This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.
Globalization processes have a growing effect on the development of individual countries and the world economy, with the Central Asian states, among others, being drawn into their orbit. The advantages of globalization are realized precisely at the integration and regional levels. That is why it is so important today to implement the initiative launched by President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan for creating a Central Asian Common Market (CACM). The idea is that this market should include Kazak...
Abras, Ana; Hoyos, Alejandro; Narayan, Ambar; Tiwari, Sailesh
This paper attempts to quantify the degree of inequality of opportunity in labor market outcomes for a selection of countries in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. We adapt the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) methodology that has been widely used to study opportunities of children to measures of inequality in the labor market for working age adults, using data from the Life in Transition Surveys (LiTS) conducted in 2006. We decompose the observed inequalities into components that are att...
This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)
Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt
As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. PMID:23866036
It turned out to be much harder to create new power structures in Central Asia than elsewhere in the post-socialist world: no matter how hard it was for the Central European countries to acquire new political institutions, their advance toward the Western democratic model was much smoother. In the European part of the post-Soviet geopolitical expanse, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova experienced fewer problems than the Central Asian region (CAR for short), though they too had their share of contr...
The “golden peaches” of Samarkand in the days of Sogdian trade As a cultural area Central Asia was recognized at a late stage, since its emergence as a geographical reality was very slow. The term Central Asia was coined in around 1825, simultaneously in Russia and in France, by the diplomat Georges de Meyendorff and by Julius Klaproth, respectively. It soon gained currency, along with its variant Middle Asia, sometimes preferred in Russia. Reading this nineteenth-century geographic literat...
Mico Loretan; Philip Wooldridge
The depth and breadth of money markets in Asia have improved significantly over the past decade, yet many are still characterised by segmentation and a low degree of cross-border integration. Admittedly, the underdevelopment of Asia’s money markets worked to the region’s advantage during the recent turmoil by insulating it to some degree from the shocks that disrupted more developed money markets. Nonetheless, the turmoil provides authorities and market participants in Asia with an opportunit...
Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.
An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers
Das Dilip K.
The principal thesis of this paper is growth and development of the debt securities markets in Asia, which resulted in financial deepening. In the post-Asian financial crisis period development of Asian currency dominated long-term bond markets was given a high priority. Conception and launch of the ABMI initiative proved to be exceedingly meaningful in this regard. Additionally, with an objective to develop well-capitalized regional bond markets, the EMEAP group of central banks launched the...
The European Union, one of the world’s most successful integration projects, is inevitably analyzed by every expert who probes deep into the international trends of our time. The union of 27 countries, with a population of about 480 million who produce about 28% of the world’s GDP, has certain interests in Central Asia even though the EU’s geopolitical status has not yet been fully developed. The EU wants to see stable and democratic regimes with market economies in Central Asia that are guid...
facilities in the region. Large integrated international nuclear vendors such as Rosatom or Areva could also provide nuclear power plants on more attractive terms in order to secure uranium export rights. An additional advantage the Central Asian nations have in the nuclear arena is the existence of the spent fuel storage site now operating at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. If the functions of this site could be expanded to include spent fuel storage from nuclear power plants located in Kazakhstan, and eventually from other regional states, this will increase the attractiveness of nuclear energy within Central Asia and the world at large. The likely future introduction of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities into the Central Asia region should be conducted under strict nonproliferation ground rules to enable international collaboration and to maintain the good nonproliferation credentials of the regional countries. This topic will be further reviewed in this paper under the nuclear facility selection criteria discussion. In terms of what the international reactor vendors could offer the Central Asian countries, we have to consider two distinct types of nuclear power plants: The large base load plants now offered on the world markets are of a 1,100 - 1,300 MWe class size, a size that is too large (in the near terms) for most Central Asian countries, except for a few sites in Kazakhstan. A better match for the requirements of the Central Asian countries could be the Small and Medium sized reactors (SMRs) now actively being developed particularly in the U.S. These types of reactors might be ready for commercialization by the end of this decade. SMRs come in unit sizes of 200 MWe or less. Several such plants will have to be installed at each site over time to meet the growing demand per site. In the near term, it seems that the 600 MWe class nuclear plants would best fit the current demand requirements of the Central Asian countries. Such reactor types were developed by
Shahid Ullah; Dino Bindi; Marco Pilz; Laurentiu Danciu; Graeme Weatherill; Elisa Zuccolo; Anatoly Ischuk; Natalya N. Mikhailova; Kanat Abdrakhmatov; Stefano Parolai
Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999), aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probabili...
In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig
Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina
The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293
The Central Asian republics are rich in energy resources: three of them (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) can boast of oil and gas deposits, while the other two (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have vast hydropower potential. This means that harmonized energy policy designed to meet their demands in energy, energy exports, and stronger positions in ensuring international energy security makes sense. By the same token, these countries can, potentially, develop metallurgy, machine building,...
Hartman, William B.
This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...
This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…
Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.
In the months leading up to, and the first few years after, the Soviet Union collapsed numerous articles and books were published that claimed Islamic "fundamentalism" was likely to emerge in Central Asia. These fears were predicated on numerous scenarios, the most important being the ongoing political and military crisis in Afghanistan and Iranian attempts to increase its influence in the region. I will argue, however, that these concerns were premature and that the real threat to the stabil...
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was an increase in the number of cases of human echinococcosis recorded throughout central Asia. Between 1991 and 2001 incidence rates of cystic echinococcosis (CE) increased by 4 fold or more. There also appeared to be increases in prevalence of CE in livestock and prevalences of Echinococcus granulosus reported in dogs. The increase in human echinococcosis was associated with changes in livestock husbandry, decline in veterinary publ...
This article attempts a double task. First, it looks at the main premises of Halford J. Mackinder's analysis in his renowned 1904 address to the Royal Geographical Society, The Geographical Pivot of History, and discusses some of the problems. It observes that these problems have actually rendered the whole Heartland thesis a fallacy from its very inception, and argues that this resilient fallacy continues to distort perceptions and policies in/on Central Asia. Second, it draws attention to t...
The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs
Bill Merrilees; Kim Shyan Fam
The paper outlines the main developments in services marketing in Asia over the last decade. Altogether our review of leading marketing journals resulted in 150 pertinent
literature on services marketing in Asia. The period covered was between 1990 and 1999. A total of six themes are unveiled. Also included in this stocktake are the indicative directions that services marketing in Asia might take and some suggestions for future directions.
Among natural gas producing nations, there has been some concern about how the Asia Pacific will meet future demand for energy. We argue that natural gas, both regional and global, will play a vital role. Estimates of potential gas consumption in the region are analyzed and used to develop consensus projections to 2030. These consumption profiles are compared with gas supply estimates including indigenous, pipeline and LNG for the Asia Pacific market. From this analytical framework, we find that demand will be sufficiently large to accommodate supplies from diverse sources including North America, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia, and the Asia Pacific itself. An important policy implication is that gas producing and consuming nations should benefit from promoting gas trade and not be concerned about a situation of potential lack of demand coupled with oversupply. - Highlights: • Estimates of gas consumption in the Asia Pacific (AP) in 2030 are presented. • Compared with supply estimates for AP including indigenous, pipeline, and LNG. • Find that demand in AP large enough to accommodate supply from all regions. • Nations should promote gas trade policy and not be overly concerned about oversupply
Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo
Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.
The issues of natural gas market development and pricing are reviewed within the context of specific Asian countries where gas plays an important role. Within Southeast Asia, Malaysia's Penninsular Gas Utilization project signals a new era in pipeline gas trade with an agreement to supply Singapore. There is now also an opportunity to extend Malaysian pipeline supplies to Thailand, which is actively seeking natural gas from neighboring countries. The prospects for LNG are dominated by the high growth markets of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. LNG trade has tended to bind the region together through close economic ties. Due to the increasing damand within the supplier countries themselves and their close neighbors, it is likely that LNG consumers will increasingly need to look beyond their traditional Southeast Asian suppliers in the future, perhaps to higher cost LNG schemes outside the region. In Southeast Asia, reduction of the high volumes of associated gas currently flared from the Bombay High Field in India will not only make big contribution to meeting the country's future gas demand, but will also prove environmentally beneficial. Pakistan, in order to control its developing gas markets, has raised gas prices to consumers substantially, with beneficial effects on supply and demand. In Bangladesh, economic pricing has been important in allocating gas resources efficiently. At both the regional and global level, the link between gas use and the environment is becoming stronger, raising the question of relating gas and energy prices to environmental costs and benefits
How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)
The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs
To penetrate and maintain peaceful development of the Central Asian region is a consistent goal of the United States for its international interests. With the 9/11 event as the baseline, since 2001 America's awareness of the strategic importance of Central Asia and the latter's weight in U.S. global strategy has been greatly changed. According to Charles Manes, the 9/11 terrorist attack enabled the U.S. to "discover Central Asia. As a result of this discovery the United States effectively gai...
Andrew Filardo; James Yetman
Central bank balance sheets in emerging Asia expanded rapidly over the past decade because of the unprecedented rise in foreign reserve assets. The corresponding expansion of the central banks' liabilities has created dangers - risks of inflation and financial instability and financial market distortions - that require attention.
Nawal K. Paswan
Central Asia is becoming an increasingly attractive destination for foreign direct investment (FDI). Although a first wave of foreign investments targeted Central and Eastern Europe in the early 1990s, followed by a second one to South-east Europe in the early 2000s, FDI is now moving even further eastward towards Central Asia. The Central Asian countries are all relatively small landlocked economies and need to promote trade and investment which enable them to closely integrate into the inte...
Uranium ore is a naturally occurring radioactive material which is often regarded as something separate to NORM due to its place at the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium mining and processing was a significant industry in the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union broke up in 1989 these countries gained their independence but the uranium mining industry now had to try and survive in a new economic environment. In Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan this proved too great a challenge. Production stopped and sites were simply abandoned with little or no attention paid to remediation. Skilled personnel departed and both physical and regulatory infrastructure decayed. Consequently, the legacies of the former times remained throughout Central Asia to become an issue of considerable concern to many. The sites were generally uncontrolled and the NORM residues from the mining and processing were a source of environmental contamination which also threatened public health in a number of ways. In recent years there has been considerable activity by a number of international agencies and Governments working towards solutions for these issues. Much of the effort has been undertaken by the IAEA and this paper describes the original situation, the development of remediation strategies and the various remediation related projects, their outcomes to date, and plans for the future in both the political and scientific arenas. (author)
Venkatachalam ANBUMOZHI; Alex BOWEN; Puthusserikunnel Devasia JOSE
Market-based instruments such as Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are increasingly favoured as an alternative to command-and-control legislation to increase the uptake of renewable energy. Focusing on the renewable energy industry and policy situation in Asia, this paper analysed the strengths and weaknesses of market-based approaches in the long-term interest of developing Asia. It found that approaches such as REC are disadvantaged by a lack of both market acceptance and a strong institut...
Established industrial marketing theories were found to be inadequate to explain the marketing behaviour of European Transnational Corporations in Less Industrialized Countries in Southeast Asia. An institutional approach based on transaction costs was developed instead. The developed transaction cost model for industrial marketing is presented in this paper. It is based on a marketing economics approach that is contrasted to two other major approaches to industrial marketing theory: the micr...
Grafe, Clemens; Raiser, Martin; Sakatsume, Toshiaki
This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of FSU countries has focused on the quantities traded, we use relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. We find that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought. While prices vary significantly across the region, variations within one country are just as large as ...
Clemens Grafe; Martin Raiser; Toshiaki Sakatsume
This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of former Soviet Union countries has focussed on the quantities traded, this paper uses relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. It finds that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought. While prices vary significantly across the region, variations within one co...
This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP
Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)
Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian
Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with
Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building more inclusive, democratic pol...
An overview is given of market opportunities in Asia-Pacific, focusing on the Japanese market, with regard to Clean Development Mechanism projects and carbon emissions trading and the role of Mitsubishi UJF Securities.
