Sample records for cell powered automobiles

  1. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  2. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.


    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  3. Solar powered automobile automation for heatstroke prevention

    Singh, Navtej Swaroop; Sharma, Ishan; Jangid, Santosh


    Heatstroke inside a car has been critical problem in every part of the world. Non-exertional heat stroke results from exposure to a high environmental temperature. Exertional heat stroke happens from strenuous exercise. This paper presents a solution for this fatal problem and proposes an embedded solution, which is cost effective and shows the feasibility in implementation. The proposed system consists of information sharing platform, interfacing of sensors, Global System Mobile (GSM), real time monitoring system and the system is powered by the solar panel. The system has been simulated and tested with experimental setup.

  4. Nuclear power and carbon dioxide free automobiles

    Nuclear energy has been developed as a major source of electric power in Canada. Electricity from nuclear energy already avoids the emission of about 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in Canada. This is a significant fraction of the 619 million tonnes of Canadian greenhouse gas emissions in 1995. However, the current scope of application of electricity to end use energy needs in Canada limits the contribution nuclear energy can make to carbon dioxide emission reduction. Nuclear energy can also contribute to carbon dioxide emissions reduction through expansion of the use of electricity to less traditional applications. Transportation, in particular contributed 165 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the Canadian atmosphere in 1995. Canada's fleet of personal vehicles consisted of 16.9 million cars and light trucks. These vehicles were driven on average 21,000 km/year and generated 91 million tonnes of greenhouse gases expressed as a C02 equivalent. Technology to improve the efficiency of cars is under development which is expected to increase the energy efficiency from the 1995 level of about 10 litres/100 km of gasoline to under 3 litres/100km expressed as an equivalent referenced to the energy content of gasoline. The development of this technology, which may ultimately lead to the practical implementation of hydrogen as a portable source of energy for transportation is reviewed. Fuel supply life cycle greenhouse gas releases for several personal vehicle energy supply systems are then estimated. Very substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible due to efficiency improvements and changing to less carbon intensive fuels such as natural gas. C02 emissions from on board natural gas fueled versions of hybrid electric cars would be decreased to approximately 25 million t/year from the current 91 million tonnes/year. The ultimate reduction identified is through the use of hydrogen fuel produced via electricity from CANDU power

  5. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott


    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  6. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)


    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  7. Brand rivalry, market segmentation and the pricing of optional engine power on automobiles

    Verboven, Frank


    This paper analyzes how the prices strategies for base automobile models may differ from those for premium models, sold with extra engine power. The popular monopoly model of market segmentation according to willingness to pay for quality is compared with two models of brand rivalry. In a first scenario, consumer are fully informed of all prices; in a second scenario, consumers are initially only informed about the prices of base models , due to selective price advertising strategies. Impli...

  8. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    Howard, Richard T.


    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  9. Report on commissioned business for fiscal 1997. Development of new power storage system for cells and development of technology for distributed power storage (research for a zinc/air cell system for automobiles); 1997 nendo itaku gyomu hokokusho. Shingata denchi denryoku chozo system kaihatsu bunsangata denryoku chozo gijutsu kaihatsu (denki jidoshayo aen kuki denchi system chosa)



    Concerning the above, it is discussed whether such a system is feasible in Japan. A zinc/air cell system requires some special plants for zinc regeneration, etc. It is necessary to build a zinc refining plant and to install dozens of electrode replacing facilities in an area dozens of kilometers in diameter with the plant at the center. For such a system to be functional, there have to be several tens of thousands of automobile users in a limited area. In Japan, so large a number will not be found anywhere even if the appeal is directed to those in the postal service and electric utilities. There will be no economic success in Japan, different from in Germany. As for the economic comparison between a zinc/air cell system and natural gas system, the two will be equivalent to each other as far as the use of the quick filling stations for the natural gas automobiles remains as it is. When the number in consideration is so large as several tens of thousands, however, the natural gas system will turn out to be economically superior to the zinc/air cell system. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  11. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.


    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  12. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Beremand, D. G.


    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  13. Power hand tool kinetics associated with upper limb injuries in an automobile assembly plant.

    Ku, Chia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G; Karsh, Ben-Tzion


    This study investigated the relationship between pneumatic nutrunner handle reactions, workstation characteristics, and prevalence of upper limb injuries in an automobile assembly plant. Tool properties (geometry, inertial properties, and motor characteristics), fastener properties, orientation relative to the fastener, and the position of the tool operator (horizontal and vertical distances) were measured for 69 workstations using 15 different pneumatic nutrunners. Handle reaction response was predicted using a deterministic mechanical model of the human operator and tool that was previously developed in our laboratory, specific to the measured tool, workstation, and job factors. Handle force was a function of target torque, tool geometry and inertial properties, motor speed, work orientation, and joint hardness. The study found that tool target torque was not well correlated with predicted handle reaction force (r=0.495) or displacement (r=0.285). The individual tool, tool shape, and threaded fastener joint hardness all affected predicted forces and displacements (paverage peak handle force and displacement for right-angle tools were twice as great as pistol grip tools. Soft-threaded fastener joints had the greatest average handle forces and displacements. Upper limb injury cases were identified using plant OSHA 200 log and personnel records. Predicted handle forces for jobs where injuries were reported were significantly greater than those jobs free of injuries (ppower hand tool operations and for controlling exposure to forces in manufacturing jobs involving power nutrunners. Therefore, a combination of tool, work station, and task requirements should be considered. PMID:17474028

  14. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Ozomata David AHMED


    Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, openi...

  15. Solar Energy Automobile

    HE Jianhua


    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  16. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision



    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  17. 电动汽车:一个用电增长点的考察%Electric Automobile: Review of the Point of Growth in Electric Power Consumption

    张媛; 杨定顺; 陈虹; 刘洁; 闫晓生


      "Spread of marketing needs to be considered from thefact of Tianjin City. At least electric automobile is a goodsuggestion on it." said Kou Shiqing, general manager ofTianjin Electric Power Company. In order to widen themarket of electric power and improve the atmosphere qual-ity of city, Tianjin Electric Power Company invited leaderfrom city economy.……

  18. Auto-mobilized adult hematopoietic stem cells advance neovasculature in diabetic retinopathy of mice

    TIAN Bei; LI Xiao-xin; SHEN Li; ZHAO Min; YU Wen-zhen


    Background Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be used to deliver functionally active angiostatic molecules to the retinal vasculature by targeting active astrocytes and may be useful in targeting pre-angiogenic retinal lesions. We sought to determine whether HSC mobilization can ameliorate early diabetic retinopathy in mice.Methods Mice were devided into four groups: normal mice control group, normal mice HSC-mobilized group, diabetic mice control group and diabetic mice HSC mobilized group. Murine stem cell growth factor (murine SCF) and recombined human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-csf) were administered to the mice with diabetes and without diabetes for continuous 5 days to induce autologous HSCs mobilization, and subcutaneous injection of physiological saline was used as control. Immunohistochemical double staining was conducted with anti-mouse rat CD31 monoclonal antibody and anti-BrdU rat antibody.Results Marked HSCs clearly increased after SCF plus G-csf-mobilization. Non-mobilized diabetic mice showed more HSCs than normal mice (P=0.032), and peripheral blood significantly increased in both diabetic and normal mice (P=0.000).Diabetic mice showed more CD31 positive capillary vessels (P=0.000) and accelerated endothelial cell regeneration. Only diabetic HSC-mobilized mice expressed both BrdU and CD31 antigens in the endothelial cells of new capillaries.Conclusion Auto-mobilized adult hematopoietic stem cells advance neovasculature in diabetic retinopathy of mice.

  19. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser-spark devices.

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian


    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COVPmax) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COVPmax and COVPmax and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs. PMID:26831972

  20. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Ozomata David AHMED


    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  1. Regulation on power efficiency in the automobile; Regulacion sobre eficiencia energetica en el automovil

    Maldonado Susano, Armando; Romero de Vivar Uvaldo, Pascual [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    In this article it is presented a brief analysis of one of the regulations on the yield of fuel consumption of the light vehicles that promoted substantial changes in the Mexican automotive industry, the decree denominated PREMCE (Average of minimum fuel yield by company), as well as some international experiences relative to the subject. It is also indicated the evolution, in the last years, of the average yields of fuel consumption (Km/L) in Mexico in the new automobiles and the more important technological factors that affect their energy efficiency. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un breve analisis de una de las regulaciones sobre el rendimiento de consumo de combustible de los vehiculos ligeros que promovio cambios sustanciales en la industria automotriz mexicana, el decreto denominado Premce (Promedio de rendimiento minimo de combustible por empresa), asi como algunas experiencias internacionales relativas al tema. Se senala tambien la evolucion, en los ultimos anos, de los rendimientos promedio de consumo de combustible (Km/L) en Mexico en los automoviles nuevos y los factores tecnologicos mas importantes que influyen en su eficiencia energetica.

  2. 汽车电动滑门设计研讨%Design Research of automobile Power Sliding Door

    崔炳林; 赵云聪


    Automobile Power sliding doors (PSD) system is advanced sliding door system which integrated electronic intelligent control technology and sensor technology based on the sliding door system,and which is widely used in luxury commercial car, and which is more and more popular for consumers because of both the opening convenience of sliding side door and human-machine intelligent controlling.Refer to JAC M6 item,this article describes the technical components and theory of the automotive power sliding door subsystem, and achieves the innovative development of the power sliding door system.%汽车电动滑门(PSD)系统是在滑门系统的基础上,集成电子智能控制技术和传感器防夹技术的高级滑门系统,广泛应用于高档豪华商务车,兼具了滑门侧开启方便性和人机智能控制性,越来越受到消费者的青睐。本文结合江淮M6项目,介绍了汽车电动滑门的各子系统构成和原理,实现了电动滑门系统的自主开发。

  3. Automobile with fuel cell and supercapacitor drive; Personenwagen mit Brennstoffzellen und Supercap-Antrieb - Schlussbericht

    Dietrich, Ph.


