, concerning the infectivity of appendix with different parasites. However, concomitant infection of appendix with Taenia and Enterobius vermicularis is a rare case. A twelve years old boy, living in Islam-shahr, Iran, admitted to a hospital, presenting symptoms suggestive of appendicitis. Following surgically resection of the appendix, histopat...

Meamar, A. R.; Ahady, N.; Falakimoghaddam, M. H.; Safari, M. R.; Kia, E. B.

2006-01-01

183

In vitro uptake and autoradiographic localization of tritiated gossypol in Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gossypol, a natural polyphenolic compound, induces growth-inhibitory and antiparasitic effects in Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the uptake and localization of [3H]-gossypol in this parasite. Metacestodes were incubated in 10(-5) M [3H]-gossypol at 37 degrees C. Parasites steadily took up tritium activity over the first 3 h of incubation, after which a plateau was maintained for the duration of the experiment. Tissue: medium radioactivity ratios revealed that intralarval tritium activity matched extralarval activity within 30 min of incubation and continued to increase with time. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis confirmed tissue incorporation of tritium activity that manifested as a single radioactive species. Autoradiography localized [3H]-gossypol to the tegument, calcareous corpuscles, and parenchyma over the first 2 h of incubation. By 6 h, parenchymal radioactivity had disappeared. T. taeniaeformis metacestodes rapidly take up and accumulate [3H]-gossypol in vitro. This accumulation is apparently selective for specific sites, which may have implications for gossypol's metacestocidal action. PMID:8327450

Kulp, S K; Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Moh, P P; Li, P K; Gu, Y

1993-01-01

184

An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031

Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

2013-04-27

185

Two cestode species in Brazilian turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae: pathology induced by Hymenolepis cantaniana and occurrence of Raillietina tetragona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pathology induced in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo by one cestode species Hymenolepis cantaniana is described together with data on prevalence, mean infection and range of worm burdens. H. cantaniana occurred with a prevalence of 5.0 % in the 40 examined hosts in a range of 14-21 specimens and a mean intensity of 17.5. Gross lesions were not observed in the parasitized birds. Lesions due to H cantaniana mainly consisted of multiple segments of parasites, together with a mild mixed inflammatory reaction with the presence ofmononuclear cells and heterophils or severe transmural inflammatory processes, characterized by the presence ofmononuclear cells along the muscular and serosa layers of the intestinal villi and crypts. These are the first pathological findings related to the presence ofcestodes in turkeys to be reported in Brazil so far. Raillietina tetragona, not pathogenic to the present investigated turkeys, occurred with a low prevalence and range of infection of 2.5% and 1-2 worms, respectively.Duas especies de cestóides em perus, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae, no Brazil: patologia induzida por Hymenolepis cantaniana e ocorência de Raillietina tetragona. A patologia induzida em perus pelo cestóide H. cantaniana é descrita, com dados sobre prevalência, intensidade media e amplitude das cargas parasitarias. H. cantaniana ocorreu com urna prevalência de 5.0% ñas 40 aves examinadas, com intensidade media de 17.5 e amplitude de 14-21 espécimes de cestóides. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas nos perus parasitados. As lesões provocadas por H. cantaniana eram representadas, principalmente, ou por múltiplos segmentos dos parásitos, acompanhados por discreta reação inflamatoria mista com a presera de células mononucleares e heterófilos, ou por severos processos inflamatorios transmurais, caracterizados pela presera de células mononucleares, ao longo das carnadas muscular e serosa das vilosidades e criptas intestinais. Estes representam os primeiros achados patológicos relacionados a presera de cestóides em perus a serem relatados no Brasil. Raillietina tetragona, não patogênica para as aves investigadas, ocorreu com baixa prevalência e amplitude de infecção de 2.5% e 1-2 parásitos, respectivamente.

ROBERTO MAGALHÃES PINTO

2008-12-01

186

The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between farm type (p < 0.05) and prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

2014-04-01

187

Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010, aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06% for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid. Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64, Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62, Gambusia affinis (female: 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51, Gambusia affinis(males: 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(. A

M. Roukbi

2014-06-01

188

Three-species range border: unexpected biotype diversity in Cobitis taenia hybrid complex as a result of hybridization events southernly of Carpathians.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Zagreb : Tipomat, 2007, s. 181-182.[European Congress of Ichthyology /12./. Cavtat (Dubrovnik) (HR), 09.09.2007-13.09.2007]Grant CEP: GA MŠk LC06073Grant ostatní: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50450515Klí?ová slova: Cobitis taeniaKód oboru RIV: EG - Zoologie

Choleva, Lukáš; Šlechtová, V?ra; Lopaurová, J.; Vasilev, M.; Apostolou, A.; Rábová, Marie; Flajšhans, M.; Ráb, Petr; Janko, Karel

189

Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae, of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78% were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935. The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.

PAVANELLI G. C.

2000-01-01

190

A programme to reduce the risk of infection by Echinococcus multilocularis: the use of praziquantel to control the cestode in a village in the hyperendemic region of Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the results of a 10-year field trial designed to reduce the risk of infection by Echinococcus multilocularis to residents of a village in a hyperendemic area (Savoonga, St. Lawrence Island). The objective was to prevent dispersal of infective eggs of the cestode within the village by means of monthly treatments of dogs with praziquantel. Northern voles, Microtus oeconomus, present in the village as commensals, served as an index of risk, as the incidence of infection in the voles provides information about the availability of eggs within the confines of the inhabited area. Voles were examined annually during early June before the population of overwintering voles was diluted by the first annual litters. The pretreatment infection-rate within the village was 29% (range 22-35%), and in control areas at some distance from the village for the entire study period it averaged 53% (284 infected voles from a sample of 533). Some fluctuation in incidence of infection in village voles occurred, apparently depending on the extent to which the residents kept their dogs chained and thus available for treatment. The success of the programme was demonstrated by the reduction in prevalence of infection to about 1% of voles in 1985, and an average infection rate during the last five years of the study of 5% (29 infected voles in a sample of 582). This 83% average reduction in the prevalence of the larval cestode within the village reflects a corresponding reduction in the risk of acquiring by the residents of the village. The method would be applicable for the control of E. multilocularis in most hyperendemic regions. Success depends, however, on elimination of unrestrained dogs and a precise schedule of treatment. PMID:2222026

Rausch, R L; Wilson, J F; Schantz, P M

1990-06-01

191

Spermiogenesis and ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi (Aporhynchidae), a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax (Elasmobranchii: Etmopteridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi Noever, Caira, Kuchta et Desjardins, 2010 are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Type I spermiogenesis of A. menezesi starts with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles separated by an intercentriolar body constituted by five electron-dense plates. Each centriole gives rise to a free flagellum, which grows at an angle of 90 degrees in relation to a median cytoplasmic process. The nucleus and cortical microtubules elongate along the spermatid body. Later, both flagella rotate and fuse with the median cytoplasmic process. At the final stage of spermiogenesis, the young spermatozoon is detached from the residual cytoplasm by a narrowing of the ring of arched membranes. The mature spermatozoon is a long and filiform cell, tapered at both ends, lacking mitochondria. It is characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the 9+'1' trepaxonematan pattern, the absence of crested bodies, the presence of parallel cortical microtubules and nucleus. This pattern corresponds to the type I spermatozoon of the eucestodes. The anterior extremity of the spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of an arc-like row of up to seven parallel cortical microtubules that partially surrounds the first axoneme. These anterior cortical microtubules are thicker than the posterior microtubules and, consequently, the sperm cell of A. menezesi exhibits two types of cortical microtubules. Another interesting aspect is the presence of alpha-glycogen rosettes. This spermatological pattern is similar to that observed in the spathebothriidean and diphyllobothriidean cestodes. PMID:21539140

Marigo, Adji Mama; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi

2011-03-01

192

A method for the isolation of tegument syncytium mitochondria from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and partial characterization of their aerobic metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterogeneous populations of mitochondria have been described in helminths. Mitochondria from different tissues have been isolated in adult organisms. However, in larvae, due to their small size, isolation from tissues has not been feasible. A method for the isolation of tegumental mitochondria from the larval stage of Taenia crassiceps is described. After solubilization of the plasma membrane with saponin, tegumental mitochondria were purified by a simple and rapid protocol of differential centrifugation, which allowed the retention of suitable quantities of well-preserved mitochondria, as judged by biochemical and ultrastructural parameters. Respiratory activity evoked by exogenous NADH was negligible, but its oxidation increased several-fold after sonication of intact mitochondria. Other substrates, e.g., succinate and malate-glutamate, were oxidized at high rate, leading to the formation of a H+ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which, in turn, supported oxidative phosphorylation. These results indicate that tegumental mitochondria carry out aerobic metabolism. PMID:9645840

del Arenal Mena, I P; Bonilla, A C; Moreno-Sánchez, R; Escamilla, J E

1998-06-01

193

Cloning and characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestode EgactI and EgactII actin gene promoters and their functional analysis in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report here for the first time the structure and function of a promoter from a cestode. The ability of DNA fragments respectively encompassing the 935-bp and 524-bp regions upstream from the ATG codon from the EgactI and EgactII actin genes of Echinococcus granulosus to promote transcription was studied in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line. The results of transfection assays showed that both regions have strong promoter activity in these cells. The fragments were tested in both orientations and the 524-bp fragment of EgactII presented a bidirectional promoter activity. Deletion analysis of EgactI and EgactII promoters indicated the presence of regulatory regions containing putative silencer elements. These results indicate that both EgactI and EgactII promoters are functional and that the preliminary functional evaluation of E. granulosus and possibly of other cestode promoters can be performed in heterologous cell lines.

Gimba E.R.P.

2000-01-01

194

The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberian wolf (n = 68) were collected from two regions. Toxocara spp...

Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

2012-01-01

195

Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of the proteocephalidean cestode Barsonella lafoni de Chambrier et al., 2009, a parasite of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Siluriformes, Clariidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spermiogenesis in the proteocephalidean cestode Barsonella lafoni de Chambrier et al., 2009 shows typical characteristics of the type I spermiogenesis. These include the formation of distal cytoplasmic protrusions forming the differentiation zones, lined by cortical microtubules and containing two centrioles. An electron-dense material is present in the apical region of the differentiation zone during the early stages of spermiogenesis. Each centriole is associated to a striated rootlet, bein...

Marigo, Adji Mama; Levron, Ce?line; Ba?, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel Colome?, Jordi

2012-01-01

196

Taenia crassiceps: fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs. PMID:19348802

Vinaud, Marina Clare; Ferreira, Cirlane Silva; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto

2009-07-01

197

Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits.

Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2013-01-01

198

Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost fish Merluccius merluccius (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost fish Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758), have been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis involves firstly the formation of a differentiation zone. It is characterized by the presence of two centrioles associated with striated rootlets, an intercentriolar body and an electron-dense material in the apical region of this zone. Later, two flagella develop from the centrioles, growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. Flagella then undergo a rotation of 90° until they become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, followed by the proximodistal fusion of the flagella with the median cytoplasmic process. The nucleus elongates and afterwards it migrates along the spermatid body. Spermiogenesis finishes with the appearance of the apical cone surrounded by the single helical crested body at the base of the spermatid. Finally, the narrowing of the ring of arched membranes detaches the fully formed spermatozoon. The mature spermatozoon of C. crassiceps is filiform and contains two axonemes of the 9?+?"1" trepaxonematan pattern, a parallel nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, and electron-dense granules of glycogen. The anterior extremity of the gamete exhibits a short electron-dense apical cone and one crested body, which turns once around the sperm cell. The first axoneme is surrounded by a ring of thick cortical microtubules that persist until the appearance of the second axoneme. Later, these thick cortical microtubules disappear and thus, the mature spermatozoon exhibits two bundles of thin cortical microtubules. The posterior extremity of the male gamete presents only the nucleus. Results are discussed and compared particularly with the available ultrastructural data on the former "pseudophyllideans". Two differences can be established between spermatozoa of Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea, the type of spermatozoon (II vs I) and the presence/absence of the ring of cortical microtubules. PMID:21584630

Marigo, Adji Mama; Delgado, Eulàlia; Torres, Jordi; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi

2012-01-01

199

Transient inhibition of the muscarinic actions of carbachol during reactivation of the electrogenic sodium pump in guinea pig taenia caeci smooth muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In guinea pig taenia caeci smooth muscle the muscarinic receptor stimulant carbachol evoked depolarization and contraction, which was followed by hyperpolarization and relaxation on its removal. Both the hyperpolarization and relaxation were inhibited by removal of K+ from the external medium. During Na+-pump blockade (K+-free solution) the depolarizing and contracting actions of carbachol decreased. When the Na+ pump was switched on again by readmission of 5.9 mmol/L K+ to K+-depleted and Na+-enriched preparations, electrogenic hyperpolarization and relaxation developed. During this period carbachol failed to produce depolarization and contraction. PMID:4042004

Török, T L; Vizi, S E; Magyar, K

1985-06-01

200

Suramin antagonizes responses to P2-purinoceptor agonists and purinergic nerve stimulation in the guinea-pig urinary bladder and taenia coli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Suramin, an inhibitor of several types of ATPase, was investigated for its ability to antagonize responses mediated via P2X-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig urinary bladder and P2Y-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig taenia coli. 2. In isolated strips of bladder detrusor muscle, suramin (100 microM-1 mM) caused a non-competitive antagonism of responses to alpha, beta-methylene ATP with an estimated pA2 of approximately 4.7, and inhibited responses to stimulation of the intramural purinergic ner...

Hoyle, C. H.; Knight, G. E.; Burnstock, G.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Obraz kliniczny wybranych chorób paso?ytniczych przewodu pokarmowego u doros?ych  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Przedstawiono cechy charakterystyczne przebiegu klinicznego wybranych, najcz??ciej wyst?puj?cych w Polsce, chorób paso?ytniczych przewodu pokarmowego (Giardia lamblia, Enterobius vermicularis - owsik, Ascaris lumbricoides hominis - glista ludzka, Trichocephalus trichiura - w?osog?ówka, Taenia saginata - tasiemiec nieuzbrojony, Taenia solium - tasiemiec uzbrojony, Amoebosis - ameboza, pe?zakowica).

1999-01-01

202

Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy sources detected in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci after host treatment with antihelminthic drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. The treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. The active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from T. crassiceps cysticerci removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with low dosages of albendazole (5.75 and 11.5mg/kg) or praziquantel (3.83 and 7.67 mg/kg). The beta-hydroxibutyrate production was higher by the larval stage cysticerci in all treated groups and the propionate production was higher in final stage cysticerci treated with 11.5mg/kg of albendazole when compared to the control group. The larval stages of cysticerci from the groups treated with 5.75 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 mg/kg of praziquantel produced more urea than the initial and final stages which indicate amino acids breakdown. We conclude that it was possible to detect the fatty acid oxidation and amino acids breakdown which indicate the use of alternative energy production sources as the used dosages only cause a partial blockage of the glucose uptake and leads to metabolic alterations in the cysticerci. The metabolic behavior observed after host treatment was different from former descriptions of the in vitro one which indicates great host-parasite interaction. PMID:22465501

Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino Junior, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

2012-05-01

203

Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09% revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral organs. The coenuri, of variable sizes, were found mainly in the muscles of the thigh, shoulder and neck, and were less common in the abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Coenuri were also found in the diaphragm, tongue, intercostal muscles, lung, parotid area and tunica adventitia of the aorta in a goat with severe infection. The brains of slaughtered goats that had coenuri in their skeletal muscles were examined and coenuri were found in two specimens (8.69%. The coenuri were located in the occipital lobe, the anterior part of the right cerebrum and the parietal lobe of the left cerebrum. Histopathologically, coenuri in the brain caused pressure atrophy and liquefactive necrosis in the surrounding tissues, hyperaemia, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration, neuronophagia, satellitosis, diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis. Coenuri in the skeletal muscles caused degenerative and necrotic changes, hyalinisation and myositis. In the lung, tissues around the coenurus revealed atelectasis and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the present study, concurrent occurrence of coenuri in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles supports the hypothesis that C. cerebralis and C. gaigeri are different names for the metacestodes of the same species of tapeworm.

Reza Kheirandish

2012-11-01

204

Morphology Meets Molecules: A New Genus and Two New Species of Diphyllidean Cestodes From the Yellowspotted Skate, Leucoraja wallacei, from South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract : Two morphologically disparate undescribed species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei , from South Africa were included in a recent molecular phylogenetic study aimed at revising diphyllidean classification. From a molecular standpoint, these species were determined to be only distantly related to one another. One (originally referred to as Echinobothrium n. sp. 2) showed affinities with species of the batoid-parasitizing Echinobothrium sensu stricto and is described here as Echinobothrium marquesi n. sp. This species most closely resembles Echinobothrium joshuai, an affinity supported by the previous molecular study, but differs in the form of its "B" hooks and degree of overlap between bothria and cephalic peduncle. The other species (originally referred to as New genus n. sp. 1), although exhibiting the full complement of scolex armature, grouped among primarily shark-hosted genera, most of which lack or exhibit reduced scolex armatures. That unexpected result suggested that erection of a novel genus might be warranted, but morphological grounds supporting the action were not apparent at that time. The present study aimed to explore the morphology of this taxon in more detail. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed this taxon to be exceptional in that its lateral hooklets, which are arranged in 2 clusters like those of Echinobothrium and Coronocestus, are unique in being arranged in anterior and posterior rows, rather than in a single row. Andocadoncum n. gen. is erected, with Andocadoncum meganae n. sp. as its type, to accommodate this taxon. A minor adjustment to the existing hook formula by presenting counts for the anterior hooklets (a) separately from the posterior hooklets (b) readily accommodates this new form. Leucoraja wallacei is distinctive among skates in hosting 2 different genera of diphyllideans. In the context of the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, it appears that the presence of Andocadoncum n. gen. in this skate species may be the result of a host-switching event involving a weakly or unarmed shark-hosted taxon moving to a batoid-a shift that was likely accompanied by a return to the fully armed condition seen, for example, in other batoid-parasitizing members of the order. PMID:24451030

Abbott, Lauren McKenna; Caira, Janine N

2014-06-01

205

Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never fou...

Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj

2013-01-01

206

Cloning and characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestode) EgactI and EgactII actin gene promoters and their functional analysis in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report here for the first time the structure and function of a promoter from a cestode. The ability of DNA fragments respectively encompassing the 935-bp and 524-bp regions upstream from the ATG codon from the EgactI and EgactII actin genes of Echinococcus granulosus to promote transcription was [...] studied in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line. The results of transfection assays showed that both regions have strong promoter activity in these cells. The fragments were tested in both orientations and the 524-bp fragment of EgactII presented a bidirectional promoter activity. Deletion analysis of EgactI and EgactII promoters indicated the presence of regulatory regions containing putative silencer elements. These results indicate that both EgactI and EgactII promoters are functional and that the preliminary functional evaluation of E. granulosus and possibly of other cestode promoters can be performed in heterologous cell lines.

E.R.P., Gimba; G., Chemale; S.S., Farias; A., Zaha.

207

Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Taeniarhynchus saginatus (syn. Taenia saginata) (Goeze, 1782) Weinland, 1858 (Cestoda, Taeniidae) an intestinal parasite of human.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mature Taeniarhynchus saginatus spermatozoon exhibits an apical cone of electron-dense material and one helicoidal crest-like body roughly 50 nm thick. The axoneme is of the 9 +?"1" Trepaxonemata pattern. It is surrounded by a periaxonemal sheath of electron-dense material. The cytoplasm is electron lucent and divided into compartments by intracytoplasmic walls of electron-dense material in regions III and IV. The nucleus is an electron-dense cord 60-90 nm thick coiled in a spiral around the axoneme. It reaches the posterior extremity of the gamete where the axoneme is disorganized and is accompanied on all its posterior length by the nucleus. To our knowledge, such a posterior extremity has never been described before in a cyclophyllidean cestode. PMID:20981444

Bâ, Aïssatou; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Quilichini, Yann; Dieng, Thérèse; Marchand, Bernard

2011-04-01

208

Helminth Induced Suppression of Macrophage Activation Is Correlated with Inhibition of Calcium Channel Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminth parasites cause persistent infections in humans and yet many infected individuals are asymptomatic. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the cestode Taenia solium, has a long asymptomatic phase correlated with an absence of brain inflammation. However, the mechanisms of immune suppression remain poorly understood. Here we report that murine NCC displays a lack of cell surface maturation markers in infiltrating myeloid cells. Furthermore, soluble parasite ligands (PL) failed to induce maturation of macrophages, and inhibited TLR-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, PL treatment abolished both LPS and thapsigargin-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Moreover, electrophysiological recordings demonstrated PL-mediated inhibition of LPS or Tg-induced currents that were TRPC1-dependent. Concomitantly STIM1-TRPC1 complex was also impaired that was essential for SOCE and sustained Ca2+ entry. Likewise loss of SOCE due to PL further inhibited NFkB activation. Overall, our results indicate that the negative regulation of agonist induced Ca2+ signaling pathway by parasite ligands may be a novel immune suppressive mechanism to block the initiation of the inflammatory response associated with helminth infections.