Tugce Varol Sevim
Full Text Available TANAP natural gas which was initiated by Azerbaijan’s SOCAR and Turkey's BOTAŞ has altered the dynamics and strategies in the region. TANAP project not only formed new competition picture from Nabucco versus South Stream to TANAP versus South Stream but also triggered the competition between Russia and Central Asia in terms of pipeline strategies. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are landlocked countries in the east Caspian region and Azerbaijan is the only post-Soviet state that had succeeded to reach world markets by non-Russian routes. In this sense if TANAP would establish until 2018-2019, it would have an impact as in the case of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline which was considered as the “Contract of the Century” in the 1990s. In this paper, it is aimed to analyze how TANAP will affect upon Russian foreign energy policy strategy upon Central Asian states and Azerbaijan as well as emphasizing on the risks and opportunities of the project.
This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.
Rigg, Robert; Schou-Zibell, Lotte
Asian money markets entered the financial crisis in better shape than markets in other regions due to a substantial build-up of savings and liquidity in their banking systems, as well as a greater domestic focus in most of the region’s markets. However, despite the higher liquidity and lower levels of global integration, the effects of the crisis in Asia were severe and followed a similar path observed in international markets. The further development of money markets, particularly in less de...
Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano
Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.
"The EU under the German Presidency published its first strategy paper on Central Asia in June 2007. The document addresses a wide array of issues ranging from democracy and human rights to trade, energy cooperation, migration and inter-cultural dialogue. While Central Asia has been largely overlooked by the EU in the past, the new policy signals that the EU is no longer content to be left behind while other global powers become increasingly involved in the region. The EU will undoubtedly be ...
This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy
Al-Sati, Saud M.
The nineteenth century rivalry between the Russian Empire and Great Britain over Central Asia, known as the "great game," was triggered by the quest for power and dominance. This study revisits Sir Halford Mackinder's thesis, which viewed the "heartland," consisting of Russia and Central Asia, as being crucial for international politics. It also discusses the influence of Mackinder's ideas on twentieth century geopolitical thinking. The study also examines the common assumption that the new "great game" in Central Asia is evolving around the exploitation of energy resources, and analyzes the consequences of this new factor for the geopolitical significance of the region. The landlocked nature of the Central Asian countries makes it necessary for them to rely on their neighbors for the export of oil and gas to international markets. Thus, the political and economic interests of Russia, Iran, and Turkey motivate them to compete with each other for export routes through their territories. This study also shows that the estimates of Central Asian proven oil reserves are characterized by considerable ambiguity. Estimates vary from seven to twenty-two billion barrels. Despite the fact that these proven oil reserves are limited compared to those of other regions, such as the Middle East, continued exploration is compatible with the Western strategy of energy resource diversification. Another primary aim of American involvement is to prevent the reintegration of Central Asia into the Russian federation and to block Chinese influence in Central Asia. This study reveals that realities in today's Central Asia are different from those of the nineteenth century. Central Asia now consists of independent countries; the competing powers have changed, with the exception of Russia; and oil has emerged as a new factor. However, the perpetual quest for power and dominance that marked the historical "great game" is still at work in the last decade of the twentieth century. Finally, the
Lücke, Matthias; Rothert, Jacek
This paper outlines a strategy for identifying the pattern of Central Asia’s comparative advantage in international trade, based on factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade. The paper focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, along with Azerbaijan and Mongolia. A country’s comparative advantage cannot be determined at the level of individual industries o...
Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)
Zhukov, Stanislav; Reznikova, Oksana
This article looks at the current state of and prospects for development of the energy sector in the post-Soviet countries of Central Asia and Azerbaijan and gives forecasts of the possibilities of implementing long-term energy projects in these regions.
Roč. 58, 11-12 (2008), s. 525-553. ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy * Central Asia * dollarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1147_str_525_553_-_isakova.pdf
Asia and the Pacific is not only a major tourism destination region but also an increasingly important tourism outbound market. This study, a collaborative project between Tourism Australia (TA) and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), aims to provide an up-to-date perspective of the major tourism trends in five key South-East Asian outbound markets: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The report includes a regional overview in terms of tourism and travel patterns, a deta...
It goes without saying that American geopolitics and geostrategy are of a genuinely global nature and affect practically every region and every country. And Central Asia is no exception in this respect. America's influence there is of a multi-factoral and multi-level nature in every aspect-the political, military-strategic, economic, and ideological. From the very first days of independence, the Central Asian countries have been aware of America's influence (and pressure) in essentially every...
Laumulin, Murat; Malik, Augan
Throughout the two decades of independent development of the Central Asian states, world political science has formulated its own specific approaches to the region and acquired certain conceptions. Elaborated by the members of different schools and, particularly, of diverse political affiliations, the methods, ideas, and approaches, likewise, differ widely. From the very beginning, everything written about Central Asia abroad was stamped with ideological and geopolitical approaches, which mea...
Rapid private sector credit growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia has been a result of strong economic growth, financial deepening, and banks’ willingness to explore consumer credit markets. Economic growth, the initial ratio of private sector credit to GDP, price volatility, and nonoil exports are found to be significant explanatory variables, while oil exports and spillovers from oil exporting neighbors were not found to have any significance. The credit growth has finan...
The tension in the Central Asian Region, particularly in its southern part, which includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran, largely affects the rest of this vast area and forces the United States and its allies to seek prompt settlement of the crisis they have on their hands. The situation in occupied Iraq is tense; the Turkish invasion into Iraqi Kurdistan in search of terrorists of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party did nothing to relieve the tension; the conflict area spread even further. Two ot...
Robert Franciscus Janz
Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu
| generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient and...
Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.
Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water
This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)
This study aims to analyze and determine the effect of relationship marketing and service experience (experiential marketing) to increase customer satisfaction for credit card users Bank Central Asia Company Main Branch Office of Medan. The population in this study are all customers who have a credit card or clients who are actively using credit cards at Bank Central Asia Company Main Branch Office of Medan. The sampling technique using the Supramono formula, selected as 100 customers with ce...
Natalya N. Mikhailova
Full Text Available In this work, we present the seismic catalogue compiled for Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. The catalogue from 2000 B.C. to 2009 A.D. is composed by 33,034 earthquakes in the MLH magnitude (magnitude by surface waves on horizontal components widely used in practice of the former USSR countries range from 1.5 to 8.3. The catalogue includes both macroseimic and instrumental constrained data, with about 32,793 earthquake after 1900 A.D. The main sources and procedure used to compile the catalogues are discussed, and the comparison with the ISC-GEM catalogue presented. Magnitude of completeness analysis shows that the catalogue is complete down to magnitude 4 from 1959 and to magnitude 7 from 1873, whereas the obtained regional b value is 0.805.
Based on NOAA/AVHRR NDVI biweekly time-series data, the start and end of the growing season of Central Asia from 1982 to 2006 were estimated. Trend analysis results indicate an earlier green-up and a later dormancy over the entire area during the study period. For seven main vegetation types, the largest advance of greenup onset (0.597 days/year) occurs in cropland and the longest delay of dormancy (1.109 days/year) in open shrubland. The smallest advance (0.164 days/year) occurs in evergreen needleleaf forest and delay (0.443 days/year) in crop/natural vegetation mosaic. These results imply enhanced vegetation activity in the Central Asia region over last decades
The uranium mining and milling operations of the former Soviet Union undertaken in Central Asia have left a significant series of legacy sites that area major cause of public concern. The paper describes the current situation and how various agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency, are working with each other and the Governments of the States involved towards the alleviation of the problems caused by these sites. (author)
Infrastructure in the Eastern Neighbours and Central Asia (ENCA) lags behind other regions in terms of the quality of service provision and this is a potentially important constraint on the achievement of higher economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the recent developments in infrastructure finance drawing together data from national sources, international institutions and project databases. With a total investment in infrastructure over the last decade of over 2.5% of GDP ...
Following the Soviet Union's demise, the situation in Central Asia changed radically: it has become an object of attention of various regional and global geopolitical players. This region, which is rich in natural resources (primarily gold, oil, and gas) and which used to be off-limits for the leading geopolitical players with strategic interests in this key area, has now opened up and become an attractive playground for these various strategic forces. The United States, in its desire to cons...
The economies of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) are facing complex challenges. In the eastern part of the region the task of governments is to orchestrate a coordinated crisis response. The collapse of oil revenues and the associated decline in remittances triggered a chain reaction of shocks. Adjustment to these shocks requires a new monetary policy regime, resolution of serious fragilities in banking sectors, fiscal reforms that put government finances on a sustainable path, while guarantee...
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan. Among its many impo...
The geopolitical tension that became even more evident in the wake of the 2001 events, the de facto unfolding global war over energy sources and transportation corridors in the Middle East and Central Asia, and certain aspects of Turkey’s domestic developments have greatly altered Ankara’s international status, its political weight, and its role. The victory of the candidate from the pro-Islamic Justice and Development Party (JDP) at the 28 August, 2007 presidential election created tension b...
Miguel Ángel Pérez Martín
At present, Central Asia faces serious conflicts over water management, most of them of a transnational nature: humanitarian crises, droughts, floods, pollution, ethnic problems, nepotism and corruption in the allocation of water resources, etc. In July 2010 the United Nations declared access to water and sanitation to be a human right, with the aim of resolving or mitigating such conflicts. In this region, there are several multilateral security organizations which for over two decades have ...
This paper evaluates the role of speculative behaviour in the floating of several Asian currencies in 1977. The incentive for speculators to adopt trading strategies forcing a country to float their currency is taken into account after assessing the exchange rate regimes, currency movements and economic fundamentals for countries in the Asia Pacific. The globalisation of capital markets and use of short-term borrowing by the Asian countries affected by speculative pressures is also taken into...
Clement A. Tisdell
Economic, social and natural environmental systems are interdependent, and economic systems cannot be assessed in isolation from an interconnected whole. Many parts of Asia face increasing market intrusion and forced changes in economic mechanisms and rights without concomitant social and technological co-evolution. Consequently, serious problems for economic, social and environmental sustainability are being experienced by local communities, especially in remote regions and in peripheral are...
Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, various social problems left over have emerged in some Central Asian states, thus threatening social stability in the region. Under globalization, the former Soviet republics in Central Asia have made great efforts to develop constructive relations with others in the hope of strengthening their security. However, the threat of terrorism, extremism and separatism still exists. These non-traditional security issues play a role in current international politics, and the countries in the region are trylng to meet new challenges.
Five years ago I published an article in which I assessed the results of the first decade of America's Central Asian policy. I came to the conclusion that between the early 1990s and 2002, it developed from mere recognition of the newly independent states to a long-term regional strategy. For obvious reasons, 9/11 served as the turning point: "From a geographically remote, unstable and, in general, unexciting region, Central Asia became a zone of the U.S.'s national security interests." After...
The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)
Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.
Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.
When the fourth generation of leaders came to power in China, the country began drawing up its policy in Central Asia (CA) on the concept of peripheral diplomacy, which since 2005 has been based not on the thesis of "China's peaceful rise," but on the theory of "peaceful development" that came to replace it, as well as on the idea proposed by Hu Jintao of "working together to build a harmonious world." At present, China's relations with the regional states are being established in keeping wit...
Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)
Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term
In the 1980s, Asian energy markets expanded at a rapid rate to meet the surge in demand from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. This demand boom coincided with an increase in non-OPEC oil production in the region. As oil production stabilizes, demand looks set to rise sharply, this time in the new Newly Industrialized Countries of Southeast Asia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Natural gas will play a key role in this expansion of energy use and could start to lead rather than follow oil markets. The leading role of natural gas will be especially strong if gas starts to make inroads in the high and middle ends of the barrel with oxygenated gasoline and compressed natural gas for trucks. At the bottom of the barrel, natural gas could increasingly usurp the role of residual fuel oil for environmental reasons. At the same time, regional refiners could find that residual oil is their leading source of additional feed for the new process units currently under discussion or planning. The supply outlook for natural gas is increasingly fraught with uncertainties as more of the region's supplies must come from distant areas. In particular, liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplies from Malaysia and Indonesia will need to be replaced by the early part of the next century as rising domestic demand eats into the exportable gas production. New sources include China, Siberia, Sakhalin Island, Papua New Guinea, and Canada. There will be intense competition to supply the Northeast Asia markets as the gas production in Southeast Asia is increasingly used within ASEAN. (author)
RoÌ zsaÌ s, TamaÌ s.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Parallel to the process of democratization, the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia have shown an increase in measured income inequality during their transition from centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Since the behavior of these countries contradicted previous models of inequality, researchers analyzing the transition process linked the increase in income inequality to the egalitarian values of s...
Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)
Siegfried, Tobias; Bernauer, Thomas; Guiennet, Renaud;
Soviet Union collapsed. Will climate change exacerbate water stress and thus conflicts? We have developed a coupled climate, land-ice and rainfall-runoff model for the Syr Darya to quantify impacts and show that climatic changes are likely to have consequences on runoff seasonality due to earlier snow......Millions of people in the geopolitically important region of Central Asia depend on water from snow- and glacier-melt driven international rivers, most of all the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. The riparian countries of these rivers have experienced recurring water allocation conflicts ever since the......, and politically unstable Fergana Valley. Targeted infrastructural developments will be required in the region. If the current mismanagement of water and energy resources can be replaced with more effective resource allocation mechanisms through the strengthening of transboundary institutions, Central...
Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.
Peterson, Michael A.
y the United States is spearheading a war on terrorism, focusing on countries close to Central Asia such as Afghanistan and Iraq. If the United States plans on staying in the region, it must take into account the forces shaping Chinese foreign policy in Central Asia. Possibilities exist for cooperation, but if the situation is misinterpreted or handled incorrectly, there is also a possibility for conflict. This thesis examines Chinese interests in Central Asia, comparing and contrasting them ...
India has not been able to make significant inroads into Central Asia, a region of vital strategic importance. Central Asia had a considerable impact on the polity and economy all through Indian history. Trade routes linking ancient Uttara-Paath to the Silk Road also carried Indian religion, philosophy and science beyond to Inner and Eastern Asia. The British India's security and frontier trade policy with East Turkistan and Afghanistan is well known. People of Central Asian republics always ...
In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.
As Germany took over the rotating presidency of the EU in the first half of 2007 one of its primary tasks was to redirect and reform EU’s Central Asia policy before the Council’s adoption of a new Strategy Paper for Central Asia in June. As Germany’s Presidency Program explicitly states: “The Presidency will pay particular attention to the strategically significant region of Central Asia. The EU plans to adopt a strategy on Central Asia defining its interests and objectives.” Moreover, follow...
Natural gas trade in Asia has been dominated by long-established market structures, under which liquefied natural gas (LNG) has remained indexed based on the price of crude oil. High transaction costs in the region in recent years imply that the regional market is sub-optimally organized. Since 2010, the continued prevalence of oil-indexation has had the most adverse effect on Japan, the world’s largest LNG importer. In response, Japan implemented several strategies to challenge traditional LNG pricing mechanisms in the region and ultimately reduce transaction costs. Japan’s efforts include an increase in the share of spot and short-term purchases, sourcing new supplies from the United States under alternative pricing arrangements and driving regional buyer cooperation. This paper evaluates the potential effect of Japan’s LNG strategy on regional pricing in the broader institutional context, arguing that LNG pricing in the region will only partially shift away from oil-indexation by the end of the decade. While recent cooperation among regional LNG importers indicates that there may be scope for change in the regional institutional setting, the degree of cooperation is insufficient to have a profound effect on regional pricing. - Highlights: • Sub-optimal natural gas market outcomes in Asia since 2010. • Asian buyers have challenged oil-indexation in the region. • Concrete evidence of Japan-led buyer cooperation since 2013. • Pricing will only partially shift from oil-indexation by 2020. • Security of supply remains a top policy priority
Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason
Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in
Full Text Available By employing a rich sample of firm-level data in seven Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries from Europe and Central Asia, our paper investigates core as well as some specific determinants of firm innovation. We find that the likelihood of engaging in innovation for a firm increases with its core socio-economic characteristics such as size, age, capacity utilization, domestic competition and foreign ownership. In addition to the estimates of these socio-economic covariates, the ultimate purpose of our study is to obtain more in-depth knowledge about the policy implacable factors for firm innovation that the countries could focus on. These policy-related factors are: (i access to finance, (ii human capital, and (iii foreign trade. In this respect, our study finds that firm’s innovation increases with better financial inclusion, greater human capital and engagement in foreign trade. We argue that these analysis and results, coupled with inclusive and targeted policies, can be used to enrich the process of private sector innovation in the region’s countries.
In the last year, most experts on world energy and oil demand have come to appreciate the importance of the Asia-Pacific region to world oil markets. many who wish for higher oil demand and higher prices have cited demand on the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) will return sooner rather than later. Before we can bank the additional, say, 2 million, barrels of oil demand which will develop by 1995, it is necessary to look at the reasons for that growth and how it may be affected by developments in the world and regional economies, interfuel competition, and the directions of government energy policies. We must also look at the development of oil supply in the region and the implications for import and export in the region. It is expected that the region will increase production slightly to approximately 6.5 million barrels per day (b/d), but become more dependent on imported crude and products as the result of strong demand growth. This paper reports on economic growth in the region and the world, followed by petroleum product demand growth now and in the future, interfuel competition, and finally the implications for world oil markets
Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.
Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.
Pankova, E. I.; Konyushkova, M. V.
A comparative analysis of climatic and soil salinity characteristics of the deserts of Central Asia, including deserts of the Turan Depression, the Gobi Desert, and deserts of the Dzungar and Tarim depressions was performed. The climatic characteristics—the degree of aridity, the degree of continentality, and the amount and regime of precipitation—are different in these deserts. No direct relationships between the areas occupied by the automorphic salt-affected soils and the aridity of the climate are observed in the studied regions. In the automorphic landscapes of Asian deserts, the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization and the distribution of salt-affected soils are controlled by the history of the particular territories rather than by their modern climatic conditions. The presence and properties of the salt-bearing rocks and the eolian migration of salts play the most significant role. The deficit of moisture in the modern climate favors the preservation of salt accumulations in places of their origin. The specific features of the climate, including the regime of precipitation, affect the redistribution of salts in the profiles of automorphic salt-affected soils. An increase in the degree of climatic continentality is accompanied by the decrease in the intensity of weathering and initial accumulation of salts. A different situation is observed in the soils of hydromorphic desert landscapes, in which the degree of salinity of the surface horizons and the area occupied by salt-affected soils are directly influenced by the modern climatic conditions.
S. M. Yun
Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...
A. Ye. Malzev
Full Text Available Central Asia plays an essential role for China’s foreign policy. Beijing has recently increased its presence in the region and now is treated as one of the main powers. This article analyzes the key studies on China’s Central Asia strategy. It focuses on the most complicated problems that experts face researching the issue. Finally an author came to the conclusion that complex approach towards China’s policy in Central Asia is not worked out yet. Most of the scholars admit that China’s share in regional politics is increasing, but they are not sure about its final goal.
. Korostelina (2008 in researching history education across for countries (Ireland, Taiwan, China, and North Korea found that history textbooks reinforce ethnic loyalties and play an important role in shaping ethnic identity in History education. Specifically in Central Asia, Kissane (2005 found that history education reform in Kazakhstan has been an important part of shaping post-Soviet Kazak identity.
Full Text Available Hydroclimate variations since 1300 in central and monsoonal Asia and their interplay on interannual and interdecadal timescales are investigated using the tree-ring based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI reconstructions. Both the interannual and interdecadal variations in both regions are closely to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. On interannual timescale, the most robust correlations are observed between PDO and hydroclimate in central Asia. Interannual hydroclimate variations in central Asia are more significant during the warm periods with high solar irradiance, which is likely due to the enhanced variability of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the high-frequency component of PDO, during the warm periods. We observe that the periods with significant interdecadal hydroclimate changes in central Asia often correspond to periods without significant interdecadal variability in monsoonal Asia, particularly before the 19th century. The PDO-hydroclimate relationships appear to be bridged by the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and Tibetan Plateau, a key area of PDO. While, in some periods the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and monsoonal Asia may lead to significant interdecadal hydroclimate variations in monsoonal Asia.
The article discusses possibilities, problems and risk factors related to the development of the oil and gas resources in the Caspian region and Central Asia with particular emphasis on the transport of oil and gas to the market. The super power's interests in the region and it's strategic position and the political development in the Caucasus and Central Asia with particular emphasis on the important oil and gas nations are reviewed. Furthermore the political battle for the oil and gas in the region is discussed. Finally the potential for new tensions in the region particularly between Russia, Turkey and the USA is reviewed. The participants in the battle are Iran, Russia, Turkey and the USA as well as the other oil and gas rich nations around Caspian Sea. The USA has newly arrived in the area and have an interest in accessing the new oil and gas provinces and obtaining a political stronghold in a strategically important part of the Eurasian continent. There are specific sections on the interests of the superpowers in the Central Asian oil and gas market, the Caspian and Central Asian region's strategic importance, the political development in the Caucasus and Central Asia, the important oil and gas nations, the battle for Central Asia and new tensions in the region.
Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.
Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.
We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.
The purpose of this paper is to help the PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk in measuring the level of risk exposure and identify the need to control IT risk management at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Conducted research methodology, field observation, library research, interviews and gave questionnaires to the relevant parties, perform data analysis, as well as measuring the risk of using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). The results achieved in this study is to facilitate the ma...
Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes,when possible,play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA).Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology.In this article,we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications.Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA),there ...
Today, there is a dynamic new ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia engaging multiple players and institutions who compete for influence in Central Asia, such as the Russian-dominated Collective Security Treaty Organization, the U.S.-dominated NATO Partnership for Peace Program, and the Sino-Russian-dominated Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Of all the players, China is clearly one of the most dominant. China’s authoritarian regime, domestic problems, and huge energy demands hold potential threats f...
The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO2 and to a lessor extent NOx and CO2. Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO2 and/or NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs
This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases...
Fang, Keyan [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western Chinese Environmental Systems (MOE), Center for Arid Environment and Paleoclimate Research (CAEP), Lanzhou (China); Columbia University, Tree-Ring Lab, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Davi, Nicole; Cook, Edward; Li, Jinbao; D' Arrigo, Rosanne [Columbia University, Tree-Ring Lab, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western Chinese Environmental Systems (MOE), Center for Arid Environment and Paleoclimate Research (CAEP), Lanzhou (China)
Spatial reconstructions of drought for central High Asia based on a tree-ring network are presented. Drought patterns for central High Asia are classified into western and eastern modes of variability. Tree-ring based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) are presented for both the western central High Asia drought mode (1587-2005), and for the eastern central High Asia mode (1660-2005). Both reconstructions, generated using a principal component regression method, show an increased variability in recent decades. The wettest epoch for both reconstructions occurred from the 1940s to the 1950s. The most extreme reconstructed drought for western central High Asia was from the 1640s to the 1650s, coinciding with the collapse of the Chinese Ming Dynasty. The eastern central High Asia reconstruction has shown a distinct tendency towards drier conditions since the 1980s. Our spatial reconstructions agree well with previous reconstructions that fall within each mode, while there is no significant correlation between the two spatial reconstructions. (orig.)
Soedarmono, Wahyoe; Machrouh, Fouad; Tarazi, Amine
This paper investigates the impact on financial stability of bank competition in emerging markets by taking into account crisis periods. Based on a broad set of commercial banks in Asia over the 1994-2009 period, the empirical results indicate that a higher degree of market power in the banking market is associated with higher capital ratios, higher income volatility and higher insolvency risk of banks. In general, although banks in less competitive markets hold more capital, the levels of ca...
"The paper explores the extent and benefits of financial integration in East Asia. It presents evidence that the extent of financial integration in East Asia is less extensive than the aggregate data suggests. The paper then addresses why some countries are integrated more than others and discusses the obstacles to regional financial integration. The paper points out that East Asia’s growth strategy has shaped bank centric financial systems. An important thesis presented in the...