    In a Volkswagen BORA a power train has been realized, which includes a fuel cell system consisting of 6 stacks of 8 kW electrical power output each, an electrical storage device made of 282 supercap cells storing 360 Wh of electrical energy, a DC/DC converter and an electric motor which delivers up to 75 kW. The power distribution between supercaps and fuel cell is managed by an energy management device, which optimizes the distribution taking the actual operation points into account. The fuel cell system operates in a wide range with an efficiency higher than 40%. The power train has been integrated in a five seat car. This car named HY.POWER{sup R}, realized as technology platform, drove over the Simplon pass (elevation 2000 m over sea level) on 16 January 2002. This test drive proved the maturity of this concept to drive using this technology on public roads and that also severe operating conditions can be handled successfully. The key aspects of that concepts are the new manufacturing process of the bipolar plates for the fuel cells, the system configuration of the fuel cell system and the enhanced energy density of the supercap cells. The combination of a fuel cell system and of a supercap storage device, together with the integration of the DC/DC converter lead to a new power train concept. The consumption in the NEDC is equal to the energy of 5-6 l gasoline, which is quite impressive if it is remembered that the car has an empty mass of nearly 2000 kg. The HY.POWER{sup R} has been used heavily for the communication of the new technology to the public. The first event was the test drive across the Simplon pass. The main other events was the international auto motor show in Geneva in March 2002 and the presentation of the vehicle at the Earth Summit in Johannesburg in September 2002. (author)

  4. 基于温差发电的汽车电源系统设计%Design of Automobile Power System Based on Thermoelectric Generation



    为了减少传统汽车的燃油消耗以及提高汽车电池的使用寿命,通过对温差发电技术的研究,利用汽车燃烧产生的废气热量进行发电,将温差发电系统与传统汽车电源系统进行优化,为汽车的用电设备进行充电,可以有效的减少汽车燃油消耗以及提高车用电池的寿命,同时也达到相应的环保功用。%In order to reduce the fuel consumption of traditional automobiles and improve the battery life of cars, on the basis of the re-search of the thermoelectric generation technology, waste heat from cars is used for power generation. The optimization with the combi-nation of thermoelectric power generation system and the traditional automobile power system, which is used for automobile electric e-quipment charging can effectively reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve vehicle battery life, at the same time, have correspond-ing environmental protection function.

  5. Theoretical research of carbon dioxide power cycle application in automobile industry to reduce vehicle's fuel consumption

    The current work discusses means to utilize low-grade small-scale energy in vehicle exhaust gases, to reduce the vehicle's fuel consumption and to make it run more environmental friendly. To utilize the energy in the exhaust gas, a CO2 bottoming system in the vehicle's engine system is proposed. Several basic cycles-according to the different design concepts-are presented, and the efficiencies are calculated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). Several thermodynamic models in EES show that after system optimization, in CO2 Transcritical power cycle with a gas heater pressure of 130bars and 200 deg.. C expansion inlet temperature, about 20% of energy in the exhaust gas can be converted into useful work. Increasing the pressure in the gas heater to 300 bars and with same expansion inlet temperature, about 12% of exhaust gas energy can be converted. When raising the pressure both in the gas cooler and in the gas heater, the cycle runs completely above the critical point, and the efficiency is about 19%. Besides, in the CO2 combined cycle, the system COP is 2.322 and about 5% of exhaust gas energy can be converted

  6. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 2. enl. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Stan, Cornel [Berkeley Univ., CA (United States)]|[Paris Univ. (France)]|[Pisa Univ. (Italy)]|[Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[Westsaechsischen Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)


    The implementation possibilities of future drive concepts - from hybrid systems comprising an electric motor and an internal combustion engine to fuel cells to alternative fuels like hydrogen or alcohol - will depend largely on quality criteria, e.g. power density, rotary momentum, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption, emissions of chemical substances, and noise. The boundary criteria for the introduction of realizeable concepts of alternative drives for motor cars will be defined by the availability and storability of the envisaged fuels, technical complexity, cost, safety, infrastructure and service. The book presents and analyzes the processes, drives and energy sources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for motor cars in accordance with the aforementioned criteria. Knowledge about these facts is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The 2nd edition describes many new developments in car propulsion systems as well as their combinations, new energy sources, energy converters and energy stores. All contents and literature reflect the latest state of science and technology. (orig.) [German] Ueber die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von Hybridsystemen Elektro-/Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden fundierte Kriterien der Qualitaet eines Antriebs entscheiden. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind dafuer wichtige Merkmale zur Qualitaetsbeurteilung. Die Verfuegbarkeit und die Speicherfaehigkeit vorgesehener Energietraeger, die technische Komplexitaet, Kosten, Sicherheit, Infrastruktur und Service werden die Randbedingungen fuer die Einfuehrung realisierbarer Konzepte alternativer Antriebe fuer Automobile stellen. Die Uebersicht und die Analyse der Prozesse, Antriebsmaschinen und Energietraeger, die

  7. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Kim, Hwajin


    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  8. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  9. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    Summers, Christopher J.


    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  10. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura


    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  11. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing


    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  12. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  13. The automobile share

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  14. Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: Perspectives on CAR T Cells and Other Cellular Therapies for Hematologic Malignancies.

    Gill, Saar


    Hematologic oncologists now have at their disposal (or a referral away) a myriad of new options to get from point A (a patient with relapsed or poor-risk disease) to point B (potential tumor eradication and long-term disease-free survival). In this perspective piece, we discuss the putative mechanisms of action and the relative strengths and weaknesses of currently available cellular therapy approaches. Notably, while many of these approaches have been published in high impact journals, with the exception of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and of checkpoint inhibitors (PD1/PDL1 or CTLA4 blockade), the published clinical trials have mostly been early phase, uncontrolled studies. Therefore, many of the new cellular therapy approaches have yet to demonstrate incontrovertible evidence of enhanced overall survival compared with controls. Nonetheless, the science behind these is sure to advance our understanding of cancer immunology and ultimately to bring us closer to our goal of curing cancer. PMID:27136938

  15. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav


    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  16. Energy scenario after oil peak for automobiles, food system.. Is hydrogen by nuclear power plant good candidate from view of Energy Profit Ratio

    Oil is usefully for us for automobiles. A hydrogen vehicle is thought as a better candidate for an ordinal vehicle after oil peak. Nuclear hydrogen is the best choice to make hydrogen from water compared to the other way. From view of EPR we must consider whole process, such as making hydrogen by a nuclear power plant, storage it in a tank as liquid, carry it by a tanker to a gas stand ( a hydrogen stand),keep it as high pressure in a stand and supply it to a car as high pressure like from 35 to 70 Pa. I would like to introduce the EPR value of hydrogen vehicle and the points to improve. I would like to introduce other candidates like bio-ethanol from corn and sugar or an electric vehicle or some real candidates by EPR. I would like to show EPR value on food system. Then we will have to seek Energy generation ways which are high EPR value up to 10 compensating low food system EPR value. Nuclear power is the best way to achieve high EPR value. (authors)

  17. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 3. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Stan, Cornel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Pisa Univ. (Italy); Perugia Univ. (Italy); Kronstadt Univ. (Russian Federation)


    This book describes and assesses on the basis of the latest research and development projects worldwide what the possibilities are for the realisation of future drive concepts, ranging from battery-driven electromotors to hybrid systems combining electromotor and combustion engine to alternative energy resources such as hydrogen or alcohol. Power density, torque band, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption and chemical and noise emissions are the most important criteria for assessing the quality of a drive configuration. The boundary conditions for the introduction of alternative automotive drives are determined by the availability or production characteristics and the storability of the energy resources in question as well as by the degree of technical complexity, costs, safety, infrastructure and service. This book provides an updated overview and analysis of the processes, prime movers and energy resources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for automobiles. Up-to-date information of this kind is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The contents in overview: current data and facts on the development of new concepts; compact overview and analysis of processes, prime movers and energy resources; methods and solutions in designing alternative drives. [German] Die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von batteriebetriebenen Elektromotoren und Hybridsystemen bestehend aus Elektro- und Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis hin zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden auf Basis neuesten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten weltweit praesentiert und bewertet. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind wichtige Merkmale zur Beurteilung der Qualitaet einer Antriebskonfiguration. Die Verfuegbarkeit oder die Herstellungsmerkmale sowie die Speicherfaehigkeit

  18. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others


    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  19. The automobile in Japan

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher


    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  20. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)


    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  1. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)


    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  2. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou


    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  3. Northeast:Automobile Feast



    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  4. On the automobile lightweight

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming


    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  5. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Method of a Photovoltaic Power Generator with Consideration of Dynamic Characteristics of Solar Cells

    Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ohniwa, Katsumi

    This paper discusses a new control strategy for photovoltaic power generation systems with consideration of dynamic characteristics of the photovoltaic cells. The controller estimates internal currents of an equivalent circuit for the cells. This estimated, or the virtual current and the actual voltage of the cells are fed to a conventional Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking (MPPT) controller. Consequently, this MPPT controller still tracks the optimum point even though it is so designed that the seeking speed of the operating point is extremely high. This system may suit for applications, which are installed in rapidly changeable insolation and temperature-conditions e.g. automobiles, trains, and airplanes. The proposed method is verified by experiment with a combination of this estimating function and the modified Boehringer's MPPT algorithm.

  6. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  7. Fuel cell - An alternative for power and heat generating

    One of the most promising energy generating technologies is the fuel cell (FC) because of its high efficiency and low emissions. There are even zero chemical emissions FC and cogeneration plants based on FC generate low heat emissions too. FC was invented 160 years ago but it was usually used only since 1960 in space missions. A FC farm tractor was tested 40 years ago. FC was again taken into account by power engineering since 1990 and it is now considered a credible alternative to power and heat generating. The thermal power engineers (and not only they) have two problems of cardinal importance for mankind to solve: - Energy saving (by increasing of energy generating efficiency) and - Environmental protection (by reducing chemical and heat emissions). The possibilities to use FC to generate power and heat are practically endless: on the earth, in the air and outer space, by and under water, in numberless areas of human activities. FC are now powering buses, cars, trains, boats, plains, scooters, highway road signs etc. There are already miniature FC for portable electronics. Homes, schools, hospitals, institutes, banks, police stations, etc are using FC to generate power and heat for their facilities. The methane gas produced by wastewater treatment plants and landfills is converted into electricity by using FC. Being less expensive than nuclear and solar source of energy, FC is now generally used in the space missions (in addition FC generates water). In this work an analysis of the possibilities to use FC especially for combined power and heat generating is presented. FC is favourite as energy source in space missions because it is less expensive than nuclear or solar sources. All major automobile companies have FC powered automobiles in testing stage. Mini FC for phone, laptop, and electronics are already on market. FC will be use to pagers, video recorders, small portable tools, miniature robots, special devices as hearing aid various devices, smoke detectors

  8. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Jovanović Miomir


    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  9. The automobile after tomorrow

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)


    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Automobile Club CERN

    Automobile Club CERN


     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  11. Fuel Cell/Battery Powered Bus System. Final Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997

    Wimmer, R.