Chauhan, Arun; Sun, Yuyang; Pani, Biswaranjan; Quenumzangbe, Fredice; Sharma, Jyotika; Singh, Brij B.; Mishra, Bibhuti B.

2014-01-01

209

Uma nova espécie de cestóide proteocefalídeo, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasita de Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes (Pisces, Doradidae, do reservatório de Itaipu e rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil A New species of proteocephalidean cestode, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasite of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes (Pisces, Doradidae from Itaipu reservoir and Paraná river, Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper the authors describe and illustrate a new species of proteocephalidean cestode, Monticellia belavistensis, sp.n., parasite of a freshwater siluriform fish (thorny catfish. Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1833, from the Itaipu Reservoir and Paraná River, in the region of Porto Rico. This is the first reference of a proteocephalid in this host. The values of prevalence and mean intensity of infection are given and the life cycle is discussed.

Gilberto C Pavanelli

1994-01-01

210

Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae) of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: I. Structure and influence of host's size and sex Aspectos da ecologia de cestóides proteocefalídeos parasitas de Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae) do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil: I. Estrutura e influência do tamanho e sexo dos hospedeiros  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between March 1992 and February 1996, 107 specimens of Sorubim lima were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná river. Ninety-five (88.78%) specimens were parasitized with at least one species of proteocephalid cestodes. 7,573 specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host): Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spi...

Takemoto, R. M.; Pavanelli, G. C.

2000-01-01

211

Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in selected districts of eastern and southern provinces of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the risk factors associated with Taenia solium transmission in humans and pigs in the rural areas of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia, a questionnaire was administered in 788 households from 155 villages. Pigs were examined from 800 households. Tongue examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) for the detection of circulating antigens of T. solium cysticerci were used to measure infection in pigs. A snowballing technique was utilised to select households...

Sikasunge, C. S.; Phiri, I. K.; Phiri, A. M.; Dorny, P.; Siziya, S.; Willingham, A. L.

2007-01-01

212

Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological diagnosis of cysticercosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) from LMD Laboratories, Inc., Carlsbad, Calif., for the detection of antibodies in serum to the cysticercus of Taenia solium. The ELISA was performed on 308 serum samples; 198 from a pool of healthy individuals, 42 from patients who had antibodies against a variety of parasites other than T. solium, and 68 from patients suspected of having cysticercosis. All of these 68 specimens were tested both by the ELISA and by an imm...

Sloan, L.; Schneider, S.; Rosenblatt, J.

1995-01-01

213

Diagnosis of cysticercosis in endemic regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a frequent cause of neurological disease in developing countries. Specific diagnosis of cysticercosis is difficult. We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. 21 (12%) of 173 serum samples from these patients were EITB-positive. In contrast only 2 (1·5%) of 135 patients attending a...

Garcia, H. H.; Martinez, M.; Gilman, R.; Herrera, G.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Diaz, F.; Verastegui, M.; Gallo, C.; Porras, M.; Alvarado, M.; Naranjo, J.; Miranda, E.

1991-01-01

214

Effective Production and Purification of the Glycosylated TSOL18 Antigen, Which Is Protective against Pig Cysticercosis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium metacestodes is a worldwide public health problem. Important progress in the development of effective and practical vaccines against this disease has been made. In this study, the promising T. solium oncospheral vaccine candidate named TSOL18 antigen was produced in a 5-liter fermentor. During the process of fermentation, the pH of the culture was always kept below 5.0, and in order to prevent foaming, an antifoam agent was added. In addition, the oxygen ...

Cai, Xuepeng; Yuan, Gailing; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Ding, Juntao; Jing, Zhizhong; Lu, Chengping

2008-01-01

215

Paso?yty jelitowe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

W artykule opisano pojawiaj?ce si? w polskich warunkach klimatycznych paso?yty przewodu pokarmowego. Pomini?to paso?yty rzadkie i (lub) egzotyczne. Przedstawiono morfologi?, drogi zaka?enia oraz cykl rozwojowy takich paso?ytów, jak: pierwotniaki - giardia (lamblia) jelitowa - Giardia intestinalis, pe?zak czerwonki - Entamoeba histolytica; robaki p?askie: tasiemiec nieuzbrojony - Taenia saginata, tasiemiec uzbrojony - Taenia solium, tasiemiec kar?owa?y - Hymenolepis nana, bruzdog?...

1999-01-01

216

Public Health Implications of Cysticercosis Acquired in the United States  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dr. Patricia Wilkins, a research microbiologist at CDC, discusses an infection caused by the larvae of taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.  Created: 1/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/6/2011.

2011-01-06

217

Oral cysticercosis: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent in developing countries, cysticercosis is a parasitic infection that rarely involves the mouth. This study reports a case of oral cysticercosis in a 13-year-old female patient who had an asymptomatic nodule in the right labial mucosa. An excisional biopsy was carried out and the histopathologic examination revealed a cystic space containing a Taenia solium larva. PMID:17706437

Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Prado; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília; Soubhia, Ana Maria Pires; de Castro, Alvimar Lima

2007-10-01

218

Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. PMID:24309372

Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

2014-02-01

219

Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil Infecção por cestóides proteocefalídeos em peixe introduzido, Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, no reservatório de Volta Grande, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999, 158.8 (December 1999, 96.4 (February 2000, 400.7 (April 2000, 215.6 (October 2000 and 136.4 (December 2000 were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05 between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.Este estudo avalia a variação nos índices parasitológicos de 114 espécimes de Cichla piquiti Kullander e Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infectados por duas espécies de proteocefalídeos (Cestoda entre agosto de 1999 e junho de 2001 no reservatório de Volta Grande, MG, Brasil. A relação entre a parasitose e os valores de pluviosidade e qualidade de água (pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio, clorofila, transparência e temperatura é discutida. A prevalência de Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 e/ou P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 foi 83,3%, intensidade média 110,8 e abundância média 100,7 durante todo o período. Prevalência de 100% foi observada em agosto e dezembro de 1999, abril e dezembro de 2000 e junho de 2001. As maiores intensidades médias foram 122,7 em outubro de 1999; 158,8 em dezembro de 1999; 96,4 em fevereiro de 2000; 400,7 em abril de 2000; 215,6 em outubro de 2000; e 136,4 em dezembro de 2000. Fatores abióticos podem favorecer o desenvolvimento de espécies que sustentam a alimentação do "tucunaré", mas, neste caso, não houve correlação (P > 0,05 entre os valores de prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média com a pluviosidade e qualidade de água no reservatório. Ao mesmo tempo, estes organismos podem constituir hospedeiros intermediários de cestóides. A relação entre o desenvolvimento da espécie hospedeira e a manifestação da parasitose no hospedeiro definitivo pode explicar a falta de correlação entre os índices parasitológicos e os fatores abióticos. A predação de pequenos peixes e o canibalismo descrito para o "tucunaré" explica a elevada prevalência e intensidade de infecção, favorecido pela condição exótica do hospedeiro no reservatório.

ML. Martins

2009-02-01

220

Teniosis: Serie clínica en 35 pacientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una serie clínica de 35 pacientes con teniosis. Los pacientes tenían un rango de edad que fluctuaba entre 4 a 71 años, 32 pacientes eran de zona urbana. En la serie se demostró la presencia de 6 casos con Taenia solium, 24 con Taenia saginata, 4 con Taenia spp, 1 caso con Diphyllobothriu [...] m latum. El motivo de consulta en 34 casos fue la eliminación de proglótidas. Entre los antecedentes de riesgo 27 pacientes tenían como antecedente consumir carne cruda de vacuno y 5 de ellos consumían además carne cruda de cerdos. El tiempo de eliminación de proglótidas varió entre 4 días a 40 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con niclosamida o praziquantel sin presentar reacciones adversas a los medicamentos Abstract in english A clinical series of 35 patients with taeniosis is described. Their ages is between 4 and 71 years old. 32 of them come from the urban area. There are 6 cases with Taenia solium, 24 cases with Taenia saginata, 4 infected with Taenia spp and 1 case with Diphyllobothrium latum. The reason for seeking [...] medical advise in 34 cases was the proglottides elimination. 22 patients had the antecedent to eat raw beef meat and 5 of them ate in addition raw pork meat. The elimination of proglottides fluctuated between 4 days and 40 years. The patients were treated with niclosamida or praziquantel, and they did not present adverse reactions to medication

MARISA, TORRES; CARLOS, PEREZ; ERCIRA, GALDAMEZ; MELVIN, GABOR; CLAUDIO, MIRANDA; XIMENA, COFRE; PAULA, TELLEZ.

 
 
 
 
221

Helminth parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Helminths are reported from stone martens (Martes foina Erxleben 1777), road-killed between 1997 and 1999 in the province of Turin (North-Western Italy). Out of 10 adult martens, seven were infected by helminths. One cestode (Taenia martis) and three nematode (Molineus patens, Capillaria sp. and Angiostrongylus sp.) species were identified.

Ferroglio, Ezio

2001-01-01

222

Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

2014-04-01

223

Human Neurocysticercosis: Comparison of Different Diagnostic Tests Using Cerebrospinal Fluid ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnos...

2011-01-01

224

Cysticercosis of temporalis muscle: an unusual cause of temporal headaches. A case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection caused by encysted larvae of the helminth Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Less common presentations in the CNS include the racemose variety with macroscopic groups of cysticerci in the subarachnoid space giving the appearance of a cluster of grapes and basal or ventricular cysticercosis caus...

Sethi, Prahlad K.; Sethi, Nitin K.; Torgovnick, Josh; Arsura, Edward

2007-01-01

225

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and incurs sizeable economic losses to pig production. Because data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique are scarce, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 11 villages in Angónia district, Tete province in northwestern Mozambique. Between Septembe...

2010-01-01

226

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have...

Coyle, Christina M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2009-01-01

227

Spinal Intramedullary Cysticercosis: A Case Report and Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis, involvement of the central nervous system by taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the CNS. However, spinal involvement by neurocysticercosis is uncommon. Here, we reported a 40-year-old woman with intramedullary cysticercosis in the thoracic spinal cord. MRI revealed two well-defined round intramedullary lesions at T4 and T5 vertebral levels, which were homogeneously hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI with peripheral edema. Since the pat...

Qi, Bin; Ge, Pengfei; Yang, Hongfa; Bi, Chunhua; Li, Yiping

2011-01-01

228

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses o...

Tsai, I. J.; Zarowiecki, M.; Holroyd, N.; Sanchez-flores, A.; Brooks, K. L.; Tracey, A.; Fragos, G.; Aslett, M.; Beasley, H.; Bennett, H. M.; Cai, J.; Camicia, F.; Clark, R.; Cucher, M.; Silva, N.

2013-01-01

229

Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses) e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100%...

Lisandra Akemi Suzuki; Cláudio Lúcio Rossi

2013-01-01

230

Cysticercosis in experimentally and naturally infected pigs: parasitological and immunological diagnosis Cisticercose em suínos infectados experimentalmente e naturalmente: diagnósticos parasitológico e imunológico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our objective was to evaluate the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis by examining "ante mortem" (inspection of the tongue), "post mortem" (inspection and detailed necropsy) and ELISA for research in serum of antibodies (Ab-ELISA) and antigens (Ag-ELISA). Seven (7) pigs were experimentally infected orally with eggs of Taenia solium and another 10 were naturally infected. In the pigs experimentally infected, inspection of the tongue was negative in all animals, in the routine insp...

Da Silva, Ma?rcia R. M.; Uyhara, Cibele N. S.; Silva, Flavio H.; Espindola, Noeli M.; Poleti, Mirele D.; Vaz, Adelaide J.; Meirelles, Fla?vio V.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

2012-01-01

231

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reporta...

Agnès Fleury; Edda Sciutto; Carlos Larralde

2012-01-01

232

Oral cysticercosis: case report and review of the literature Cisticercose oral: relato de caso e revisão da literatura  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cysticercosis is a condition that occurs when man is infested by the larvae of Taenia solium, acting as an intermediate host instead of definitive. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event, and it represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. A case of oral cysticercosis in a 23-year-old white female who presented a painless swelling in the dorsal portion of the tongue is reported. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm...

2005-01-01

233

Cerebral cysticercosis in Campina Grande, Paraíba - northern Brazil: computerized tomography diagnosis importance Cisticercose cerebral em Campina Grande, Paraíba - Nordeste do Brasil: importância diagnóstica da tomografia computadorizada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis is the infection of the central nervous system by the larval form of Taenia solium , the Cysticercus cellulosae. We studied 4011 computerized tomographies performed in TomoHPI Radioimaging Service, Hospital Pedro I, Campina Grande PB, Northern Brazil, since its installation on August 1993 to July 1995. 41 patients were diagnosed as having Cysticercus cerebral infestation, corresponding to an incidence of 1.02%. No cases were related in Campina Grande PB during 1991 accordin...

Gonc?alves-coe?lho, Thiago D.; Coelho, Matheus Diniz G.

1996-01-01

234

Diagnóstico laboratorial da neurocisticercose: revisão e perspectivas Laboratory diagnosis of neurocysticercosis: review and perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A neurocisticercose é causada por Cysticercus cellulose, a forma larval de Taenia solium, quando este se aloja no sistema nervoso central. O seu diagnóstico é realizado com base em dados clínicos, epidemiológicos, demonstração do agente etiológico pelas técnicas de imagem e testes laboratoriais. No presente estudo, apresentamos uma revisão do diagnóstico laboratorial, com ênfase no desempenho dos testes para pesquisa de anticorpos específicos e detecção de antígenos circulante...

2012-01-01

235

Cysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In countries where cysticercosis is endemic, the proportion of epilepsy due to cysticercosis is not well documented. To investigate the association between cysticercosis and epilepsy, we used the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to detect serum antibodies to Taenia solium in 498 consecutive outpatients at a neurology clinic in Lima, Peru. Every patient was classified as epileptic (n = 189) or non-epileptic (n = 309) after neurological, and where possible electroencephalog...

Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R.; Martinez, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Herrera, G.; Diaz, F.; Alvarado, M.; Miranda, E.

1993-01-01

236

Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Vellore, South India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is acquired by pigs through consumption of human faeces containing Taenia solium ova and indicates the presence of active transmission of the parasite between pigs and humans. METHODS: The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was assessed by an antigen ELISA and enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for antibodies in rural and urban areas of southern India. RESULTS: Of the 112 porcine blood samples, 13 (11.6%) were positive for cysticercal antigens...

Mohan, V. R.; Tharmalingam, J.; Muliyil, J.; Oommen, A.; Dorny, P.; Vercruysse, J.; Vedantam, R.

2013-01-01

237

Epilepsy is not caused by cysticercosis in The Gambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To determine whether epilepsy is caused by Taenia solium cysticercosis in The Gambia. Methods Case-control study testing samples collected from 210 people with epilepsy and 420 matched controls by sex and age +/-5 years from 69 different places around the country during the period October 2008-March 2009. All serum samples were subjected to an antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and electro-immunotransfer blot (EITB), and the seropositives were further CT-scanned to determine the pre...

Secka, A.; Grimm, F.; Victor, B.; Marcotty, T.; Deken, R.; Nyan, O.; Herera, O.; Marck, E.; Geerts, S.

2010-01-01

238

Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could he collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether techni...

Rodriguez-hidalgo, R.; Benitez-ortiz, W.; Praet, N.; Saa, Lr; Vercruysse, Jozef; Brandt, J.; Dorny, Pierre

2006-01-01

239

Taeniasis-cysticercosis in southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether techni...

Rodri?guez-hidalgo, R.; Benitez-ortiz, W.; Praet, N.; Saa, L. R.; Vercruysse, J.; Brandt, J.; Dorny, P.; Celi-erazo, M.

2006-01-01

240

Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether techni...

Rodriguez-hidalgo, R.; Benitez-ortiz, W.; Praet, N.; Lr, Saa; Vercruysse, J.; Brandt, J.; Dorny, P.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Prevalence of Taenisolium cysticercosis in swine from community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

Krecek, R. C.; Michael, L. M.; Schantz, P. M.; Ntanjana, L.; Smith, M. F.; Dorny, P.; Harrison, L. J. S.; Grimm, F.; Praet, N.; Willingham, A. L.

2008-01-01

242

Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878) from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for anal...

Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida; Marília Sirianni dos Santos Almeida; Noeli Maria Espíndola; Alberto Iha; Diana Ana Pereira; Jean Gabriel de Souza; Theopi Rados Varvakis; Adelaide José Vaz

2011-01-01

243

Doxycycline Treatment Decreases Morbidity and Mortality of Murine Neurocysticercosis : Evidence for Reduction of Apoptosis and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Murine neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection transmitted through the direct ingestion of Taenia solium eggs, which differentially disrupts the barriers that protect the microenvironment of the central nervous system. Among the host factors that are involved in this response, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been recently described as important players. Doxycycline is a commonly prescribed antimicrobial drug that acts as an anti-inflammatory agent with broad inhibitory properties ag...

Alvarez, Jorge I.; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Teale, Judy M.

2009-01-01

244

The prevalence of epilepsy follows the distribution of onchocerciasis in a west Ugandan focus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiological surveys indicate that the prevalence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Except for neurocystocercosis due to Taenia solium, little is known about possible underlying causes. This article reports the relationship between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in an Onchocerca volvulus endemic area in West Uganda. Individuals complaining of seizures were identified by means of a population census in 12 villages. Active epilepsy was confirmed in ...

Kaiser, C.; Kipp, W.; Asaba, G.; Mugisa, C.; Kabagambe, G.; Rating, D.; Leichsenring, M.

1996-01-01

245

Kirurgisk behandling af neurocysticerkose hos et 12-Ã¥rigt barn  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a case of neurocysticercosis in a 12-year old refugee from Zambia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a solitary, ring enhancing cystic lesion located subcortically in the left parietal lobe. Despite extensive diagnostic workup it was not possible to rule out alternative differential diagnoses. Serological tests for neurocysticercosis came out negative. The lesion was removed en bloc using microsurgical technique. Subsequent histological examination revealed a thick-walled cyst containing a cysticercus identifiable as a Taenia solium.

Cortnum, Søren; Knudsen, Kristine Bach

2011-01-01

246

Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticerc...

Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

2012-01-01

247

Porcine cysticercosis in southeast Uganda: seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro districts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and humans. Human exposure is a function of the size of the animal reservoir of this zoonosis. This is the first field survey for porcine cysticercosis to investigate the prevalence of antigen-positive pigs across an entire rural district of south-east Uganda. In our ...

Waiswa, C.; Fe?vre, E. M.; Nsadha, Z.; Sikasunge, C. S.; Willingham Iii, A. L.

2009-01-01

248

Detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies in cerbrospinal fluid of patients with chronic meningitis Detecção de antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus em fluido cerebrospinal de pacientes com meningite crônica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic meningitism is a less frequent manifestation of neurocysticercosis caused by Taenia solium cysticerci. In the present study we used Co-agglutination (Co-A), a simple and rapid slide agglutination test to detect specific Cysticercus antigen in the 67 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with chronic meningitis of unknown etiology. The results were compared with that of ELISA for detection of antibodies. Among these samples four (5.97%) were positive for Cysticercus antigen b...

Subhash Chandra Parija; Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu; Hariharkrishnaiear Dhanya

2007-01-01

249

Bruns' syndrome and racemose neurocysticercosis: a case report Síndrome de Bruns e neurocisticercose racemosa: relato de caso  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The parasite may infect the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). The clinical manifestations depend on load, type, size, location, stage of development of the cysticerci, and the host's immune response against the parasite. The racemose variety occurs in the ventricles or basal cisterns and is a malignant form. Mobile ventricular mass can produce episodic hydrocephalus on changing head...

Roberta Diehl Rodriquez; Denise Neme da Silva Crestani; José Otávio Dworzecki Soares; Paulo Roberto Franceshini; Ronnie Petersen Alves; Ricardo Zimerman; Nelson Ferreira; Liselotte Menke Barea

2012-01-01

250

Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic ...

Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

2011-01-01

251

A rare manifestation of cysticercosis infestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation. PMID:24760810

Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi

2014-01-01

252

Granuloma cytokines in murine cysticercosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the most common causes of seizures worldwide. The symptoms result from granulomatous inflammation associated with dying cyst forms of the parasite. Although the invasive larvae can be killed by immune serum plus complement, immunity to the cyst stage depends on a cellular response. This dichotomous immune response is reminiscent of the extremes of the immune response associated with T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine profiles. To character...