It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs
Камынин, Владимир Дмитриевич
The author explores the reasons for change in Russia’s security policy in Central Asia by analyzing leading experts’ opinions. The author argues that this reconsideration of policy was determined by both national and international factors and resulted in growing influence of Russia in the region. The author concludes that fight against international terrorism is now at the center of Russian activities in Central Asia.Key words: Russia, Central Asia, regional security, international terrorism
As is known, Central Asia is an important strategic element of the U.S.'s foreign policy. It is interesting both from the energy perspective and in the context of Washington's expanding geopolitical influence in the region. Today, the U.S.'s key objectives in Central Asia are as follows: First, establishment of dominant positions in Central Asia.The Washington administration is striving to assert its dominance in Central Asia by playing on the contradictions between the countries in the regio...
Rosenberg, N D; Kirk, E J; DeLaTorre, G
On February 6, 2003, a workshop, was cosponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) to explore both the linkage between U.S. policy in Central Asia and science and technology (S&T) and the role of S&T in achieving U.S. security and development objectives in the region. A major outcome of the workshop is the identification of potential S&T initiatives that support U.S. Central Asia policy goals. This document summarizes the proceedings, conclusions, and recommendations from this workshop; it is a companion document to the full proceedings entitled Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia. The proceedings are also published by AAAS and a copy can be obtained from either AAAS (www.aaas.org), Sheri Abbott (AAAS; 202 326-6655), or Richard Knapp (LLNL; 925 423-3328; firstname.lastname@example.org).
Fidler, A.; Bredenkamp, C.; Schlippert, S.
During the past fifteen years, the countries of the former Eastern Bloc transformed their centrally planned, supply-driven health care systems. Modernization of service delivery required innovations in financing and insurance and the restructuring of primary care and hospital networks. This review of experiences from Central and Southeast Europe, the Baltic States, Central Asia, and the Caucasus spot lights innovative health reforms in low- and middle-income countries, including contributions...
The purpose of this paper is to make available for occidental lecturers a kind of synthesis of the information we accumulated over more than twenty years about horse breeding in Central Asia. It is also a trans-disciplinary approach mostly based on French bibliography and personal experiences. We will give a new perspective on the early time history of horse breeding to introduce the current breeding of horses in herds in Central Asia. We will continue with the description of the diet of the ...
Most analysts now agree that Central Asia has become an arena of the Big Game currently being played by the leading world and regional leaders. Nor has India been left on the sidelines, especially since it has clearly outgrown the role of generally accepted leader of the South Asian subcontinent of late and is making its claims to something more. Central Asia is geographically close to India and has common deep historical roots with this country; so its presence in the zone of Indian strategi...
The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...
S. M. Yun
Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.
Ghosh, Swati; Revilla, Ernesto
The authors explore the relative efficiency of stock markets across countries using newly available data on transactions costs and the quality of the informational environment of stock markets. These new measures are constructed from firm-level stock returns in a panel of 60 countries for the period 2000-04. The authors then develop a framework to understand the linkages between efficiency...
Pasadilla, Gloria O.
This paper surveys studies of the importance of Central Asian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the economy and their experience during the Russian financial crisis. It also uses survey data from the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development's Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys to infer noteworthy characteristics, features, and dependencies on financing of Central Asian SMEs and, consequently, derive the potential impact of the crisis ...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...
Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder
Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogroups, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.
Full Text Available As a result of the fall of the Soviet Union, the leading global and regional players have started their occupation of the geopolitical and geo-economical vacuum in Central Asia. This article is targeted to trace the competition growth with regard to establishment of control over the Central Asian region by global players, in particular, by Russia, seeking to return Central Asia, and China, striving to entangle the region into its orbit of influence. Within two post-Soviet decades, the world players still have not managed to develop a general cooperation scheme against each other in Central Asia. Although, at the beginning of the XXI century, Russia and China attempted to build up a scheme of the Russian-Chinese-Central Asian cooperation within the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, however this scheme cannot be called effective due to the absence of common vision of long-term interests in Russia, China and Central Asian countries. As it seems, even at very short by historical standards period of time, after the fall of the Soviet Union we observe clear interests in the Central Asian’s policies of Russia and China.
This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise
Past and recent factors point to a remarkable growth of the Asian market in the medium and long term. This growth will depend on structural and institutional evolutions on the Asian market. Some regulatory and liberalization reforms have already been initiated to support the development of gas but this will require a long process. Oil-indexing will prevail for a long time (but which slope?) Supply flexibility must be improved (relaxation of destination clauses, quantity tolerances) to create a competitive gas market. Marketing innovations expected in new long-term contracts to enhance flexibility whilst preserving investment security. A growing portfolio approach (LNG portfolio, pipeline imports, unconventional gas) is implemented. In conclusion, regional cooperation among Asian buyers is very important
Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan
In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...
ZHOU KeFa; ZHANG Qing; CHEN Xi; SUN Li
RS-monitoring index systems of ecological environment changes at a large scale, based on empirical data and trends in environmental change in Central Asia, are developed using NOAA and MODIS data.Moreover, with the help of mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis, the degrees, hazards and distribution extent of various possible ecological problems are discussed, environmental changes in Central Asia in 1990 and 2005 are separately evaluated, and dynamic changes in the environment in Central Asia over a 15-year period are analyzed. The results reveal that during the 15-year period from 1990 to 2005, areas of degenerated vegetation in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirghizstan and Tadzhikistan were enlarged by 0.069×105 km2, 0.081×105 km2, 0.296×105 km2, 0.022×105 km2 and 0.112×105 km2, respectively. The ecological environment in Central Asia was in the state of significant degeneration and even deterioration. This study proves that NOAA and MODIS data can be used to successfully monitor the environment and provide useful results.
Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.
Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…
Full Text Available The Central Asia region is covered by vast desert ecosystems, where the characteristic of energy and water fluxes is different from other humid ecosystems. The application of land surface models (LSMs in arid and semiarid ecosystems was largely limited. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of Common Land Model (CoLM at two eddy covariance (EC sites in alkaline desert ecosystems over Central Asia. Simulations of the net radiation (Rnet, latent heat flux (Qle, sensible heat flux (Qh, and soil temperature showed that refined estimate of roughness length (Z0m significantly improved the performance of CoLM in simulating turbulent heat fluxes. Qle was increased but Qh was decreased, which were in better agreement with the observations from EC system. The results indicated that accurate parameterization of Z0m is of crucial importance for predicting energy and water fluxes in LSM when applied in Central Asia desert ecosystems. Sensitivity analysis regarding leaf area index (LAI, Z0m, and albedo (α showed that Rnet is very sensitive to α but Qle, Qh, and soil temperature (Tsoil are sensitively varying with the estimate of Z0m at the two EC sites over Central Asia.
Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet
The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…
@@ PetroChina and the Central Asia Oil Company Ltd signed a contract of oil development and production for Block 413 in Songliao Basin in Beijing on July 16. This is the first oil development and production contract signed by PetroChina for external cooperation this year.
Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...
Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news…
Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...
Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to help the PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk in measuring the level of risk exposure and identify the need to control IT risk management at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Conducted research methodology, field observation, library research, interviews and gave questionnaires to the relevant parties, perform data analysis, as well as measuring the risk of using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. The results achieved in this study is to facilitate the management in making decisions related to the design, maintenance, and development of information technology at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk and also minimize the risk of the failure so that the utilization of existing information technology can provide more optimal results. The conclusion from this study is that there is a risk of potential failure that could hamper the existing business processes in PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Highest risk or potential failure according to the RPN (Risk Priority Number is a software and hardware damage, as well as the corrupted database due to the impact of operational risk.
The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...
Steven B. Holtzman; Nezam, Taies
The objective of the study is to analyze conflict-induced displacement from the point of view of vulnerability, using a multifaceted definition of vulnerability. As many as 10 million people have been displaced by war in the Europe and Central Asia region since 1990. While many people have been able to return home, approximately half remain displaced, with no available avenues for sustaina...
Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistan...
Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.
In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…
The aim of the paper is to understand how the organization of public administration in Central Asia shapes the results of economic development in the region. It discusses the main factors of bad quality of public administration in the region, paying particular attention to the link between political regimes and public administration. Moreover, it provides an overview of decentralization and devolution of power in Central Asian countries as one of the main channels of transformation of adminis...
World Bank, (WB)
The objective of this study is to raise awareness and understanding of exposure and vulnerability to drought in Central Asian countries and the Caucasus and to introduce a strategic, pro-active framework of mitigation and prevention. The audiences of the report are the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the Caucasus and Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic in Central Asia. The report will further be of interest to NGOs and civil society, as w...
Annamaria Saponaro; Marco Pilz; Dino Bindi; Stefano Parolai
Central Asia is one of the most exposed regions in the world to landslide hazard. The large variability of local geological materials, together with the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify the hazard and the negative impact of slope failures across the Central Asian countries. As a first step towards a quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment, a landslide susceptibili...
International Monetary Fund
This paper examines the implications of elevated global food prices for inflation in select Central Asian economies - Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The findings suggest that global food inflation has significant short-run effects that build over time. Inflation outcomes simulated under alternative global wheat price assumptions underscore these vulnerabilities, and suggest that sustained administrative measures are unlikely to prove effective. In line with struc...
@@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.
Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.
Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a
SUN Wei; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; GENG Rong-qing; LU Sheng-xia; DU Lei; NI Da-xing; FAN Bao-sheng; Tsunoda K
This paper was based on the Hu sheep in China, after collecting the same data about 9 Asiasheep populations and 5 European sheep (breeds in Japan) populations. It clustered 15 populations in terms ofthe gene frequency of 10 loci and 33 allele in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The result of Hierar-chy Clustering showed that the sheep populations in the East and South of Central Asia could be classified intothree genetic groups: Mongolia sheep, South Asia sheep and European sheep, and the Hu sheep belonged toMongolia sheep.
The article examines the natural gas markets of the United States, the European Union and the Asia-Pacific region and their regulation and contractual structures. The article's main focus is on the United States natural gas markets. The European Union and Asia-Pacific markets are compared to this more developed market. By comparing the physical and ideological characteristics of, and differences between, the three main international gas markets, the article exposes the limits of regulatory and contractual transplants in this area of law and policy. Each of these markets is unique, which limits the opportunities for modelling certain market institutions on the basis of the more developed markets in the United States. This applies for both the EU and the Asia-Pacific region. - Highlights: • Differences in the physical markets impact regulation. • Regulatory transplants have risks. • The approach in energy policy should be based on “Law-in-Context” approach
Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.
Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.
Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim
Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services. The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service
Siregar, Reza; Pontines, Victor; Mohd Hussain, Nurulhuda
The primary objective of this study is to examine the evidence of occurrences of extreme market pressure of currencies of a number of Asian economies against the US dollar during the period of 2000-2009. In particular, we are interested in investigating the severity of these pressures during the recent US sub-prime crisis of 2007-2009. Were the currencies of these economies subjected to indiscriminate selling pressures during the period of the crisis? Was the heightened severity of the sellin...