    Today, fuel cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop fuel cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using fuel cells as an alternative to the ICE. Three such vehicles (30-foot buses) were introduced beginning in 1994. Extensive development and operational testing of fuel cell systems as a vehicle power source has been accomplished under this program. The development activity investigated total systems configuration and effectiveness for vehicle operations. Operational testing included vehicle performance testing, road operations, and extensive dynamometer emissions testing.

  12. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700oC. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  13. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael


    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  14. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  15. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  16. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  17. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Sheng Yun


    textabstractChery Automobile Co., Ltd. is one of the few private automobile companies in China. Compared to state automobile companies, it lacks adequate resources and state support; compared to joint-venture brands, it cannot leverage popular and profitable international models. Despite these obstacles, Chery has developed dramatically over the last decade, becoming the top automobile exporter among all automobile companies in China. Strategic alliances served as the foundation of its amazin...

  18. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements



    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  19. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    Novaco, Raymond W.


    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  20. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)


    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  1. Regulation of Power Conversion in Fuel Cells

    SHEN Mu-zhong; ZHANG J.; K. Scott


    Here we report a regulation about power conversion in fuel cells. This regulation is expressed as that total power produced by fuel cells is always proportional to the square of the potential difference between the equilibrium potential and work potential. With this regulation we deduced fuel cell performance equation which can describe the potential vs. the current performance curves, namely, polarization curves of fuel cells with three power source parameters: equilibrium potential E0; internal resistance R; and power conversion coefficient K. The concept of the power conversion coefficient is a new criterion to evaluate and compare the characteristics and capacity of different fuel cells. The calculated values obtained with this equation agree with practical performance of different types of fuel cells.

  2. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang;


    propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  3. An impending platinum crisis and its implications for the future of the automobile

    The global demand for platinum has consistently outgrown supply in the past decade. This trend likely will continue and the imbalance may possibly escalate into a crisis. Platinum plays pivotal roles in both conventional automobile emissions control and the envisioned hydrogen economy. A platinum crisis would have profound implications on energy and environment. On the one hand, inadequate platinum supply will prevent widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. On the other hand, expensive platinum may enhance the competitiveness of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery-powered electric cars. Policymakers should weigh the potential impacts of a platinum crisis in energy policy.

  4. System Studies of Fuel Cell Power Plants

    Kivisaari, Timo


    This thesis concerns system studies of power plants wheredifferent types of fuel cells accomplish most of the energyconversion. Ever since William Grove observed the fuel cell effect inthe late 1830s fuel cells have been the subject or more or lessintense research and development. Especially in the USA theseactivities intensified during the second part of the 1950s,resulting in the development of the fuel cells used in theApollo-program. Swedish fuel cell activities started in themid-1960s, w...

  5. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  6. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Feldman, Bernard J.


    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  7. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  8. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet


    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.


    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  10. Scheduling of Power System Cells Integrating Stochastic Power Generation

    Energy supply and climate change are nowadays two of the most outstanding problems which societies have to cope with under a context of increasing energy needs. Public awareness of these problems is driving political willingness to take actions for tackling them in a swift and efficient manner. Such actions mainly focus in increasing energy efficiency, in decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, power systems are undergoing important changes in the way they are planned and managed. On the one hand, vertically integrated structures are being replaced by market structures in which power systems are un-bundled. On the other, power systems that once relied on large power generation facilities are witnessing the end of these facilities' life-cycle and, consequently, their decommissioning. The role of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar power generators is becoming increasingly important in this context. However, the large-scale integration of such type of generation presents many challenges due, for instance, to the uncertainty associated to the variability of their production. Nevertheless, advanced forecasting tools may be combined with more controllable elements such as energy storage devices, gas turbines, and controllable loads to form systems that aim to reduce the impacts that may be caused by these uncertainties. This thesis addresses the management under market conditions of these types of systems that act like independent societies and which are herewith named power system cells. From the available literature, a unified view of power system scheduling problems is also proposed as a first step for managing sets of power system cells in a multi-cell management framework. Then, methodologies for performing the optimal day-ahead scheduling of single power system cells are proposed, discussed and evaluated under both a deterministic and a stochastic framework that directly integrates the

  11. Air breathing lithium power cells

    Farmer, Joseph C.


    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  12. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    Logan, Bruce E.


    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  13. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.


    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  14. The automobile and environmental problems

    Pocci, G.


    Actions taken by Expert's Group WP 29 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the protection of the environment from automobile pollution are reported. Regulation 15, adopted by the group, establishes tests and sets limits for the amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted from internal combustion engine automobile exhaust and crankcases under urban and idling conditions. Regulation 29 specifies limits to the same pollutants emitted from diesel engines, to be determined by measurements of the opacity of exhaust fumes during constant engine operation and acceleration. Regulations limiting pollutant emissions from motorcycles and mopeds have also been established, and, while adherence to these regulations has already reduced vehicle emissions, research is continuing on stricter controls, fuel conservation, test standardization for the United States and Japan, and analysis sampling methods.

  15. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.


    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.


    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova


    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  17. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts


    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  18. Automobile technology of the future

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  19. The dynamics of automobile expenditures

    Copeland, Adam


    This paper presents a dynamic model for light motor vehicles. Consumers solve an optimal stopping problem in deciding if they want a new automobile and when in the model year to purchase it. This dynamic approach allows for determining how the mix of consumers evolves over the model year and for measuring consumers' substitution patterns across products and time. I find that temporal substitution is significant, driving consumers' entry into and exit from the market. Through counterfactuals, ...

  20. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    Renato Fonseca


    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  1. Environmental implications of the automobile

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs


    Tirshu M.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by means of specialized convertor is applied to lighting system. Additionally, paper present data measured by digital weather station (solar radiation and UV index, which is mounted near of PV cells and comparative analyze of solar energy with real energy generated by PV cells is done. Measured parameters by digital weather station are stored by computer in on-line mode.

  3. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh


    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  4. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Peoples, J. A.


    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.


    Tirshu M.; Uzun M; Speian A.; Spivac V.; Bogdan A.


    The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by me...

  6. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  7. The Automobile Buyer Behaviour: Emotional or Rational?

    Economist Phd. Candidate CRUCERU Gheorghe; Assistant Professor Phd. Candidate MICUDA Dan


    The automobile buyer’s behaviour is a specific one and the knowledge and understanding of the motivations is important for the automobile manufacturers and distributors. Automobile buyers are the beneficiaries of complex high technology products, which have a long-term use. The paper is focused on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the buying process, the buyers’ expectations and needs, as essential elements for producers and distributors. When these mechanisms are controlled, the com...

  8. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly


    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  9. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Chattopadhyay O


    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  10. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    Pittini, Riccardo

    traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project......The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared to...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies as...

  11. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)


    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  12. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  13. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen


    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  14. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh


    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    Kerr, Rick [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Troy, MI (United States); Wall, Mark [Independent Energy Partners Technology, LLC., Parker, CO (United States); Sullivan, Neal [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.


    Afonso Carneiro Lima; Edison Fernandes Polo; Fátima Regina Ney Matos


    This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE). The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors...

  17. DAARIA: Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile

    George, Paul; Thouvenin, Indira; Fremont, Vincent; Cherfaoui, Véronique


    International audience Taking into account the drivers' state is a major challenge for designing new advanced driver assistance systems. In this paper we present a driver assistance system strongly coupled to the user. DAARIA 1 stands for Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile. It is an augmented reality interface powered by several sensors. The detection has two goals: one is the position of obstacles and the quantification of the danger represented by them. The...

  18. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    A. Hajizadeh; Hassanzadeh, F.


    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  19. Fuel cells for electric power generation

    After having first briefly illustrated the basic design, construction and operating principles of fuel cells, this paper assesses the progress that has been achieved to date in the development of the phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells. Special attention is given to the design, performance and cost characteristics of the phosphoric acid fuel cells. For example, the paper cites the IFC/Toshiba 4.8 and 11.0 MW models, which have attained efficiencies of 37.5 and 41.0% respectively, and points out that these fuel cells, with efficiencies comparable to those of conventional poly-fuelled and combined cycle power plants, offer the advantages of compact size and better environmental compatibility with respect to the latter. However, fuel cells cannot yet compete with the lower per kWh costs of fossil fuel power plants. The paper concludes with an assessment of Italian fuel cell commercialization efforts, especially those centered around the use of methane fuelled PAFC's, and reviews the status of coordinated international research programs involving Japan, the USA and Italy

  20. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)


    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market

  2. Automobile


    Le groupe Volkswagen, 1er constructeur européen, a récemment annoncé vouloir défier le leader mondial Toyota. Dans ce contexte, les conclusions du suivi scientifique des profondes réformes de l’organisation du travail chez VW tombent à point nommé. Le programme Auto 5000 adopté par les partenaires sociaux en juin 2006 pourrait être la réplique allemande à ce « toyotisme » sur lequel Toyota a construit sa nouvelle compétitivité. (ib)


    A. D. Gusev


    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  4. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  5. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  6. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.


    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  7. Fuel-cell based power generating system having power conditioning apparatus

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Pradhan, Sanjaya K.


    A power conditioner includes power converters for supplying power to a load, a set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the fuel-cell stack to the power converters, and another set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the battery to the power converters. The power conveners output combined power that substantially optimally meets a present demand of the load.


    Viorel Pop


    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  9. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    A. Hajizadeh


    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  10. Power Conversion System Strategies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Kaushik Rajashekara


    Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly fuel cell vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, power conversion strategies for propulsion and auxiliary power unit applications are described. The power electronics strategies for the successful development of the fuel cell vehicles are presented. The fuel cell systems for propulsion and for auxiliary power unit applications are also discussed.

  11. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  12. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  13. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.


    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)


    A. I. Bobrovnik


    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile


    Afonso Carneiro Lima


    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  16. High efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycles

    Morehead, H. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    An outline of the Westinghouse high-efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle is presented. The following topics are discussed: The Westinghouse SOFC pilot manufacturing facility, cell scale-up plan, pressure effects on SOFC power and efficiency, sureCell versus conventional gas turbine plants, sureCell product line for distributed power applications, 20 MW pressurized-SOFC/gas turbine power plant, 10 MW SOFC/CT power plant, sureCell plant concept design requirements, and Westinghouse SOFC market entry.