Robinson, P.; Atmar, R. L.; Lewis, D. E.; White, A. C.

1997-01-01

253

Sequential Expression of the Neuropeptides Substance P and Somatostatin in Granulomas Associated with Murine Cysticercosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system caused by Taenia solium, is a leading cause of seizures. Seizures associated with neurocysticercosis are caused mainly by the host inflammatory responses to dying parasites in the brain parenchyma. We previously demonstrated sequential expression of Th1 cytokines in early-stage granulomas, followed by expression of Th2 cytokines in later-stage granulomas in murine cysticercosis. However, the mechanism leading to thi...

Robinson, Prema; White, A. Clinton; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Thornby, John; David, Elliott; Weinstock, Joel

2002-01-01

254

Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC) is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes influence individual susceptibility t...

Eni Picchioni Bompeixe; Sonia Maria Correia Machado da Costa; Walter Oleschko Arruda; Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler

1999-01-01

255

Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested. PMID:17160287

Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Praet, N; Saa, L R; Vercruysse, J; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

2006-11-01

256

Neurocysticercosis in Europe: Still a public health concern not only for imported cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a parasitic disease caused by the larvae of the cestode Taenia solium, is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the world and the leading cause of secondary epilepsy in Central and South America, East and South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. It is endemic in many low- and middle-income countries of the world. Due to increased travels and immigration, NCC may be diagnosed also in non-endemic areas. In fact, tapeworm carriers from endemic zones can transmit infection to other citizens or arrive already suffering NCC. This phenomenon, occurred first in USA during the last 30 years, has been also observed in Europe, as well as in Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan and Muslim countries of the Arab World. Actually, concerning Europe, although, in some areas only few cases have been described, nevertheless the prevalence of NCC may be considered increasing, especially in Spain and Portugal. We reviewed the literature on the burden of NCC in Europe, by a search of PubMed regarding papers from 1970 to present. We only considered on PubMed published and available papers in English, French, Italian, and Spanish, the languages understood by the authors. One hundred seventy six cases of NCC have been reported in seventeen European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom, and Croatia, Norway, Switzerland). A particular epidemic situation is present in Spain and Portugal. In fact, we collected data that show, in Spain, an increasing incidence both in immigrated patients and in those which were born in certain Spanish geographical areas and, in Portugal, prevalence similar to that observed in endemic areas. Globally, it is clear that as a result of increased migrations and travels from endemic regions, NCC is becoming an emerging public health problem in high-income countries, particularly affecting communities where hygiene conditions are poor and sub-sequentially the parasite can spread from human to human through eggs even in absence of a travel to the tropics. NCC is a preventable disease, it derives that it's important to acquire a great consciousness of the epidemiology and to implement accurate surveillance systems. PMID:23871891

Fabiani, S; Bruschi, F

2013-10-01

257

Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: I. Structure and influence of host's size and sex Aspectos da ecologia de cestóides proteocefalídeos parasitas de Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil: I. Estrutura e influência do tamanho e sexo dos hospedeiros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between March 1992 and February 1996, 107 specimens of Sorubim lima were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná river. Ninety-five (88.78% specimens were parasitized with at least one species of proteocephalid cestodes. 7,573 specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera Woodland, 1935. S. maringaensis was the most prevalent and abundant. There were three dominant species P. itaipuensis, S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis and one co-dominant species (S. spinulifera. The three environments (lotic, semilotic and lentic in which collection was undertaken showed high similarity with regard to parasitic fauna. A high Simpson index value (0.359 indicates dominance tendency among species of parasites. Concerning S. maringaensis significant positive correlation was observed between parasite intensity and standard length of hosts. No species had negative correlation. With regard to S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis prevalence was positive and significantly correlated with standard length of hosts. No species had negative correlation. In the case of S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis influence of host's sex was noted on parasite intensity. There was no sex influence on parasite prevalence in any species.No período de março de 1992 a fevereiro de 1996 foram coletados 107 espécimes de Sorubim lima na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, sendo que 95 (88,78% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de cestóide proteocefalídeo. Foi coletado um total de 7.573 espécimes de parasitos (intensidade média de 79,71 parasitos/hospedeiro de quatro espécies diferentes: Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 e Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935. Destas, S. maringaensis foi a de maior prevalência e a de maior abundância. Ocorreram três espécies dominantes (P. itaipuensis, S. maringaensis e N. portoriquensis e uma espécie co-dominante (S. spinulifera. Os três ambientes de coletas (lótico, semilótico e lêntico apresentaram uma alta similaridade em relação à fauna parasitária. O alto valor obtido do índice de Simpson (0,359 indica uma tendência para dominância entre as espécies de parasitos. Para Spatulifer maringaensis, observou-se correlação positiva significativa entre a intensidade de parasitismo e o comprimento-padrão dos hospedeiros, sendo que para nenhuma espécie a correlação foi negativa. Para S. maringaensis e N. portoriquensis, a prevalência apresentou-se positiva e significativamente correlacionada com o comprimento padrão dos hospedeiros. Para espécie alguma a correlação foi negativa. Para S. maringaensis e N. portoriquensis observou-se influência do sexo do hospedeiro sobre a intensidade parasitária, entretanto, não se constatou influência do sexo sobre a prevalência de parasitismo para espécie alguma.

R. M. TAKEMOTO

2000-11-01

258

A real-time multiplex-nested PCR system for coprological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 ?l total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive-tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. PMID:21327991

Dinkel, Anke; Kern, Selina; Brinker, Anja; Oehme, Rainer; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Giraudoux, Patrick; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

2011-08-01

259

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

260

Evidence of human neurocysticercosis in Slovenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in patients with neurological disorders in Slovenia, serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 348 suspected patients were collected between the beginning of January 2001 and the end of December 2012 and analysed serologically for the presence of anti-T. solium IgG antibodies. Of 20 patients whose samples tested positive or equivocal by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples of 7 patients were confirmed positive by Western blot (WB). The overall seroprevalence rate of T. solium infection in patients with neurological disorders included in the study was 2.0%. Serological results of positive patients corresponded to clinical and/or imaging findings concerning their brain cysts. Based on their personal data, it was ascertained that neurocysticercosis (NCC) positive patients had immigrated or came to Slovenia from the former Yugoslav republics. Since the disease is believed not to be endemic in Slovenia we assume that all of the NCC-positive patients had acquired the infection before immigration to Slovenia or visiting or being visited by their relatives infected with an adult T. solium parasite. The present results represent the first insight into the prevalence of NCC in patients with neurological disorders in Slovenia. PMID:24476600

Šoba, Barbara; Beovi?, Bojana; Lužnik, Zala; Skvar?, Miha; Logar, Jernej

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Neurocisticercosis: un caso autóctono en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires / Neurocysticercosis: Report of an autochthonous case in Buenos Aires city  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis es la enfermedad parasitaria del sistema nervioso central provocada por la larva de Taenia solium, denominada Cysticercus cellulosae. Es una enfermedad universal, endémica en países de Latinoamérica y Asia. En 1993, en la provincia de Buenos Aires se comunicaron 11 casos de neu [...] rocisticercosis en pacientes adultos, 8 provenientes de Bolivia y 3 del interior de nuestro país. En la Argentina, los casos pediátricos comunicados son oriundos de países limítrofes o del interior del país. El propósito del presente artículo es presentar el primer caso pediátrico autóctono, con fuente de contagio local en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alertar sobre la posibilidad de que una región como ésta, ingrese dentro del área endémica, producto de los movimientos migratorios internos y externos, y del asentamiento de portadores de la parasitosis en el perímetro urbano. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a central nervous system disease caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larvae of Taenia solium. NC is found worldwide, and endemic in Latin America and Asia. In 1993, 11 adult patients with NC were reported in Buenos Aires, 8 from Bolivia and the rest from Argentina. Pedia [...] tric cases reported in Argentina have been from inner provinces or from rural areas. The purpose of the present article is to present the first autochthonous pediatric case, with local source of contagion in the city of Buenos Aires, and to alert regarding the possibility that the city become an endemic area, due to the migratory movements leading to establishment of asymptomatic carriers of Taenia solium in the urban area.

Moroni, Samanta; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Freilij, Héctor; Altcheh, Jaime.

262

The problem of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Irian Jaya, Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The disease, caused by the adult and larva of Taenia solium, spread to the western part of Irian Jaya crossing the border of Indonesian to Papua New Guinea. Twenty local health centers reported 638 and 945 new cases with epileptic seizures in 1994 and 1995 respectively. Questionnaires were distributed to 31 respondents with results as follows: 83.9% were illiterate, 93.6% farmers and all of them sometimes ate not well-cooked pork; no other meat was consumed. In this area no health...

Margono, Sri S.; Akira Ito; Thomas Suroso

2001-01-01

263

Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

2013-01-01

264

Total IgE detection in paired cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis Detecção de IgE total em amostras pareadas de líquido cefalorraquiano e soro de pacientes com neurocisticercose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurocysticercosis (NC), the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is the most frequent and severe parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We investigated the presence of total IgE by an automated chemiluminescence assay in 53 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with NC (P) and in 40 CSF samples from individuals with other neurological disorders as the control group (C). Total IgE concentration ranged from 1.2 to 6.6 IU/ml (mean = 1.4 IU/ml...

2000-01-01

265

Transitory alexia without agraphia: A disconnection syndrome due to neurocysticercosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with acute onset inability to read, without any difficulty in writing. A clinical diagnosis of alexia without agraphia was made and the patient was subjected to routine investigations including contrast MRI. MRI showed a ring-enhancing lesion in left occipital area, suggestive of neurocysticercosis supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci (PCF­-ELISA. Patient was treated with albendazole and prednisolone for one week. The clinical manifestation as well as the radiological finding resolved after treatment.

Verma Archana

2004-07-01

266

Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizure using ELISA and immunoblot assay / Sorodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose em pacientes com crises epiléticas, por meio de ELISA e immunoblot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Amostras de soro de 88 pacientes dos Estados de Santa Catarina e São Paulo, Brasil, com crises epilépticas e que se submeteram a exame de Tomografia Computadorizada (TC), foram examinadas para detecção de anticorpos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium por meio de ELISA e Immunoblot (IB) utilizando-se [...] os seguintes antígenos: extrato salino total de cisticercos de T. solium (Tso); líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra-vf) e glicoproteínas purificadas de cisticercos de T. crassiceps (Tcra-gp). Os resultados de ELISA com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp mostraram 95%, 90% e 80% de sensibilidade, respectivamente, e 68%, 85% e 93% de especificidade, respectivamente. No grupo de pacientes epilépticos, a positividade do ELISA foi 30%, 51% e 35% com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp, respectivamente. Considerando o IB como teste confirmatório, a positividade foi de 16% (14/88) no grupo total de pacientes epilépticos e 22% (12/54) no grupo de pacientes epilépticos com TC positiva e sinais clínicos compatíveis com neurocisticercose. Foi encontrada correlação estatística significativa entre os resultados de ELISA ou IB e a fase da doença com quaisquer dos antígenos utilizados (p Abstract in english Sera from 88 patients from Santa Catarina and São Paulo states of Brazil, with epileptic seizures who underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) were analyzed for the detection of antibodies to T. solium cysticercus by ELISA and Immunoblot (IB) with the following antigens: Taenia solium cysticercus [...] total saline (Tso), Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-vf) and T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-gp). ELISA carried out with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens showed 95%, 90% and 80% sensitivities, respectively, and 68%, 85% and 93% specificities, respectively. In the epileptic patients group, ELISA positivity was 30%, 51% and 35% with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens respectively. Considering the IB as the confirmatory test, the positivity was 16% (14/88) in the epileptic patients total group and 22% (12/54) in the epileptic patients with positive CT and signals of cysticercosis. We found a significant statistical correlation among ELISA or IB results and the phase of the disease when any antigens were used (p

Ishida, Maria M.I.; Peralta, Regina Helena S.; Livramento, José. A.; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Peralta, José M.; Vaz, Adelaide J..

267

Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizure using ELISA and immunoblot assay Sorodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose em pacientes com crises epiléticas, por meio de ELISA e immunoblot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sera from 88 patients from Santa Catarina and São Paulo states of Brazil, with epileptic seizures who underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT were analyzed for the detection of antibodies to T. solium cysticercus by ELISA and Immunoblot (IB with the following antigens: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso, Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-vf and T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-gp. ELISA carried out with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens showed 95%, 90% and 80% sensitivities, respectively, and 68%, 85% and 93% specificities, respectively. In the epileptic patients group, ELISA positivity was 30%, 51% and 35% with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens respectively. Considering the IB as the confirmatory test, the positivity was 16% (14/88 in the epileptic patients total group and 22% (12/54 in the epileptic patients with positive CT and signals of cysticercosis. We found a significant statistical correlation among ELISA or IB results and the phase of the disease when any antigens were used (p Amostras de soro de 88 pacientes dos Estados de Santa Catarina e São Paulo, Brasil, com crises epilépticas e que se submeteram a exame de Tomografia Computadorizada (TC, foram examinadas para detecção de anticorpos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium por meio de ELISA e Immunoblot (IB utilizando-se os seguintes antígenos: extrato salino total de cisticercos de T. solium (Tso; líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra-vf e glicoproteínas purificadas de cisticercos de T. crassiceps (Tcra-gp. Os resultados de ELISA com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp mostraram 95%, 90% e 80% de sensibilidade, respectivamente, e 68%, 85% e 93% de especificidade, respectivamente. No grupo de pacientes epilépticos, a positividade do ELISA foi 30%, 51% e 35% com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp, respectivamente. Considerando o IB como teste confirmatório, a positividade foi de 16% (14/88 no grupo total de pacientes epilépticos e 22% (12/54 no grupo de pacientes epilépticos com TC positiva e sinais clínicos compatíveis com neurocisticercose. Foi encontrada correlação estatística significativa entre os resultados de ELISA ou IB e a fase da doença com quaisquer dos antígenos utilizados (p < 0,05. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de introduzir na rotina dos laboratórios o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose nos pacientes com convulsões epilépticas devido ao elevado risco de aquisição da cisticercose em nossa região e sua participação na etiologia da epilepsia.

Maria M.I. Ishida

2006-12-01

268

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis in Reunion island: comparison with computerized tomography scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An immunoenzymologic (Elisa) serodiagnosis of cysticercosis is evaluated in 75 encephalic cysticercotic patients whose diagnosis of the disease and its progression is assessed by tomodensitometry. A Taenia solium antigen is used. Only Ig G are investigated. The sensibility of serodiagnosis is 85 % and specificity 87 % when there is a progression of the disease; no difference is noticed in the patients without any progression of the disease and in control normal subjects. This serodiagnosis of cysticercosis appears of value for the evaluation of the activity of the disease

1988-01-01

269

Isolated intramedullary spinal cysticercosis in a 10-year-old female showing dramatic response with albendazole  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic for cysticercosis. Patient was treated with antihelminthic, which led to marked clinico-radiological improvement.

Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne

2011-01-01

270

Comunicación de un caso de cisticercosis subcutánea / Report of case of subcutaneous cysticercosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La infección por la forma larvaria (cisticerco) de Taenia solium en cualquier tejido u órgano se conoce como cisticercosis. Existen numerosos reportes de casos, siendo la mayoría de ellos cisticercos en sistema nervioso central. El compromiso de otros órganos es raramente detectado. Se presenta el c [...] aso de una mujer de 19 años con una cisticercosis subcutánea que fue confirmada con biopsia. Abstract in english Infection of the larval form (cysticerco) of Taenia in any tissue or organ is known as the disease cysticercosis. Many sites of infection have been documented but the central nervous system has been the most common. It present a case report of a 19 years old patient with a subcutaneous cysticercosis [...] confirmed with biopsy.

Sylvia, Vidal.

271

HUMAN PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN BALI : A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasitic infections in humans in Bali are well documented, especially in the population who lived in rural areas. The most common infections are those of the soil-transmitted helminthiasis which are caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm showing prevalence rates of 40 - 95%, 25 - 90% and 20 - 70% respectively. Enterobius vermicularis prevalence rate has been reported to be 18 - 53%. Taenniasis prevalence rate has been documented to be 0.8 - 23% in some villages, where Taenia saginata was found to be more prevalent than Taenia solium, and this might be due to the eating habit of the Balinese people who consumed both pork and beef lawar. Malaria is still found in Bali especially in regions along the coasts of some regencies, although generally the infection rate is low. The prevalence rates of intestinal protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli have been occasionally reported in low percentages.

Putu Sutisna

2012-09-01

272

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico / La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Cons [...] iderando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México. Abstract in english In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been dev [...] eloped for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.

Fleury, Agnès; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos.

273

Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico / La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Cons [...] iderando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México. Abstract in english In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been dev [...] eloped for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.

Fleury, Agnès; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos.

274

Neurocysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is a helmenthic infection involving pigs and man. Most cases of cysticercosis occur in developing countries. The disease is very rare in Islamic countries, as moslems are supposed to abstain from eating pork meat. In the last 10 years, reports of cysticercosis among moslems were published. Imigrants from endemic countries, who work as housemaids and food handlers played a role in transmitting the disease. Man becomes a definitive host if he ingests insufficiently cooked pork meat, which contains viable Iarvae of Taenia Solium or cysticerci. Neurocysticercosis denotes presence of a Taenia Solium larva cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) in the brain parenchyma, meninges, or ventricular spaces. Neuroimaging by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the best procedures to diagnose neurocysticercosis. Serological tests (EITB) or ELISA) are not sensitive as more than 50% of patients with neurocysticercosis have negative serology. Alpendazole and praziquentel are the most effective antihelmenthic drugs. Prevention of the disease and its complications as epilepsy is the management corner stone. A single dose of praziquentel for every emigrant from endemic areas will eradicate the adult tapeworm and reduce the incidence of neurocysticercosis. Physicians in moslem countries should be aware about the disease not only among immigrants but among moslems. We reviewed the available information about the disease epidemiologically, clinically, radiologically, laboratory tests, and methods of prevention. PMID:24185216

Hamad, A E; Fawzi, M F

2001-01-01

275

[Epidemiology of cerebral cysticercosis in an Andean community in Ecuador].  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been documented to be an underlying cause of epilepsy, intractable headaches, hydrocephalus, dementia and other serious neurological conditions in many countries of Central and South America. However, methodological limitations had prevented the assessment of the true prevalence of this condition at the community level. We conducted a house-to-house neuroepidemiological survey of 6,118 residents of an Andean community. This information was used to target neuroimaging (CT-scan) and immunodiagnosis (enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, EITB) tests in individuals suspected of harbouring Taenia solium NCC. In the rural population, NCC was confirmed in 8 out of 47 examined by CT-scan (17%) and in 6 of 42 examined by EITB (14%). In the urban population, NCC was confirmed in 35 of 147 examined by CT-scan (23.8%) and in 28 of 124 examined by EITB (22.6%). In a sample of relatives of patients with documented cerebral cysticercosis, 20 out of 81 examined by CT-scan (25%) and 12 of 79 (15%) examined by EITB had NCC. Finally, CT scans were performed for 83 school children from urban areas, and 9 (11%) were diagnosed as harbouring NCC. In a community-based study, cysticercosis appears to be much more frequent than initially thought, when CT examination is used as the "gold standard" for diagnosis. PMID:10214520

Cruz, M E; Preux, P M; Debrock, C; Cruz, I; Schantz, P M; Tsang, V C; Dumas, M

1999-02-01

276

Intestinal helminth parasite community in wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1987 to 1993, 89 wolves (Canis lupus) collected throughout the whole Italian range were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. Twelve species were found, including 5 nematodes (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Toxascaris leonina) and 7 cestodes (Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. ovis, Mesocestoides lineatus and Dipylidium caninum). No significant differences were detected between sexes. T. canis showed higher prevalence and numbers in youngs, while E. granulosus and T. vulpis in adults. Interference between U. stenocephala and A. caninum was detected. Parasite biocenosis was stable in respect to geographical and ecological variables. PMID:8065823

Guberti, V; Stancampiano, L; Francisci, F

1993-12-01

277

Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary collaborations between the veterinary and medical sectors to achieve a national reporting and control programme. PMID:24547659

Murrell, K D

2013-08-01

278

Some quantitative studies of carbohydrate metabolites in cestode parasite of Gallus gallus domesticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present investigation includes the quantitative estimation of carbohydrate metabolism i.e., totalglycogen, pyruvate, lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphotases activity in cestodespecies of Gallus gallus domesticus. The carbohydrate metabolism activity were observed in the intestinalparasites Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890 were capable of extracting nutrient material from their host andthus represented high level in carbohydrate metabolism. The significance of various amount of pyruvate inanaerobic intestinal parasites and various factors of its role was also discussed.