Full Text Available Turkey’s Central Asia policy offers an interesting perspective for analysing political and economic interests of Ankara in the region after the collapse of USSR. The political place of Central Asia in Turkish foreign policy priorities has changed slowly, but constantly from 90s to now. Although all Turkish governments and presidents followed friendly cooperation with Turkic speaking countries, the centrality of the region was lost and geoeconomic interests became dominant. However, among institutional cooperation possibilities TİKA has developed major arguments and increasingly intense activities towards the region. The article seeks to understand the reasons behind the changes of Turkish Foreign Policy and the role of Central Asian countries in Turkey’s agenda. Its objective is to underline how the geoeconomic interests may change foreign policy vectors of the countries and show the increasing dependence and involvements of Ankara on bordering countries. Besides enumerating the reasons, we also propose institutional cooperation between Turkey and Central Asian countries which seems to have more positive impact both in bilateral and multilaretal relations. The paper tries to frame the relations from Turkey’s perspective and explain the chronology of Ankara’s involvement post-Soviet Central Asia. The datas referring to the policies and starategies are primarily taken from the research articles, but also from reports. The literature review shows also that majority of research and papers are focused on early 90s and post 2000 period, indicating Turkey’s most active periods towards the region. The papers outcomes are based on qualitative method and try to explore foreign policy priorities and changes occurring based on geoeconomic interests. We try to describe the variations in Ankara’s policies and explain the relationships between Turkic capitals and leaders of Turkic states. We used open-ended questions such as followings to conduct
Anek R. Sankhyan
Full Text Available :The emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens in South Asia is hotly debated due to a great gap in fossil record. A solitary partial cranium from Hathnora dated around 250 Kya is debated and conveniently interpreted as "evolved" Homo erectus or "archaic" Homo sapiens or Homo heidelbergensis or even Homo indet. Cranial fossils of Pre-Toba or post- Toba anatomically modern Homo sapiens are unknown barring the very late 30 Kya modern human remains from Sri Lanka. The present paper reviews the scenario of human evolution in South Asia with special reference to the cranial and recent postcranial fossil findings by the author in association with the archaeological evidences from Central Narmada valley. It is concluded that the Narmada fossils and archaeological findings support the presence of three hominins- two 'archaic' and one 'early modern'. The Mode 2 Acheulian hominin represented by the calvarium and the femur was a 'large-bodied' species akin to Homo heidelbergensis. It appeared first in the Central Narmada valley and was followed by a 'small-bodied' Mode 3 archaic type represented by two clavicles and the 9th rib, provisionally named here as Homo narmadensis. It likely continued and attained anatomical and behavioural modernity in South Asia as attested by the humerus and bone artifacts, and diversified to various short-bodied indigenous populations of South Asia supported by the genomic evidences.
He Zhaocheng; Ye Qing
@@ Central China power system is one of the large regional power grids carrying out power market demonstrative project. Because of lacking power market experience, a lot of problems need to be thoroughly discussed.
Faruqee, Rashid; Carey, Kevin
The authors review the literature on land markets in South Asia to clarify what's known and to highlight unresolved issues. They report that: (1) We have a good understanding of why sharecropping persists and why it can be superior to other standard agricultural contracts. We have less understanding of what determines the relative efficiency of sharecropping in different environments and why other apparently superior contractual relationships are rare. (2) Insecure rights to land adversely af...
[Introduction] Islamic finance has been developing steadily in the last decades since the 1970s, yet for most parts its growth was concentrated in the Arab states and in several south-east Asian parts of the world with a Muslim majority (Malaysia in particular). Perhaps the only exceptions to that were global financial centers like London or New York that serve as organizational hubs to channel and direct Islamic financial resources (Baba 2007). In comparison with that, in Central Asia Islami...
Jacek Stankiewicz; Dino Bindi; Adrien Oth; Stefano Parolai
Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW) systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds) warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for C...
Russia has become a large scale recipient of labour migrants from Central Asia. Unemployment and low wages in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have made people travel north to what used to be the centre of the former Soviet Union – a state entity that these now independent states, a little more than some 20 years ago, all belonged to. Currently, Russia is facing a demographical crisis with dramatic population decline especially among the working-age group of the population. As such, acce...
Bowe, Brian; Freedman, Eric; Blom, Robin
Recent world events have demonstrated that the Internet-and social media tools in particular-are increasingly useful for political organizing, not merely frivolous virtual spaces for youthful publics to connect socially. Rather, social media is touted as "the crucible in which repressed civil societies can revive and develop." For the people of Central Asia-where free expression is curtailed and news outlets are under official or non-state, non-official government censorship-information and c...
Marco Pilz; Tanatkan Abakanov; Kanatbek Abdrakhmatov; Dino Bindi; Tobias Boxberger; Bolot Moldobekov; Sagynbek Orunbaev; Natalya Silacheva; Shahid Ullah; Sheyshenaly Usupaev; Pulat Yasunov; Stefano Parolai
During the past centuries, many cities in Central Asia have suffered significant damages caused by earthquakes. A crucial step towards preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To accurately identify local variations of the site response at different locations within the cities, earthquakes recorded by seismic networks as well as measurement...
This thesis investigates to what extent there is a link between the illicit drugs trade and regional terrorist/insurgent organisation s in Central Asia. In particular , the research attempts to understand the dynamics of actor participation within the drugs trade, including whether any such involvement is motivated by either criminal or political incentives. To inform such an assessment analysis of engagement opportunities, financial requirements, network connections and ...
"Western military presence wanes in Afghanistan and a transformed security environment challenges borders and stability in Central Asia. This book examines how the tensions relating to the reorganization of external military presence interact with regional states’ ambitions and challenge the borders already contested by numerous dividing lines. It studies a complex political landscape across which radical Islam connected with international terrorism is feared to spread as the international mi...
Smith, Shane A.
After September 11, 2001, Central Asia leapt into the vernacular of international politics. This forgotten region, where the "Great Game" was played, received new emphasis in the Global War on Terrorism. Analysts found a region brimming with both promise and concern. This thesis focuses on the future succession of two regional presidents, Nursultan Nazarbayev (Kazakhstan) and Islam Karimov (Uzbekistan), who are the only post-Soviet leaders their countries have known. These are also the only ...
Radnitz, Scott; Wheatley, Jonathan; Zürcher, Christoph
This article investigates the determinants of social capital by analyzing an original survey of post-Soviet Central Asia. It tests hypotheses derived from two related questions: whether networks, norms, and trust are empirically related and the extent to which four factors—culture, regime type, perceptions of government responsiveness, and development interventions—predict levels of social capital. The results show that trust and norms diverge from networking. Interaction is higher under less...
The purpose ofthis report is to provide guidance to the staff of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Region with respect to mobilizing cultural assets to support socioeconomic development in our country and regional work programs. To this end it seeks to demonstrate how and when it makes sense for us to get involved in activities related to cultural asset mobilization. Equally important, it also indicates how and when we should leave cultural heritage activities to o...
Bekchanov, Maksud; Bhaduri, Anik; Lenzen, Manfred; Lamers, John P. A.
Increases in water demand due to population growth, industrial development and urbanization necessitate economically efficient use of water resources worldwide. This is particularly true in the dryland zones of the world relying on irrigated agriculture for economic development such as in Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Due to ill-managed water resources and the dominance of high water intensive crops, water use efficiency in the region is very low. This challenges Uzbekistan to modernize its agric...
In Central Asia, religion is gradually coming to the fore in everyday life as a fairly integrated phenomenon with a wide range of functions: consolidation of ethnic self-awareness, shaping spiritual and moral culture together with the awareness of being part of a religious and the world community; fulfilling social functions through religious prescriptions; formulating the ideals of social justice, as well as man's duty to the state and the state's to man, etc. Some of the functions, however,...
SEVDA BABAYEVA; ZEYNAL AKPAROV; ADI DAMANIA
The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC) region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant asso...
Garnier, V.; Giuliani, Gaston; Ohnenstetter, D.; Fallick, A.E.; Dubessy, J.; Banks, D; Vinh, H. Q.; Lhomme, T.; H. Maluski; Pecher, A.; Bakhsh, K. A.; Van Long, P.; Trinh, P. T.; Schwarz, D.
Marble-hosted ruby deposits represent the most important source of colored gemstones from Central and South East Asia. These deposits are located in the Himalayan mountain belt which developed during Tertiary collision of the Indian plate northward into the Eurasian plate. They are spatially related to granitoid intrusions and are contained in platform carbonates series that underwent high-grade meta morph ism. All occurrences are located close to major tectonic features formed during Himalay...
SULEIMENOV*, Mekhlis; AKHMETOV, Kanat; KASKARBAYEV, Zheksembay; KIREYEV, Aitkalym
Wheat is major crop in dryland agriculture of Central Asia. In most cases both spring wheat and winter wheat are grown in rotation with summer fallow. Studies were conducted in order to identify alternative crops which possibly could replace part of summer fallow and part of wheat area. Summer fallow was found inefficient practice for soil moisture accumulation in semiarid steppes of northern and southern Kazakhstan as well as in Kyrgyzstan. Many alternative crops were identified in all zones...
Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena
One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359
The paper offers specific inputs to the debate on local content promotion in the oil industries of West Africa and Central Asia. To this end, we document the international experience with local content promotion to derive best practices in the field. We then use a case study approach to devise a simple analytical framework for rationalizing the selection of viable sectors for local content promotion, in an attempt to make operational one of the best practice principles (efficiency) developed before. By proposing specific rules regarding the acceptability of a project, the analysis seeks to add rigor and address distortions on localization outcomes from rent-seeking. The emphasis is not on supporting efforts to 'pick winners' and subsidize them through a range of by and large discredited instruments. Rather, the paper focuses on the specific public inputs the government would have to provide to support an otherwise market-driven process
International Monetary Fund
A central bank must decide on the frequency with which it will conduct open market operations and the variability in short-term money market that it will allow. The paper shows how the optimal operating procedure balances the value of attaining an immediate target and broadcasting the central bank's intentions against the informational advantages to the central bank of allowing the free play of market forces to reveal more of the information available to market participants.
Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Che, Yanjun; Chen, Fenli; Qiang, Fang
Terrestrial moisture contributed by surface evaporation and transpiration, also known as recycled moisture, plays an important role in hydrological processes especially across arid central Asia. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes can be used for water budget analysis to calculate the contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation between two locations along the moisture flow. Based on a three-component isotopic mixing model, the moisture recycling in oasis stations of arid central Asia during summer months is assessed. At large oases of Urumqi, the proportional contribution of recycled moisture to local precipitation is approximately 16.2%, and the mean proportions of surface evaporation and transpiration are 5.9% ± 1.5% and 10.3% ± 2.2%, respectively. At small oases like Shihezi and Caijiahu the contribution of recycled moisture is less than 5%, and the proportion of surface evaporation is much less than that of transpiration. The vegetative cover in arid central Asia is generally sparse, but the evapotranspiration contribution to precipitation cannot be ignored at the widely distributed oases. The oasis effect shows great variability depending on locations and water availability for evapotranspiration.
ZHAO HuaBiao; YAO TanDong; XU BaiQing; LI Zhen; DUAN KeQin
As a major alkaline gas in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, there is little knowledge about NH3 variations in the Central Asia. Here we ana-lyzed the ammonium (NH+4) history recorded in an ice core from the East Pamir in Central Asia, which was drilled on the Mt. Muztagata at the elevation of 7010 m a.s.I, in 2003. The core was carefully dated and NH+4 concentration history during 1907-2002 was reconstructed. The result shows that NH+4 con-centration remained approximately constant until the 1930s after a sudden decrease at the very begin-ning of the 20th century, followed by a minimum in 1940 before increasing steadily to the peak at the end of 1990s. It is found that the annual mean NH+4 concentration was strongly associated with the Northern Hemisphere temperature, suggesting the impact of temperature on NH3 emissions in the Central Asia. Moreover, an increase of NH+4 concentration after 1940 also reflects the enhancement of NH3 emissions from anthropogenic sources such as fertilizer applications and livestock wastes in the 20th century.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.
The whole Central Asian population is dependent on water resources stored as solid in high mountains and feed the population in summer. The agriculture in Central Asia is possible only by irrigating the land in regular basis. The water for it comes from snow and glacier melt in high mountains. Thus, it is important to estimate possible water stored in mountains during planting season to better plan agricultural activities in summer. As an example, the year of 2002 or 2007 were drought years w...