  17. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Tabor, D.


    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  18. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei


    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  19. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin


    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.


    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.


    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  1. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    Wagner, Michael


    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  2. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa


    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  3. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    Singh, Gagandeep


    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  4. Novel power electronic interface for grid-connected fuel cell power generation system

    Highlights: • A fuel cell power generation system was composed of a DC–DC power converter and a DC–AC inverter. • A voltage doubler based topology was adopted to configure the DC–DC power converter. • A dual buck power converter and a full-bridge power converter were applied to the DC–AC inverter. • The DC–AC inverter outputs a five-level voltage. • The DC–AC inverter performs the functions of DC–AC power conversion and active power filter. - Abstract: A novel power electronic interface for the grid-connected fuel cell power generation system is proposed in this paper. This power electronic interface is composed of a DC–DC power converter and a DC–AC inverter. A voltage doubler based topology is adopted to configure the DC–DC power converter to perform high step-up gain for boosting the output voltage of the fuel cell to a higher voltage. Moreover, the input current ripple of the fuel cell is suppressed by controlling the DC–DC power converter. The DC–AC inverter is configured by a dual buck power converter and a full-bridge power converter to generate a five-level AC output voltage. The DC–AC inverter can perform the functions of DC–AC power conversion and active power filtration. A 1.2 kW hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of the proposed power electronic interface for the grid-connected fuel cell power generation system. The experimental results show that the proposed power electronic interface for the grid-connected fuel cell power generation system has the expected performance

  5. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  6. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Fontela, Pablo [Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A., Av del mediterraneo 22, Parque Tecnologico de Leganes, Leganes (Spain); Soria, Antonio [Area of Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, Jose Francisco; de Blas, Juan [R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Gauchia, Lucia [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University, Universidad Carlos III, Av. Universidad 30, Leganes (Spain); Martinez, Juan M. [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University (Spain)


    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness,..), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions. (author)

  7. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Jun Fujimoto


    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  8. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.


    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  9. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet


    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  10. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)


    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  11. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam


    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  12. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  13. Mechanisms of injury in automobile crashes.

    Huelke, D F


    The only way to determine the causes of injury in automobile collisions is through examination of data collected in detailed investigation of crashes. Such data were gathered from a ten-year study of collisions that caused injury to the occupants of the cars. In a comparison of injuries in the newer model automobiles-vehicles equipped with the safety features-with those in older model cars not equipped with the present-day occupant protection devices, significant reduction in injury severity was noted. PMID:5059662

  14. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    Tang, Dawei


    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  15. The 'Overly-Broad' Selden Patent, Henry Ford and Development in the Early US Automobile Industry

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D


    A current policy concern is that the alleged uncertainty over the enforceability of “overly-broad” patents of “dubious validity” may retard innovation. We take the Selden patent on the automobile as a classic of this type of patent. We review the evidence of commercial development during its term...... would not support the broad construction of those claims. Ford’s and the Ford Motor Co.’s confidence in their understanding was powerfully illustrated by their Company’s public offer to indemnify purchasers of Ford automobiles against the threatened suits for infringement under the Selden patent. This...


    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.


    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  17. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou


    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.


    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri


    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  19. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang


    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  20. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun


    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  1. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.


    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  2. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.


    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  3. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  4. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Feldman, Bernard J.


    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  5. Applying fuel cell experience to sustainable power products

    King, Joseph M.; O'Day, Michael J.

    Fuel cell power plants have demonstrated high efficiency, environmental friendliness, excellent transient response, and superior reliability and durability in spacecraft and stationary applications. Broader application of fuel cell technology promises significant contribution to sustainable global economic growth, but requires improvement to size, cost, fuel flexibility and operating flexibility. International Fuel Cells (IFC) is applying lessons learned from delivery of more than 425 fuel cell power plants and 3 million h of operation to the development of product technology which captures that promise. Key findings at the fuel cell power plant level include: (1) ancillary components account for more than 40% of the weight and nearly all unscheduled outages of hydrocarbon-fuelled power plants; a higher level of integration and simplification is required to achieve reasonable characteristics, (2) hydrocarbon fuel cell power plant components are highly interactive; the fuel processing approach and power plant operating pressure are major determinants of overall efficiency, and (3) achieving the durability required for heavy duty vehicles and stationary applications requires simultaneous satisfaction of electrochemical, materials and mechanical considerations in the design of the cell stack and other power plant components. Practical designs must minimize application specific equipment. Related lessons for stationary fuel cell power plants include: (1) within fuel specification limits, natural gas varies widely in heating value, minor constituents such as oxygen and nitrogen content and trace compounds such as the odorant; (2) city water quality varies widely; recovery of product water for process use avoids costly, complicated and site-specific water treatment systems, but water treatment is required to eliminate impurities and (3) the embedded protection functions for reliable operation of fuel cell power conditioners meet or exceed those required for connection to

  6. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  7. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao;


    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  8. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry


    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  9. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  10. Process modeling of fuel cell vehicle power system

    CHEN LiMing; LIN ZhaoJia; MA ZiFeng


    Constructed here is a mathematic model of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Power System which is composed of fuel supply model, fuel cell stack model and water-heat management model. The model was developed by Matiab/Simulink to evaluate how the major operating variables affect the output performances. Itshows that the constructed model can represent characteristics of the power system closely by comparing modeling results with experimental data, and it can be used in the study and design of fuel cell vehicle power system.

  11. The Power and the Promise of Cell Reprogramming: Personalized Autologous Body Organ and Cell Transplantation

    Ana Belen Alvarez Palomo; Michaela Lucas; Dilley, Rodney J.; Samuel McLenachan; Fred Kuanfu Chen; Jordi Requena; Marti Farrera Sal; Andrew Lucas; Inaki Alvarez; Dolores Jaraquemada; Michael J. Edel


    Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or direct reprogramming to desired cell types are powerful and new in vitro methods for the study of human disease, cell replacement therapy, and drug development. Both methods to reprogram cells are unconstrained by the ethical and social questions raised by embryonic stem cells. iPSC technology promises to enable personalized autologous cell therapy and has the potential to revolutionize cell replacement therapy and rege...

  12. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)


    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  13. Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Characteristics Prediction

    Marian GAICEANU


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deduce the specific characteristics of the CHP 100kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC Power System from the steady state experimental data. From the experimental data, the authors have been developed and validated the steady state mathematical model. From the control room the steady state experimental data of the SOFC power conditioning are available and using the developed steady state mathematical model, the authors have been obtained the characteristic curves of the system performed by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation. As a methodology the backward and forward power flow analysis has been employed. The backward power flow makes possible to obtain the SOFC power system operating point at different load levels, resulting as the load characteristic. By knowing the fuel cell output characteristic, the forward power flow analysis is used to predict the power system efficiency in different operating points, to choose the adequate control decision in order to obtain the high efficiency operation of the SOFC power system at different load levels. The CHP 100kWe power system is located at Gas Turbine Technologies Company (a Siemens Subsidiary, TurboCare brand in Turin, Italy. The work was carried out through the Energia da Ossidi Solidi (EOS Project. The SOFC stack delivers constant power permanently in order to supply the electric and thermal power both to the TurboCare Company and to the national grid.

  14. Synthesis on power electronics for large fuel cells: From power conditioning to potentiodynamic analysis technique

    Highlights: • Active load for fuel cell managing electrical drive constraints: frequency and current ripple can be adjusted independently. • Multi-port resonant soft-switched topology for power management of a thirty kilowatt segmented PEM fuel cell. • Splitting current control strategy for power segmented PEM fuel cell in case of a segment is under fault. • Reversible Buck topology for large fuel cell with control of the fuel cell potential linked to current density nonlinearity. - Abstract: The work addressed in this paper deals with a synthesis on power electronic converters used for fuel cells. The knowledge gap concerns conceptually different electronic converter architectures for PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells able to perform three types of functionalities: The first one is the capacity of emulating an active load representative of electrical drive constraints. In that case, frequency and fuel cell current ripple can be set independently to investigate the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell. The second one is power conditioning applied to large high power and segmented fuel cell systems (“Large” represents several tens of cells and multi-kilowatt stacks), which is a non trivial consideration regarding the topological choices to be made for improving efficiency, compactness and ensure operation under faulty condition. A multi-port resonant isolated boost topology is analyzed enabling soft switching over a large operating range for a thirty kilowatt segmented fuel cell. A splitting current control strategy in case of a segment is under fault is proposed. Each considered converter topologies meet specific constraints regarding fuel cell stack design and power level. The third functionality is the ability for the power electronics to perform analysis and diagnosis techniques, like the cyclic voltammetry on large PEM fuel cell assemblies. The latter technique is an uncommon process for large fuel cell stacks since it is rather performed on

  15. A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D.


    This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications. The target application is the power source of a dc electric motor for a model car constructed by first-year engineering students as part of their introductory course design project and competition. The battery is composed of a series of lemon juice cells made from UV vis cuvets that use a magnesium anode and copper cathode. Dilution of the lemon juice to reduce the rate of corrosion of the magnesium anode and the addition of table salt to reduce the internal resistance of the cell are examined. Although our specific interest is the use of this lemon cell battery to run an electric dc motor, high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and other battery-powered toys are equally appropriate for demonstration and laboratory purposes using this battery.

  16. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the regenerative fuel cell project element is to develop power and energy storage technologies that enable new capabilities for future human space...

  17. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    Tvrdý, Josef


    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  18. Fuel Cell Assisted PhotoVoltaic Power Systems

    Tesfahunegn, Samson Gebre


    Distributed generation (DG) systems as local power sources have great potential to contribute toward energy sustainability, energy efficiency and supply reliability. This thesis deals with DGs that use solar as primary energy input, hydrogen energy storage and conversion technologies (fuel cells and water electrolyzers) as long term backup and energy storage batteries and supercapacitors as short term backup. Standalone power systems isolated from the grid such as those used to power remote a...

  19. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin


    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  20. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László


    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  1. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas


    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...


    Sexauer, Benjamin; Roe, Terry L.; Kinsey, Jean D.