Waghmare S.B.

2010-03-01

279

Cestodes (Caryophyllidea) of the stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) from Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) has been reported to harbor as many as 19 species of caryophyllidean tapeworms (Cestoda) of 11 genera in tropical Asia (Indomalayan zoogeographical region). However, a critical review of the species composition has shown that only 1 species, Lucknowia fossilisi Gupta, 1961 (Lytocestidae), is a specific parasite of H. fossilis. Three other species, Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926 (syn., Djombangia caballeroi Sahay and Sahay, 1977 ), Pseudocaryophyllaeus ritai Gupta and Singh, 1983 (syn. Pseudocaryophyllaeus lucknowensis Gupta and Sinha, 1984 ), and Pseudocaryophyllaeus tenuicollis (Bovien, 1926) Ash, Scholz, Oros and Kar, 2011 (syn. P. mackiewiczi Gupta and Parmar, 1982 ), were found only once. Lucknowia fossilisi is redescribed on the basis of new material collected in West Bengal and voucher specimens from Maharashtra, India. A total of 9 species of Capingentoides, Lucknowia, Lytocestus, Pseudoadenoscolex, Pseudocaryophyllaeus, Pseudoheteroinverta, and Sukhapatae are newly synonymized with L. fossilisi and previous synonymies of 9 other species, proposed by Hafeezulah (1993), are confirmed. Generic diagnosis of Lucknowia Gupta, 1961 is amended. In addition, 1 species of Pseudobatrachus and 2 species of the monotypic genera Pseudoneckinverta and Sudhaena are invalidated as nomina nuda. PMID:21561334

Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Levron, Céline; Kar, Pradip Kumar

2011-10-01

280

[Soricinia sawadai sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae), a new cestode species from the shrews of Sakhalin Island].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new species Soricinia sawadai sp. n. parasitizing shrews of Sakhalin Island (Sores unguiculatus and S. caecutiens) is described. The new species differs from other species of the genus Soricinia Spassky et Spasskaja, 1954 in having specific armament and size of the cirrus. Soricinia sawadai sp. n. differs from S. aurita (Irzhavsky et al., 2005) in having half size of the ovary (0.076-0.08 x 0.03-0.038 versus 0.135-0.14 x 0.037-0.04) and the cirrus bursa extending into the aporal fraction of the middle part of segment. The new species differs from S. quarta (Karpenko, 1983) in having half size of the cirrus (0.025-0.026 versus 0.05-0.055) and half number of hexacants in uterine segments (20-22 versus 40-45). The new species differs from S. infirma (Zarnowski, 1955) in having other cirrus armament, larger number of segments and lesser number of hexacants. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa Sawada et Koyasu, 1991 parasitizing Sorex unguiculatus on Hokkaido Island is synonymized with Soricinia quarta. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa sensu Sawada et Harada, 1993 parasitizing Sorex shinto shinto on Honshu Island is described as a separate species Soricinia haradai sp. n. PMID:20795487

Zubova, O A; Guliaev, V D; Kornienko, S A

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Genetic differences between Tunisian camel and sheep strains of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus revealed by SSCP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ovine and dromedary Echinococcus granulosus isolates from Tunisia were identified as G1 and G6 strains based on polymorphism of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxydase CO1. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used in order to examine the genetic variation within and between Tunisian G1 and G6 strains and to estimate the extent of selfing. The dromedary isolates are genetically distinct from sheep isolates (high value of genetic variation between populations: Fst= 0.46). No significant deficiency in heterozygotes was found in sheep isolates, whereas heterozygote deficiency (suggesting selfing) was found in a limited number of camel isolates. PMID:16800121

Oudni-M'rad, M; Cabaret, J; M'rad, S; Bouzid, W; Mekki, M; Belguith, M; Sayadi, T; Nouri, A; Lahmar, S; Azaiez, R; Mezhoud, H; Babba, H

2006-06-01

282

Identification of Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase Inhibitors That Kill Cestode and Trematode Parasites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Parasitic flatworms are responsible for serious infectious diseases that affect humans as well as livestock animals in vast regions of the world. Yet, the drug armamentarium available for treatment of these infections is limited: praziquantel is the single drug currently available for 200 million people infected with Schistosoma spp. and there is justified concern about emergence of drug resistance. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential core enzyme for redox homeostasis in f...

Ross, Fabiana; Herna?ndez, Paola; Porcal, Williams; Lo?pez, Gloria V.; Cerecetto, Hugo; Gonza?lez, Mercedes; Basika, Tatiana; Carmona, Carlos; Flo?, Marti?n; Maggioli, Gabriela; Bonilla, Mariana; Boiani, Mariana; Salinas, Gustavo; Gladyshev, Vadim

2012-01-01

283

Phylogenetic analysis and reconfiguration of genera in the cestode order Diphyllidea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The generic boundaries of the Diphyllidea are reassessed based on parsimony and likelihood phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA (ribonucleic acid large subunit), 18S rDNA (ribonucleic acid small subunit), and COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) sequence data for 31 species representing morphological variation across the order. Trees resulting from these analyses yielded a number of well-supported clades that are congruent with unique morphological features mandating generic revision of the order and erection of at least two new genera. Species originally assigned to Echinobothriumvan Beneden, 1849 but bearing a corona of spines on the region of the scolex anterior to the bothria and posterior to the apical organ armature are transferred to Coronocestus n. gen.; members of this genus typically parasitize triakid sharks, although one report from a hemiscylliid shark exists. Species with lateral hooklets arranged in continuous bands, rather than in two distinct clusters, are transferred to Halysioncum n. gen.; all species parasitize batoids, mostly myliobatids and rhinopterids, but a few records also exist from arhynchobatids, rhinobatids, platyrhinids and urotrygonids. Our analyses support transfer of the five species originally assigned to MacrobothridiumKhalil and Abdul-Salam, 1989 owing to their lack of cephalic peduncle spines to Echinobothrium. As a consequence, Echinobothrium sensu stricto includes species both with and without spines on the cephalic peduncle, but all members of the genus possess lateral hooklets arranged in clusters on either side of the dorsal and ventral apical hooks. With respect to diphyllideans parasitizing catsharks, AhamulinaMarques, Jensen and Caira, 2012 is unique in possessing apical hooks but lacking lateral hooklets and DitrachybothridiumRees, 1959 is unique in entirely lacking scolex armature. By far the majority of species of Echinobothrium sensu stricto parasitize skates of the family Rajidae, guitarfish of the family Rhinobatidae, and stingrays of the dasyatid genera Taeniura Müller and Henle, Dasyatis Rafinesque, and Himantura Müller and Henle, although a single species each has been reported from Anacanthobatidae, Rhynchobatidae, Platyrhinidae and Myliobatidae. It now seems clear that while by far the majority of diphyllideans parasitize batoids, the diphyllideans parasitizing sharks, and catsharks in particular, remain problematic. Additional collections from these carcharhiniform hosts are likely to be particularly illuminating. PMID:23603519

Caira, Janine N; Marques, Fernando P L; Jensen, Kirsten; Kuchta, Roman; Ivanov, Veronica

2013-07-01

284

Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats and R. microstoma (in mice showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human.

Feliu Carlos

2011-09-01

285

Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and...

Foronda Pilar; López-González Mercedes; Hernández Mariano; Haukisalmi Voitto; Feliu Carlos

2011-01-01

286

Gastro-intestinal nematodes and cestodes of cattle in Burkina Faso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of the parasites of abomasa, small, and large intestines of 94 bovines conveyed to the main slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou from the central and northern part of Burkina Faso allowed the identification of nine different worm species: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Moniezia expensa, Avitellina sp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris sp. By far, Cooperia sp. was the most prevalent (89.4/, followed by H. contortus (66/, and O. radiatum (42.6/. The other worm species were much less prevalent. While only one cattle was free of parasites, it was noticed that polyparasitism was very common. There was a wide range of worm burden (0 to 42290 with however in most animals high worm numbers specially of Cooperia sp. This study confirmed that the rainy season constitutes a period of worm explosion. During the hot and dry season, H. contortus seemed primarily able to undergo arrested development in the L4 stage and secondarily to remain in the adult stage. Statistical analyses of levels of infestation did not show any significant difference according to age, sex, and weight of cattle.

Belem A.M.G.

2001-01-01

287

Use of a molecular approach for the definitive diagnosis of proliferative larval mesocestoidiasis in a cat.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 9 year-old male, neutered cat with a history of a sudden onset of lethargy, anorexia and respiratory distress was presented in a veterinary practice in Lucca, Italy. A clinical examination revealed that the cat was severely dehydrated, and had pale mucous membranes and tachypnoea. No pain or discomfort was detected at the time of physical examination. The cat was administered fluids, antibiotics and supportive therapy, but died overnight. The owner of the cat requested for a post mortem examination to be conducted. At necropsy, acephalic structures, consistent with proliferative tapeworm (cestode) larvae, were detected in the thoracic cavity on pleural surfaces. As these larvae could not be identified to genus or species by microscopy, a PCR-based sequencing-phylogenetic approach was used. Part of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene was PCR-amplified from genomic DNAs from five individual larvae and sequenced; all five sequences obtained were identical. This consensus sequence was aligned (over 355 nucleotide positions) with homologous sequences representing a range of cestodes (including Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Hymenolepis microstoma, Mesocestoides spp. and Taenia saginata) from previously published studies and then subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequence representing the larval cestode from the affected cat grouped, with strong statistical support, with those representing Mesocestoides corti and Mesocestoides lineatus. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis of pleural proliferative larval mesocestoidiasis could be made. This study illustrates the value of using molecular tools to directly assist clinical and pathological investigations of cestodiases of animals. PMID:22579793

Jabbar, Abdul; Papini, Roberto; Ferrini, Nadia; Gasser, Robin B

2012-10-01

288

Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Prevalence of Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the rural area of Viçosa-MG, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A teníase é uma doença que se manifesta no ser humano em decorrência da presença da forma adulta da Taenia sp., enquanto a cisticercose decorre da infecção pelo estágio larvar da Taenia sp. ou Taenia solium, no caso dos suínos e humanos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visando a determinar a pre [...] valência de cisticercose em suínos e de teníase em 176 propriedades localizadas na zona rural de Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG). Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 226 suínos e fezes de 266 humanos, além da realização de um inquérito epidemiológico. Não foi identificada teníase humana, e a prevalência da cisticercose suína foi de 0,4%. As informações obtidas mostraram que a maioria das pessoas possuía o hábito de consumir carne suína não inspecionada; entretanto, todas as pessoas se alimentavam da carne bem aquecida. Em apenas 1,1% das propriedades, o esgoto era depositado diretamente no solo e em 99,4% destas a água era canalizada, enquanto 88,1% dos suínos eram criados presos. Concluiu-se que, na zona rural do município de Viçosa-MG, a prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose foi baixa, mostrando ainda um nível de contaminação inferior ao de outros municípios onde o complexo foi estudado. Abstract in english Taeniasis occurs due to the presence of the adult form of Taenia sp. in human beings, and cysticercosis is caused by the presence of the larval stage of T. solium in pigs and humans. A transversal study was conducted aiming to determine the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis in 176 fa [...] rms located in rural areas of Viçosa-MG. Blood samples of 226 pigs, and feces samples of 266 humans were collected. An epidemiological survey has also been done. We found a prevalence of 0.4% of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis has not been found. The epidemiological data has shown that although most people consumed non-inspected pork, it used to be prepared well-done. Data showed that 88.1% of the pigs are reared in confinement in only 1.1% of the properties the sewer was disposed on the soil, and 99.4% used pipes for water distribution. It can be concluded that the prevalence of the Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in rural areas of Viçosa (State of Minas Gerais) is lower than in other similar regions.

Iasbik, Adriana Felix; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Nero, Luis Augusto; Santos, Tatiane de Oliveira; Felippe, Adriano Groppo.

289

Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

2010-02-01

290

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report.

Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

291

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.

Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raul J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernandez, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberon, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

2014-01-01

292

The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC. PMID:24863516

Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L

2014-05-01

293

Neurocysticercosis: Imaging Findings in Computed Tomography. Review of Literature and Two Case Reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neurocysticercosis is a central nervous system parasitic infection caused by Taenia Solium whose clinical manifestations include seizures in 50-70% of patients, headache, intracranial hypertension and focal neurological deficits. Objective: To review the literature and to present imaging studies of two patients with the disease and classify its findings according to the pathologic stage. Methods: Review of literature and imaging of two patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis using cranial computed tomography which showed cystic lesions at the gray-white junction associated with ring enhancement and some of them with surrounding edema; besides calcified granulomatous lesions. The documented findings represent the imaging spectrum of different parenchymal stages of neurocysticercosis. Conclusions: The cranial computed tomography is very helpful in diagnosis and monitoring neurocysticercosis.

2008-01-01

294

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

2013-04-01

295

A pilot study of common health problems in smallholder pigs in Angónia and Boane districts, Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined. PMID:22332301

Matos, C; Sitoe, C; Afonso, S; Banze, J; Baptista, J; Dias, G; Rodrigues, F; Atanásio, A; Nhamusso, A; Penrith, M L; Willingham, A L

2011-09-01

296

Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

2014-01-01

297

Spinal leptomeningeal cysticercosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spinal forms of neurocysticercosis are extremely rare, with a frequency under 1% in large series. The types of involvement are a) subarachnoid cysts and b) intramedullary lesions (less frequent). The authors report the case of a 56-year-old female with central nervous system infection by the larval form of Taenia Solium, which conduced to a hydrocephalus, treated by neurosurgical ventricular-peritoneal shunting. After 2 years, the patient consulted due to paraesthesia, spastic paraparesis and incontinence. MRI showed an homogeneous cystic mass compressing the spinal cord at D5-D6 level. Laminectomies were performed and the arachnoid membrane appeared thickened (arachnoiditis); the larval cyst was removed. Anatomo-pathologic exam revealed a leptomeningeal cysticercosis. The patient had a favorable clinical evolution without spinal compression sings or symptoms. (author)

2003-01-01

298

Lack of specificity of a single positive 50-kDa band in the electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) assay for cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of the parasitic infection cysticercosis is usually confirmed by serological assays. The electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) for cysticercosis is a sensitive and specific assay, which uses six glycoprotein antigens on a strip to detect antibodies to Taenia solium cysticerci. Although the appearance of bands at any of these six sites is considered to be a positive result, a growing body of evidence suggests that the presence of a single 50-kDa band in this assay may not indicate infection. An audit of 984 samples tested over a 3-year period showed that only two (15.4%) of 13 samples with a single 50-kDa band were associated with a diagnosis of cysticercosis. Possible reasons for this include technical problems, cross-reactivity with other parasites or other diseases, or the presence of a non-specific band. The results suggest that the finding of a single 50-kDa band should be interpreted with caution. PMID:16643523

Furrows, S J; McCroddan, J; Bligh, W J; Chiodini, P

2006-05-01

299

Cestodiasis tisulares: participación de los linfocitos T cooperadores 1 y 2 Tisular cestodiasis: The role of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La cisticercosis y la hidatidosis son las parasitosis causadas por los metacéstodos de Taenia solium y de Echinococcus multilocularis (o E. granulosus, respectivamente. El estudio de las enfermedades parasitarias ofrece uno de los mejores modelos in vivo para el estudio de la división efectora de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T cooperadores CD4+, designadas Th1 y Th2 de acuerdo con el patrón de citocinas que producen. La polarización hacia alguno de estos fenotipos puede marcar la diferencia entre una respuesta inmune celular protectora o una respuesta inmune permisiva para la infección. La participación de los linfocitos Th1 y Th2 en las cestodiasis tisulares (cisticercosis e hidatidosis ha sido estudiada en modelos experimentales de ratón y en pacientes humanos; en ambos casos los resultados sugieren que en los individuos con cisticercosis o hidatidosis la respuesta inmune celular está polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th2. En tanto que en los individuos donde los parásitos son destruidos, o su desarrollo está limitado, la respuesta inmune celular se encuentra polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th1.Cysticercosis and hydatidosis are parasitic diseases caused by larvae of Taenia solium and Echinococcus sp., respectively. Parasitic diseases are useful models for in vivo studies of effector functions of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2, (called Th1 and Th2 on the basis of the pattern of cytokines they produce. The polarization to Th1 or Th2 is related to protective or permissive immune responses in these diseases. The role of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in tissue cestodiasis (cysticercosis and hydatidosis has been studied in experimentally infected mice and in human patients; study results suggest that in individuals with cysticercosis or hydatidosis, the cellular immune response is polarized to Th2, while individuals in whom parasites are killed or their growth is limited, have an immune cellular response that is polarized towards Th1.

Héctor Samuel López-Moreno

2002-04-01

300

The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate / A relação entre neurocisticercose e epilepsia: um debate interminável  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A neurocisticercose (NC) ou infecção cerebral pela Taenia solium é importante problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo. Entre as sequelas neurológicas da NC, as crises convulsivas têm sido descritas como os sintomas mais frequentes. Crises convulsivas sintomá [...] ticas agudas resultam, muitas vezes, da degeneração de cistos viáveis; entretanto, nem todos os pacientes com NC e crises agudas ou provocadas desenvolvem epilepsia (i.e., crises recorrentes não provocadas). Pode haver uma relação entre epilepsia e NC, causal ou incidental, devido à alta prevalência de ambas. O potencial epileptogênico dos cistos calcificados assim como a possível associação entre NC e esclerose hipocampal ainda necessitam de futuras pesquisas. O tratamento anti-helmíntico da NC resulta no desaparecimento de cistos viáveis em cerca de 1/3 dos pacientes com a doença parenquimatosa, mas não foi demonstrada redução nas taxas de recorrência das crises convulsivas em estudos randomizados controlados. A prevenção é crítica para reduzir o contingente de crises convulsivas e epilepsia relacionadas à NC. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not [...] all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC.

Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L..

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Neurocisticercosis: Una enfermedad emergente Neurocysticercosis: An emergent disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis es una afectación del sistema nervioso central por las larvas de la Taenia solium. Aunque en nuestro país su diagnóstico era excepcional, en los últimos años se ha observado un notable incremento en el número de casos diagnosticados, debido al fenómeno de la inmigración desde países donde la enfermedad es endémica. La forma de presentación más frecuente de la neurocisticercosis es la crisis epiléptica, seguida de la cefalea. Para el diagnóstico de sospecha debemos valorar los datos epidemiológicos y la clínica y confirmarlo mediante los estudios de neuroimagen e inmunológicos. El tratamiento de elección debe ser farmacológico, principalmente con albendazol, y reservar la cirugía para los casos en el que el primero falla. Las medidas higiénico-sanitarias y el tratamiento de los pacientes con teniasis son de suma importancia. La neurocisticercosis ha dejado de ser uno de esos diagnósticos excepcionales y dado el previsible aumento de su incidencia en nuestro medio, los profesionales sanitarios debemos conocer dicha enfermedad e incluirla en niveles más altos de los algoritmos de diagnóstico diferencial.Neurocysticerosis is an affection of the central nervous system by the larvae of the Taenia solium. Although its diagnosis in our country is exceptional, in recent years a notable increase in the number of cases diagnosed has been observed, due to the phenomenon of immigration from countries where the disease is endemic. The most frequent form of presentation of neurocysticercosis is seizures, followed by headache. To diagnose it we must evaluate the epidemiological data, the clinical record and confirm this through neuroimage and immunological studies. The treatment selected should be pharmacological, principally with albendazole, and surgery reserved for cases where the former fails. Hygienic measures and the treatment of patients with teniasis are of great importance. Neurocysticerosis has ceased to be an exceptional diagnosis and given the foreseeable increase of its incidence in our milieu, health professionals must understand this disease and include it at higher levels of the algorithms of differential diagnosis.

L. Imirizaldu

2004-08-01

302

Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis (NCC es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convulsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y se confirma con serología. La tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas imagenológicas usadas. Como prueba confirmatoria se usa el diagnóstico inmunológico a través de western blot, que actualmente se pude realizar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas tanto en suero como en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento involucra medidas sintomáticas (control de convulsiones o hipertensión endocraneana según sea el caso y tratamiento antiparasitario (albendazol o praziquantel. El tratamiento antiparasitario debe hacerse bajo condiciones de hospitalización y en hospitales de tercer nivel.Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. Inmunodiagnosis by Western Blot, which is currently perform in the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas in serum and cerebrospinal fluid serves as confirmatory test. Treatment involves symptomatic measures (control of seizures or intracranial hypertension and anticysticercal medications (albendazole and praziquantel. Anticysticercal treatment should be used under hospital conditions because of secondary effects.

Herbert Saavedra

2010-12-01

303

Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú / Assessment of dot blot tests and latex agglutination for cysticercosis diagnostic in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas [...] con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú Abstract in english In order to evaluate dot blot tests and latex agglutination for the detection of human cysticercosis with liquid antigen of Taenia solium cysticerci, 125 human sera were used, of which 60 were from people with cysticercosis confirmed by Western Blot, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 20 apparentl [...] y healthy. The optimal concentration of antigen to impregnate dot blot strips was 0.01 ug/uL, and to impregnate the latex particles was 0.092 ug/uL. For the dot blot test, a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.7% was found. For latex agglutination, a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 89.2% was found. Both tests may be useful and feasible to implement alternatives of serological diagnosis in laboratories in endemic areas of Peru

Eduardo, Miranda-Ulloa; Roxana, Sandoval-Ahumada; Eduardo, Ayala; Juan, Vásquez-Ampuero.

304

Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú / Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convu [...] lsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y se confirma con serología. La tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas imagenológicas usadas. Como prueba confirmatoria se usa el diagnóstico inmunológico a través de western blot, que actualmente se pude realizar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas tanto en suero como en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento involucra medidas sintomáticas (control de convulsiones o hipertensión endocraneana según sea el caso) y tratamiento antiparasitario (albendazol o praziquantel). El tratamiento antiparasitario debe hacerse bajo condiciones de hospitalización y en hospitales de tercer nivel. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated [...] with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. Inmunodiagnosis by Western Blot, which is currently perform in the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas in serum and cerebrospinal fluid serves as confirmatory test. Treatment involves symptomatic measures (control of seizures or intracranial hypertension) and anticysticercal medications (albendazole and praziquantel). Anticysticercal treatment should be used under hospital conditions because of secondary effects.

Herbert, Saavedra; Isidro, Gonzales; Manuel A., Alvarado; Miguel A., Porras; Victor, Vargas; Román A., Cjuno; Hector H., Garcia; S. Manuel, Martinez.

305

Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú / Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convu [...] lsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y se confirma con serología. La tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas imagenológicas usadas. Como prueba confirmatoria se usa el diagnóstico inmunológico a través de western blot, que actualmente se pude realizar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas tanto en suero como en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento involucra medidas sintomáticas (control de convulsiones o hipertensión endocraneana según sea el caso) y tratamiento antiparasitario (albendazol o praziquantel). El tratamiento antiparasitario debe hacerse bajo condiciones de hospitalización y en hospitales de tercer nivel. Abstract in english Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated [...] with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. Inmunodiagnosis by Western Blot, which is currently perform in the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas in serum and cerebrospinal fluid serves as confirmatory test. Treatment involves symptomatic measures (control of seizures or intracranial hypertension) and anticysticercal medications (albendazole and praziquantel). Anticysticercal treatment should be used under hospital conditions because of secondary effects.

Herbert, Saavedra; Isidro, Gonzales; Manuel A., Alvarado; Miguel A., Porras; Victor, Vargas; Román A., Cjuno; Hector H., Garcia; S. Manuel, Martinez.

306

Cysticercosis: imported and autochthonous infections in Kuwait.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracerebral and non-central nervous system (non-CNS) cysticercosis caused by the larval pork tapeworm Taenia solium was diagnosed in patients in an Islamic state. The mode of transmission and challenges in diagnosis are highlighted. Sixteen patients with neurocysticercosis and six with non-CNS lesions were diagnosed by imaging studies (computerized tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and serology (ELISA and/or enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay [EITB]). Four of 55 family members, including servants, tested for antibodies were positive by the EITB and ELISA. Only one of these sera tested for antibodies to adult T. solium was positive: that of the cook, the probable source of the infection. We postulate a similar mode of transmission in the other Kuwaitis. Evaluation of several commercially available ELISA kits showed they were of poor specificity. Even in countries where pork consumption is proscribed by religious laws, physicians should include cysticercosis in their differential diagnosis in patients with neurological symptoms or non-CNS lesions, especially in non-endemic countries with a large expatriate population such as Kuwait. In children particularly, and in this region, suspected tuberculous lesions on CT must be investigated to rule out cysticerci by a more diligent use of the sensitive and specific EITB assay. Failure to understand the local epidemiology leads to empirical, inappropriate and prolonged therapy for chronic disease. PMID:15049462

Hira, Parsotam R; Francis, Issam; Abdella, Nabila A; Gupta, Renu; Ai-Ali, Faiza M; Grover, Saroj; Khalid, Nabila; Abdeen, Suad; Iqbal, Jamshaid; Wilson, Marianna; Tsang, Victor C W

2004-04-01

307

Effective production and purification of the glycosylated TSOL18 antigen, which is protective against pig cysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium metacestodes is a worldwide public health problem. Important progress in the development of effective and practical vaccines against this disease has been made. In this study, the promising T. solium oncospheral vaccine candidate named TSOL18 antigen was produced in a 5-liter fermentor. During the process of fermentation, the pH of the culture was always kept below 5.0, and in order to prevent foaming, an antifoam agent was added. In addition, the oxygen content of the culture was constantly kept at >50% in our experiment. A high level of the glycosylated protein (2.5 g/liter) was obtained, and the protein was easily purified by gel chromatography. Vaccination trials showed that the recombinant TSOL18 antigen induced 94 and 100% reductions in metacestode burdens in vaccinated pigs, obviously higher than the 89% reduction in pigs immunized with cysticercus crude extracts in trial 1. These are very promising results in the development of an efficient tool to control cysticercosis in Asia. PMID:18070907

Cai, Xuepeng; Yuan, Gailing; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Ding, Juntao; Jing, Zhizhong; Lu, Chengping

2008-02-01

308

Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Bareilly, Northern India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs slaughtered at makeshift houses in Bareilly, Northern India. Materials and Methods: Local makeshift slaughter houses were visited weekly in Bareilly to explore the prevalence of the porcine cysticercosis in this area. 175 pigs were screened for cysticercosis and prevalence was correlated to age, sex and breed of pigs. Results: A total of 175 pigs were examined for cysticercosis out of which 9 (5.14% were found positive for porcine cysticercosis. Sex-wise prevalence of this infection in male and female was recorded as 4.82% (4/83 and 5.43% (5/92, respectively. The infection was higher (5.34% in the young age group of 1-12 months as compared to the older stocks of 13-24 months of age group (4.54%. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was relatively higher in cross bred pigs (5.88%, 6/102 than in the non-descript local breed of pigs (4.11%, 3/73. Conclusion: The present study reveals that T. solium cysticerci infection is prevalent in swine population of Bareilly. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance, strict hygienic measures need to be undertaken for prevention of human infection.

B. C. Saravanan

2014-05-01

309

Conocimiento y Prácticas sobre Teniasis-cisticercosis en una Comunidad Colombiana Knowledge and practices concerning taeniasis-cysticercosis in Colombian pig-breeders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar los conocimientos y prácticas sobre teniasis-cisticercosis y la frecuencia de anticuerpos contra Taenia solium en habitantes de la localidad de Andagoya, Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio cualitativo-cuantitativo. Las poblaciones de estudio fueron los criadores de cerdos y sus familias, población local y cerdos. Resultados La población tiene un conocimiento parcial del complejo teniasis-cisticercosis. Identifica la cisticercosis como una enfermedad sólo del cerdo y no del humano, considera la teniasis como una enfermedad de transmisión fecal y no ocasionada por el consumo de carne de cerdo con cisticercosis. La crianza de cerdos no se hace en confinamiento y aunque se conocen los hábitos higiénicos para el control de enfermedades parasitarias su cumplimiento no es adecuado. La presencia de anticuerpos contra T. solium en los criadores de cerdos y sus familiares fue del 8,7 % y en los cerdos del 20,9 %. Conclusión Se debe desarrollar un programa educativo sobre teniasis-cisticercosis que permita sensibilizar a la población para el conocimiento y la aplicación de medidas de control.Objective Describing knowledge and practices regarding taeniasis-cysticercosis and cysticercosis prevalence in the village of Andagoya, Colombia. Methods The study design was qualitative and quantitative. The study population consisted of pig breeders and their families, local groups and pigs. Results Study participants had partial knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex. They considered taeniasis to be an illness resulting from faecal transmission and not caused by becoming infected with cysticercosis after consuming pork. Pig breeding is not carried out in confined conditions and, although breeders know the right measures for controlling some parasitic illnesses, these practices are not observed. There was 8.7% presence of T. solium antibodies in pig breeders and their relatives and 20.9% in the pigs. Conclusions An educational programme aimed at raising the population's awareness of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex cycle should be developed; this will facilitate control measures being applied.

Piedad Agudelo-Flórez

2009-04-01

310

[General survey of the present distribution of helminths in Iran and comparison with those of past years].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the literature on helminthiasis in Iran is reviewed and the distribution, prevalence and intensity of infections caused by helminths are discussed. A comparison of prevalence and intensity of infections was accomplished in the recent 10 years by the author. Hookworm infections are found mostly in the north along the Caspian sea, but its prevalence is declining. Trichostrongylus are found in Iran with a high prevalence in central country. Schistosoma haematobium is found in one Province in the south, but its prevalence is declining because of large scale control activities. The Guinea worm rarely occurs in Iran. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica is high among livestock and is occasionally found in man. Taenia saginata is found in most parts of Iran. Taenia solium is seldom found in animals with a prevalence of 0.03%. Trichinella spiralis is infrequently found in animals. Dioctophyma renale is found in straying dogs in the north or Iran, the percentage is 13-35%. Oxyuriasis is widespread among children. PMID:8977

Reza, R

1976-01-01

311

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the black rat (Rattus rattus) in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 612 black rats, Rattus rattus (282 mates and 330 females), for infections with helminth parasites was carried out in Abeokuta, in southwest Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety six (64.7%) were infected with one or more of seven species of helminths comprising three cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Taenia taeniaeformis (cyst) and Raillietina sp.) three nematodes (Mastophorus muris, Trichuris muris and Syphacia sp.) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis). Although the prevalence of infection in males (76.6%) was more than in females (54.5%) (P130 g (73.9%, MI=9.3). Moniliformis moniliformis was the most common species encountered (39.2%) and had the highest mean intensity in both sexes (x=7.4+/-0.74). Considering the rat-man proximity, this finding has considerable public health implications. PMID:9705679

Mafiana, C F; Osho, M B; Sam-Wobo, S

1997-09-01

312

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminthic Infestation in Pet and Stray Dogs in Tabriz (East-Azerbaijan Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From September to December 2010 fecal samples of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz area were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes infestation. Helminthic infestation was encountered in 41 cases (41% of the fecal samples examined. The egg and larvae of 3 different cestodes and 4 different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminthes eggs found were identified as Echinococcus granulosus (8%, only in stray dogs, Taenia hydatigena (5%, Dipylidium caninum (7%, Toxocara canis (12%, Ancylostoma caninum (8%, Trichuris vulpis (6%, one larvae belong to Angiostrongylus vasorum (respiratory nematod and also one case of Alaria canis (Trematoda were absorved in this study.

S. Safar Mashaei

2011-01-01

313

Sequencing, bioinformatic characterization and expression pattern of a putative amino acid transporter from the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have sequenced and partially characterized an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA, termed egat1, from a protoscolex signal sequence trap (SST) cDNA library. The isolated 1627 bp long cDNA contains an ORF of 489 amino acids and shows an amino acid identity of 30% with neutral and excitatory amino acid transporters members of the Dicarboxylate/Amino Acid Na+ and/or H+ Cation Symporter family (DAACS) (TC 2.A.23). Additional bioinformatics analysis of EgAT1, confirmed the results obtained by similarity searches and showed the presence of 9 to 10 transmembrane domains, consensus sequences for N-glycosylation between the third and fourth transmembrane domain, a highly similar hydropathy profile with ASCT1 (a known member of DAACS family), high score with SDF (Sodium Dicarboxilate Family) and similar motifs with EDTRANSPORT, a fingerprint of excitatory amino acid transporters. The localization of the putative amino acid transporter was analyzed by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence in protoscoleces and associated germinal layer. The in situ hybridization labelling indicates the distribution of egat1 mRNA throughout the tegument. EgAT1 protein, which showed in Western blots a molecular mass of approximately 60 kD, is localized in the subtegumental region of the metacestode, particularly around suckers and rostellum of protoscoleces and layers from brood capsules. The sequence and expression analyses of EgAT1 pave the way for functional analysis of amino acids transporters of E. granulosus and its evaluation as new drug targets against cystic echinococcosis. PMID:18272295

Camicia, Federico; Paredes, Rodolfo; Chalar, Cora; Galanti, Norbel; Kamenetzky, Laura; Gutierrez, Ariana; Rosenzvit, Mara C

2008-03-31

314

Diversity of the helminth community of the Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) on poultry farms in central Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the helminth community of the Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) inhabiting poultry farms in central Argentina. Winter diversity (season of high rodent abundance) has been compared to spring diversity (season of low rodent abundance). Species richness was seven in both seasons: five nematodes (Syphacia carlitosi, Stilestrongylus spp., Trichuris laevitestis, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) azarai and Protospirura numidica criceticola) and two cestodes (adults of Cyclophyllidea and Taenia taeniaeformis hepatic cysts). No difference in richness was detected between host sexes in each season or among host age classes. However, the helminth community showed 67% similarity between winter and spring, with diversity being significantly higher in spring (H = 0.873) than in winter (H = 0.546; P < 0.0005). This could be attributed to different factors, such as host abundance, host diet or environmental factors, that affect the transmission of each species differently. On the other hand, Stilestrongylus spp. and S. carlitosi showed higher dominance and intensity in both seasons compared to their cohabiting species, P. (P.) azarai and T. laevitestis, respectively. The lower values of the latter two species may be related to a crowding effect due to their large body sizes. This is the first report of cestodes in A. azarae. The finding of T. taeniaeformis strobilocerci could be important in the epidemiology of parasitosis in domestic animals of the farms. PMID:21324218

Miño, M H; Herrera, E J Rojas; Notarnicola, J; Robles, M del R; Navone, G T

2012-03-01

315

Acute intestinal obstruction due to taenia saginata infestation: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0p...

Soleimani A; Soleimani S; Hoseini K

2011-01-01

316

Exposure to Multiple Parasites Is Associated with the Prevalence of Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR?=?1.98; 95%CI: 1.52–2.58, p<0.001), Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI: 1.23–1.87, p<0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR?=?1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, p?=?0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR?=?1.70; 95%CI: 1.30–2.24, p<0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI?=?1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas. Conclusion This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated.

Kamuyu, Gathoni; Bottomley, Christian; Mageto, James; Lowe, Brett; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Odhiambo, Rachael; Wagner, Ryan G.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Masanja, Honorati; Osier, Faith H. A.; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R.

2014-01-01

317

Neurocysticercal antigens stimulate chemokine secretion from human monocytes via an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis, infection with larval Taenia solium, is a common, serious neuroparasitic infection. Larval degeneration results in inflammatory cell influx and granuloma formation which leads to clinical symptomatology. The role of chemokines in such cell influx is unknown. We demonstrate that monocyte stimulation by T. solium larval antigen (TsAg) results in a differential profile of CXCL8/IL-8 (146.5+/-8.5ng/ml after 24h), CCL2/MCP-1 (267+/-4 ng/ml after 48 h) and CCL3/MIP-1alpha (1.72+/-0.43 ng/ml after 8 h) secretion. There was coordinate mRNA accumulation reaching maximum at 1h for CCL3 and 2 h for CXCL8 and CCL2. TsAg induced maximal nuclear binding of p65, p50 and c-rel subunits of the transcriptional regulator NF-kappaB by 2 h. IkappaBalpha but not IkappaBbeta was degraded within 10 min before resynthesis by 2 h. Pre-treatment with the broad-spectrum NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate caused complete abrogation of TsAg-induced CCL2 secretion (p=0.005) and 91% reduction of CXCL8 secretion (p=0.0003). TsAg was unable to induce CXCL8 promoter activity in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 or TLR-4/MD-2 transfected HeLa cells in the absence of lectins or other adaptor molecules. In summary, our data demonstrate that TsAg induces chemokine secretion via specific pathways dependent on NF-kappaB but not TLR-4/TLR-2, and indicate a potential mechanism whereby larval degeneration results in brain inflammation. PMID:16815071

Uddin, Jasim; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; Verastegui, Manuela; Moore, Lisa J; Evans, Carlton A W; Read, Robert C; Friedland, Jon S

2006-06-01

318

Utilização do teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose Capture erytroimmunoadsorption test for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi padronizado o teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura (EIAC para detecção de anticorpos específicos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium, classe IgG, no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose. O reagente empregado para detecção de anticorpos específicos foi preparado com hemácias de carneiro em uma concentração de 0,25%, sensibilizadas com antígeno extrato salino bruto (ESB obtido do Cysticercus cellulosae. A concentração ótima de ESB para sensibilização das hemácias de carneiro foi de 40ug/ml. O rendimento do ESB foi de 0,lug proteína/cavidade. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 84,5% (limite de confiança 95% de 75% a 94%, quando aplicado a 58 amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose; e a especificidade foi de 95,3% (limite de confiança 95% de 90,7% a 99,9% quando 85 amostras de LCR do grupo controle foram analisadas. O teste EIAC foi eficiente para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose, e é importante para os laboratórios de saúde pública, tendo em vista a fácil execução, alto rendimento e baixo custo.The capture erytroimmunoadsorption (C-EIA test was standardized for detection of Taenia solium cysticercus-IgG specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with ncurocysticercosis. For the C-EIA test performance a reagent for specific antibody detection was prepared using sheep's red blood cells (SRBC in a concentration of 0.25% sensitized with crude saline extract antigen (SEA obtained from Cysticercus cellulosae. The optimum concentration of SEA for SRBC sensitization was 40ug/ml. The yield of SEA was 0.lug protein/cavity. When 58 CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis were analysed the sensitivity of the test was found to be 84.5% and the confidence limit of 95% probability (CL 95% ranged from 75% to 94%. The specificity was 95.3% (CL 95% from 90.7% to 99.9% when CSF samples from the control group were analysed. The C-EIA test was shown to be efficient for neurocysticercosis diagnosis and important for public health laboratories, because of its low cost, high reagent yield and ease of use.

Carmen Silvia de M. Pialarissi

1994-04-01

319

Utilização do teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose / Capture erytroimmunoadsorption test for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi padronizado o teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura (EIAC) para detecção de anticorpos específicos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium, classe IgG, no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com neurocisticercose. O reagente empregado para detecção de anticorpos específicos foi preparado c [...] om hemácias de carneiro em uma concentração de 0,25%, sensibilizadas com antígeno extrato salino bruto (ESB) obtido do Cysticercus cellulosae. A concentração ótima de ESB para sensibilização das hemácias de carneiro foi de 40ug/ml. O rendimento do ESB foi de 0,lug proteína/cavidade. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 84,5% (limite de confiança 95% de 75% a 94%), quando aplicado a 58 amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose; e a especificidade foi de 95,3% (limite de confiança 95% de 90,7% a 99,9%) quando 85 amostras de LCR do grupo controle foram analisadas. O teste EIAC foi eficiente para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose, e é importante para os laboratórios de saúde pública, tendo em vista a fácil execução, alto rendimento e baixo custo. Abstract in english The capture erytroimmunoadsorption (C-EIA) test was standardized for detection of Taenia solium cysticercus-IgG specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with ncurocysticercosis. For the C-EIA test performance a reagent for specific antibody detection was prepared using sheep's [...] red blood cells (SRBC) in a concentration of 0.25% sensitized with crude saline extract antigen (SEA) obtained from Cysticercus cellulosae. The optimum concentration of SEA for SRBC sensitization was 40ug/ml. The yield of SEA was 0.lug protein/cavity. When 58 CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis were analysed the sensitivity of the test was found to be 84.5% and the confidence limit of 95% probability (CL 95%) ranged from 75% to 94%. The specificity was 95.3% (CL 95% from 90.7% to 99.9%) when CSF samples from the control group were analysed. The C-EIA test was shown to be efficient for neurocysticercosis diagnosis and important for public health laboratories, because of its low cost, high reagent yield and ease of use.

Carmen Silvia de M., Pialarissi; Sandra Maria Ottati de Oliveira, Nitrini.

320

Utilização do teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose / Capture erytroimmunoadsorption test for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi padronizado o teste de eritroimunoadsorção por captura (EIAC) para detecção de anticorpos específicos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium, classe IgG, no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com neurocisticercose. O reagente empregado para detecção de anticorpos específicos foi preparado c [...] om hemácias de carneiro em uma concentração de 0,25%, sensibilizadas com antígeno extrato salino bruto (ESB) obtido do Cysticercus cellulosae. A concentração ótima de ESB para sensibilização das hemácias de carneiro foi de 40ug/ml. O rendimento do ESB foi de 0,lug proteína/cavidade. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 84,5% (limite de confiança 95% de 75% a 94%), quando aplicado a 58 amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose; e a especificidade foi de 95,3% (limite de confiança 95% de 90,7% a 99,9%) quando 85 amostras de LCR do grupo controle foram analisadas. O teste EIAC foi eficiente para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose, e é importante para os laboratórios de saúde pública, tendo em vista a fácil execução, alto rendimento e baixo custo. Abstract in english The capture erytroimmunoadsorption (C-EIA) test was standardized for detection of Taenia solium cysticercus-IgG specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with ncurocysticercosis. For the C-EIA test performance a reagent for specific antibody detection was prepared using sheep's [...] red blood cells (SRBC) in a concentration of 0.25% sensitized with crude saline extract antigen (SEA) obtained from Cysticercus cellulosae. The optimum concentration of SEA for SRBC sensitization was 40ug/ml. The yield of SEA was 0.lug protein/cavity. When 58 CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis were analysed the sensitivity of the test was found to be 84.5% and the confidence limit of 95% probability (CL 95%) ranged from 75% to 94%. The specificity was 95.3% (CL 95% from 90.7% to 99.9%) when CSF samples from the control group were analysed. The C-EIA test was shown to be efficient for neurocysticercosis diagnosis and important for public health laboratories, because of its low cost, high reagent yield and ease of use.

Carmen Silvia de M., Pialarissi; Sandra Maria Ottati de Oliveira, Nitrini.

 
 
 
 
321

Prevalence of teniasis-cysticercosis complex in a rural area of Matias Barbosa-MGPrevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural de Matias Barbosa-MG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is an important disease to the public and animal health. The man plays an important role in the life cycle, because he is the unique definitive host. The adult forms of the Taenia solium or Taenia saginata holds in gut, and the larvae forms develops in the muscle of cattle and swine, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex transmission in rural area of Matias Barbosa – MG, Brazil. Catla and swine lood and human stool samples were collected from 74 farms. Cisticercosis were eníasis were diagnosis serological methods and the teniasis by direct microscopy. Moreover, a questionnaire was applied about the sanitary conditions of the animals and people envolved, food habits and housing. This research indicated the prevalence of 0,9 % of cysticercosis bovine in the rural area of Matias Barbosa. Cases of cysticercosis swine and taeniasis were not found. Some risk factors for taeniasis-cysticercosis complex transmission in the municipality were identified and discussed. Despite the low predominance of bovine cysticercosis found in Matias Barbosa, it is necessary to maintain measures to control the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex to prevent causing increased cases of the zoonosis,considering that some risk factors favorable to their emergence were found. O complexo teníase-cisticercose é uma zoonose de grande importância para a saúde pública e animal. O ser humano desempenha importante papel sendo o único hospedeiro definitivo do parasita. Albergando no intestino as formas adultas da Taenia saginata ou da Taenia solium, cabendo à forma larvar (cisticerco o desenvolvimento na musculatura de bovinos e suínos ou do próprio homem, quando este também atua como hospedeiro intermediário. Visando obter maior conhecimento sobre esta zoonose, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o perfil epidemiológico do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Matias Barbosa, localizado na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. Para tanto, foram realizadas coletas de sangue de 350 bovinos e 81 suínos e amostras de fezes de 124 pessoas da população presente em 74 propriedades rurais. Além disso, foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico sobre as condições sócio-econômicas e sanitárias de cada propriedade. Observou-se uma prevalência de 0,9% de bovinos positivos ao teste de Immunoblot. Não houve suínos positivos, assim como também não foi diagnosticada pessoa portadora de teníase. Alguns fatores de risco de transmissão do complexo teníase-cisticercose no município foram identificados como o consumo de carne bovina e suína crua, propriedades sem saneamento básico e criação de bovinos com acesso a fontes de contaminação. Apesar da baixa prevalência da cisticercose bovina encontrada no município de Matias Barbosa, é necessária a tomada de medidas de controle do complexo teníase-cisticercose para impedir que haja aumento de casos da doença no município, tendo em vista que foram registrados fatores favoráveis à sua manutenção.

Patrícia Santana Ferreira

2012-12-01

322

Epidemiology and control of Schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in three rural villages of south Saint Lucia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of parasitic infections andthe efficacy of treatment among school children in rural villages of south Saint Lucia.Method: A total of 554 school children participated in this study. Parasitic infections were confirmedby using Kato-Katz method.Results & conclusion: Overall, 61.6% of the school children were infected by any parasitic infection.The helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (15.7%, Hookworm (11.9%, Strongyloides(9.7%, Trichuris trichiura (4.7%, Schistosoma mansoni (0.6%, Taenia solium (0.8% andEnterobius vermicularis (2.1%, Entamoeba coli (9.7%, Iodameba butschlii (5%, Entamoebahistolytica (1.1%, Giardia lamblia (1.8% and Endolimax nana (2.1%. The control interventionincluded treatment with albendazole 400 mg and praziquantel 40 mg/kg as well as awarenesscampaigns. Post-interventional assessment showed the total prevalence of intestinal parasiticinfection reduced from 61.6 to 3.6% with a cure rate of 94.2%, following the control methods.

Rajini Kurup , Gurdip S. Hunja

2010-12-01

323

Cestodiasis tisulares: participación de los linfocitos T cooperadores 1 y 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La cisticercosis y la hidatidosis son las parasitosis causadas por los metacéstodos de Taenia solium y de Echinococcus multilocularis (o E. granulosus, respectivamente. El estudio de las enfermedades parasitarias ofrece uno de los mejores modelos in vivo para el estudio de la división efectora de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T cooperadores CD4+, designadas Th1 y Th2 de acuerdo con el patrón de citocinas que producen. La polarización hacia alguno de estos fenotipos puede marcar la diferencia entre una respuesta inmune celular protectora o una respuesta inmune permisiva para la infección. La participación de los linfocitos Th1 y Th2 en las cestodiasis tisulares (cisticercosis e hidatidosis ha sido estudiada en modelos experimentales de ratón y en pacientes humanos; en ambos casos los resultados sugieren que en los individuos con cisticercosis o hidatidosis la respuesta inmune celular está polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th2. En tanto que en los individuos donde los parásitos son destruidos, o su desarrollo está limitado, la respuesta inmune celular se encuentra polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th1.

López-Moreno Héctor Samuel

2002-01-01

324

Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells ('Comet Assay') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6 deg. C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA 'Comet Assay'. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment

2003-09-07

325

[Racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina and cystic arachnoiditis. Apropos of 2 cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Central nervous system infection by the larval form of the pork tapeworm, taenia solium is a major public health problem in view of its prevalence. The high incidence of neurocysticercosis in Reunion Island has been precised by computerized tomography and Elisa test. Spinal involvement is an uncommon form of cysticercosis, occurring with a frequency of less than 1% in large series. The types of involvement that are most common are subarachnoid cysts which appear as intradural extramedullary masses and meningeal reaction with appearance of arachnoiditis at myelography. Intramedullary involvement is less frequent. Epidural and subpial masses have been reported very rarely. The authors report the two first cases of spinal cysticercosis in Reunion Island which are both extramedullary leptomeningeal forms. A radicular syndrome was present in both cases; incontinence and sacral hemihypoesthesia in one case. Myelography showed lumbosacral arachnoid cysts. Immunodiagnostic tests were positive in blood and C.S.F. in the two cases. Laminectomy was performed and the arachnoid membrane appeared opaque and thickened; the cysts were removed. Microscopically the cystic wall had a thin and curved cuticle, no scolex was found. Treatment was completed with the anti-helminthic agent Praziquantel. Full recovery was observed in one case. In the other case low back pain spread out to the lower extremities with a non radicular distribution and was associated with lumbosacral spinal fibrosis. PMID:2849066

Parker, F; Hladky, J P; Breton, J O; Mignard, C; Laporte, J P; Bousquet, C

1988-01-01

326

Automatic analysis of immunocytochemically stained tissue samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automatic colour image segmentation and cell counting software system has been developed for immunocytochemical analysis of stained tissue samples. The system was designed to count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples treated with cytokine DNA probes from pigs naturally parasitised with Taenia solium metacestodes, using in situ hybridisation. A reaction index was calculated as the ratio of the number of cells with a positive reaction to the total number of cells (positives plus negatives) for each of five different probes. The objectives of automatic counting were to improve the reproducibility of the analysis and reduce the processing time of large image batches. A fast KNN classifier was used for colour segmentation. Watershed segmentation combined with edge detection was used to isolate individual cells that were then automatically labelled, using the results of the corresponding colour segmented image. Validation was performed on 122 non-training digital images with a total of 1069 positive cells and 1459 negative cells, with the following results: a mean true positive rate of 90.2% for positive cells and a mean true positive rate of 85.4% for negative cells. The corresponding mean false positive rates were 9.6% and 6.6%. The mean reaction index error of the automatic analysis was 5.35%. The processing of each digital image took 10 s on a Pentium IV PC. PMID:16411641

Arámbula Cosío, F; Márquez Flores, J A; Padilla Castañeda, M A; Solano, S; Tato, P

2005-09-01

327

Comparative selenoproteome analysis reveals a reduced utilization of selenium in parasitic platyhelminthes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. The selenocysteine(Sec)-containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present in all three kingdoms of life. Although the selenoproteomes of many organisms have been analyzed, systematic studies on selenoproteins in platyhelminthes are still lacking. Moreover, comparison of selenoproteomes between free-living and parasitic animals is rarely studied. Results. In this study, three representative organisms (Schmidtea mediterranea, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia solium) were selected for comparative analysis of selenoproteomes in Platyhelminthes. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein prediction algorithm, a total of 37 selenoprotein genes were identified in these organisms. The size of selenoproteomes and selenoprotein families were found to be associated with different lifestyles: free-living organisms have larger selenoproteome whereas parasitic lifestyle corresponds to reduced selenoproteomes. Five selenoproteins, SelT, Sel15, GPx, SPS2 and TR, were found to be present in all examined platyhelminthes as well as almost all sequenced animals, suggesting their essential role in metazoans. Finally, a new splicing form of SelW that lacked the first exon was found to be present in S. japonicum. Conclusions. Our data provide a first glance into the selenoproteomes of organisms in the phylum Platyhelminthes and may help understand function and evolutionary dynamics of selenium utilization in diversified metazoans.

Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Hua-Zhang; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Ni, Jia-Zuan

2013-01-01

328

Neurocisticercosis en pediatría  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cisticercosis: enfermedad parasitaria que afecta en México al 3% de la población. Se considera que hay más de 50 millones de infectados en el mundo, endémica en México, Centro y Sudamérica, Africa, Asia e India. Considerada la enfermedad infecciosa neurológica más importante mundialmente por sus manifestaciones clínicas. El agente causal en cerdos y humanos es el cisticerco de la Taenia solium, que puede alojarse en músculo, cerebro y ventrículos. Si se ingiere carne de cerdo contaminada con cisticercos, se adquiere la solitaria, que vive en los intestinos del ser humano y genera miles de huevecillos que se excretan por la materia fecal. Al ingerir alimentos contaminados con materia fecal por el humano y el cerdo, se adquiere la cisticercosis que compromete distintas partes del organismo, especialmente el SNC. El ser humano es el único hospedero de la solitaria y el cerdo es intermediario, por lo que la prevalencia de la teniasis-cisticercosis depende de este vínculo. Se diagnostica en zonas endémicas por la presencia de crisis convulsivas, cefalea, síntomas neurológicos focales, trastornos de visión, hipertensión endocraneal y tomografía cerebral con zonas hipodensas o quiste con un anillo hiperdenso. El tratamiento con antiparasitarios es controversial en pediatría, se sugiere administrarse en la fase quística no calcificada y en casos de epilepsia asociada. Pocos son los casos que ameritan tratamiento quirúrgico por hidrocefalia o por cisticerco intraventricular, que es muy raro.

Jorge Malagón Valdez

2009-01-01

329

[Pediatric neurocysticercosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis: parasitic disease which affects 3% of the population in Mexico. It is considered that there are more than 50 million infected people in the world, endemic in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and India. It is considered the most important neurological infectious disease world-wide for its clinical manifestations. The causal agent in pigs and humans is the cysticercus of the Taenia solium, that can lodge in muscle, brain and ventricles. If pork meat contaminated with cysticercus is eaten, the tapeworm will live in the human intestine and create thousands of eggs that are excreted by the feces. When food contaminated with fecal matter is consumed by man or pig, the cisticercosis is disseminated in several parts of the organism, specially CNS. Man is the only host of the tapeworm and the pig is the only intermediary, reason why the prevalence of the teniasis-cisticercosis depends on this bond. It is diagnosed in endemic zones by the presence of convulsion crises, focal migraine, neurological symptoms, disorders of vision, endocraneal hypertension and CT scan with hypodense zones or cysts with a hyperdense ring. The antiparasitic treatment in children is controversial among pediatricians; it is suggested to use it only in the non calcified cystic phase and in cases associated with epilepsy. Few are the cases of hydrocephalic or intraventricular cysticercus that need surgical treatment. PMID:19240009

Malagón Valdez, Jorge

2009-01-01

330

[Bruns' syndrome: description of a case of neurocysticercosis with pathological study].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bruns' syndrome is characterized by sudden and strong headache, accompanied by vomiting, acuphenos and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head and can produce deep coma and death. This can be due to neurocysticercosis by cyst in the fourth ventricle, which contains the larval stage of Taenia solium. In the last years, new cases of this parasitosis are being seen in Spain because of the immigration from endemic areas, but the clinical forms of this infestation are not varied. We present a 44 year old man Ecuadorian who has clinical symptoms consistent with Bruns' syndrome secondary to cyst in the fourth ventricle that progressed badly despite undergoing surgery with ventriculoperitoneal shunt and treatment with albendazol. Finally, he was operated with the excision of the lesion by means of suboccipital craniectomy. We conclude that this syndrome must rule out a cystic or non-cystic, intraventricular lesion and that the appropriate manipulation of the cysticerotic ventricular cysts carries a more favourable prognosis. PMID:15726476

Jiménez Caballero, P E; Mollejo Villanueva, M; Marsal Alonso, C; Alvarez Tejerina, A

2005-03-01

331

Old focus of cysticercosis in a senegalese village revisited after half a century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this epidemiological study was to determine whether cysticercosis and especially neurocysticercosis is endemic in Soutou village about half a century after the 1962 outbreak. This study was carried out from September 2009 to February 2010. It involved a questionnaire administration, serology, treatment, coproscopy and neuro-imaging. Four hundred and three serum samples were collected from the village people, which covered 94% of the village population. By using a parallel combination of the antigen-detection ELISA and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) a cysticercosis seroprevalence of 11.9% (95% CI: 8.9-15.4%) was found. Cerebral CT-scans showed that 23.3% (10/43) of the seropositives were affected by neurocysticercosis. Four out of these 43 (9.3%) were tapeworm carriers. Seropositivity was significantly associated to older age groups (41-60 years old; p=0.001 and 61-91 years old; p=0.028) and absence of a household toilet (p=0.001). It can be concluded that Soutou village is an active focus of Taenia solium cysticercosis about 50 years after the first reported epidemic outbreak. PMID:21605539

Secka, Arss; Grimm, Felix; Marcotty, Tanguy; Geysen, Dirk; Niang, Alassane M; Ngale, Victoire; Boutche, Laurent; Van Marck, Eric; Geerts, Stanny

2011-08-01

332

Human neurocysticercosis: comparison of different diagnostic tests using cerebrospinal fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnosis due to their limited specificity and sensitivity. This study was performed to compare immunodiagnostic assays (antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting [EITB] and HP10 antigen detection by ELISA) with the detection of parasite DNA by PCR amplification of a repetitive element of the parasite genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 radiologically and clinically characterized NC patients. Patients were divided into six groups according to the stage of the parasites and their localization. The CSF cellularity of each patient was also recorded. When all patients were considered, PCR exhibited the highest sensitivity (95.9%) and variable specificity (80% or 100%) depending on the controls used. The sensitivities of antibody detection by ELISA and EITB were not significantly different, and ELISA identified HP10 antigen mostly when vesicular cysticerci were located in the subarachnoideal basal cisterns. These results can help in the selection of different individual assays or combinations of assays to be used in NC diagnosis according to different requirements. PMID:21068283

Michelet, Lorraine; Fleury, Agnès; Sciutto, Edda; Kendjo, Eric; Fragoso, Gladis; Paris, Luc; Bouteille, Bernard

2011-01-01

333

Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using synthetic 8-kD proteins: comparison of assay formats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assay of choice for serological detection of cysticercosis in humans and pigs is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB), a Western blot assay that relies on the use of seven lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) derived from Taenia solium metacestodes. The EITB is has a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 100% in detecting cysticercosis, yet scarcity of native source material and the labor-intensive process of metacestode purification hinder its practicality. These limitations have necessitated the reproduction of the EITB antigens in synthetic forms. Four chemically synthesized LLGP antigens, TS14, TS18var1, TSRS1, and TSRS2var1, were assayed individually by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot for immunoreactivity against a large cohort of sera from clinically defined neurocysticercosis patients. The sensitivity and specificity of all four of these antigens using the ELISA format were well below the standards set by the LLGP EITB, whereas results of the Western blot format closely mirrored those of the LLGP EITB. PMID:16222024

Scheel, Christina M; Khan, Azra; Hancock, Kathy; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

2005-10-01

334

Human Neurocysticercosis: Comparison of Different Diagnostic Tests Using Cerebrospinal Fluid ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnosis due to their limited specificity and sensitivity. This study was performed to compare immunodiagnostic assays (antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting [EITB] and HP10 antigen detection by ELISA) with the detection of parasite DNA by PCR amplification of a repetitive element of the parasite genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 radiologically and clinically characterized NC patients. Patients were divided into six groups according to the stage of the parasites and their localization. The CSF cellularity of each patient was also recorded. When all patients were considered, PCR exhibited the highest sensitivity (95.9%) and variable specificity (80% or 100%) depending on the controls used. The sensitivities of antibody detection by ELISA and EITB were not significantly different, and ELISA identified HP10 antigen mostly when vesicular cysticerci were located in the subarachnoideal basal cisterns. These results can help in the selection of different individual assays or combinations of assays to be used in NC diagnosis according to different requirements.

Michelet, Lorraine; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Kendjo, Eric; Fragoso, Gladis; Paris, Luc; Bouteille, Bernard

2011-01-01

335

Case-control study of seropositivity for cysticercosis in Cuenca, Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of neurocysticercosis has been well documented in rural communities in Latin America using the enzyme-linked inmmunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. We studied the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in an urban, upper-middle class population in Cuenca, Ecuador. Family members of 34 index cases with parenchymal neurocysticercosis on a computed tomography (CT) scan and family members of 14 patients who had normal CT scans after a trauma or migraine were enrolled in the study. Serum was obtained from 226 individuals, 173 (72%) from the case families and 67 (28%) from the control families. Twelve percent of the case family members and 4% of the control family members were seropositive by the EITB assay. This was a statistically significant difference (P EITB assay. Eighteen percent of family members with a positive EITB test result had parenchymal lesions on a subsequent CT scan. This study demonstrates a high rate of seropositivity of cysticercosis among urban, middle to upper-middle class individuals in a region endemic for Taenia solium. Household contacts of patients with neurocysticercosis had a three-fold higher risk of positive serology for cysticercosis, in comparison with controls. PMID:9988326

Goodman, K A; Ballagh, S A; Carpio, A

1999-01-01

336

[A case of cysticercosis with multiple lesions in the brain and femoral muscles].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 37-year-old Nepalese man was admitted to Showa University Hospital because of a loss of consciousness and seizures. He had lived in Nepal, Qatar, Singapore, and India before the age of 34 years. He had no history of having eaten raw pork. His physical findings were normal excluding an abnormal visual field, and a positive serum antibody test result for Taenia solium, CT and MRI examinations showed multiple nodular lesions in his brain and thigh. We resected a cyst from his left thigh and diagnosed him as having cysticercosis based on the presence of characteristic hooklets and suckers on a pathological examination. Later, the Asian type of Cysticercus cellulosa was identified using a mitochondrial DNA test. Albendazole (800 mg/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/day) were administered for 14 days. All cysticercus were smaller on Day7 and had almost disappeared on Day 14. No adverse effects from the treatment occurred. Cysticercosis is rare in Japan, and cases requiring treatment for a large number of cysticercus in the brain and thigh are rare. We report a case of neurocysticercosis that had a good clinical course. PMID:24195171

Shoji, Hisashi; Hirai, Takahito; Shirakura, Tetsuro; Takuma, Takahiro; Okino, Tetsuya; Wakatsuki, Yasushi; Okino, Teruhiko; Niki, Yoshihito

2013-09-01

337

Neurocysticercosis: an update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taeniosis and cysticercosis, diseases caused by the parasitic tapeworm Taenia solium, are distributed worldwide where pigs are eaten and sanitation is poor, and also in the more developed countries as a result of increasing migration. Neurocysticercosis is the commonest parasitic disease of the human nervous system. Immunological assays detect positivity for human cysticercosis in 8-12% of people in some endemic regions, which indicates the presence of antibodies against the parasite but not necessarily active or central-nervous-system infection. The only reliable tool for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is imaging by CT or MRI. The presence of viable cysts with a mural nodule, associated with degenerative cysts and calcifications, is typical. Classification of neurocysticercosis into active, transitional, and inactive forms gives a good clinical-imaging correlation and facilitates medical and surgical treatment. The main clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are seizures, headache, and focal neurological deficits, and it can have such sequelae as epilepsy, hydrocephalus, and dementia. Treatment should be individually fitted for each patient, with antiepileptic drugs, analgesics, corticosteroids, or a combination of these. Anthelmintic drugs (praziquantel and albendazole) are used routinely, but so far no controlled clinical trial has established specific indications or definitive doses of treatment. Parenchymal forms of neurocysticercosis have a good prognosis in terms of clinical remission. The most effective approach to taeniosis and cysticercosis is prevention, which should be a primary public-health focus for less developed countries. PMID:12467692

Carpio, Arturo

2002-12-01

338

Crystallization of the Membrane-Associated Annexin B1: Roles of Additive Screen, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Bioactivity Assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annexin B1 (AnxB1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein from Taenia solium cysticercus and has been reported to possess anticoagulant activity, to inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and to regulate membrane transport. Native AnxB1 and its selenomethionyl derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The results of dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Hepes buffer combined with low concentration salts (NaCl or CaCl{sub 2}) was beneficial for preventing aggregation and for AnxB1 stabilization in the storage. After the additive screen, crystals have been yielded in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (Gn-HCl). We determined that a low concentration of Gn-HCl significantly delayed clotting time and increased anticoagulant activity. Analysis of the crystal showed that in the presence of Gn-HCl, AnxB1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group, which is modified from the cubic space group for crystals grown in the absence of Gn-HCl. A high quality data set (at 1.9 {angstrom}) has been collected successfully for crystals of L-selenomethionine labeled protein in the presence of Gn-HCl, to solve the structure with the single anomalous dispersion method (SAD). The unit cell parameters are a = 102.35 {angstrom}, b = 103.59 {angstrom}, c = 114.60 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90.00{sup o}.

Ding, F.; Xu, Y; Azzi, A; Zhu, D; Rehse, D; Chen, C; Sun, S; Lin, S

2010-01-01

339

Routine drug and food interactions during antihelminthic treatment of neurocysticercosis: a reason for the variable efficacy of albendazole and praziquantel?  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NC) or infection of the central nervous system with Taenia solium larvae is a leading cause of preventable seizures and epilepsy in endemic regions across the globe. Albendazole and praziquantel are commonly used antihelminthic agents to treat NC; however, viable cysts persist in the majority of patients, putting them at risk for future seizures and other neurological complications. Because of their pharmacokinetic profiles, albendazole and praziquantel have the potential to interact with many different drugs. During antihelminthic treatment, antiepileptic drugs and corticosteroids are commonly co-administered to manage seizures and cerebral edema; however, the most commonly used agents from these drug classes are known to significantly alter plasma concentrations of albendazole and praziquantel. The overarching issue with drug interactions during the treatment of NC is whether or not they have clinical relevance, as the plasma concentrations of albendazole and praziquantel have not been directly linked with eradication of viable cysts. Future studies should attempt to evaluate the validity of a causal relationship between antihelminthic plasma concentrations and outcomes so that drug interactions can be better understood and managed and so that treatment can be optimized. PMID:24443292

Romo, Matthew L; Carpio, Arturo; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

2014-04-01

340

[Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), at least 6 virus species (HPV, EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, HTLV-1, HBV, HCV), 4 helminthes species (Schistosoma haematobium and japonicum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis) and I bacterium species (Helicobacter pylori) have been proved to be capable of causing the development of cancer. The analysis of the data available shows that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), monkey virus 40 (SV40), cytomegalovirus (CMV), xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), Helicobacter bilis and hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Fusobacterium varium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Prevotella spp., Streptococcus bovis and anginosus, Treponema denticola, Salmonella typhi, paratyphi and typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, trachomatis and psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Propionibacterium acnes, Tropheryma whippelii, Schistosoma mansoni, Opistorchis felineus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Candida spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichomonas vaginalis can also be potential etiological agents of cancer. Apparently, detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of the development of cancer will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylaxis measures, early diagnostic methods and, probably, methods of treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:23163048

Kutikhin, A G; Yuzhalin, A E; Brusina, E B; Briko, N I

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms - commonly referred to as biomarkers - to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 ?g/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. PMID:23770459

Frank, Sabrina N; Godehardt, Saskia; Nachev, Milen; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

2013-09-01

342

Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms – commonly referred to as biomarkers – to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 ?g/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. -- Highlights: •We show how parasites and pollutant affect biomarkers. •Metallothioneins were not influenced by parasites. •Heat shock proteins are modulated by parasites. •Biomarker levels of organisms are dependent on infection status. •Infection with parasites has to be considered in ecotoxicology. -- Parasites are capable of affecting host physiology and therefore modulate biomarker responses

2013-09-01

343

Cestodes Diphyllobothriidea parasitizing blackfin goosefish, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915 Cestoides Diphyllobothriidea parasitos de peixe sapo-pescador, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Entre os meses de março de 2000 e dezembro de 2005, 87 espécimes de L. gastrophysus foram obtidos de supermercados e empresas de exportação localizadas nos municipios de Cabo Frio, Niteroi, Duque de Caxias e Rio de Janeiro. Os peixes foram necropsiados, filetados e seus órgãos investigados para presença de helmintos. Dois espécimes (2,3%) estavam parasitados por plerocecoides de Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 na cavidade abdominal e serosa do intestino, com in...

Knoff, M.; Sa?o Clemente, S. C.; Fonseca, M. C. G.; Felizardo, N. N.; Pinto, R. M.; Gomes, D. C.

2011-01-01

344

Cestodes Diphyllobothriidea parasitizing blackfin goosefish, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915 Cestoides Diphyllobothriidea parasitos de peixe sapo-pescador, Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Entre os meses de março de 2000 e dezembro de 2005, 87 espécimes de L. gastrophysus foram obtidos de supermercados e empresas de exportação localizadas nos municipios de Cabo Frio, Niteroi, Duque de Caxias e Rio de Janeiro. Os peixes foram necropsiados, filetados e seus órgãos investigados para presença de helmintos. Dois espécimes (2,3% estavam parasitados por plerocecoides de Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 na cavidade abdominal e serosa do intestino, com intensidade média de um parasito por peixe e abundância média de 0,02, mostrando baixo potencial infectivo. Este é o primeiro registro de plerocercoides de Diphyllobothrium sp. no peixe sapo-pescador.

M. Knoff

2011-08-01

345

Co-infections of the cestode Echinococcus vogeli and the nematode Calodium hepaticum in the hystricomorphic rodent Agouti paca from a forest reserve in Acre, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The helminth fauna of Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766) has seldom been studied. In this paper, we report an unusual mixed infection of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch & Bernstein, 1972 and Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1863) in free-ranging paca from a forested region in Acre (Brazil). Gross morphological examination revealed that paca liver contained multiple spherical to subspherical white or translucent lesions, which were isolated or frequently contiguous and partially covered by Glisson's capsule. Microscopic examination revealed unilocular cystic structures that contained abundant brood capsules in which numerous protoscolices budded from the inner surface. The protoscolices possessed rostellar hooks (33-41 ?m in length), a morphological characteristic of the blade and calcareous corpuscles that is consistent with the metacestode E. vogeli. The diagnosis of C. hepaticum infection was based on the morphology and morphometry of the egg-shaped ellipsoids with bipolar plugs (44.8 ± 1.9 ?m (length) × 24.4 ± 2.0 ?m (width)) and liver histopathology. This finding expands the known range of C. hepaticum hosts in South America and, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a mixed infection of E. vogeli and C. hepaticum. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that wild animal meat may be a source of C. hepaticum infection. PMID:23072769

Almeida, F; Caldas, R; Corrêa, C; Rodrigues-Silva, R; Siqueira, N; Machado-Silva, J R

2013-12-01

346

Genetic diversity in the trypanorhynch cestode Tentacularia coryphaenae Bosc, 1797: evidence for a cosmopolitan distribution and low host specificity in the teleost intermediate host.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial large subunit (28S) rRNA gene (LSU) sequences were studied from Tentacularia coryphaenae (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) plerocercoids from the southern Java coast, Indonesia, collected from two different localities and five different host species. The teleost hosts belonged to four fish families with an overlapping depth range of 0-885 m. The LSU sequences were identical, demonstrating that all specimens belonged to the same species. They also corresponded to a sequence of T. coryphaenae from the Blue shark Prionace glauca in the North Atlantic, giving genetic evidence for the cosmopolitan distribution of the species. A 1,851 bp region of mitochondrial (mt) DNA (coding for partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), complete trnT and partial 16S ribosomal RNA) showed a very low level of intra-specific variation of 1%. Pairwise comparisons of published sequences for partial LSU rDNA and the same region of mtDNA demonstrated that the same regions varied by 8% in the mtDNA for two genotypes (G1 and G4) of Echinococcus granulosus (order Cyclophyllidea), at 16% in newly sequenced Kotorella pronosoma from the same trypanorhynch family and at 23% in Grillotia pristiophori from a different superfamily. The high genetic homogeneity in T. coryphaenae is explained by a constant gene flow between different regions and hosts along the Indonesian coast caused by extensive migrations of the second intermediate/paratenic and also the final hosts. Implications for the zoogeographical distribution, host specificity of the species and future research are discussed. PMID:17216487

Palm, Harry W; Waeschenbach, A; Littlewood, D T J

2007-06-01

347

A survey on endoparasites and ectoparasites of stray cats from Mashhad (Iran) and association with risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

As there appeared to be no data available on parasite infection of stray cats in the region and considering the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health, the present study was carried out using biological samples and necropsy finding collected from cats captured in Mashhad city in the northeast of Iran. From a total 52 stray cats examined, 18 (34.6%) were male and 34 (65.4%) were female. Ten species of endoparasites including helminthes and protozoa and two species of ectoparasites were detected in the examined cats. There were two protozoa, five cestodes, three nematodes and two arthropods. Overall 46 cats (88.46%) have been infected with at least one of the parasites. The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were found; Nematoda: Toxocara cati 28.84%, Toxocara leonina 7.69%, Physaloptera praeputialis 3.84%; Cestoda: Dipylidium caninum 23.08%, Mesocestoides lineatus 13.46%, Taenia taeniaformis 9.6%, Joyeuxiella echinorhyncoides 7.6% and Taenia hydatigena 1.92%; Protozoa: I. felis 23.7%, Haemobartonella felis 1.92%; Arthropoda: Ctenocephalides felis 1.92% and Cheyletiella blakei 1.92%. Based on our data, there was no significant difference in infection rate between male and female animals. However, the age of the cats were found to be an important risk factor associated with parasitic infection. Our results revealed that zoonotic agents, namely T. cati were present in stray cat colonies in the investigated area. In this respect, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods. PMID:23024505

Borji, Hassan; Razmi, Gholamreza; Ahmadi, Amin; Karami, Hamidreza; Yaghfoori, Saeed; Abedi, Vali

2011-10-01

348

Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Trinta e cinco amostras de helmintos coletadas de Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lilljeborg, 1873 (3) e de uma outra espécie de coelho, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Thomas, 1901 (32), de agosto de 1909 a fevereiro de 1948 e que estão depositadas na Coleção Helmintológica do Insti [...] tuto Oswaldo Cruz, foram analisadas. As amostras estudadas estão representadas pelo cisticerco do cestóide Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) e pelos nematóides Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819), Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915), Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800). O objetivo da presente investigação é o de inventariar os parasitos que infectam estes hospedeiros, comumente utilizados como modelos de animais de laboratório na pesquisa científica e fornecer dados figurativos sobre os helmintos a fim de facilitar sua identificação, uma vez que, cargas parasitárias autóctones, caso não detectadas ou erroneamente avaliadas, podem alterar o resultado final de protocolos experimentais, principalmente dos relacionados a ensaios imunológicos, quando infecções cruzadas podem ocorrer. Abstract in english Helminth samples (n = 35) recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lilljeborg, 1873 (3) and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Thomas, 1901 (32), from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo [...] Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819), Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915), Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800). The scope of the present investigation is to survey the parasites infecting these hosts, commonly used as laboratory animal models in scientific research and supply figurative data on the helminths in order to provide their easy identification, since the presence of autochthonous parasite burdens, if undetected or misinterpreted, can alter the final results of experimental assays, mainly those related to immunological approaches, when cross-reactions can occur.

Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Gomes, Cláudia Torres; Noronha, Dely.

349

Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Helminth samples (n = 35 recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. The scope of the present investigation is to survey the parasites infecting these hosts, commonly used as laboratory animal models in scientific research and supply figurative data on the helminths in order to provide their easy identification, since the presence of autochthonous parasite burdens, if undetected or misinterpreted, can alter the final results of experimental assays, mainly those related to immunological approaches, when cross-reactions can occur.Trinta e cinco amostras de helmintos coletadas de Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 e de uma outra espécie de coelho, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, de agosto de 1909 a fevereiro de 1948 e que estão depositadas na Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, foram analisadas. As amostras estudadas estão representadas pelo cisticerco do cestóide Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 e pelos nematóides Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. O objetivo da presente investigação é o de inventariar os parasitos que infectam estes hospedeiros, comumente utilizados como modelos de animais de laboratório na pesquisa científica e fornecer dados figurativos sobre os helmintos a fim de facilitar sua identificação, uma vez que, cargas parasitárias autóctones, caso não detectadas ou erroneamente avaliadas, podem alterar o resultado final de protocolos experimentais, principalmente dos relacionados a ensaios imunológicos, quando infecções cruzadas podem ocorrer.

Roberto Magalhães Pinto

2004-09-01

350

Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania. PMID:21996514

Bružinskait?-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šark?nas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

2012-01-01

351

Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 / Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O primeiro levantamento sobre cisticercose humana e identificação dos fatores de risco associados à transmissão, foram realizados em Lages, SC. MÉTODOS: Oitocentos e setenta e sete voluntários de regiões periurbana e rural foram entrevistados e forneceram informações demográficas e condi [...] ções sanitárias e de saúde. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por meio de punção digital em papel filtro entre agosto 2004 e maio 2005. Verificou-se que 850 amostras estavam adequadas para análise. No ELISA, utilizou-se o antígeno heterólogo liquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps. Para assegurar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ELISA, foram pareadas 77 amostras de soro e sangue eluido do papel filtro. A confirmação do diagnóstico sorológico foi feita por immunoblot (IB) com glicoproteínas purificadas de Taenia crassiceps. RESULTADOS: A reatividade de IgG eluída de sangue em papel filtro mostrou-se compatível com a dos soros correspondentes. A triagem por ELISA de 850 indivíduos revelou 186 (21,9%) positivos. De 213 pessoas convidadas a colher soro para IB (186 ELISA positivo e 27 com amostras de sangue total inadequadas), compareceram 130. O IB foi positivo em 29 (3,4%) de 850 amostras. Houve correlação significativa entre IB positivo e a prática de criação de suínos e de horta caseira (p = 0,0364). CONCLUSÕES: ELISA com sangue total em papel filtro mostrou-se adequado para inquéritos populacionais para cisticercose. A transmissão da cisticercose humana na área estudada mostrou correlação com criação suína domestica e horta caseira. A prevalência obtida foi semelhante à relatada em áreas endêmicas da América Latina. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878) from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health inf [...] ormation. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB) test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9%) out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples) and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4%) out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364) was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.

Ishida, Maria Márcia Imenes; Almeida, Marília Sirianni dos Santos; Espíndola, Noeli Maria; Iha, Alberto; Pereira, Diana Ana; Souza, Jean Gabriel de; Varvakis, Theopi Rados; Vaz, Adelaide José.

352

Helminth fauna of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 from the suburban area of Belgrade, Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The helminth fauna of the house mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 was studied on the basis of 429 host individuals from the suburban area of Belgrade. Eleven helminth species were recorded: three cestode species - Catenotaenia pusilla, Rodentolepis fraterna, and Cysticercus (= Strobilocercus fasciolaris [larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1821]; and eight nematode species - Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia sp., Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Trichuris muris, Mastophorus muris, and Gongylonema sp. Within the general helminth fauna, H. polygyrus was found to be the most prevalent species (39.2% and caused the highest infection intensity. Prevalences of A. tetraptera, C. pusilla, and S. obvelata ranged from 12.8% to 6.1%, while the remaining species showed prevalences ranging from 4.9% (for Syphacia sp. to 0.2% (for Gongylonema sp.. All the species found in males were also present in females, with the exceptions of M. muris and Gongylonema sp. No significant differences were found between males and females regarding prevalence (P%, mean infection intensity (MI, or mean abundance (MA.

Kataranovski D.S.

2008-01-01

353

Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys Opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran.Methods: During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tap­peh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites.Results: Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8% were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae 37.7%, Skrjabinotae­nia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%.Conclusion: R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nema­tode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.

B Kamranrashani

2013-03-01

354

Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (Pendoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

Cantó, Germinal J; Guerrero, Roberto I; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

2013-01-01

355

[Parasitological analysis of the untreated wastewater of the "Ville Haute" urban emissary (Mâamora district, Kenitra, Morocco)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic wastewaters of the city of Kenitra (North-East of Morocco) are rejected without preliminary processing by six emissaries into the Sebou river, the Atlantic Ocean and the Fouarate lake. The present study is based on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wastewater parasites load of the "Ville Haute" urban district of Maamora (Kenitra, Morocco). Untreated wastewater samples taken at the exit of the urban emissary are pretreated and analysed by the modified Bailenger method at the parasitological and hydrobiological laboratory of the Sciences Faculty of Kenitra (Ibn Tofail University). For diagnostic confirmation purposes, other complementary analysis were made at the parasitological laboratory of the National Institute of Hygiene (Rabat) The results obtained pointed to the existence of the helminths parasites eggs of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Taenia spp and Fasciola hepatica species with respective concentrations of 3 eggs/L, 17 eggs/L, 7 eggs/L, 2 eggs/L, 1 eggs/L and 1 egg/L. The mean concentration is about 31 eggs/L of untreated wastewater. Furthermore, on the samples examined, the percentages of positives tests is 86% for nematodes, 10% for cestodes, and 4% for trematodes. At the end of this preliminary study we insist on the very high level of parasitic helminths transported by untreated wastewater and we recommend that those wastewater be processed before there are recycled in the Sebou river. PMID:15047445

Zamo, Annie-Claude Nsom; Belghyti, Driss; Lyagoubi, Mohammed; Elkharrim, Khadija

2003-01-01

356

Influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720

Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

1990-04-01

357

DIVERSITY AND DIMENSIONS OF NEMATODE OVA: A TOOL IN WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nematode ova were enumerated and dimensions were measured in raw and treated wastewater from two (2 Haya Water sewage treatment plants situated in Muscat, the capital city. A total of 100 wastewater samples of 5 liter volume per sample were collected from Darsait (DST and Al Ansab (ANS Sewage Treatment Plants (STP from 30 March-08 April 2011 at 4 hour interval from 6:00 am -10:00 pm on a daily basis. The US EPA modified method, double flotation technique using Sodium Nitrate was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the parasitic ova, whereas, DP2-BSW software was applied for length/width measurement of the ova. Seven genera under Phylum Nematoda were found in the samples namely: Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria, Enterobius, Ancyclostoma (hookworm, Toxocara, and Strongyloides. Apparently, two types of cestode eggs under Phylum Platyhelminthes were also noted: Taenia and Hymenolepis. Size measurements were compared to publish dimensions. The study establishes the diversity, counts, and dimensions of the nematode ova content of the domestic wastewater in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. As primary generated information, the profile will be useful in wastewater management and skill enhancement of the laboratory personnel.

ANGELITA RIVERA

2012-03-01

358

Monocyte-astrocyte networks and the regulation of chemokine secretion in neurocysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with larval Taenia solium, is a major cause of epilepsy worldwide. Larval degeneration, which is symptomatic, results in inflammatory cell influx. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type and major cytokine-producing cell within the CNS, may be important in orchestrating inflammatory responses after larval degeneration. We investigated the effects of direct stimulation and of conditioned medium from T. solium larval Ag (TsAg)-stimulated monocytes (CoMTsAg) on neutrophil and astrocyte chemokine release. CoMTsAg, but not control conditioned medium, stimulated astrocyte CCL2/MCP-1 (161.5 +/- 16 ng/ml), CXCL8/IL-8 (416 +/- 6.2 ng/ml), and CXCL10/IFN-gamma-inducible protein (9.07 +/- 0.6 ng/ml) secretion after 24 h, whereas direct astrocyte or neutrophil stimulation with TsAg had no effect. There was rapid accumulation of CCL2 and CXCL8 mRNA within 1 h, with somewhat delayed expression of CXCL10 mRNA initially detected 8 h poststimulation. Neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha inhibited CoMTsAg-induced CCL2 mRNA accumulation by up to 99%, causing total abolition of CXCL10 and up to 77% reduction in CXCL8 mRNA. CoMTsAg induced maximal nuclear binding of NF-kappaB p65 and p50 by 1 h, with IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta decay within 15 min. In addition, CoMTsAg induced transient nuclear binding of AP-1, which peaked 4 h poststimulation. In NF-kappaB blocking experiments using pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, CoMTsAg-induced CCL2 secretion was reduced by up to 80% (p = 0.0006), whereas CXCL8 was inhibited by up to 75% (p = 0.0003). In summary, the data show that astrocytes are an important source of chemokines following larval Ag stimulation. Such chemokine secretion is NF-kappaB dependent, likely to involve AP-1, and is regulated in a paracrine loop by monocyte-derived TNF-alpha. PMID:16116219

Uddin, Jasim; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Friedland, Jon S

2005-09-01

359

Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En est [...] e estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal); Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine the prevalence of intestinal infections by protozoan and helminthes and their relationship with sex, living place, and age group, in native schoolchildren from the Alto Marañon area in the Amazon jungle, Bagua province, Amazonas department, Peru. Materials and Methods: In th [...] is observational, cross-sectional study, representative schools from the region were selected, and stool samples from 1049 schoolchildren with ages from 6 to 15 year old were examined between October 2001 and October 2002, using direct microscopy with saline solution and lugol, as well as Teleman?s and Kinnyoun?s techniques. Results: The prevalence of intestinal protozoan and helminthes infections was as follows: Entamoeba coli, 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis, 28,4%; Endolimax nana, 23,9%; Iodameoba butschlii, 32,9%; Giardia lamblia, 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp., 10,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus, 0,7%; and Fasciola hepatica, 0,2% (which are not intestinal parasites, but living in lungs and biliary tract, respectively, and pass through feces); Ancylostoma/Necator, 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura, 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 3,6%; Hymenolepis nana, 3,5%;Taenia solium/saginata, 0,2%; Strongyloides stercolaris, 0,8%; and H. diminuta, 0,2%. Conclusions: Ancylostoma/ Necator and A. lumbricoides are most prevalent in young people in Mesones Muro and Nazaret areas, and this is the very first time that Paragonimus infection is reported in the northern jungle of Peru.

Ibáñez H, Nicanor; Jara C, César; Guerra M, Antenor; Díaz L, Enrique.

360

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT in Neurocysticercosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC is a parasitic infectious disease caused by Taenia solium eggs that set in the brain. Its incidence is increasing both in the developing and the developed world, as a result of low economical and hygiene levels and immigration, respectively. Clinical manifestation of disease varies from no symptoms to epilepsy, increased intra-cranial pressure, arachnoiditis and dementia. In order to evaluate function (perfusion of affected brains, we studied 40 patients (21 females and 19 males, 19-71 yo by means of SPECT (ECD, ethyl cysteinate dimer, labelled with 99mTc and with and without contrast CT. SPECT studies were all abnormal. No difference was noted between active and inactive disease. Two SPECT patterns were noted:a several areas of focally reduced uptake, resulting from coalescent and big lesions and large destruction of brain tissue (small, isolated and symmetric cysts seen in CT were missed by SPECT;b diffuse atrophy with reduction of the tracer uptake, associated with ventricle dilatation, corresponding to the cases where ventricular NC was important.Interestingly, we noted diffuse hypoperfusion, with the scintigraphic pattern of atrophy in 5 cases of massive parenchymal infection; in such cases, CT signs of atrophy were clearly less prominent. The first scintigraphic aspect can be explained by the destruction of large areas of brain, which produces focal absence of perfusion; generalised vasculitis and the destruction of large portions of brain tissue could explain the difference noted between the SPECT and the CT aspects in the 5 cases of massive parenchimal infection, and this may be interesting for prognosis. Dilatation of ventricles and Sylvian fissures were interestingly prominent in SPECT. SPECT may be of great value to evaluate brain perfusion in NC.

Braga, Francisco José H. N.

2002-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Irradiation to control Vibrio infection from consumption of raw seafood and fresh produce. Results of a co-ordinated research project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vibrio spp. comprises an important group of pathogenic bacteria in food that often causes human illness and even death when the contaminated food is consumed raw or improperly cooked. The most dangerous member of this group, the El Tor strain of V. cholerae, was responsible for the cholera pandemic which started in Peru in 1991 and spread to nearby countries, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases and thousands of deaths. Recognizing the role of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of food, the Pan American Health Organization of the World Health Organization and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture jointly sponsored a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation as a Public Health Intervention Measure to Control Foodborne Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean, to assess the efficacy of this technology for food protection. The CRP was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 1998. The results of this CRP demonstrated that irradiation is effective for ensuring the microbiological safety of food naturally contaminated by Vibrio spp. This process offers unique benefits for decontamination of seafood, often contaminated with this group of aquatic bacteria at the source, and fresh vegetables that may be contaminated during production and handling, especially when these products are consumed raw or not thoroughly cooked. Because of the sensitivity of this group of bacteria to radiation, the dose required to ensure microbiological safety of food against them is not more than 1 kGy. The CRP also generated data on the effectiveness of irradiation to control infection by pork tapeworm (Taenia solium metacestode). However, the results of these studies were not conclusive enough for publication. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Havana, Cuba, 16-20 November 1998

2001-01-01

362

Healthy pigs for healthy people. A cysticercosis advocacy information tool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Saarnak, C., M. V. Johansen, H. Mejer, C. Trevisan, and U. C. Braae Porcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis implicates significant economic losses, both in pig production and its impact on human health causing severe headaches and seizures. Cysticercosis control strategies in developing countries have been limited by a lack of available intervention tools and poor socioeconomic and sanitary conditions. Consequently, the intervention strategies to prevent and control cysticercosis must be on health education engaging the communities and creating public awareness. Enhancing basic conditions such as hygiene has an important effect on reducing the risk of transmission. In addition some very simple but effective changes in peopleâ??s day-to-day practices such as use of latrines and keeping pigs in pens would stop the life cycle of the disease and considerably reduce the risk of cysticercosis transmission. The need for political will and resources are basic requirements in order to control not only cysticercosis but also other endemic zoonotic diseases. ICONZ and ADVANZ are two One Health neglected zoonotic diseases projects, funded by the European Commission through its 7th framework program. Part of University of Copenhagenâ??s tasks in these projects is to develop an improved advocacy tool for teaching about cysticercosis, including information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans, its impact on peopleâ??s livelihood, and possible control and intervention strategies The advocacy tool will be developed as a USB flash drive, with information targeted at three levels: knowledge relevant to the laymen in the villages, information for supporting practitioners; MDâ??s in health centres, veterinary and agricultural extension officers and pig traders. Furthermore there will be a policy brief aimed at the key decision makers at ministry level.

Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

363

Laboratory diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis: double-blind comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis is a common disease in underdeveloped countries. Its diagnosis is based on clinical, imaging (tomography or magnetic resonance), epidemiological, and laboratory data. Several methods based on the detection of antibodies against cysticerci in cerebrospinal fluid or serum have been tested. Among them, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the use of a crude parasite antigen has been used by the laboratory network of cysticercosis in Mexico, which has given support to clinicians for up to 7 years. A Taenia solium-specific glycoprotein-based electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) assay was reported to be highly sensitive and specific for this purpose. In order to compare both techniques, we studied 100 neurocysticercosis patients and 70 neurological noncysticercosis controls and searched for specific antibodies in paired samples of serum and cerebrospinal fluid using both techniques. We found that the EITB assay is more sensitive than the ELISA, especially when serum is being tested. Both techniques are more sensitive in cases with multiple living cysts than in cases with single cysts or calcified lesions. No global differences among cases with parasites located in different parts of the central nervous system were found. In the patients with cysts within the parenchyma, the sensitivity of the EITB assay was higher with serum than with cerebrospinal fluid. The immunodominant bands were found to be the same as those previously reported, i.e., GP-39 to -42, GP-24, and GP-13. Based on these results, we suggest the use of the EITB assay in routine diagnosis of cysticercosis for clinical cases. PMID:12037074

Proaño-Narvaez, J V; Meza-Lucas, Antonio; Mata-Ruiz, Olga; García-Jerónimo, Roberto Carlos; Correa, Dolores

2002-06-01

364

[The current epidemiological situation of cysticercosis in Madagascar].  

Science.gov (United States)

Being associated to fecal-oral transmission, cysticercosis is contracted either by auto-infection or by ingestion of food contaminated with eggs from the pork tape worm (Taenia solium). In the stomach, the larvae named cysticercus (Cysticercus cellulosae) hatches from the eggs and invades the host through the mucosa membrane. Human cysticercosis occurs in highly prevalent proportions in many developing countries including Madagascar where hygiene conditions are deplicable. Serology tests applicable to epidemiological surveillance of cysticercosis and associated pathology in the Malagasy population have been developed: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for screening purpose, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) for confirmative testing. Two specific bands (13 and 14 kDa) have been identified as significant markers of the cysticercus in an active (vesicle) stage of the infection when cestocidal treatment is strongly indicated. The same bands may on the other hand be absent at early (cyste) as well as late (calcified) stages of the infection. Series of studies, including 4,375 serum samples, have been undertaken from 1994 until 1999 aiming at determinating the cysticercosis sero-prevalence in different provinces of Madagascar. It was confirmed that cysticercosis is highly frequent on the island, and that there exists a marked variation in the prevalence from 7 to 21% between the different provinces: less than 10% in coastal regions (Mahajanga and Toamasina) increasing to 20% in central regions (Ihosy, Ambositra and Mahasolo). It has also been observed that cysticercosis may occur in individuals at any age, and that it is equally distributed in urban as in rural areas. However, it is more frequently detected in women than in men. Madagascar is an endemic country for cysticercosis, which causes major and severe disease with implications in the public health sector. A national control program is, therefore, urgently warranted. PMID:15678816

Andriantsimahavandy, A; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Rajaonarison, P; Ravoniarimbinina, P; Rakotondrazaka, M; Raharilaza, N; Rakotoarivelo, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Rabarijaona, L P; Ramarokoto, C E; Leutscher, P; Migliani, R

2003-01-01

365

Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent advances in neuroimaging and immune diagnostic methods have enhanced its accuracy for the diagnosis of NCC. PMID:23265554

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2012-09-01

366

From seizures to epilepsy and its substrates: neurocysticercosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the main risk factor for late-onset seizures in many Taenia solium endemic countries and is also increasingly recognized in high income countries, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. The course and outcome of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are poorly understood. Substrates underlying NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are unknown. Another unknown is if there is an association between NCC and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and if it leads to intractable epilepsy. We review evidence regarding the structural basis of seizures and epilepsy in NCC and its association with HS. There are only a limited number of prospective studies of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy. From these, it can be inferred that the risk of seizure recurrence is high following a first seizure, even though seizures are well-controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The single most important risk factor for ongoing or recurrent seizures is the persistence of either degenerating or residual calcified cysticercus cysts in the brain parenchyma on follow-up imaging studies. Medically intractable epilepsy requiring surgical treatment appears to be rare in people with NCC. In few cases that have been operated, gliosis around the cysticerci is the principal pathologic finding. Reports of the association between NCC and HS might be categorized into those in which the calcified cysticercus is located within the hippocampus and those in which the calcified cysticercus is located remote from the hippocampus. The former are convincing cases of medically intractable epilepsy with good seizure control following hippocampal resection. In the remaining, it is unclear whether a dual pathology relationship exists between HS and the calcified cysticercus. Carefully planned, follow-up studies incorporating high-resolution and quantitative imaging are desirable in order to clarify the outcome, the structural basis of NCC-associated epilepsy, and also its association with HS. PMID:23621876

Singh, Gagandeep; Burneo, Jorge G; Sander, Josemir W

2013-05-01

367

The Vicious Worm - a cysticercosis advocacy information tool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Porcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis implicates significant economic losses, both in pig production and its impact on human health causing severe headaches and seizures. Cysticercosis control strategies in developing countries have been limited by a lack of available intervention tools and poor socioeconomic and sanitary conditions. Consequently, the intervention strategies to prevent and control cysticercosis must be on health education engaging the communities and creating public awareness. Enhancing basic conditions such as hygiene has an important effect on reducing the risk of transmission. In addition some very simple but effective changes in peopleâ??s day-to-day practices such as use of latrines and keeping pigs in pens would stop the life cycle of the disease and considerably reduce the risk of cysticercosis transmission. The need for political will and resources are basic requirements in order to control not only cysticercosis but also other endemic zoonotic diseases. ICONZ and ADVANZ are two One Health neglected zoonotic diseases projects, funded by the European Commission through its 7th framework program. Part of University of Copenhagenâ??s tasks in these projects is to develop an improved advocacy tool for teaching about cysticercosis, including information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans, its impact on peopleâ??s livelihood, and possible control and intervention strategies. The advocacy tool will be developed as a USB flash drive, with information targeted at three levels: knowledge relevant to the laymen in the villages, information for supporting practitioners; MDâ??s in health centres, veterinary and agricultural extension officers and pig traders. Furthermore there will be a policy brief aimed at the key decision makers at ministry level.

Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara

368

Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%, H. spumosum (29.8% and H. nana (28.4%. Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site and intrinsic (species, sex and age factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans, and these showed high prevalences in the rats, the assessment and regular monitoring of infections carried by wild rodents have important roles to play in public health.

Mohd Zain Siti N

2012-03-01

369

Gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in Kashan, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the role of parasites in contamination of human beings and domestic animals and lack of information in the region, the present study was performed to investigate the infection status of helminthes and protozoa of stray cats in central Iran. A cross - sectional study was conducted on 113 stray cats trapped from different geographic regions of Kashan during four seasons and were necropsied. Different organs including: kidney, heart, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity were inspected for helminthes and protozoa infection. Animal's characters including: genus, weight, and season, location, microscopic and macroscopic findings were recorded in a special form. Data were classified and statistically analyzed with a confidence interval of 95%. Chi- Squire Test was used to show the relationship between different factors and parasitic infection. From a total 113 stray cats examined, 67(59.3%) were male and 46(40.7%) were female. Fifteen species of endoparasite including helminthes and protozoa were detected in intestine and fecal sample of the examined cats. There were six protozoa, five cestodes and four nematodes. All endoparasite were localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall 108 cats (95.6%) have been infected with at least one of the endoparasites. Prevalences of parasites found were Nematodea: Toxocara cati 13.3%, Physaloptera preputialis 39.8%, Rictularia 52.2% and Uncinaria stenocephala 1.8%; Cestodea: Mesocestoides lineatus 7.1%, Taenia taeniaformis 15%, Diplopylidium nolleri 64.6%, Dipylidium caninum 68.1% and Joyeuxiella echinorhyncoides 85%; Sporozoea: Isospora rivolta 5.3%, Isospora felis 5.3%, Sarcocystis spp 8%, Blastocystis spp 16.8% and Zoomastigophorea: Giardia felis 0.9% and Trichomonas spp 1.8%. Contamination rate for zoonotic parasites of cat was greater than expected in Kashan region. In this respect, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods. PMID:19696723

Mohsen, A; Hossein, H

2009-04-01

370

Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui among humans and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study confirmed the prevalence of the intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) among people and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 559 riparian people (229 males and 330 females), residing in 4 Districts (Luang Prabang, Xieng Ngeun, Pak Ou, and Nam Bak) and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 64.9%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 15.2%. For recovery of adult helminths, 10 STE-positive people were treated with 40mg/kg praziquantel and 15mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 3 Haplorchis species (H. taichui, H. pumilio, and H. yokogawai), a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms were found. The worm load for trematodes was exclusively high for H. taichui with an average of 7691 specimens per infected person, followed by H. yokogawai (8.3 specimens) and H. pumilio (4.1 specimens). Out of 207 freshwater fish (17 species) purchased in a market in Luang Prabang District, 138 (67%) harboured H. taichui metacercariae (metacercarial burden per fish; 520). Lower prevalence of fish and lower metacercarial density were observed for H. yokogawai (52% and 50 per fish, respectively) and H. pumilio (18% and 3 per fish, respectively). STE found in the surveyed population of Luang Prabang Province were verified to be those of intestinal fukes, particularly H. taichui. PMID:24754919

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-08-01

371

Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600 male and female pigs of different age categories were randomly selected and examined for PC using lingual examination method and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The overall pig level PC prevalence in Mbozi district was 11.7% (95% CI=8.5-15.8%) and 32% (95% CI: 27-37.5%) based on lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbeya Rural district, the prevalences were 6% (95% CI: 3.8-9.3%) and 30.7% (95% CI: 25.8-36.1%) by lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbozi district 46% of the households were found infected (one or more infected pigs) and the corresponding figure was 45% for Mbeya Rural district. The agreement between lingual examination and Ag-ELISA was poor (κ<0.40). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of PC in different sex categories of pigs. Significant risk factors associated with PC prevalence were free roaming of pigs (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.6; p=0.006), past experience of porcine cysticercosis in the household (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.5-4.8; p=0.002), increased age of pig (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-3.0), slatted raised floor in pig pen (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.0-70.0), in-house origin of the pig (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1-2.5) and sourcing of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p<0.001) and ponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which imposes a major economical and public health burden to the smallholder pig farmers. The study also points to a number of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium.

Komba, Erick V. G.; Kimbi, Eliakunda C.

2013-01-01

372

Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600 male and female pigs of different age categories were randomly selected and examined for PC using lingual examination method and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The overall pig level PC prevalence in Mbozi district was 11.7% (95% CI=8.5-15.8%) and 32% (95% CI: 27-37.5%) based on lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbeya Rural district, the prevalences were 6% (95% CI: 3.8-9.3%) and 30.7% (95% CI: 25.8-36.1%) by lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbozi district 46% of the households were found infected (one or more infected pigs) and the corresponding figure was 45% for Mbeya Rural district. The agreement between lingual examination and Ag-ELISA was poor (?<0.40). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of PC in different sex categories of pigs. Significant risk factors associated with PC prevalence were free roaming of pigs (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.6; p=0.006), past experience of porcine cysticercosis in the household (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.5-4.8; p=0.002), increased age of pig (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-3.0), slatted raised floor in pig pen (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.0-70.0), in-house origin of the pig (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1-2.5) and sourcing of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p<0.001) and ponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which imposes a major economical and public health burden to the smallholder pig farmers. The study also points to a number of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium. PMID:24139481

Komba, Erick V G; Kimbi, Eliakunda C; Ngowi, Helena A; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mlangwa, James E; Lekule, Faustin P; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Willingham, Arve Lee; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig M

2013-12-01

373

Neurocysticercosis: relationship between the developmental stage of metacestode present and the titre of specific IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

In double-blind, immunological assays, samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 141 patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC) or other neurological disorders were tested for IgG reacting with the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of Taenia solium metacestodes. The results for the cases of NCC were then correlated with the developmental stage of the metacestodes present in each case, as assessed by computerized tomography and magnetic-resonance imaging. In the ELISA first used, the samples of CSF from most (88%) of the patients with the vesicular stage of NCC (some of whom also had the degenerate and/or calcified metacestodes) were found to contain the specific IgG. In electro-immunotransfer blot (EITB) assays, three of the E/S antigens, of 95, 49 and 29 kDA, were recognized by 86%-100% of the ELISA-positive CSF. When these three antigens were isolated and tested, as a pool, against all the CSF samples in double-blind ELISA, almost all (96.6%) of the CSF samples from patients with metacestodes at the vesicular stage were recognized. In the detection of individuals with vesicular metacestodes, the assay based on the three isolated antigens was significantly more sensitive than that based on the crude extract of E/S antigens (P EITB assays based on the three antigens, the isolated proteins were again recognized by IgG in the CSF samples from those with vesicular metacestodes, but without the background 'noise' seen with the crude extract. In every assay employed, none of the CSF samples from NCC cases who only harboured degenerative and/or calcified metacestodes and none of those from patients who had other neurological disorders gave a positive result. The use in ELISA and EIT