Full Text Available The annexation of Crimea accomplished by Russia in 2014 is the event that stands out sharply in the context of post-Cold War international relations: it was the first time after the end of WWII in Europe that a part of the territory of a sovereign state was forcefully annexed. This means that the re-drawing of borders and revisionism are back in international relations as the principles and ways of policy making. It would be plausible to assume that the consequences of an event of such scale would be noticeable not only in its direct neighborhood but as well in more distant, though geopolitically sensitive contexts. The article explores the impact that Russia‘s Crimea campaign has had on the geopolitics of Central Asia and what consequences could be deemed plausible in the future. It is assumed that, due to the annexation of Crimea, international relations started polarizing around the two centers of power: the West and Russia. This trend brings the mentality of strategic confrontation back into international relations. The polarization seemingly becomes a geopolitical factor, which influences the power dynamics in Central Asia in its cultural-informational, military and economic aspects. From the cultural-informational perspective, the polarization is incompatible with the provisions of multivector foreign policies, and pursued by the Central Asian states; therefore, they attempt to neutralize the trend by withholding from taking clear-cut positions with regard to the Ukrainian events. Such a stance, however, does not provide for hedging against military threats, which are perceived as rather real in Central Asia because of the Russian modus operandi in Ukraine, as well as due to the seemingly catalyzing impact of current Russian policies on the local separatist forces and radical Islamic groups. Apprehension about a replication of a Crimean scenario as well as the asymmetric character of military threat may push the Central Asian states to
Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric
Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the
The late 1980s saw an astonishing turnaround in the Asian oil market. After years of stagnation, three main factors - economic dynamism, lower oil prices and reduced government regulation of the market - resulted in a consumption surge that surprised even those analysts who had predicted such a recovery. The chronically capacity-surplus refining industry saw a leap in profitability, and new construction began. Rapid demand growth spread from the middle distillates to such formerly depressed products as gasoline and fuel oil, and naphtha markets began to expand again as the petrochemical industry resumed rapid growth. At the same time that demand has been rising and demand patterns have been shifting, other changes have begun. A new environmental awareness has taken root in Asia, and new environmental standards are being set almost daily, not only in the richer countries of East Asia, but also in many of the region's developing nations. Unfortunately, traditional sources of low-sulphur oil for power generation may be limited in the coming decade. Despite many new discoveries within the region, Asian crude availability is shrinking, both in terms of availability on the international market and in terms of percentage contribution to regional oil demand. After years of decreasing reliance, the region will face rapid increases in imports from the Persian Gulf in the 1990s. (author). 16 figs, 4 tabs
Piopiunik, Marc; Schwerdt, Guido; Woessmann, Ludger
Many countries use centralized exit exams as a governance devise of the school system. While abundant evidence suggests positive effects of central exams on achievement tests, previous research on university-bound students shows no effects on subsequent earnings. We suggest that labor-market effects may be more imminent for students leaving school directly for the labor market and, on rigid labor markets, for unemployment. Exploiting variation in exit-exam systems across German states, we fin...
Bukenya, James O.; Hyuha, Theodora; Twinamasiko, Julius; Molnar, Joseph J.
The paper examines profitability and market performance of small-scale fish traders selected randomly from a cross-section of nine fish markets in four districts in Central Uganda. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire which was designed to solicit information on traders’ socio-economic characteristics, marketing characteristics, operating costs and returns, and problems associated with fish marketing in the study area. Percentages were used to describe the socio-economic cha...
Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most exposed regions in the world to landslide hazard. The large variability of local geological materials, together with the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify the hazard and the negative impact of slope failures across the Central Asian countries. As a first step towards a quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment, a landslide susceptibility analysis at regional scale has been carried out, by benefitting of novel seismic hazard outcomes reached in the frame of Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. By combining information coming from diverse potential factors, it is possible to detect areas where a potential for landslides exists. Initial results allow the identification of areas that are more susceptible to landslides with a level of accuracy greater than 70%. The presented method is, therefore, capable of supporting land planning activities at the regional scale in places where only scarce data are available.
This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices. PMID:19121928
Knapp, R B
The current war with Iraq, international interventions in Afghanistan, and the continuous and seemingly insolvable problems in the Middle East emphasize the importance of supporting stable, healthy countries throughout the Middle East and South and Central Asia. The political alliances and foreign aid promulgated by the Cold War have been seriously strained, creating a more uncertain and unstable international environment. We must stay engaged with this part of the world. New partnerships must be forged. Central Asia represents a mix of political systems - from totalitarian rule to nascent democracy; of economic resources from natural to human; and of cultures from ancient to modern - making it of strategic importance to U. S. national and economic security. The U.S. must remain committed and proactively engaged in the region to promote open and democratic societies attractive to outside investment and to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and extremist groups. The U.S is admired for its science and technology and its flexibility in innovation and applying S&T to solve problems. The inherent value that S&T can contribute to advancing U.S. policy goals is the underlying assumption of this report. Science and technology and their applications have much to contribute to social, economic, and environmental sustainability and, therefore, provide a strong foundation for helping the U.S. to implement its policies abroad. The application of concepts such as competition and peer review, open sharing of scientific information through the use of the internet and other information technologies, and the development of international scientific collaborations and networks, can make major contributions to healthy and stable societies in Central Asia. U.S. scientific and technical know-how has much to contribute to U.S. policy goals and easing regional tensions. Science and technology truly can build bridges between nations and cultures while serving the
Carrapa, Barbara; DeCelles, Peter G.; Wang, Xin; Clementz, Mark T.; Mancin, Nicoletta; Stoica, Marius; Kraatz, Brian; Meng, Jin; Abdulov, Sherzod; Chen, Fahu
Plate tectonics and eustatic sea-level changes have fundamental effects on paleoenvironmental conditions and bio-ecological changes. The Paratethys Sea was a large marine seaway that connected the Mediterranean Neotethys Ocean with Central Asia during early Cenozoic time. Withdrawal of the Paratethys from central Asia impacted the distribution and composition of terrestrial faunas in the region and has been largely associated with changes in global sea level and climate such as cooling associated with the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT). Whereas the regression has been dated in the Tarim basin (China), the pattern and timing of regression in the Tajik basin, 400 km to the west, remain unresolved, precluding a test of current paleogeographic models. Here we date the Paratethys regression in Tajikistan at ca. 39 million years ago (Ma), which is several million years older than the EOT (at ca. 34 Ma) marking the greenhouse to icehouse climate transition of the Cenozoic. Our data also show a restricted, evaporitic marine environment since the middle-late Eocene and establishment of desert like environments after ca. 39 Ma. The overall stratigraphic record from the Tajik basin and southern Tien Shan points to deposition in a foreland basin setting by ca. 40 Ma in response to active tectonic growth of the Pamir-Tibet Mountains at the same time. Combined with the northwestward younging trend of the regression in the region, the Tajik basin record is consistent with northward growth of the Pamir and suggests significant tectonic control on Paratethys regression and paleoenvironmental changes in Central Asia.
This research aim to know of advantage of accounting Information system at BCA product of fasilitas ATM setoran tunai for various customer. Beside also to know do applying of transaction procedure real time transaction have ever been adequate and how do handling of bank to cash deposit and customer whwn happened the problem and also to know the effectiveness internal-control owned in PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk to owned by service it. To obtain; get the needed data, writer use the data coll...
The researeh question is forrnulated for this studyas: Did Western seholarly diseourse published in the period between 1950s and 1990s on Turkie identity in Central Asia refleet the Cold War politieal environment? When there is a rivalry between two states or two groups of states, it can be argued that the study of the other side ten ds to be biased and ereated to legitimate the sustainment of the rivalry. When we look at the Cold War political environment, whieh marked division of internatio...
"Following the 9/11/2001 terror attacks in the US, Central Asia moved into the focus of the worldwide efforts aimed at crisis prevention and the fight against terrorism. If the region was no longer perceived merely as the faraway periphery of the crumbled Soviet empire, it now came to be seen as a geographic intersection between East and West, as a boundary line between religious fundamentalism and the secular world, as a poorhouse among the post-socialist countries in transition, and as a po...
Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.
The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.
Akram A. Umarov
Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the U.S. strategy “New Silk Road” and the project of China to establish economic belt “Silk Road”, as well as their implementation in Central Asia. However, the unstable situation in Afghanistan, the lack of sources of financing capital-intensive infrastructure projects, the existence of various contradictions between the countries of this region and other reasons prevent the full implementation of the U.S. strategy. At the same time, the Chinese project faces a lack of precision uncertainty of funding.
Megoran, Nick; Sharapova, Sevara
In 1904 the British geographer Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) delivered a paper to London's Royal Geographical Society entitled The Geographical Pivot of History. He argued that the "Pivot," or "Heart-land" of Eurasia-much of Russia and Central Asia was the key to the balance of power in the world, and the state that controlled it would be well-placed to dominate Eurasia and even the world. His ideas proved controversial, but entered into the vocabulary of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold W...
The Peoples Republic of China’s Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, or eastern Central Asia, is an area that has recently seen large scale ethnic unrest, as the native Uygurs have protested violently against Chinese domination in the region. This thesis is a discussion of the background for why Xinjiang today is under Chinese rule. To and a half centuries ago, in 1755-59, the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636-1911) conquered Xinjiang and incorporated it into their state, and this conquest contributed s...
Wang, Xin; Wei, Haitao; Taheri, Mehdi; Khormali, Farhad; Danukalova, Guzel; Chen, Fahu
Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4-1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets.
This paper discusses a portion of the outcome of a study undertaken by the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ) on commission from the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry under the project title of FY2007 Research for Promotion of Natural Gas Development and Utilization (Study of Natural Gas Supply and Demand Trends in Asia Pacific and Atlantic Markets). The scope of the above study included a fixed-point observation survey on the on-going s...
This paper deals with the question of how research on marketing issues in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) can contribute to the international marketing theory. Regional studies provide valuable insights into business environments, marketing systems and practices in specific countries and geographical areas, which explain their high appeal among marketing practitioners. While contributing to the general body of knowledge in marketing, they often lack a strong role in theory development. Two a...
This paper explores the identity and the social/political behaviour of Russians in post-Soviet Central Asia through a comparison with the Baltic countries via a "hot and cold ethnicity" paradigm. Central Asian Russians are more likely, ceteris paribus, to be found at the "cold" end of the spectrum of "ethnic…
Mirza Hassan Hosseini; Hamed Moezzi
The purpose of present study is to explore impact of marketing mix (price, firm image, distribution intensity, promotion and propaganda) on the brand equity of Asia Insurance Firm in view of its customers and prioritizing of these elements based on significance of their impacts. The statistical population includes customers of Asia Insurance Firm in Shiraz, IRAN. Data is collected using questionnaire. Data is analyzed using Correlation, Regression and Path Analyses methods. The results show t...
Russia's Far East and East Siberia are emerging as new major sources of gas supplies for East Asian energy markets. Thanks to ongoing and earmarked resource and infrastructure developments in Sakhalin, Yakutia (Sakha) and Irkutsk, by around 2020 these poorly developed but naturally endowed areas of the country's East can provide between 50 and 70 Bcm/yr (5-7 Bcfd) of natural gas, including up to 10 Mt/yr of LNG, available for exports to neighbouring Pacific countries (primarily to the PRC, Japan, South Korea as well as to Taiwan and the U.S. West Coast). This can noticeably reshape today's matrix of the Asia-Pacific energy flows and even destabilize the regional gas market. (author)
The State of Hawaii has begun to encourage its economic growth and diversification by increasing the export of U.S. energy, environment, ocean, and information technologies. Hawaii's Strategic Technology Market Assessment and Development (STMAD) program promotes the transfer of U.S. technology into Asia and the Pacific Rim, locations having phenomenal growth potential and vast technological infrastructure demands. The STMAD program is managed by the State's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT). Under the auspices of STMAD, the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii is assessing biomass energy resources of Asian and Pacific Rim countries to identify and investigate sustainable energy markets. This paper reviews the STMAD program and reports findings of renewable energy assessment performed by HNEI and DBEDT. (author)
Full Text Available Newly independent states occur after the collapse of Soviet Union. A number of Turkish Higher Education Institutes were opened in Central Asia after this event. One of them is the International Ataturk Alatoo University. The International Ataturk Alatoo University is one of the first private universities established in the Kyrgyz Republic that started its educational activity in 1996. International Ataturk Alatoo University aims at being the best model for higher education depending on the highest education standards and norms in newly reshaping Central Asia. The International Atatürk Alatoo University has an education mentality motivating free thinking and personal skills in a world in which paradigms are rapidly changing. In this paper, in order to find the answer for ‘what makes International Atatürk Alatoo University different from other institutes’; the strategies and features of International Atatürk Alatoo University were examined from the managerial and educational perspectives, interviews were made with students, lecturers and businessmen. Opinions of those people who have different University experiences (one International Atatürk Alatoo University experience and one local or International were collected and discussed. By this way success factors and problems faced in the region were explained.