    The model in this paper integrates the possibility of misinformation into consumer utility theory. If the utility realized from a good differs from the utility anticipated at time of purchase, shifts in demand would occur, and thus changes in consumer surplus. These changes provide a measure of the cost of misinformation or value of improved information. The empirical analysis yields estimates of the private and social cost of inaccuracies in automobile buyers; pre-purchase mileage estimates....

  3. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin


    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  4. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  5. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Chattopadhyay O


    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  6. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  7. Power overshoot in two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC).

    Nien, Po-Chin; Lee, Chin-Yu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Adav, Sunil S; Liu, Lihong; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi; Lee, Duu-Jong


    A two-chamber microbial fuel cell was started using iron-reducing strains as inoculum and acetate as carbon sources. The tested microbial fuel cell had an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, and reached 1045 mA m(-2) and a power density of 486 mW m(-2) at 0.46 V before power overshoot occurred. Anodic reactions were identified as the rate-determining steps. Stirring the anolyte insignificantly increased cell performance, suggesting a minimal external mass transfer resistance from the anolyte to the anodic biofilm. Data regression analysis indicates that charge transfer resistance at the biofilm-anode junction was negligible. The order of magnitude estimation of electrical conductance indicates that electron transfer resistance had an insignificant effect on microbial fuel cell performance. Resistance in electrogens for substrate utilization is proposed to induce microbial fuel cell power overshoot. PMID:21295969

  8. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher


    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  9. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  10. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    James, Brian D. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Kalinoski, Jeffrey A. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Baum, Kevin N. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States)


    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    James, Brian D. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Kalinoski, Jeffrey A. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Baum, Kevin N. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States)


    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  12. Power-cancellation of CW-complexes with few cells

    Llerena, Irene


    In this paper, we use the fact that the rings of integer matrices have the power-substitution property in order to obtain a powercancellation property for homotopy types of CW-complexes with one cell in dimensions 0 and 4n and a finite number of cells in dimension 2n.

  13. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    White, D.J. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  14. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  15. Power generation properties of Direct Flame Fuel Cell (DFFC)

    This paper investigated the effect of cell temperature and product species concentration induced by small-jet flame on the power generation performance of Direct Flame Fuel Cell (DFFC). The cell is placed above the small flame and heated product gas is impinged toward it and this system is the simplest and smallest unit of the power generation device to be developed. Equivalence ratio (φ) and the distance between the cell and the burner surface (d) are considered as main experimental parameters. It turns out that open circuit voltage (OCV) increases linearly with the increase of temperature in wide range of equivalence ratios. However, it increases drastically at which the equivalence ratio became small (φ ≤ 2.0) showing inner flame clearly. This result suggests that OCV depends on not only cell temperature but also the species concentration exposed to the cell. It is suggested that Nernst equation might work satisfactory to predict OCV of DFFC

  16. Smart Energy Management of Multiple Full Cell Powered Applications

    Mohammad S. Alam


    In this research project the University of South Alabama research team has been investigating smart energy management and control of multiple fuel cell power sources when subjected to varying demands of electrical and thermal loads together with demands of hydrogen production. This research has focused on finding the optimal schedule of the multiple fuel cell power plants in terms of electric, thermal and hydrogen energy. The optimal schedule is expected to yield the lowest operating cost. Our team is also investigating the possibility of generating hydrogen using photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells through finding materials for efficient light harvesting photoanodes. The goal is to develop an efficient and cost effective PEC solar cell system for direct electrolysis of water. In addition, models for hydrogen production, purification, and storage will be developed. The results obtained and the data collected will be then used to develop a smart energy management algorithm whose function is to maximize energy conservation within a managed set of appliances, thereby lowering O/M costs of the Fuel Cell power plant (FCPP), and allowing more hydrogen generation opportunities. The Smart Energy Management and Control (SEMaC) software, developed earlier, controls electrical loads in an individual home to achieve load management objectives such that the total power consumption of a typical residential home remains below the available power generated from a fuel cell. In this project, the research team will leverage the SEMaC algorithm developed earlier to create a neighborhood level control system.

  17. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M


    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  18. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)


    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  19. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter


    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  20. Fuzzy Control of Polymer Fuel Cell for Attract Maximum Power

    Zahra Nejati


    Full Text Available Polymer fuel cell is one of the most attractive of fuel cell from point of the design and operation and also in comparison with other types of fuel cell, for a weight and size, polymer fuel cell produces more power. But however, one of the problems to use of this system is its low efficiency .To overcome the low efficiency of the fuel cell polymer in this paper is tried to used from maximum power point tracking. According to the characteristic of the flow –power the fuel cell, which is a non-linear curve and has a maximum point and use of the fuzzy controller and the proper selection of input and output membership functions trying to the System always works at maximum power. For this purpose, a chopper is used between the fuel cell and the load and to adjust the duty cycle of the applied signal to it is applied the fuzzy-TSK type controller that Its inputs are stream slope and slope changes. The results show that this controller has a good performance and that is faster compared with the perturbation and observation method.

  1. Single Glucose Biofuel Cells Implanted in Rats Power Electronic Devices

    Zebda, A.; Cosnier, S.; Alcaraz, J.-P.; Holzinger, M.; Le Goff, A.; Gondran, C.; Boucher, F.; Giroud, F.; Gorgy, K.; Lamraoui, H.; Cinquin, P.


    We describe the first implanted glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) that is capable of generating sufficient power from a mammal's body fluids to act as the sole power source for electronic devices. This GBFC is based on carbon nanotube/enzyme electrodes, which utilize glucose oxidase for glucose oxidation and laccase for dioxygen reduction. The GBFC, implanted in the abdominal cavity of a rat, produces an average open-circuit voltage of 0.57 V. This implanted GBFC delivered a power output of 38.7 μW, which corresponded to a power density of 193.5 μW cm−2 and a volumetric power of 161 μW mL−1. We demonstrate that one single implanted enzymatic GBFC can power a light-emitting diode (LED), or a digital thermometer. In addition, no signs of rejection or inflammation were observed after 110 days implantation in the rat. PMID:23519113

  2. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    development for the combinations. Overall, none of the alternatives emerges as a clear winner, lowering the externalities and improving sustainability, while considering technology issues and vehicle attributes. The majority of the alternatives are not likely to displace the baseline automobile. However, the attractiveness of the alternatives depends on the focus of future regulations, government priorities, and technology development. If long-term global sustainability is the principal concern, then improvements in fuel economy alone will not provide the level of reduction in impact required. A switch to renewable fuels (e.g., alcohols or diesel produced from biomass) to power the vehicles will likely be necessary. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Influence of brand on Chinese consumers’ behaviours in Automobile choice: An investigation on Chinese customers’ buying attitudes towards domestic and foreign car brands

    Wang, Luqi


    In recent years, branding as a powerful tool to influence consumer behaviors has becoming a hot topic in the marketing literature. But few studies focus on the influence of brands on Chinese consumers’ behaviors, especially their buying attitudes in the automobile market. This dissertation attempts to investigate the influence of brand on Chinese consumers’ behaviors in automobile choice and their buying attitudes towards domestic and foreign brands. The author chose the qualitative research ...

  4. Opportunities and issues for hydrogen-powered PEM fuel cell stationary power systems

    Richards, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gyger, R. [Mosaic Energy, Marilleville, IN (United States)


    The future potential of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell for stationary power applications was reviewed in this power point presentation along with the potential market opportunities and issues. A company profile of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mosaic Energy was also provided. IGT is a technology development organization involved in electrochemical technology, energy systems, combustion technology, bio-remediation technology and gas operations. Mosaic Energy is a joint venture company owned by IGT. Their goal is to commercial PEM fuel cell systems for both residential and commercial markets. Fuel cells could be used to provide electricity to buildings, communications power, industrial cogeneration, utility ancillary services, and portable and remote power applications. PEM fuel cells, however, will be limited to smaller applications such as building baseload power and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). A large number of hydrogen storage units would be needed for such purposes, creating an initial market for new storage technologies. It was also noted that the specific hydrogen opportunity is limited by supply and infrastructure cost. Hydrogen is more suitable for UPS markets but more refinement is still needed in hydrogen storage even in this domain. 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. A portable power system using PEM fuel cells

    Long, E. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)


    Ball has developed a proof-of-concept, small, lightweight, portable power system. The power system uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, stored hydrogen, and atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant to generate electrical power. Electronics monitor the system performance to control cooling air and oxidant flow, and automatically do corrective measures to maintain performance. With the controller monitoring the system health, the system can operate in an ambient environment from 0 C to +50 C. The paper describes system testing, including load testing, thermal and humidity testing, vibration and shock testing, field testing, destructive testing of high-pressure gas tanks, and test results on the fuel cell power system, metal hydride hydrogen storage, high-pressure hydrogen gas storage, and chemical hydride hydrogen storage.



    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.




    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...




    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  9. How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics? Evidence from the Automobile Industry

    Sharon Novak; Scott Stern


    This paper examines the impact of vertical integration on the dynamics of performance over the automobile product development lifecycle. Building on recent work in organizational economics and strategy, we evaluate the relationship between vertical integration and different performance margins. Outsourcing facilitates access to cutting-edge technology and the use of high-powered performance contracts. Vertical integration allows firms to adapt to unforeseen contingencies and customer feedback...

  10. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  11. Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU

    Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.


    In recent years interest has been growing in using fuel cell powered auxiliary power units (APUs) to reduce idling in line-haul trucks. Demonstrations of this technology have been constructed at universities and within industry, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Invariably, in every design, tradeoffs need to be made and this has resulted in a multitude of different APU solutions that address different aspects of the problem. This paper reviews some of the recent work re...

  12. Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU

    Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.


    In recent years interest has been growing in using fuel cell powered auxiliary power units (APUs) to reduce idling in line-haul trucks. Demonstrations of this technology have been constructed at universities and within industry, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Invariably, in every design, tradeoffs need to be made and this has resulted in a multitude of different APU solutions that address different aspects of the problem. This paper reviews some of the recent work related to ...

  13. Thermionic Power Cell To Harness Heat Energies for Geothermal Applications

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Greer, Harold F.


    A unit thermionic power cell (TPC) concept has been developed that converts natural heat found in high-temperature environments (460 to 700 C) into electrical power for in situ instruments and electronics. Thermionic emission of electrons occurs when an emitter filament is heated to gwhite hot h temperatures (>1,000 C) allowing electrons to overcome the potential barrier and emit into the vacuum. These electrons are then collected by an anode, and transported to the external circuit for energy storage.

  14. Thermoelectric cells cogeneration from biomass power plant: literature review

    Bianchini, Augusto; Donini, Filippo; Pellegrini, Marco


    Thermoelectric cells convert directly heat into electricity but, due to the low conversion efficiency (up to 5%), most applications are in waste heat recovery. Another promising application is in biomass boiler. In this case, the installation of thermoelectric modules converts a biomass boiler into a cogeneration system, where the aim of the integration is not the electricity production for external power supply, but the realization of a stand-alone biomass power plant which could match the c...

  15. Maximum power point tracking control of direct methanol fuel cells

    Zhang, Mingbo; Yan, Ting; Gu, Jinguang


    The performance of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is closely related to its operating conditions, and there is a specific combination of operating conditions at which the DMFC produces maximum power. Working at the maximum power point (MPP) can lower the methanol crossover rate and ancillary power consumption, improving the global efficiency of the system. The fuzzy controller proposed in this paper provides a simple and robust way to keep the DMFC working at the MPP by adjusting the operating conditions followed by the variation of the driven load in real time. Simulation shows that the fuzzy control approach can yield satisfactory results.

  16. Single Glucose Biofuel Cells Implanted in Rats Power Electronic Devices

    Zebda, A.; Cosnier, S.; J.-P. Alcaraz; Holzinger, M.; A. Le Goff; Gondran, C.; Boucher, F.; Giroud, F.; Gorgy, K.; Lamraoui, H.; Cinquin, P.


    We describe the first implanted glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) that is capable of generating sufficient power from a mammal's body fluids to act as the sole power source for electronic devices. This GBFC is based on carbon nanotube/enzyme electrodes, which utilize glucose oxidase for glucose oxidation and laccase for dioxygen reduction. The GBFC, implanted in the abdominal cavity of a rat, produces an average open-circuit voltage of 0.57 V. This implanted GBFC delivered a power output of 38.7 μW...

  17. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)


    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  18. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    Filip, Vojtěch


    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...


    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.


    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.


    A. Kryvokon


    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  1. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.


    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  2. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    Strauss, Jason


    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  3. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.


    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  4. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.


    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  5. Low power ultrasound inhibits cell proliferation and invasion of human cancer cells in vitro

    Etienne Mfoumou


    Full Text Available Background: Applications of ultrasound in medicine for therapeutic purposes have been accepted, and they have several beneficial uses for many years. However, the outcome of low power ultrasound waves on cell proliferation, especially cell cycle progression and invasion as well as their associated genes on human breast and cervical cancer cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, we examined the effect of low power ultrasound on BT20, BT20-E6/E7 and HeLa cell lines. Materials and Methods: BT20, BT20-E6/E7 and HeLa cell lines were used in this study. On the other hand, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and invasion assays were applied to study the effect of low ultrasound irradiation on these cell lines. Meanwhile, western blot was performed to study the expression patterns of some selected genes associated with this effect. Results: We found that low power ultrasound inhibits cell proliferation and provokes G0-G1 cell cycle arrest and reduction of S as well as an increase in the G2-M phase of HeLa cells in comparison with the untreated cells. This is accompanied by a down-regulation of Cdk-6 (cyclin dependent kinase which is a major control switch for the cell cycle. Moreover, low power ultrasound inhibits cell invasion and consequently down-regulates the expression of Id-1, caveolin, and EGF-R which are widely considered as main regulators of cell invasion and metastasis of human cancer. Conclusion: These results suggest that application of low power ultrasound on human breast and cervical cancer could be an effective method to reduce cell proliferation and invasion of these cancers.

  6. CMOS Low Power Cell Library for Digital Design

    Kanika Kaur


    Full Text Available Historically, VLSI designers have focused on increasing the speed and reducing the area of digital systems. However, the evolution of portable systems and advanced Deep Sub-Micron fabrication technologies have brought power dissipation as another critical design factor. Low power design reduces cooling cost and increases reliability especially for high density systems. Moreover, it reduces the weight and size of portable devices. The power dissipation in CMOS circuits consists of static and dynamic components. Since dynamic power is proportional to V2 dd and static power is proportional to Vdd, lowering the supply voltage and device dimensions, the transistor threshold voltage also has to be scaled down to achieve the required performance. In case of static power, the power is consumed during the steady state condition i.e when there are no input/output transitions. Static power has two sources: DC power and Leakage power. Consecutively to facilitate voltage scaling without disturbing the performance, threshold voltage has to be minimized. Furthermore it leads to better noise margins and helps to avoid the hot carrier effects in short channel devices. In this paper we have been proposed the new CMOS library for the complex digital design using scaling the supply voltage and device dimensions and also suggest the methods to control the leakage current to obtain the minimum power dissipation at optimum value of supply voltage and transistor threshold. In this paper CMOS Cell library has been implemented using TSMC (0.18um and TSMC (90nm technology using HEP2 tool of IC designing from Mentor Graphics for various analysis and simulations.


    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...


    Allan Jones


    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  9. Retinal ganglion cell distribution and spatial resolving power in elasmobranchs.

    Lisney, Thomas J; Collin, Shaun P


    The total number, distribution and peak density of presumed retinal ganglion cells was assessed in 10 species of elasmobranch (nine species of shark and one species of batoid) using counts of Nissl-stained cells in retinal wholemounts. The species sampled include a number of active, predatory benthopelagic and pelagic sharks that are found in a variety of coastal and oceanic habitats and represent elasmobranch groups for which information of this nature is currently lacking. The topographic distribution of cells was heterogeneous in all species. Two benthic species, the shark Chiloscyllium punctatum and the batoid Taeniura lymma, have a dorsal or dorso-central horizontal streak of increased cell density, whereas the majority of the benthopelagic and pelagic sharks examined exhibit a more concentric pattern of increasing cell density, culminating in a central area centralis of higher cell density located close to the optic nerve head. The exception is the shark Alopias superciliosus, which possesses a ventral horizontal streak. Variation in retinal ganglion cell topography appears to be related to the visual demands of different habitats and lifestyles, as well as the positioning of the eyes in the head. The upper limits of spatial resolving power were calculated for all 10 species, using peak ganglion cell densities and estimates of focal length taken from cryo-sectioned eyes in combination with information from the literature. Spatial resolving power ranged from 2.02 to 10.56 cycles deg(-1), which is in accordance with previous studies. Species with a lower spatial resolving power tend to be benthic and/or coastal species that feed on benthic invertebrates and fishes. Active, benthopelagic and pelagic species from more oceanic habitats which feed on larger, more active prey, possess a higher resolving power. Additionally, ganglion cells in a juvenile of C. punctatum, were retrogradely-labeled from the optic nerve with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). A comparison

  10. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.


    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  11. Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells for Synergistically Enhanced Power Production

    Kim, Younggy


    A new type of bioelectrochemical system for producing electrical power, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis cell (MRC), was developed to increase voltages and power densities compared to those generated individually by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems. In RED systems, electrode overpotentials create significant energy losses due to thermodynamically unfavorable electrode reactions, and therefore a large number of stacked cells must be used to have significant energy recovery. This results in high capital costs for the large number of membranes, and increases energy losses from pumping water through a large number of cells. In an MRC, high overpotentials are avoided through oxidation of organic matter by exoelectrogenic bacteria on the anode and oxygen reduction on the cathode. An MRC containing only five pairs of RED cells, fed solutions typical of seawater (600 mM NaCl) and river water (12 mM NaCl) at 0.85 mL/min, produced up to 3.6 W/m2 (cathode surface area) and 1.2-1.3 V with acetate as a substrate. Pumping accounted for <2% of the produced power. A higher flow rate (1.55 mL/min) increased power densities up to 4.3 W/m2. COD removal was 98% with a Coulombic efficiency of 64%. Power production by the individual components was substantially lower with 0.7 W/m2 without salinity driven energy, and <0.015 W/m2 with reduced exoelectrogenic activity due to substrate depletion. These results show that the combination of an MFC and a RED stack synergistically increases performance relative to the individual systems, producing a new type of system that can be used to more efficiently capture salinity driven energy from seawater and river water. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Metal hydride work pair development and its application on automobile air conditioning systems

    QIN Feng; CHEN Jiang-ping; ZHANG Wen-feng; CHEN Zhi-jiu


    Aiming at developing exhaust gas driving automobile air conditioning systems, a hydride pair LaNi4.61Mn0.26A10.13/La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 was developed working at 393~473 K/293~323 K/263~273 K. Property tests showed that both alloys have flat plateau slopes and small hystereses; system theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.711. Based on this work pair, a function proving automobile metal hydride refrigeration system was constructed. The equivalent thermal conductivities of the activated reaction beds were merely 1.1~1.6 W/(m·K), which had not met practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power was 84.6 W at 423 K/303 K/273 K with COP being 0.26. By altering cycling parameters, experiment data showed that cooling power and system COP increase with the growth of heat source temperature as well as pre-heating and regeneration time while decrease with heat sink temperature increment. This study confirms the feasibility of automobile metal hydride refrigeration systems, while heat transfer properties of reaction beds still need to be improved for better performance.

  13. 买方势力、资产专用性与技术创新——基于中国汽车工业的实证检验%Buyer Power,Asset Specificity and Technological Innovation——An Empirical Research on Chinese Automobile Industry

    孙晓华; 郑辉


    Buyer power and asset specificity are important factors of affecting technological innovation in vertical market.Taking Chinese automobile industry statistics from 2000 to 2008 as samples,this paper empirically tests the relationship between buyer power,asset specificity and technological innovation through the panel data model.The results show that technological innovation depends not only on supplier market conditions,but also on the competitive conditions of downstream industry.Buyer market power helps promote upstream technological innovation activities;buyer asset specificity has a significant negative effect on their own technological innovation,the higher the proportion of fixed assets is,the less RD inputs will be.In addition,buyer technological capabilities and the rapid growth of market demand have a positive impact on technological innovation,while equal market power between upstream and downstream industries is an obstacle to technological innovation.%在纵向关联市场中,买方势力和资产专用性是影响企业技术创新的重要因素。本文以我国汽车工业2000-2008年统计数据为样本,利用面板数据模型对买方市场势力、资产专用性与技术创新的关系进行了实证检验,研究结果表明:技术创新行为不仅取决于企业自身所处的市场条件,还与作为买方的下游行业市场竞争状况有关,买方市场势力的增强有利于上游企业技术创新活动的开展;下游企业的资产专用性对上游企业技术创新具有显著的负效应,固定资产比例越高,研发投入越少。此外,较快的市场需求增长率和买方技术能力对技术创新具有积极影响,上下游行业之间较为对等的市场势力会阻碍技术创新。

  14. A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine

    Over two-thirds energy of fuel consumed by an automobile is discharged to the surroundings as waste heat. The fuel usage can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert heat energy into electricity. In this study, a thermoelectric module composed of thermoelectric generators and a cooling system is developed to improve the efficiency of an IC engine. Two potential positions on an automobile are chosen to apply this module, e.g. exhaust pipe and radiator to examine the feasibility. To predict the behaviors of this module, a one dimensional thermal resistance model is also build, and the results are verified with experiments. The maximum power produced from the module is 51.13 mWcm-2 at 290 oC temperature difference. The model results show that, TE module presents better performance on the exhaust pipe than on the radiator.


    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)


    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  16. 基于 PIC18 F458的汽车电动助力转向控制系统设计%Design of automobile electric power steering system based on PIC18F458

    苏庆列; 王麟珠


    According to the domestic development status and performance requirements of electric power steering system ( EPS) , the software and hardware of electronic control unit of EPS is designed based on PIC18F458 Series MCU.Focuses on the principle and realization method of the information acquisition module that contains steering wheel torque sensor signals and the information of CAN Bus, and the control module of permanent magnet brushless DC motor which drives by fully controlled bridge circuit.The experimental results show that the electronic control unit works normally and reliably, comfort and safety meets the requirements of automotive power steering.%针对国内汽车电动助力转向系统( EPS)的发展现状和性能要求,基于PIC18F458系列单片机对EPS系统电控单元软硬件进行设计,着重阐述了方向盘扭矩传感器信号采集和带有CAN总线的信息采集模块,以及通过全控桥电机驱动电路实现的PWM脉宽调制永磁无刷直流电机控制模块的工作原理及其实现方法。试验结果表明该电控单元工作正常、性能可靠,满足汽车助力转向的舒适性和安全性要求。

  17. Biomimetic Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and Their Applications as Electro-catalysts in Fuel Cells

    Li, Yujing


    Today, proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) are attractive power conversion devices that generate fairly low or even no pollution, and considered to be potential to replace conventional fossil fuel based power sources on automobiles. The operation and performance of PEMFC and DMFC depend largely on electro-catalysts positioned between the electrode and the membranes. The most commonly used electro-catalysts for PEMFC and DMFC are Pt-based noble me...

  18. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles

    Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)


    Carbonate fuel cells developed by Energy Research Corporation, in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9 percent. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted in cooperation with METC to identify an economically competitive system with an efficiency in excess of 65 percent. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency in excess of 70 percent. This new system is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95 percent of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for the reforming of the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72 percent of the power. The portion of the fuel cell anode exhaust which is not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to the compressed air from a gas turbine, raising its temperature to 1800{degrees}F. The stream is then heated to 2000{degrees}F in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13 percent of the power. Half the exhaust from the gas turbine flows to the anode exhaust burner, and the remainder flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the fuel cells flows to a steam system which includes a heat recovery steam generator and stages steam turbine which generates 15 percent of the TTC system power. Studies of the TTC for 200-MW and 20-MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the characteristics of the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6 percent, and is relatively insensitive to ambient temperature, but requires a heat exchanger capable of 2000{degrees}F. The estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr which is not competitive with a combined cycle in installations where fuel cost is under $5.8/MMBtu.

  19. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N


    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807


    González, Eduardo


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  1. Microbial fuel cells as power supply of a low-power temperature sensor

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) show great promise as a concomitant process for water treatment and as renewable energy sources for environmental sensors. The small energy produced by MFCs and the low output voltage limit the applications of MFCs. Specific converter topologies are required to step-up the output voltage of a MFC. A Power Management Unit (PMU) is proposed for operation at low input voltage and at very low power in a completely autonomous way to capture energy from MFCs with the highest possible efficiency. The application of sensors for monitoring systems in remote locations is an important approach. MFCs could be an alternative energy source in this case. Powering a sensor with MFCs may prove the fact that wastewater may be partly turned into renewable energy for realistic applications. The Power Management Unit is demonstrated for 3.6 V output voltage at 1 mW continuous power, based on a low-cost 0.7-L MFC. A temperature sensor may operate continuously on 2-MFCs in continuous flow mode. A flyback converter under discontinuous conduction mode is also tested to power the sensor. One continuously fed MFC was able to efficiently and continuously power the sensor.

  2. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  3. Inverters for interfacing of solar cells with the power grid

    Karamanzanis, G. N.; Jackson, R. D.

    In this work, based on a research course in the Engineering Dep. Cambridge University, some non-classical inverter circuits are studied. They can be used for interfacing solar cells with the power grid at low voltage (230V) and at low power level. They are based on d.c. choppers which have a fast switching transistor. Their theoretical efficiency is 100 percent and they provide a satisfactory output current waveform in phase to the a.c. line voltage. The problems of control are also studied using a suitable mathematical model.

  4. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Medhurst, Laura L.


    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Stationary Power Application Project

    Joseph Pierre


    The objectives of this program were to: (1) Develop a reliable, cost-effective, and production-friendly technique to apply the power-enhancing layer at the interface of the air electrode and electrolyte of the Siemens SOFC; (2) Design, build, install, and operate in the field two 5 kWe SOFC systems fabricated with the state-of-the-art cylindrical, tubular cell and bundle technology and incorporating advanced module design features. Siemens successfully demonstrated, first in a number of single cell tests and subsequently in a 48-cell bundle test, a significant power enhancement by employing a power-enhancing composite interlayer at the interface between the air electrode and electrolyte. While successful from a cell power enhancement perspective, the interlayer application process was not suitable for mass manufacturing. The application process was of inconsistent quality, labor intensive, and did not have an acceptable yield. This program evaluated the technical feasibility of four interlayer application techniques. The candidate techniques were selected based on their potential to achieve the technical requirements of the interlayer, to minimize costs (both labor and material), and suitably for large-scale manufacturing. Preliminary screening, utilizing lessons learned in manufacturing tubular cells, narrowed the candidate processes to two, ink-roller coating (IRC) and dip coating (DC). Prototype fixtures were successfully built and utilized to further evaluate the two candidate processes for applying the interlayer to the high power density Delta8 cell geometry. The electrical performance of interlayer cells manufactured via the candidate processes was validated. Dip coating was eventually selected as the application technique of choice for applying the interlayer to the high power Delta8 cell. The technical readiness of the DC process and product quality was successfully and repeatedly demonstrated, and its throughput and cost are amenable to large scale

  6. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Lindström, Bård


    Vehicles powered by fuel cells are from an environmentalaspect superior to the traditional automobile using internalcombustion of gasoline. Power systems which are based upon fuelcell technology require hydrogen for operation. The ideal fuelcell vehicle would operate on pure hydrogen stored on-board.However, storing hydrogen on-board the vehicle is currently notfeasible for technical reasons. The hydrogen can be generatedon-board using a liquid hydrogen carrier such as methanol andgasoline. T...

  7. The Numerical Study on the Transfer Performance of Lithium-ion Power Battery for Automobile%车用锂离子动力电池组散热特性数值研究

    李友才; 贾振华; 杨宗田


    针对车用锂离子动力电池的散热问题,对电池组的结构进行优化设计。建立锂离子动力电池三维模型,利用 Fluent 进行数值仿真。通过对仿真结果的对比分析得出:电池间距的增大和减小分别使电池组的散热性能提高和降低,且其间距减小时,电池间温度差异明显;发现动力电池组入口风速升高,电池表面空气流速相对提高,电池组换热能力增强,但电池间流场的一致性变差、温差变大。%As to the heat dissipation issues lithium-ion power battery for vehicles,the structure of the battery pack is optimized. Building lithium-ion battery three dimensional model and simulating by fluent software. The comparison and analysis on simulation results show that the battery space of the battery pack is increased and decreased, respectively, the thermal performance of battery pack is raised and fallen. Moreover,the space is reduced,the temperature difference among batteries is obvious.Air velocity is increased on the surface of battery and the heat exchange capacity of the battery pack is raised when the inlet velocity of battery pack rises.However,the consistency of the flow field between the batteries become bad, the temperature difference becomes larger.

  8. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark



    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  9. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE


    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  10. High power nickel - cadmium cells with fiber electrodes (FNC)

    Nickel cadmium batteries differ greatly in their mechanical design and construction of the electrodes. Using available electrode constructions, batteries are designed which meet the requirements of specific applications and offer optimum performance. Pocket- and tubular cells are basically developed with the technology of the year 1895. Since then some improvements with todays technology have been made. The sintered cells use the technology of the 1930's and they are still limited to high power application. With this knowledge and the technology of today the fiber-structured nickel electrode (FNC) was developed at DAUG laboratory, a subsidiary company of Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen. After ten years of experience in light weight prototype batteries for electric vehicles (1-2), the system was brought into production by a new company, DAUG-HOPPECKE. Characteristics of fiber electrodes: thickness and size can be easily changed; pure active materials are used; high conductor density; high elasticity of the structure; high porosity. Since 1983 NiCd-batteries with fiber-structured nickel electrodes (FNC) have been in production. Starting with the highly demanded cell-types for low, medium and high performance called L, M and H according to IEC 623 for low, medium and high performance applications, the program was recently completed with the X-type cell for very high power, as an alternative to sintered cells

  11. Fuel cells - a new contributor to stationary power

    Dufour, Angelo U.

    Stationary power generation historically started as distributed generation near the user, with the configuration of a very open market, where a lot of small competing utilities were offering electricity to the customers. At a second time it became a `monopolistic' business because of technical reasons. Big steam turbines and electric generators, allowing better efficiencies, were more conveniently installed in very large power plants, necessarily located in sites far away from where the power was needed, and the transmission losses were bounded by AC high voltage technology. The Governments were, therefore, trying to balance the power of monopolies, that were limiting the economical development of the countries, by strengthening the concept of electrical energy price public control and, alternatively, by establishing rules to allow a free flow of electricity from one region to the other, or taking direct control through ownership of big and small utilities. The most effective way of making the electric energy system competitive has proved to be the opening of a partial competition in the generation field by forcing the utilities to compare the cost of their energy, produced with new centralised plants, to the price of the available energy, coming from combined heat and power dispersed generators. In fact, with reference to this cost, all the peculiar features of large central stations and dispersed generators were taken into account, like the widespread use of natural gas, the investment risk reduction with single smaller increments of capacity, the transmission and distribution siting difficulties and high costs, the improved system reliability, and, finally, the high quality electric power. Fuel Cells are a recently become available technology for distributed electrical energy production, because they share the main typical aspects, relevant for a distributed power system, like compatibility with other modular subsystem packages, fully automation possibility

  12. Investigation of Solar Cells Power Degradation Due to Electrostatic Discharge

    Hossein Fayazi


    Full Text Available Satellites are surrounded with protons, electrons and heavy charged particles. Space radiation impact on satellite sub-systems cause several anomalies which are important problem for satellite designers. Until recently, the majority of spacecraft primary power systems used solar arrays and rechargeable batteries to supply 28 V. For low-inclination spacecraft, 28 V systems have not been observed to arc. As the power requirements for spacecraft increased, however, high-voltage solar arrays were baselined to minimize total mass and increase power production efficiency. With the advent of 100 V systems in the late 1980s, arcing began to be observed on a number of spacecraft. The mechanism proposed in this paper, described electrical and physical degradation of solar cells due to electrostatic discharge anomalies on satellites. The cell was characterized again after arcing to determine the change in efficiency. This paper details the process for designing the circuit to create the arcing, and the different setups used to degrade the cells electrically and physically. It also describes the final setups to be used in space laboratory. This model is designed using Matlab and SPENVIS. Identification and simulation this mechanism is an important step in solar array design for space application

  13. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J. [and others


    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  14. Increased power density from a spiral wound microbial fuel cell.

    Jia, Boyang; Hu, Dawei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Kun; Liu, Hong


    Using Microbial fuel cell (MFC) to convert organic and inorganic matter into electricity is of great interest for powering portable devices, which is now still limited by the output of MFC. In this study, a spiral wound MFC (SWMFC) with relatively large volume normalized surface area of separator (4.2 cm(2)/ml) was fabricated to enhance power generation. Compared with double-membrane MFC (DMMFC) and conventional double chamber MFC (DCMFC), the power density of SWMFC increased by 42% and 99% resulted from its lower internal resistance. Besides larger separator area, the better performance of SWMFC benefited from its structure sandwiching the cathodes between two separators. This point was proved again by a comparison of another DCMFC and a triple chamber MFC (TCMFC) as well as a simulation using finite element method. Moreover, the feature of SWMFC was more convenient and compact to scale up. Therefore, SWMFC provides a promising configuration for high power output as a portable power source. PMID:23116542

  15. Self-powered supercapacitive microbial fuel cell: The ultimate way of boosting and harvesting power.

    Santoro, Carlo; Soavi, Francesca; Serov, Alexey; Arbizzani, Catia; Atanassov, Plamen


    In this work, for the first time, we demonstrate a supercapacitive microbial fuel cell which integrates the energy harvesting function of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) with the high-power operation of an internal supercapacitor. The pursued strategies are: (i) the increase of the cell voltage by the use of high potential cathodes like bilirubin oxidase (BOx) or iron-aminoantipyrine (Fe-AAPyr); (ii) the use of an additional capacitive electrode (additional electrode, AdE) which is short-circuited with the MFC cathode and coupled with the MFC anode (MFC-AdE). The high working potential of BOx cathode and the low impedances of the additional capacitive electrode and the MFC anode permitted to achieve up to 19 mW (84.4 Wm(-2), 152 Wm(-3)), the highest power value ever reported for MFCs. Exploiting the supercapacitive properties of the MFC electrodes allows the system to be simpler, cheaper and more efficient without additional electronics management added with respect to an MFC/external supercapacitor coupling. The use of the AdE makes it possible to decouple energy and power and to achieve recharge times in the order of few seconds making the system appealing for practical applications. PMID:26615513

  16. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A


    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  17. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell under transient automotive operations

    Choopanya, Pattarapong


    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is probably the most promising technology that will replace conventional internal combustion engines in the near future. As a primary power source for an automobile, the transient performance of a PEM fuel cell is of prime importance. In this thesis, a comprehensive, three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-species computational fuel cell dynamics model is developed in order to investigate the effect of flow-field design on the magnitude of current ov...

  18. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana


    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  19. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    Rapacciuolo Ciro


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  20. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.


    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  1. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Emin Oker


    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  2. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti


    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  3. Evaluating the performance of microbial fuel cells powering electronic devices

    Dewan, Alim; Beyenal, Haluk [Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Center for Environmental, Sediment and Aquatic Research, Pullman, WA (United States); Donovan, Conrad; Heo, Deukhyoun [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163-2710 (United States)


    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is capable of powering an electronic device if we store the energy in an external storage device, such as a capacitor, and dispense that energy intermittently in bursts of high-power when needed. Therefore its performance needs to be evaluated using an energy-storing device such as a capacitor which can be charged and discharged rather than other evaluation techniques, such as continuous energy dissipation through a resistor. In this study, we develop a method of testing microbial fuel cell performance based on storing energy in a capacitor. When a capacitor is connected to a MFC it acts like a variable resistor and stores energy from the MFC at a variable rate. In practice the application of this method to testing microbial fuel cells is very challenging and time consuming; therefore we have custom-designed a microbial fuel cell tester (MFCT). The MFCT evaluates the performance of a MFC as a power source. It uses a capacitor as an energy storing device and waits until a desired amount of energy is stored then discharges the capacitor. The entire process is controlled using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) board controlled by a custom-written computer program. The utility of our method and the MFCT is demonstrated using a laboratory microbial fuel cell (LMFC) and a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC). We determine (1) how frequently a MFC can charge a capacitor, (2) which electrode is current-limiting, (3) what capacitor value will allow the maximum harvested energy from a MFC, which is called the ''optimum charging capacitor value,'' and (4) what capacitor charging potential will harvest the maximum energy from a MFC, which is called the ''optimum charging potential.'' Using a LMFC we find that (1) the time needed to charge a 3-F capacitor from 0 to 500 mV is 108 min, (2) the optimum charging capacitor value is 3 F, and (3) the optimum charging potential is 300 mV. Using a SMFC we find that (1

  4. Cell heterogeneity problems in the analysis of zero power experiments

    Methods are described for treating plate and pin cell heterogeneity in the preparation of broad group cross-sections used in the analysis of zero power fast reactor experiments. Methods used at Karlsruhe and Winfrith are summarised and compared, with particular reference to the treatment of resonance shielding, the calculation of broad group spatial fine structure, the treatment of leakage and the calculation of anisotropic diffusion coefficients. The problems of cells near boundaries such as core-breeder interfaces and of singularities such as control rods are also considered briefly. Numerical studies carried out to investigate approximations in the methods are described. These include tests of the accuracy of one-dimensional cell modelling techniques, and the validation by Monte Carlo of methods for treating streaming in the calculation of diffusion coefficients. Comparisons are shown between the heterogeneity effects calculated by the Karlsruhe and Winfrith methods for typical pin and plate cells used in the BIZET experimental programme, and their effect in a whole reactor calculation is indicated. Comparisons are given with measurements which provide tests of the heterogeneity calculations. These include reaction rate scans within pin and plate cells, and reaction rate measurements across sectors of pin and plate fuel, where the flux tilt is determined by the relative reactivity of the pin and plate cells. Finally, the heterogeneity problems arising in the interpretation of reaction rate measurements are discussed. (author)

  5. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    Cusick, Roland D.


    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Vibro-acoustics of automobile engines; Vibro-acoustique des moteurs d'automobile

    Leclere, Q.; Laulagnet, B.; Guyader, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Polac, L. [Renault DM, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)


    This article treats of the vibro-acoustics of automobile engines. A presentation of the phenomena leading to noise emission is performed: internal sources, dynamical behaviour of the structure, acoustic radiation of the external engine envelope. The complexness of engines leads to multiple noise sources which are described, analyzed and quantified. The technical solutions for their abatement are presented. The following points are successively described: dynamical behaviour of the engine-propulsion system, acoustic radiation, inertia stresses, combustion noise, common rail diesel injection system noise, piston slap, distribution drive noise, turbo-charger whistle, gearbox noise. (J.S.)

  7. Cloud Instrument Powered by Solar Cell Sends Data to Pachube

    Doru Ursutiu


    Full Text Available Despite the economic downturn, there have been quite a few new developments in the world of remote measurements lately. Tag4M ( introduced the concept of cloud instrument where sensors connected to WiFi tags send data to off-the-shelf Access Points which are part of the WiFi infrastructure that exists in enterprises, retail outlets, factories, and warehouses. Access Points route the data to the Internet where specialized web applications receive the information for processing and display. One of these specialized web applications is Pachube, ( which bills itself as a “real-time data brokerage platform”. Pachube enables people to tag and share real time sensor data from objects, devices and spaces around the world. This article presents the pachube cloud instrument where sensors connected to Tag4M WiFi tags send digitized data to for public display. The article contains very detailed analysis of the solar cell power source that is used to continuously power the Tag4M tag during this application. Cloud Instruments powered by solar cells enable people around the world to share real time sensor data using web pages on the Internet. This is a very interesting and exciting technology development that we want to bring to your attention.

  8. Assessment of Microbial Fuel Cell Configurations and Power Densities

    Logan, Bruce E.


    Different microbial electrochemical technologies are being developed for a many diverse applications, including wastewater treatment, biofuel production, water desalination, remote power sources, and as biosensors. Current and energy densities will always be limited relative to batteries and chemical fuel cells, but these technologies have other advantages based on the self-sustaining nature of the microorganisms that can donate or accept electrons from an electrode, the range of fuels that can be used, and versatility in the chemicals that can be produced. The high cost of membranes will likely limit applications of microbial electrochemical technologies that might require a membrane. For microbial fuel cells, which do not need a membrane, questions remain on whether larger-scale systems can produce power densities similar to those obtained in laboratory-scale systems. It is shown here that configuration and fuel (pure chemicals in laboratory media versus actual wastewaters) remain the key factors in power production, rather than the scale of the application. Systems must be scaled up through careful consideration of electrode spacing and packing per unit volume of reactor.

  9. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    Heller, M. E.


    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  10. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles

    Morehouse, J. H.


    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.