Cooperation in the business of oil and natural gas among governments of Central Asia and Northwest China could help the countries overcome obstacles to development of their vast petroleum resources. The most important obstacle facing these countries is also the one most widely discussed: limited infrastructure for transporting energy. But there are other problems holding back oil and gas development. They include poor communications infrastructure, unstable government structures, political conflict, payments difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. For countries analyzed in a recent Asian Development Bank (ADB) study of economic cooperation in the region--Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Xinjiang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (Xinjiang PRC)--oil and gas are the most abundant and valuable natural resources. While Central Asia is poised to become a major world supplier of energy, especially oil and gas, countries in the region emphasize energy self-sufficiency at the expense of developing new trading linkages. Governments thus tend to ignore the benefits of regional cooperation and remain reluctant to commit to area-wide trade and other forms of cooperation. The paper discusses oil and gas sectors; major energy trends, including restructuring, foreign investment, and energy diversification; opportunities for cooperation; impediments to cooperation; and models of cooperation
Full Text Available During the past centuries, many cities in Central Asia have suffered significant damages caused by earthquakes. A crucial step towards preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To accurately identify local variations of the site response at different locations within the cities, earthquakes recorded by seismic networks as well as measurements of the seismic noise can be used for estimating the resonance frequencies and for evaluating the expected level of ground motion at each site. Additionally, the measurements can help identifying site specific features like more-dimensional resonances and directional effects. This information can be complemented with array measurements of ambient seismic noise in order to estimate local shear-wave velocity profiles, an essential parameter for evaluating the dynamic properties of soil, and to characterize the corresponding sediment layers at each site. The present study gives an overview on the progressive development of the seismic zonation studies in the frame of EMCA carried out in several cities in Central Asia.
Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W
Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092
Abdullaev, Iskandar; Rakhmatullaev, Shavkat
The paper discusses vulnerability areas of water sector in arid Central Asia due to climate change projections with particular focus on adaptation to sustainable operation of physical infrastructure capacities (from legal, institutional and technical aspects). Two types of technical installations are the main focus of this paper, i.e., electrical lift irrigation systems and water reservoirs. The first set of electrical lift infrastructure is strategic for delivering water to water users via pumps, diversion structures, vertical drainage facilities and groundwater boreholes; on the other hand, the primarily task of second set of structures is to accumulate the water resources for sectors of economy. In Central Asia, approximately, 20-50% of irrigation water is lifted, yet major of lift structures are in very poor technical conditions coupled with ever increasing of electricity tariffs. Furthermore, useful volumes capacities of water reservoirs are being severely diminished due to bio-physical geomorphologic processes, improper operational regimes and chronic financing for special in-house sedimentation surveys. Most importantly, the key argument is that irrigation sector should internalize its adaptation efforts, i.e., integrate renewable energy technologies, energy audit programs and lastly design comprehensive investment prioritization processes and programs. Otherwise, water sector will be at great risk for continued provision of fundamental services to the public, food security and industry
Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W.
Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935–2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092
Bellotti, Xijuan; Willams, Jonathan
Using a multivariate BEKK GARCH model, we investigate volatility transmission i.e. spillover effects within and between emerging equity markets in Asia and Latin America. Our approach allows cross-border spillover effects to vary over time and we break the time series of market returns into four distinct time intervals which correspond with periods of equity market segmentation, liberalisation, financial crisis, and economic recovery. Generally, volatility transmission is time varying in emer...
In the Central Asia the main limiting factor of sustainable development is increasing water shortage. Even now the overwhelming part of territory of Kazakhstan and the adjacent countries of Central Asia are characterized by a condition of the strongest water stress. Fresh water deficiency is, to this or that extent, observed practically on all the territory of Central Asia and transboundary character of the main rivers is one of the main risk factors for sustainable development of national economy of the countries in this region. For the last 20 years a great number of scientific publications appeared in which their authors express an increasingly serious fears about significant reduction of water resources in the arid regions of the world as a reaction to global warming. One of the arguments substantiating such forecasts is the indisputable fact of a continuous intensive degradation of glaciers. Predominating opinion about the inevitability of glaciers disappearance in Central Asia Mountains cannot be accepted as an axiom. Taking into account stability in the sum of precipitation and especially in the snow resources, one can suppose that glaciers in this region will not disappear during this century. Despite the reduction of glaciers, annual runoff volumes and runoff distribution within a year remained unchanged during the last decades. During the same period, norms of atmospheric precipitation and maximum snow-water storage in the zone of runoff formation remained stable. All these suggest the existence of a certain compensation mechanism. Research, based on data analysis of repeated photogrammetric surveys of a group of glaciers and temperature regime of permafrost in Zailiyskiy Alatau range (Northern Tien Shan), suggests that such mechanism can be more and more significant (with climate warming) participation of melting waters of underground ice (buried glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost) in runoff formation. During last decade the Global Climate system
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
This report provides a baseline of the capacity of Asian Development Bank developing member countries to generate, analyze, disseminate, and use sex-disaggregated data. It introduces a framework on gender statistics and guides in assessing statistical systems in the Southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and West Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan). It recommends ways to bridge the gaps in gender data collec...
This research aims to find out the influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Kantor Cabang Utama Medan. The population of this research are 75 employees of PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Kantor Cabang Utama Medan. This research was selected by using nonprobability sampling which consist of 75 employees of PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Kantor Cabang Utama Medan. Data collections were taken using questionnaire...
Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.
Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies
Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.
The Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market (BACWM) in Argentina supplies 1,500,000 tons of produce yearly to more than 11 million consumers and receives about 13,000 trucks a week from areas within and outside the country. This market faced global transformations with the emergence of superma
The restructuring process of electricity markets in Europe started in the late 1990s and is still going on. This process was triggered by the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity. This article will analyse the recent developments in the liberalised Western and Central European electricity markets and discuss future developments with respect to system adequacy, reliability and security of supply
Central Asian region is bounded in the east corner of the Greater Khingan Range and the Loess Plateau, and to the west - the Caspian Sea. This representation of region boundaries is based on classical works of A.Humboldt and V.Obruchev. Three typical features of Central Asia nature are: climate aridity, extensive inland drainage basins with numerous lakes and mountain systems with developed glaciation. Nowadays the extensive data is accumulated about lake-levels during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Central Asia. Data compilation on 20 depressions, where lakes exist now or where they existed during LGM, shows that most of them had usually higher lake-level than at present time. This regularity could be mentioned for the biggest lakes (the Aral Sea, the Balkhash, the Ysyk-Kol etc.) and for small ones that located in the mountains (Tien Shan, Pamir and Tibet). All of these lake basins get the precipitation due to westerlies. On the other hand lakes, which are located in region's east rimland (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) and get the precipitation due to summer East Asian monsoons, do not comply with the proposed regularity. During LGM these lake-levels were lower than nowadays. Another exception is Lake Manas, its lake-level was also lowered. Lake Manas is situated at the bottom of Junggar Basin. There are many small rivers, which come from the ranges and suffer the violent fluctuation in the position of its lower channel. It is possible to assume that some of its runoff did not get to Lake Manas during LGM. Mentioned facts suggest that levels of the most Central Asian lakes were higher during LGM comparing to their current situation. However, at that period vegetation was more xerophytic than now. Pollen data confirm this information for Tibet, Pamir and Tien Shan. Climate aridization of Central Asia can be proved by data about the intensity of loess accumulation during LGM. This evidence received for the east part of region (the Loess Plateau) and
The main purpose of this paper is to make an analysis on the USA filing agents, and describe the ways through which the USA filing agents can shift their business to Asia. The paper is a description of the USA filing agents, and how they operate. The paper also provides the description of the hurdles that might come in the operations of USA filing agents in case if they want to start their operations in Asia. It make emphasis on the different factors that might come in starting the operations in Asia like the communication factors, the differences in the cultural background, understanding of the SEC rules, and the professionals with which they have to deal. In the end, it is concluded that the main rationale behind the EDGAR, is to enlist the forms of the companies in order to provide the protection to the companies. There are a number of filing agents who perform their duties in terms of providing assistance for validating, updating and recording the files of the companies with Securities and Exchange Commission. If these filing agents need to expand their business in Asian market, then it is necessary for these filing agents to understand the culture, communication modes, SEC rules and the Other requirements. It is very necessary that the filling agents should keep in consideration the fact that the standard or the full disclosure does not provide the complete guarantee about the wastage of the money. Indeed, it is allowed to Securities Exchange Commission that it can bring in force the completeness of the disclosure, but it cannot bring any impact on the quality of the company or the stock of the company.
Gagan Deep Sharma
Full Text Available This study various insights into the returns provided by the stock markets under study and also summarizes the risk behavior of the stock exchanges of South Asia, i.e., India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and Maldives. The study aims at finding out whether the return and risk associated with the stock markets of South Asian nations have been significantly different over time. Finally, the study attempts to suggest to the investor as to which of the stock markets from amongst the SAARC nations provide the investor with a potentially profitable avenue. The study presents the descriptive statistics including Mean percent return (per year and over the entire reference period, Average annual return, maximum and minimum return, Standard deviation, Skewness, Kurtosis and Jarque Bera statistic for the stock exchanges under study. The study finds that the Indian stock markets emerge as a preferable potential avenue for the global investors. Secondly, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka also come across as good investment avenues because of the relatively stable political and economic systems besides offering a high return and reasonable risk.
A rapid growth of investment into clinical research and new drug development has manifested itself by an exponential increase of new products coming onto the worldwide market. The emerging pharmaceutical and biotech markets in Southeast Asia are believed to be extremely promising from a commercial point of view in the next decade. The unique position of the Asian market and the diversity in clinical research initiatives are linked with diverse regulatory requirements for clinical development and registration of new medicines. Some of these differences have an impact on timelines for marketing authorizations in South Korea, China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and other countries. One of the approaches to streamlining regulatory strategy in different countries is the initiation of multicountry international clinical trials trying to address requirements and allowing registration in several regional countries simultaneously. Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries in relation to regulatory requirements and clinical development will facilitate the registration of innovative medicines in this rapidly developing region of the world and enable improved cohesiveness between countries in a drug safety framework. PMID:19168433
Jie BAI; Xi CHEN; Liao YANG; Hui FANG
Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia.Therefore,the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities,and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research.This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period.The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s,TM images from the early 1990s,ETM + images in the late 1990s,and TM images in 2007.The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38％ of the area,from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007.As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part,the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east.There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions.The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions.Most significantly,the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7％ from its original area in 1975.The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7％ during the period 1975-2007.The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types.The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85％,and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1％.Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period.Due to global climate warming,vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked,resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan,and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000.The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff.Consequently,the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.
Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.
Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15
The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing
Peryshkin, A. Yu., E-mail: email@example.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Makarov, P. V., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Eremin, M. O., E-mail: email@example.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)
An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.
Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman
Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019
Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y
This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.
Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.
Full Text Available The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant associations with seed yield per plant. Cluster analyses based on drought tolerance index (DTI grouped accessions into five subgroups with different numbers of accessions in each group. Three groups out of five were characterized by high DTI values and high yields were observed in both, under irrigated and rainfed conditions. This collective group of genotypes demonstrated valuable germplasm traits under stress and may therefore serve as source of useful genes in breeding lentils for drought tolerance.
An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality
Macklin, Mark; Panyushkina, Irina; Toonen, Willem; Chang, Claudia; Seitkaliyev, Meyram; Voyakin, Dmitry
We integrate the environmental history derived from spatial-temporal variability of multi proxies and the prehistory of arid lands from archaeological data in Central Asia in order to determine the relationship between the Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming. This study addresses to developing fluvial achieves and geoarcheological records from the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River and the Talas catchment, a east-bank tributary of the Syr Darya River, in the southern Kazakhstan. The catchments of these steppe rivers flowing northwest had favorable habitats for farming from the Eneolithic to the medieval period as appears from human settlement histories documented with archaeological surveys and in some cases excavations. The river development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and the key archaeological sites have been dated with radiocarbon. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water in downstream Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds, and in the Talas River during the medieval period. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming is proposed, which explains settlement patterns since the first documented use of irrigation in the Iron Age and medieval times. The undertaken research highlights the Holocene human adaptations to the environmental change of floodplains in Central Asia.
G. E. Glazyrin
Full Text Available Glaciers form a great deal of runoff of rivers in Central Asia. It is clear that amount of melted water directly depends on total area of glaciers in the river basins – their glaciation. It is well known that at present the area quickly reduces. The complete inventory of glaciers was performed in former Soviet Union in the middle of last century. Airphoto images were used as a basis for our calculations. The inventory was repeated later for several river basins using airphoto- and space images. Unfortunately only three inventories is performed in several river basins for the last half of XX century. Amount of water, coming to a river network from glaciers, can be divided into two parts. The first is usual annual melting. It exists under stationary glaciation condition. The second, being part of the first, is caused by reduction of the glaciation volume. It can be negative in some years when glaciers volume is increasing as a result of favorable meteorological conditions. In these cases the part of water containing in seasonal snow cover does not go to river network. Two components of the glacial feeding were calculated for six rivers located in various regions of Central Asia. It is shown that present day glaciers reduction does not lead to disastrous consequences for river run-off. It leads only to the changes of annual distribution in the run-off. The results should be considered as preliminary because of low accuracy of hydrometeorolological data and number of admissions during calculation.
CHEN; Fahu; HUANG; Xiaozhong; ZHANG; Jiawu; J.A.Holmes; CHEN; Jianhui
Short sediment cores retrieved from Bosten Lake,the largest inland freshwater lake in China,were used to explore humidity and precipitation variations in arid central Asia during the past millennium.The chronology of the cores was established using 137Cs,210Pb and AMS 14C dating results.Multi-proxy high-resolution analysis,including pollen ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C),carbonate content and grain size,indicates that the climate during the past millennium can be divided into three stages: a dry climate between 1000-1500 AD,a humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (c.1500-1900 AD),and a warm dry period after 1900 AD.On centennial timescales,the climate change in northwestern China during the past 1000 years is characterized by oscillations between warm-dry and cold-humid climate conditions.All the proxies changed significantly and indicate increased precipitation during the LIA,including increased pollen A/C ratios and pollen concentrations,decreased carbonate content and increased grain size.The humid period during the LIA recorded by the Bosten Lake sediments is representative of arid central Asia and is supported by numerous records from other sites.During the LIA,the water runoff into the Keriya River and Tarim River in the Tarim Basin increased,while the ice accumulation in the Guliya ice core increased.Additionally,the lake levels of the Aral and Caspian Sea also rose,while tree-ring analysis indicates that precipitation increased.We hypothesize that both the lower temperature within China and the negative anomalies of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during this period may have contributed to the humid climate within this area during LIA.
In Central Asia (CA) the radioactive waste comes mainly from uranium mining and milling, nuclear weapon testing and nuclear power development and other ionizing sources. This waste was produced, to a greater extent, by the military-industrial complex and the uranium and non-uranium industry, and, to a lesser extent, by the nuclear industry and in the process of use of isotope products. Exploitation and mining of uranium and thorium deposits produce a large amount of solid and liquid radioactive waste, as well volatile contaminants which need a proper management. In Central Asia the wastes are mainly stored at the surface in large piles and represent a long-term potential health and environmental hazard. The process of remediating legacy sites of the past and reducing the threats is now getting under way, with the design and implementation of remediation activities, partly with international support. However, there is a significant lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring etc., as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. Accordingly, the objective of the proposed project is to assist the relevant regulatory authorities in Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan to develop national robust and adequate regulations and procedures, taking into account the international guidance and Norwegian experience with regulatory support projects in Russia. Specific expected results in the project period include: a threat assessment report identifying priority areas for regulatory development, based on the status of current regulatory documents and the hazard presented by the different sites and facilities; development of national radioactive waste management strategies in each country; development of an enhanced regulatory framework for supervision of nuclear matters, and an enhanced safety culture
Fahu CHEN; Jinsong WANG; Liya JIN; Qiang ZHANG; Jing LI; Jianhui CHEN
Surface air temperature variations during the last 100 years (1901-2003) in mid-latitude central Asia were analyzed using Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The results suggest that temperature variations in four major sub-regions, i.e. the eastern monsoonal area, central Asia, the Mongolian Plateau and the Tarim Basin, respectively, are coherent and characterized by a striking warming trend during the last 100 years. The annual mean temperature increasing rates at each sub-region (represen-tative station) are 0.19℃ per decade, 0.16℃ per decade, 0.23℃ per decade and 0.15℃ per decade, respectively.The average annual mean temperature increasing rate of the four sub-regions is 0.18℃ per decade, with a greater increasing rate in winter (0.21℃ per decade). In Asian mid-latitude areas, surface air temperature increased relatively slowly from the 1900s to 1970s, and it has increased rapidly since 1970s. This pattern of temperature variation differs from that in the other areas of China. Notably, there was no obvious warming between the 1920s and 1940s, with temperature fluctuating between warming and cooling trends (e.g. 1920s, 1940s, 1960s, 1980s, 1990s). However, the warming trends are of a greater magnitude and their durations are longer than that of the cooling periods, which leads to an overall warming. The amplitude of temperature variations in the study region is also larger than that in eastern China during different periods.
Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.
Full Text Available Currently, high-income countries use multimodal transportation to export large quantities of secondhand vehicles to low-income countries. Secondhand vehicle export has shown its highest growth in recent years, especially in Korea. The problem of transporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asia is becoming an important issue, but few researchers are interested in it. The objective of this research is to determine the optimal transport network for exporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by combining experts’ opinions and real data from existing transport networks. The fuzzy Delphi method was applied to obtain factors to evaluate alternative multimodal transport networks for moving secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by judgment from experts. The analysis shows that among the five factors (total cost, total time, reliability, security, and transportation capability, total cost is the most considerable factor, followed by reliability, transportation capability, total time, and security. Additionally, in the mainly three multimodal transport networks, the sea+Trans-China Railway route is ranked first, followed by the sea+Trans-Siberian Railway and sea+truck routes.
Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
where state, capital and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia...... contradiction that thus arises is whether capital accumulation is embedded in the national economy to the benefit of society or serves the interests of external actors and interests as well as internal comprador elements. In recent times, due to various evolutions, the United States and the European Union have...... experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...
While mostly undeveloped, tremendous oil resources are found in the largest Central Asian republic, Kazakhstan. Owing to progressive legislation and a determined government, the second largest country of the former USSR is attracting significant investments from overseas energy companies. Continued limited access to global markets may, however, slow future investments unless the existing pipeline network can be expanded. This paper describes current oil exploration and production activities in Kazakhstan, and outlines prospects for future developments. (Author)
Bilal Ahmad Malik
Full Text Available With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region perceived a considerable rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Nowadays, lots of Central Asian Muslims need to be aware of what Islam has termed legal (Halal and illegal (Haram. The process of Islamic revival occurred rapidly soon after the unification of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC and other similar organizations. This interaction tended to be an essential push factor to the previously existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. Besides many other needs, Muslim customer demand appeared as navel movement in the market generally and in banking and financial sector particularly. To satisfy this need, the governments of Muslim majority Central Asian states, namely Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan presented Halal banking and financial goods in the market. In this work, it has been attempted to recognize the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the region and also to investigate the effect of these causes considering the development and progress of Halal banking and financial industry.
Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...
Full Text Available Problem statement: After dissolution of Soviet Union, both of political geography system and dominance ideational structure have deconstructed in central Asia region. In year of 1979 with revolution, Iranian actors was accepted the Islamic republic system in their country, so new actors, structure and exigencies were revealed in Iran and central Asia relations, that cause create new challenges in confronting of Islamic republic of Iran government. Our fundamental question in this research is that: How geopolitical constructs have constituted confronting challenges for Islamic republic of Iran in Central Asia region? Approach: Therefore in this study we tried to explain the question in geographical framework and constructivism approach (on ground as constructivism geography. We had utilized qualitative research method and hermeneutic-positivist procedure in this study. As attention implicated question, the purpose of this article is understand challenges how constitute in reason of geopolitical constructs. Results: Differences in geopolitical constructs, between Iran and countries of central Asia region and also being harmonious construct, these countries with the present actors in the region, has caused an opposition in regional anarchic system between IRI and these countries in region and actors in the region and also form of distribution of capabilities between actors which has caused challenges for IRI. Conclusion: For following its goals against, high level fruition enemies of IRI like USA, Israel and Russian, China competitors from distribution of capabilities in national and international caused many challenges and double-deficiency for IRI.
Laniwidyanti - -
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study analyzed effects of working relationship, working experience and working motivation toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, either simultaneously or partially, as well as the dominant effect toward performance of the employees. This study was conducted in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, including : KCP Lawang, KCP Singosari, KCP Blimbing, KCP Tumpang, with the number of sample 109 persons comprising of 17 managers and 92 employees to identify the effect of working relationship, working experience and working motivation toward the employees’ performance, therefore multiple regression analysis was applied. Results of the study concluded that : (1 The result of the study simultaneously indicated that the variables of the study, working relationship, working experience, and working motivation have significant effect toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, (2 The result of the study partially indicated that the respective variables including working relationship, working experience, and working motivation has significant effect toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang. Among the variables, the dominant one is the variable of working motivation. Keywords: working relationship, working experience, motivation
Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Hungary covering 38% of electricity consumption in the country. The nuclear electricity production of the four VVER440/213 type units in the year of 1999 was 14096 GWh, the second best result in the history of the company. After very detailed safety analyses Paks NPP started a safety upgrading program in 1996, and today the CDF values of the reactor units reached an internationally accepted value. The operational and safety culture and the level of safety was evaluated and reviewed by different international organizations like the IAEA, WENRA, WANO. Based on the conclusions of these international organizations the Paks plant w111 be ready for EU accession after the completion of the ongoing safety upgrading program. Capacity enhancement as a part of the preparation for the market conditions resulted a power upgrade around 20 MW for all four units. This way a relatively small investment in comparison with new installations resulted more efficient to market nuclear capacity. Last year the cost of a generated 1 kWh electricity was 5.98 Ft, which is still to be decreased in 2000. To upgrade the competitiveness of nuclear generation lots of efforts were done in the areas of plant management cost reduction, man-power efficiency upgrade. Un-bundling of activities not directly related to electricity generation in one hand, and more efficient cooperation with other VVER operators and the Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. in certain areas on the other hand are good examples for efficient steps in economic improvement. The company as one of the electricity producers also should follow the capabilities of producers in the neighboring countries like Slovakia and Ukraine, where electricity production is with government subsidiary. To find the right balance between the necessary investments and the market induced cost reduction is one of the most important task in Hungary in Eastern-Europe especially when the nuclear energy
The paper analyzes Turkish Foreign Policy changes towards post-communist Central Asia. It tries to underline the geopolitical and domestic situations both in Turkey and Central Asian countries and compare mainly the Turkish Foreign Policy priorities in 90s and 2000s. These two periods, such as Özalizm and Justice and Development Party (AK Party) periods were also remarked by Turkeys very active multidimensional Foreign Policy (somestimes both qualified as Neo Ottomanism).
This paper studies the dependence structure on Central European, German and UK stock markets within the framework of a semiparametric copula model for weekly stock index return pairs. Although the linear correlation is much lower, we find similar degree of lower tail dependence as between returns on stocks indices representing developed markets. We show in a simulation exercise that the implications of the estimated nonlinear dependencies for portfolio selection and risk management may be not...
Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.
Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91. ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf