Sample records for catenulata strain imi

  1. Different Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae Strains IMI330189 and IBC200614 on Enzymes Activities and Hemocytes of Locusta migratoria L.

    Cao, Guangchun; Jia, Miao; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lei; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua


    Background Metarhizium is an important class of entomopathogenic fungi in the biocontrol of insects, but its virulence is affected by insect immunity. To clarify the mechanism in virulence of Metarhizium, we compared the immunological differences in Locusta migratoria L. when exposed to two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma). Results The virulence of Ma IMI330189 was significantly higher than that of Ma IBC200614 to locust, and IMI330189 overcame the hemocytes and began destroying the hemocytes of locust at 72 h after spray, while locust is immune to IBC200614. IMI330189 could overcome the humoral immunity of locust by inhibiting the activities of phenol oxidase (PO), esterases, multi-function oxidases (MFOs) and acetylcholinesterases in locust while increasing the activities of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), catalase and aryl-acylamidase (AA). However IBC200614 inhibit the activities of GSTs and AA in locust and increase the activities of MFOs, PO, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and chitinase in locust. The changes of enzymes activities in period of infection showed that the time period between the 2nd and the 5th day after spray is critical in the pathogenic process. Conclusion These results found the phenomenon that Ma initiatively broke host hemocytes, revealed the correlation between the virulence of Ma and the changes of enzymes activities in host induced by Ma, and clarified the critical period in the infection of Ma. So, these results should provide guidance for the construction of efficient biocontrol Ma strains. PMID:27227835

  2. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Trichoderma polysporum strain IMI 206039

    European Food Safety Authority


    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Sweden, for the pesticide active substance Trichoderma polysporum IMI 206039 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Trichoderma polysporum strain IMI 206039 as a fungicide on strawberries and ornamental trees. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  3. Description of Diutina gen. nov., Diutina siamensis, f.a. sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the genus Diutina.

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Lachance, Marc-André


    Three strains (DMKU-RE28, DMKU-RE43T and DMKU-RE123) of a novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from rice leaf tissue collected in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the species forms a sister pair with Candida ranongensis CBS 10861T but differs by 24-30 substitutions in the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains and 30-35 substitutions in the ITS region. A phylogenetic analysis based on both the small and the large rRNA gene subunits confirmed this connection and demonstrated the presence of a clade that also includes Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae. The clade is not closely affiliated to any known teleomorphic genus, and forms a well-separated lineage from currently recognized genera of the Saccharomycetales. Hence, the genus Diutina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate members of the clade, including Diutina siamensis f.a. sp. nov. and the preceding seven Candida species. The type strain is DMKU-RE43T ( = CBS 13388T = BCC 61183T = NBRC 109695T). PMID:26410375

  4. Status report of IMIS-IT

    The papers presented to the review seminar on the IMIS-IT project (Integriertes Mess- und InformationsSystem - InformationsTechnik) show the major results achieved, experience gained, and planned future activities. Up to that date, data processing problems were rather dominating, also because subject-related aspects or problems for some part were recognized or emerged only after the project became operational. (BBR)

  5. Production of chitinolytic enzymes with Trichoderma longibrachiatum IMI 92027 in solid substrate fermentation

    Krisztina Kovacs; Gyorgy Szakacs; Tunde Pusztahelyi; Ashok Pandey


    @@ Thirty Trichoderna strains representing 15 species within the genus have been screened for extracellular production of chitinolytic enzymes in solid substrate fermentation (SSF). T.longibrachiatum IMI 92027 ( = ATCC 36838) gave the highest yield (5.0 IU/g dry matter of substrate) after 3 days of fermentation on wheat bran-crude chitin (9:1 mixture) medium. The optimum moisture content (66.7 %), chitin content (20 %), initial pH of the medium (2-5) and time course (5 d) of SSF were determined for strain IMI 92027. No significant effect of different N and P additives was found on the chitinase yield in wheat bran-chitin mixture medium.

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the Zinc-Binding Sites in the Class B2 Metallo-B-lactamsase ImiS from Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria

    Costello,A.; Sharma, N.; Yang, K.; Crowder, M.; Tierney, D.


    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the metal-binding sites of ImiS from Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria in catalytically active (1-Zn), product-inhibited (1-Zn plus imipenem), and inactive (2-Zn) forms. The first equivalent of zinc(II) was found to bind to the consensus Zn{sub 2} site. The reaction of 1-Zn ImiS with imipenem leads to a product-bound species, coordinated to Zn via a carboxylate group. The inhibitory binding site of ImiS was examined by a comparison of wild-type ImiS with 1 and 2 equiv of bound zinc. 2-Zn ImiS extended X-ray absorption fine structure data support a binding site that is distant from the active site and contains both one sulfur donor and one histidine ligand. On the basis of the amino acid sequence of ImiS and the crystal structure of CphA [Garau et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 345, 785-795], we propose that the inhibitory binding site is formed by M146, found on the B2-distinct {alpha}3 helix, and H118, a canonical Zn{sub 1} ligand, proposed to help activate the nucleophilic water. The mutation of M146 to isoleucine abolishes metal inhibition. This is the first characterization of ImiS with the native metal Zn and establishes, for the first time, the location of the inhibitory metal site.

  7. IMIS: Integrated Maintenance Information System. A maintenance information delivery concept

    Vonholle, Joseph C.


    The Integrated Maintenance Information System (IMIS) will optimize the use of available manpower, enhance technical performance, improve training, and reduce the support equipment and documentation needed for deployment. It will serve as the technician's single, integrated source of all the technical information required to perform modern aircraft maintenance.

  8. IMIE computer codes: 10 years in the internal dosimetry

    Full text: The IMIE ('Individual Monitoring for Internal Exposure') computer codes are the family of interactive tools for interpretation of the bioassay data, individual dose assessments, tracking the history of exposure and documentation of the process of assessment. All members of the 'IMIE family' use the unified graphical interface, the common library of tabulated 'bioassay/dose response functions' and the Paradox database for storage of individual bioassay histories. During 10 years of the IMIE evolution the extensive experience in the IMIE application have been accumulated. Advances in the code development have been made thanks to IAEA and 3rd European Intercomparison Exercises, numerous users' requests and, especially, as a result of interaction in the framework of the IDEAS project aimed to the development of the International Guideline on Interpretation of Bioassay Data as well as to the organization of the 4th European Intercomparison Exercise. The main distinguished feature of the IMIE ideology is the automated numerical analysis of all requested by the user exposure scenarios with the succeeding interactive identification of events of intake(s) and assessment of associated doses. The visualization of data interpretation is based on the interaction with the user by means of interactive plots and tables. The IMIE exploits also the 'dose per unit measured bioassay value' (DPUM) concept, the useful tool for planning of bioassay programs as well as for interpretation of bioassay data. The numerical deconvolution algorithms and the massive library of tabulated 'bioassay/dose response functions' (time-dependent organ activity and excretion rates per unit deposited activity in one of lungs regions or per unit ingested/injected activity; associated committed equivalent doses to organs and the effective dose) are employed for processing of an arbitrary pattern of intake and complex exposure conditions. Nowadays distinguishing features of IMIE are: simultaneous

  9. IMI Workshop on Optimization in the Real World

    Shinano, Yuji; Waki, Hayato


    This book clearly shows the importance, usefulness, and powerfulness of current optimization technologies, in particular, mixed-integer programming and its remarkable applications. It is intended to be the definitive study of state-of-the-art optimization technologies for students, academic researchers, and non-professionals in industry. The chapters of this book are based on a collection of selected and extended papers from the  “IMI Workshop on Optimization in the Real World” held in October 2014 in Japan.

  10. Discovery of the target for immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs).

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi


    Half a century ago, the sedative thalidomide caused a serious drug disaster because of its teratogenicity and was withdrawn from the market. However, thalidomide, which has returned to the market, is now used for the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma (MM) under strict control. The mechanism of thalidomide action had been a long-standing question. We developed a new affinity bead technology and identified cereblon (CRBN) as a thalidomide-binding protein. We found that CRBN functions as a substrate receptor of an E3 cullin-Ring ligase complex 4 (CRL4) and is a primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Recently, new thalidomide derivatives, called immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), have been developed by Celgene. Among them, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide (Pom) were shown to exert strong therapeutic effects against MM. It was found that Len and Pom both bind CRBN-CRL4 and recruit neomorphic substrates (Ikaros and Aiolos). More recently it was reported that casein kinase 1a (Ck1a) was identified as a substrate for CRBN-CRL4 in the presence of Len, but not Pom. Ck1a breakdown explains why Len is specifically effective for myelodysplastic syndrome with 5q deletion. It is now proposed that binding of IMiDs to CRBN appears to alter the substrate specificity of CRBN-CRL4. In this review, we introduce recent findings on IMiDs. PMID:27263779

  11. Optimization of the German integrated information and measurement system (IMIS)

    The Chernobyl accident led to a widespread contamination of the environment in most European countries. In Germany, like in all other countries, it took some time to evaluate the radiological situation, time which is extremely valuable in the early phases of an accident when decisions on countermeasures like sheltering, iodine prophylaxis or evacuation have to be taken. For a better emergency preparedness the Integrated Information and Measurement System (IMIS) has been developed and established in Germany. In case of a widespread contamination of the environment, the system will provide the decision makers with all information necessary to evaluate the radiological situation and to decide on countermeasures. Presently this system is upgraded due to the adoption of the European decision supporting system RODOS and by the improvement of the national information exchange. For this purpose the web based information system ELAN has been developed. The national systems have to be integrated into the European and international communication systems. In this presentation the IMIS system is briefly described and the new features and modules of the system are discussed in greater detail

  12. Kazalci zlorab in nasilja nad starejšimi

    Panikvar, Nataša


    Nasilje je staro toliko kolikor je staro človeštvo in je ena najbolj grobih kršitev človekovih pravic. Vzrok zanj tiči v različnih posameznikovih ali skupinskih potrebah, ki za žrtev ustvarjajo neugodne posledice. V specialističnem delu sta obravnavana zloraba in nasilje nad starostniki, ki s povečevanjem števila starejših ljudi postajata vedno pogostejši problem sodobne družbe tudi v Sloveniji. Z raziskavo smo želeli prikazati kazalce zlorab in nasilja nad starejšimi v domačem okolju, s kat...

  13. Radon dosimetry in the operational units of the 'Sanpaolo IMI' Italian banking group

    This document sets out the activities relating to information organization and risk assessment for the management of the dosimeters labelling, data collection for information storage measured data in the operational units of the Italian banking group 'Sanpaolo IMI'

  14. Hot ductility behavior of near-alpha titanium alloy IMI834

    Ghavam, Mohammad Hadi; Morakabati, Maryam; Abbasi, Seyed Mahdi; Badri, Hassan [Metallic Materials Research Center (MMRC-MA), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The hot ductility of rolled IMI834 titanium alloy (Ti-5.3Al-2.9Sn-3.0Zr-0.65Nb-0.5Mo-0.2Si in wt%) has been studied by conducting tensile tests with a strain rate of 0.1 s{sup -1} and temperature range of 750-1100 C to obtain the optimum hot working conditions. The alloy showed minimum hot ductility in the lower alpha-beta region in the temperature range 750-950 C. Further microstructural characterizations showed improvement in hot ductility by increasing temperature, which was attributed to reduction of volume fraction of high strength alpha phase. The best hot ductility was observed at 1000 C, i.e. in the upper alpha-beta region. The better hot ductility at higher temperature could be related to the increase in the volume fraction of beta phase and the occurrence of dynamic restoration phenomena. The second decline in hot ductility appeared at higher temperatures in the beta region and was attributed to the high stacking fault energy and self-diffusion of beta phase leading to limitation of dynamic recrystallization.

  15. Hot ductility behavior of near-alpha titanium alloy IMI834

    The hot ductility of rolled IMI834 titanium alloy (Ti-5.3Al-2.9Sn-3.0Zr-0.65Nb-0.5Mo-0.2Si in wt%) has been studied by conducting tensile tests with a strain rate of 0.1 s-1 and temperature range of 750-1100 C to obtain the optimum hot working conditions. The alloy showed minimum hot ductility in the lower alpha-beta region in the temperature range 750-950 C. Further microstructural characterizations showed improvement in hot ductility by increasing temperature, which was attributed to reduction of volume fraction of high strength alpha phase. The best hot ductility was observed at 1000 C, i.e. in the upper alpha-beta region. The better hot ductility at higher temperature could be related to the increase in the volume fraction of beta phase and the occurrence of dynamic restoration phenomena. The second decline in hot ductility appeared at higher temperatures in the beta region and was attributed to the high stacking fault energy and self-diffusion of beta phase leading to limitation of dynamic recrystallization.

  16. IMIS. Integrating system for the environmental monitoring and emergency preparedness and response. Proceedings

    The proceedings of the meeting IMIS - integrating system for the environmental monitoring and emergency preparedness and response includes contributions to the following sessions: Experience from operation and application of IMIS; technical development in the measuring networks; measurements and analyses; quality management and quality assurance; decision making support systems, electronic situation report; international data and information exchange I and II. The volume includes also poster contributions and workshops.

  17. Requirement Specification for Information Security to Health Systems, Case Study : IMIS

    Almström, Malin; Olsson, Christina


    During 2001-2002 a prototype, IMIS (Integrated Mobile Information System) was developed at BTH (Blekinge University of Technology) to demonstrate how mobile IT-systems can be used in healthcare. The prototype was based on the activity theory of Engeström. An ongoing project started in spring 2003. The purpose of the project is further development of IMIS with special focus in the diabetes healthcare. Participants in the project are scientists and students at BTH, ALMI Företagspartner, Bleking...

  18. Improving leadership training at the United States Naval Academy by utilizing Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI)

    Kawane, Shannon E.


    This thesis addresses several issues identified in the analysis and design phases of the Instructional Systems Development process to develop an IMI leadership program for the Naval Academy. The overarching goal is to provide the Naval Academy with a study that uses current research and existing innovative leadership programs to answer questions that need to be resolved in developing a program consistent with the Naval Academy's leadership training philosophy. The results suggest that an IMI ...

  19. Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao: A Science Curriculum Project

    Napeahi, K.; Roberts, K. D.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, R. A.; Akuna, J.; Bruno, B.


    In antiquity, the first people to step foot on what are now known as the Hawaiian islands skillfully traversed the Pacific Ocean using celestial navigation and learned observations of scientific phenomena. Long before the Western world ventured beyond the horizon, Hawaiians had invented the chronometer, built aqueduct systems (awai) that continue to amaze modern engineers, and had preventive health systems as well as a comprehensive knowledge of medicinal plants (including antivirals) which only now are working their way through trials for use in modern pharmacopia. Yet, today, Native Hawaiians are severely underrepresented in science-related fields, reflecting (in part) a failure of the Western educational system to nurture the potential of these resourceful students, particularly the many "at-risk" students who are presently over-represented in special education. A curriculum which draws from and incorporates traditional Hawaiian values and knowledge is needed to reinforce links to the inquiry process which nurtured creative thinking during the renaissance of Polynesian history. The primary goal of the Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao Project (translation: `science` or `work in which you seek enlightenment, knowledge or wisdom`) is to increase the number of Native Hawaiian adults in science-related postsecondary education and employment fields. Working closely with Native Hawaiian cultural experts and our high school partners, we will develop and implement a culturally responsive 11th and 12th grade high school science curriculum, infused with math, literacy and technology readiness skills. Software and assistive technology will be used to adapt instruction to individual learners` reading levels, specific disabilities and learning styles. To ease the transition from secondary to post-secondary education, selected grade 12 students will participate in planned project activities that link high school experiences with college science-related programs of study. Ka Hana `Imi Na

  20. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 - an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides.

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E; Bailey, Andrew M; Mulholland, Nicholas P; Vincent, Jason L; Willis, Christine L; Cox, Russell J; Simpson, Thomas J


    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthesis. Acid 5 undergoes facile decarboxylation to anhydride 6. The generic term maleidrides is proposed to encompass biosynthetically-related compounds containing maleic anhydride moieties fused to an alicyclic ring, varying in size and substituents. PMID:26452099

  1. Stability of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) for the Use of Malaysian Form One Students in ICT Literacy Class

    Leng, Eow Yee; Ali, Wan Zah bte Wan; Baki, Roselan; Mahmud, Rosnaini


    The objective of the study is to determine the suitability of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) in assessing Malaysian form one students' intrinsic motivation gained through the tasks engagement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy class. 236 students completed the IMI in Bahasa Malaysia version. The reliability value…

  2. Electric properties and fabrication of IMI-O LB films containing the imidazole group

    Yoo, S Y; Kwon, Y S; Park, J C


    We fabricated an IMI-O polymer containing an imidazole group that could form a complex structure between the monolayer and the metal ions at the air-water interface. Also, the monolayer behavior at the air-water interface and the electrical properties of metal-complexed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were investigated by using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and current-voltage(I-V) measurements. The difference in the BAM images between the pure water and the aqueous metal ions is attributed to the interactions of the copolymers with the metal ions at the interface and the consequent change of the monolayer organization. In the I-V characteristics, the current for LB films with different metal ion depended on the quantity of the metal-ion complexed with the LB film due to the interaction between the metal ion and the IMI-O polymer.

  3. Electric properties and fabrication of IMI-O LB films containing the imidazole group

    We fabricated an IMI-O polymer containing an imidazole group that could form a complex structure between the monolayer and the metal ions at the air-water interface. Also, the monolayer behavior at the air-water interface and the electrical properties of metal-complexed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were investigated by using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and current-voltage(I-V) measurements. The difference in the BAM images between the pure water and the aqueous metal ions is attributed to the interactions of the copolymers with the metal ions at the interface and the consequent change of the monolayer organization. In the I-V characteristics, the current for LB films with different metal ion depended on the quantity of the metal-ion complexed with the LB film due to the interaction between the metal ion and the IMI-O polymer

  4. IMIS desktop & smartphone software solutions for monitoring spacecrafts' payload from anywhere

    Baroukh, J.; Queyrut, O.; Airaud, J.

    In the past years, the demand for satellite remote operations has increased guided by on one hand, the will to reduce operations cost (on-call operators out of business hours), and on the other hand, the development of cooperation space missions resulting in a world wide distribution of engineers and science team members. Only a few off-the-shelf solutions exist to fulfill the need of remote payload monitoring, and they mainly use proprietary devices. The recent advent of mobile technologies (laptops, smartphones and tablets) as well as the worldwide deployment of broadband networks (3G, Wi-Fi hotspots), has opened up a technical window that brings new options. As part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, the Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, the French space agency) has developed a new software solution for monitoring spacecraft payloads. The Instrument Monitoring Interactive Software (IMIS) offers state-of-the-art operational features for payload monitoring, and can be accessed remotely. It was conceived as a generic tool that can be used for heterogeneous payloads and missions. IMIS was designed as a classical client/server architecture. The server is hosted at CNES and acts as a data provider while two different kinds of clients are available depending on the level of mobility required. The first one is a rich client application, built on Eclipse framework, which can be installed on usual operating systems and communicates with the server through the Internet. The second one is a smartphone application for any Android platform, connected to the server thanks to the mobile broadband network or a Wi-Fi connection. This second client is mainly devoted to on-call operations and thus only contains a subset of the IMIS functionalities. This paper describes the operational context, including security aspects, that led IMIS development, presents the selected software architecture and details the various features of both clients: the desktop and the sm

  5. Geographic information processing in the Integrated Measuring and Information System (IMIS). An overview

    As most public administrations the Federal Office for Radiation Protection faces various tasks and requirements with geographic information playing an important role. All the more this is true for the Department of Emergency Protection with its Integrated Measuring and Information System (IMIS) and the tasks of information provision for the public. Crucial part in geographic information extraction and provision is cartographic representation. In BfS the different requirements shall be met by a common software architecture, based on web services.


    Lešnik, Matej


    V diplomski nalogi smo opisali postopek razvoja in integracije spletne trgovine z obstoječimi sistemi podjetja T-2. Za potrebe integracije smo razvili spletno storitev, razširili sistem CRM, servisne strani ter ustvarili cron skripte, ki skrbijo za ponavljajoča časovno opredeljena opravila. V nalogi so predstavljene posamezne metode spletnih storitev, ter podrobno opisani scenariji interakcij med T-2 spletno storitvijo in spletno storitvijo T-2 Kluba. V nalogi so podrobno opisane tehnolog...

  7. IMIS (Integrated Measurement and Information System) - the German integrated radioactivity information and decision support system

    IMIS is being set up as part of the German Government's National Response Plan for dealing with the consequences of a large scale radioactive contamination of the environment. The IMIS system has three operational action levels. Level 3 covers the collection of radiological data from state-of-the-art monitoring networks and measurement laboratories. Level 2 involves computerised data processing and quality control, based on standardised procedures for the collection and presentation of measurements. This level also includes the use of transport and dose assessment models. Level 1 includes evaluation of the data, management of the consequences of a given situation, legal enforcement of protective measures and provision of information to the public. In its final form the IMIS system will consist of a total of 75 RISC computers linked together by an efficient packet-switched Wide Area Network. Owing to various demands of the individual users, three different types of RISC computers are used. The system software includes ULTRIX, TCP/IP and X windows. The relational database management system ORACLE is used together with the query language SQL-Plus. Statistical analyses are carried out with the standard product SAS. The geographical information system TERRA provides all the tools necessary for a detailed geographic presentation of the data. (author)

  8. Thermal stability of SiC-SCS-6 fiber-reinforced IMI834 alloys

    One of the major future applications of titanium matrix composites is as a material for airplane turbine components, e.g., in the compressor. Service temperatures of up to 800 C will be involved. This application objective will only be reached when it will be possible to solve two major material problems: first, a matrix with sufficient ductility at room temperature and sufficient strength at service temperatures has to be found; and second, the problem of fiber/matrix reaction at application temperatures has to be solved. In composites with the high ductility IMI834 alloy (Ti-5.8Al-4.0Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb-0.5Mo-0.35Si-0.06C in wt. pct) as matrix, the optimal tensile properties can be exploited: the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus values are in accordance with the prediction of the rule of mixtures, and an elongation at fracture of nearly 1.3 pct, typical of SiC fibers, is measured. It was shown that in SiC-SCS-6 fiber-reinforced IMI834 composites, these properties are achieved up to temperatures of 1,000 C. In the present study, results of the thermal stability of the SiC-SCS-6 fiber-reinforced IMI834 alloys are presented

  9. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 – an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of any supplementary information available should be included here. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06988b Click here for additional data file.

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J.; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E; Andrew M Bailey; Mulholland, Nicholas P.; Vincent, Jason L.; Willis, Christine L.; Cox, Russell J.; Simpson, Thomas J.


    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthes...

  10. Marketingový audit IMI Hydronic Engineering pro český trh

    Drápelová, Zuzana


    The main objective of this thesis is to execute a marketing audit of IMI Hydronic Engineering at the Czech market in order to identify problem areas and opportunities, define key performance indicators (KPI) and follow recommended procedures to improve marketing performance of this company and increase the efficiency of the company as a whole. Marketing audit is a comprehensive analysis of the company and its surroundings, which does not contain only simple analysis of the current situation o...

  11. Researchers at the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IMI-BAS - Attestation Analysis - Results and Recommendations

    J. Tabov


    Full Text Available In 2010 attestation of the academic staff of the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, was carried out. The attestation procedures and the results of their applying in practice are both described in the present paper. The level-drop in IMI-BAS is alarming. The main reason for it is the brain-drain, we suppose.

  12. Balın Bileşimi ve Bala Yapılan Hileler

    Hışıl, Yaşar; Börekçioğlu, Neriman


    Früktoz ve glukoz bal karbonhidratlarının %85-90’ını oluşturur. Bunların dışında çok çeşitli diğer şekerler de bulunmaktadır. Balda ayrıca vücudun ihtiyaç duyduğu organik asitler, aminoasitler, aroma maddeleri, mineral maddeler, enzimler, vitaminler de bulunmaktadır. Bala genellikle şeker şurubu tağşişleri yapılmaktadır. Bu derlemede balın bileşimi üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar ve bala yapılan hileler değerlendirilmiştir.

  13. Aviečių mitybos geležimi optimizavimo galimybės

    Buskienė, Loreta


    2003-2004 m. Lietuvos sodininkystės ir daržininkystės institute Brianskij rubin avietės nupurkštos per lapus 0,5; 1,0 ir 1,5% koncentracijų geležies chelato trąšų tirpalais, kad pagerėtų jų mityba geležimi šarminėse dirvose. Įvertintas geležies chelato poveikis aviečių lapų cheminei sudėčiai, augumui, derliui ir uogos masei. Nustatyta, kad aštuonis kartus per vegetaciją nupurškus 0,5% ir 1,0% koncentracijos geležies chelato trąšų tirpalais Brianskij rubin avietes, geležies jų lapuose padidėjo...

  14. Oxidation behaviour of the near α-titanium alloy IMI 834

    K V Sai Srinadh; Vakil Singh


    Oxidation behaviour of the near -titanium alloy IMI 834 was investigated over a range of temperatures, from 600–800°C, in air. Specimens were solution-treated in the + and phase fields for 1 h and 1/2 h, respectively and cooled in air to room temperature. The solution treated samples were subjected to stabilization treatment at 700°C for 2 h, followed by cooling in air. Oxidation behaviour of these samples was studied from 600–800°C in air, for 50 h. The morphology of the scales formed was examined by SEM and the phases present in the scales were characterized by X-ray diffraction. While there was little oxidation at 600°C, the rate of oxidation increased at higher temperatures. In general, the rate of oxidation was found to be more in the + treated condition than that in the treated one. The results are discussed in terms of the characteristics of the oxide film formed under different conditions.

  15. Klarinetin Tarihsel Gelişimi, Repertuvarı ve Orkestradaki Önemi

    Önder, Şehrinaz


    Bu araştırma, tahta üfleme çalgı ailesinin genç üyesi olan klarinetin tarihsel süreç içerisinde gelişimini klarinet repertuvarı ile birlikte inceleyerek, klarinetin orkestradaki önemini belirtmek ve bu konuda yapılacak çalışmalara katkıda bulunabilmek amacıyla yapılmış betimsel bir çalışmadır. Araştırma, üç bölüm altında ele alınmıştır. Birinci bölümde, klarinetin ortaya çıkışından günümüze kadar tarihsel gelişimi anlatılmıştır. İkinci bölümde, klarinet repertuvarı solo, oda ve caz müziği...

  16. Microstructurally based variations on the dwell fatgue life of titanium alloy IMI 834

    Thomsen, Mark L.; Hoeppner, David W.


    An experimental study was undertaken to determine the role of microstructure on the fatigue life reduction observed in titanium alloy IMI 834 under dwell loading conditions. The wave forms compared were a trapezoid with 15 and 30 second hold times at the maximum test load and a baseline, 10 Hertz, haversine. The stress ratio for both loading wave forms was 0.10. The fatigue loading of each specimen was conducted in a vacuum within a scanning electron microscope chamber which minimized the possibility that the laboratory environment would adversely affect the material behavior. Two microstructural conditions were investigated in the experimental program. The first involved standard 'disk' material with equiaxed alpha in a transformed beta matrix. The second material was cut from the same disk forging as the first but was heat treated to obtain a martensitic alpha prime microstructure. Tensile tests were performed prior to the onset of the fatigue loading portion of the study, and it was determined that the yield strengths of the specimens from both material conditions were within ten percent. The maximum fatigue loads were chosen to be 72 percent of the average yield strength for both materials as determined from the tensile tests. It was found that the cycles to failure from the 10 Hertz loading wave form were reduced by a factor of approximately five when the loading was changed to the trapezoidal wave form for the standard 'disk' material. The fatigue life reduction for the martensitic structure under identical test conditions was approximately 1.75. The improvement observed with the martensitic structure also was accompanied by an increase in overall fatigue life for the wave forms tested. This paper will review the results and conclusions of this effort.

  17. [School Choice: A Mechanism Desing Approach], Okul Seçimi: Bir Mekanizma Tasarımı Yaklaşımı



    Full Text Available Okul seçimi konusundaki temel meselelerden bir tanesi öğrenci yerleştirilmeleriyle ilgili bir mekanizma tasarlamaktır. Eğitim yazını, böyle mekanizmaların tasarlanmasıyla ilgili yol göstermesine rağmen belirli tasarılar sunmamaktadır. Halen var olan okul seçimi planlarındaki kusurlar, memnun olmayan velilerin itirazlarına sebebiyet vermektedir. Biz, okul seçimi problemini bir mekanizma tasarımı problemi gibi formüle edip Boston, Columbus, Minneapolis ve Seattle’dakilerin de aralarında olduğu mevcut okul seçimi planlarından bazılarını analiz ediyoruz. Bu planların ciddi yetersizlikler barındırdıklarını gösterip her biri önemli bazı okul seçimi meselelerine pratik çözümler getiren iki alternatif mekanizma öneriyoruz.

  18. Risk of progression and survival in multiple myeloma relapsing after therapy with IMiDs and bortezomib

    Kumar, S K; Lee, J H; Lahuerta, J J;


    Promising new drugs are being evaluated for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), but their impact should be measured against the expected outcome in patients failing current therapies. However, the natural history of relapsed disease in the current era remains unclear. We studied 286 patients with...... relapsed MM, who were refractory to bortezomib and were relapsed following, refractory to or ineligible to receive, an IMiD (immunomodulatory drug), had measurable disease, and ECOG PS of 0, 1 or 2. The date patients satisfied the entry criteria was defined as time zero (T(0)). The median age at diagnosis...... context for interpreting ongoing trials of new drugs....

  19. Mednarodna trgovina s prostoživečimi živalskimi in rastlinskimi vrstami ter izvajanje konvencije CITES

    Franko, Urška


    Nezakonita trgovina s prostoživečimi živalskimi in rastlinskimi vrstami je novodoben pojav in tema mnogih razprav na lokalni in globalni ravni. Vključuje vsa protipravna dejanja, od tihotapljenja, ulova, zbirateljstva ogrožene živalske ali rastlinske vrste do nezakonite trgovine. Kaže se v različnih oblikah, najnevarnejša pa je tista, ki zadeva organizirano strukturo kriminala. Poteka preko neformalnih mrež, zato je njen obseg nemogoče točno izmeriti. Gonilna sila nezakonite trgovine so potro...

  20. Structure-property relationships in centrifugally cast IMI 550 (Ti4Al-4Mo-2Sn-0.5Si)

    Centrifugal casting technology has been used to produce test pieces and hard-point bracket components for a determination of the structure-property relationships in the age-hardenable titanium alloy IMI 550. Tensile, high cycle fatigue, fracture toughness and elevated temperature creep results have shown that an attractive combination of property levels can be achieved in this alloy. It has been established that the tensile, fatigue and creep performance of cast plus Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) IMI 550 approaches that of conventionally wrought material while fracture toughness is superior. The improvement obtained in fracture toughness is a direct result of the presence of the highly acicular Widmanstatten or transformed beta microstructure produced by casting compared with the more traditional equiaxed alpha + beta structure exhibited by wrought products. HIP'ing has been shown to eliminate all traces of as cast internal shrinkage porosity and to thus yield a dramatic improvement in high cycle fatigue performance. HIP'ing was accompanied by general coarsening of the acicular alpha phases present in the micro-structure after casting. Macro and microstructural analysis of the castings indicated a refined and uniform beta grain size which it is believed is due to the presence of silicon in the alloy. 16 references

  1. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp IncFIIY Plasmid Encoding bla IMI-3-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance, from River Sediment.

    Dang, Bingjun; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi


    Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediments of Haihe River using Escherichia coli CV601 (gfp-tagged) as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G + C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to IncFIIY group and harbors a backbone region which shares high homology and gene synteny to several other IncF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1, and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one bla IMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The bla IMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the bla IMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of bla IMI carbapenemase genes. PMID:26941718

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp incFIIY plasmid encoding blaIMI-3-mediated carbapenem resistance, from river sediment

    Bingjun eDang


    Full Text Available Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediment of Haihe River using E. coli CV601 (gfp-tagged as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G+C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to incFIIY group and harbors a backbone region shares high homology and gene synteny to several other incF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1 and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one blaIMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The blaIMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the blaIMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of blaIMI carbapenemase genes.

  3. INDICACIÓN DE CESÁREA EN EL INSTITUTO MATERNO INFANTIL (IMI BOGOTÁ - COLOMBIA. SERIE DE CASOS Indication of caesarea in the Instituto Materno Infantil (IMI Colombia - Bogotá. Case series

    Adriana Paola Barriga-Moreno


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La cesárea es una intervención quirúrgica que tiene sus indicaciones y que como cualquier otra cirugía tiene riesgos, máxime cuando están involucrados la madre y su fruto. Esta serie de casos describe las principales indicaciones de cesárea en el Instituto Materno Infantil de Bogotá durante los meses de enero a abril de 2011; hasta el momento no se habían documentado estas indicaciones en este centro hospitalario obstétrico y perinatal. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura con el fin de comparar estos datos. Objetivo. Describir los diagnósticos asociados a la cesárea en el Instituto Materno Infantil de Bogotá Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Diseño del estudio, serie de casos. Población: pacientes sometidas a cesárea durante los meses de enero a abril de 2011, pertenecientes al régimen subsidiado de atención en salud, atendidas en un centro de referencia distrital de tercer nivel materno y perinatal. Se revisaron la base de datos Embase y las librerías electrónicas PubMed y Medline con las palabras clave cesarean delivery, cesarean section, idioma inglés, limitada a los últimos 12 años. Muestreo secuencial consecutivo del libro de registros de procedimientos quirúrgicos del Instituto Materno Infantil de Bogotá. Se tomaron como variables a medir los diagnósticos asociados a las cesáreas, no hubo criterios de exclusión. Análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados. El diagnóstico de cesárea anterior correspondió al 26,4% de las cesáreas realizadas en el IMI; siguieron en orden de frecuencia: estado fetal insatisfactorio 15,5%, trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo 15,5%, detención secundaria de la dilatación y el descenso 5,5%, ruptura prematura de membranas 4,7%. Conclusión. La cesárea anterior constituyó la indicación de cesárea más frecuente en esta institución. Los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo y la ruptura prematura de membranas se encontraron dentro de los diagnósticos m

  4. Mustafa Kemâleddin Bekrî’ye Göre Sûfî Benlik Gelişimi

    İbrahim Işıtan


    Bu makalede, Halvetiyye-Şa'bâniyye geleneği içerisinde yetişmiş 18. yüzyılın seçkin sûfîlerinden Mustafa Kemâleddin Bekrî (1162/1749)’ye göre sûfî benlik gelişimi konusu ele alınmıştır. Sûfî benlik gelişimi, bireyin kişiliği ve kimliği üzerine etki eden sûfî yaşamın mânevî aşamalardan geçip içsel dönüşümü gerçekleştirmesi anlamında kullanılan bir terim olarak kabul edilebilir. Çalışmanın girişinde psikoloji ve tasavvufa göre kısaca benlik gelişimi konusu ele alınmış, ardından sûfîmize göre b...

  5. Kütüphane Otomasyonu İçin Yazılım Seçimi

    Meltem Özturan


    Full Text Available Son zamanlarda, Türkiye'de kütüphaneler, kütüphane yönetim dizgelerini bilgisayar ortamına aktarma girişimi içindedirler. Bu açıdan, temel olarak iki alanda yatırım yapmak durumundadırlar: donanım ve yazılım. Verilecek kararın özünü önce en uygun yazılımın seçilmesi ve daha sonra bu yazılıma uygun donanım saptanması oluşturacaktır. Bu yazıda yazılımın katalog lamada, ödünç vermede ve bilgi erişimde kullanımı açısından bir bütün olarak nasıl değerlendirilmesi gerektiği kısaca incelenmiştir. Öte yandan yazılım seçerken sağlama ve süreli yayın izleme işlevlerinin de gözönünde tutulması gereği unutulmamalıdır.

  6. Effect of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition on high temperature oxidation of titanium alloy IMI 834-aluminizing

    Aluminium plays a significant role in high temperature construction materials and coatings. It helps to form continuous, protective and thermodynamically stable alumina oxide scale over their surfaces upon high temperature exposure and enhances their life significantly. However, the performance of coatings depends on the surface engineering technique that is used for application of coatings. In the present paper, plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) was used to deposit aluminium coating on the titanium alloy IMI 834 under varying conditions. Subsequently, the oxidation behaviour of the alloy has been studied at elevated temperatures. The weight change data showed that the specimen that is aluminium coated followed by implantation exhibits minimum weight gain and extended period of oxide spallation when compared to uncoated and other coated specimens. XRD was used to identify the phases that formed during oxidation process. Oxide morphology was observed by SEM and the composition of oxide scales was analysed by EDS. A suitable degradation mechanism for Al coatings have been proposed based on the results obtained with different techniques

  7. Oral biopharmaceutics tools - time for a new initiative - an introduction to the IMI project OrBiTo.

    Lennernäs, H; Aarons, L; Augustijns, P; Beato, S; Bolger, M; Box, K; Brewster, M; Butler, J; Dressman, J; Holm, R; Julia Frank, K; Kendall, R; Langguth, P; Sydor, J; Lindahl, A; McAllister, M; Muenster, U; Müllertz, A; Ojala, K; Pepin, X; Reppas, C; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Verwei, M; Weitschies, W; Wilson, C; Karlsson, C; Abrahamsson, B


    OrBiTo is a new European project within the IMI programme in the area of oral biopharmaceutics tools that includes world leading scientists from nine European universities, one regulatory agency, one non-profit research organization, four SMEs together with scientists from twelve pharmaceutical companies. The OrBiTo project will address key gaps in our knowledge of gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption and deliver a framework for rational application of predictive biopharmaceutics tools for oral drug delivery. This will be achieved through novel prospective investigations to define new methodologies as well as refinement of existing tools. Extensive validation of novel and existing biopharmaceutics tools will be performed using active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), formulations and supporting datasets from industry partners. A combination of high quality in vitro or in silico characterizations of API and formulations will be integrated into physiologically based in silico biopharmaceutics models capturing the full complexity of GI drug absorption. This approach gives an unparalleled opportunity to initiate a transformational change in industrial research and development to achieve model-based pharmaceutical product development in accordance with the Quality by Design concept. Benefits include an accelerated and more efficient drug candidate selection, formulation development process, particularly for challenging projects such as low solubility molecules (BCS II and IV), enhanced and modified-release formulations, as well as allowing optimization of clinical product performance for patient benefit. In addition, the tools emerging from OrBiTo are expected to significantly reduce demand for animal experiments in the future as well as reducing the number of human bioequivalence studies required to bridge formulations after manufacturing or composition changes. PMID:24189462

  8. IMIS Platform Evaluation Report

    Zhang, Peng


    After a pre-study in the year 2001-2002 financed by VINNOVA , a prototype based on the Activity Theory model was constructed to demonstrate the usability of mobile IT in mobile healthcare. The prototype was developed in PHP on Apache and deployed on a Microsoft Windows Server 2000 computer, which was also installed a MS SQL server 2000 for the database. This prototype is considered as a throwaway one, since it was developed mainly to demonstrate a basic architecture for the healthcare databas...

  9. Research and development project of regional consortiums in fiscal 1998. Research and development of regional consortium energy (development of measuring technology to aid energy conservation in electronic device manufacturing processes (design and trial production of IMI) (Report on the result in the first year)); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Denshi kikirui seizo process no sho energy shien keisoku seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu (IMI no sekkei to shisaku) (dai 1 nendo)



    This paper summarizes the development of intelligent micro instruments (IMI) inaugurated in fiscal 1998 as the wide-area consortium project for the Tama area. Research and development will be carried out on the following items: IMI substrate elements utilizing micro machining technology, applicable to micro sensors and micro probes, semiconductor process sensors, electronic device measuring probes, signal processing and communication circuits for wireless sensing. This paper describes the achievements during fiscal 1998. Technologies were transferred from the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on silicon micro machining and PZT piezoelectric thin film formation. An IMI research laboratory was installed at the Tokyo Metropolitan University. In developing the IMI substrate elements, different beams applicable to sensors and probes were fabricated on a trial basis, and their mechanical properties were measured. For the semiconductor process sensors, discussions were given on micronization on a chlorine ion analyzer. In developing the electronic device measuring probes, the target was placed on measurement of in-situ characteristics of IC chips on a wafer. A prototype transmitting and receiving circuit board was fabricated for developing the wireless sensing. (NEDO)

  10. Mobilya sektöründe bulanık TOPSIS yöntemi ile tedarikçi seçimi

    Esra Kurt Tekez


    Full Text Available Tedarikçi seçimi, karlılık, büyüme ve artan küresel rekabet ortamında işletmeler açısından stratejik önem taşımaktadır. Tedarikçi seçim kararı, işletmede karar sahibi olan kişilerin grupça değerlendirmesi bakımından oldukça önemlidir. Ancak bu tür kararlar, niteliksel ve niceliksel birçok faktör ve birden fazla karar verici içerdiği için genellikle belirsiz ve karmaşıktır. Bu nedenle bulanık çok kriterli karar verme yöntemleri bu sorunların çözümü için geliştirilmiştir. Bu yöntemler karar vericilerin tercihlerindeki belirsizliği ortaya koyup birçok kriteri aynı anda değerlendirir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada çok kriterli karar verme yöntemlerinden biri olan bulanık TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solutions yöntemi kullanılarak Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren bir mobilya fabrikasının tedarikçi seçimi incelenmiştir. Çalışma, bulanık TOPSIS yönteminin tedarikçi seçiminde etkin bir yöntem olarak kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir.

  11. Sakarya İlinde gerçekleşen intihar girişimi vakalarının değerlendirilmesi

    M. Fatih Önsüz


    Full Text Available

    Amaç: Bu araştırmada 2009-2010 yılları arasında Sakarya’da hastanelerin acil servisine intihar girişimi nedeniyle başvuran vakaların değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Bu çalışma Ocak 2009 ve Aralık 2010 tarihleri arasında Sakarya’da bulunan tüm devlet ve özel hastanelerin acil servislerine intihar girişimi nedeniyle başvuran hastaların (n=1566 verileri incelenerek gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bulgular: İki yıl için 15 yaş ve üzeri kaba intihar girişim hızı kadın ve erkeklerde sırasıyla 100000 nüfusta 191.98 ve 51.88’dir. Toplam 1566 vakanın 1236 (%78.9’sı kadın, 330 (%21.1’u erkektir ve çoğu 15-24 yaş grubundadır. Hem kadınlarda ve hem de erkeklerde en sık başvurulan intihar şekli ise ilaç ve toksik madde kullanımı idi ve sıklık erkek ve kadınlarda sırasıyla %93.8, %96.8 idi. Tekrarlanan intihar girişim sıklığı kadınlarda %17.2 ve erkeklerde %13.9 bulunmuştur. Sonuç: Bu araştırmada intihar girişim sıklığı kadınlarda erkeklerden daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Ayrıca tekrarlayan intihar girişimi sıklığı araştırma grubunda topluma göre çok yüksek bulunmuştur. İntihar girişimlerini önlemek için risk faktörlerinin ve çözüm yollarının belirlenmesine yönelik topluma dayalı analitik ve müdahale epidemiyolojik araştırmaların yapılmasına ihtiyaç vardır.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: İntihar girişimi, sıklık, tekrarlayan intihar girişimi

    Evaluation of suicide attempts in Sakarya

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the general characteristics, the methods that were used and the causes of suicide attempts for the years of 2009-2010 in Sakarya. Methods: The data were gathered from emergency rooms of all public and private hospitals by

  12. The Revitalization of Women’s Entrepreneurship Spirit In Micro Enterprises With Islamic Microfinance Institution (IMI) (Study on The Contribution of BMTs Agam Madani in Agam sub-province, West Sumatra)

    Hesi Eka Puteri


    Objective - The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the contribution of Islamic Microfinance Institutions (IMI) in the process of empowerment of women microenterprises, and recommended a related policy.Method – This study is a field research in 2012, which focused in BMTs Agam Madani at Agam district. The data is sourced from the observation, documentation and questionnaires from 60 women micro-entrepreneurs samples who receive working capital financing. This paper uses simple r...

  13. Dış Pazarlara Açılma Sürecinde Kobi’lerin Uyguladıkları Pazarlama İletişimi Yöntemleri ve Mermer Sektöründe Bir Uygulama

    Özgöz, Ayşe


    Çalışmada dış pazarlara açılma sürecinde KOBİ’lerin uyguladıkları pazarlama iletişimi yöntemleri incelenmiştir. Bu yöntemlerin değerlendirilmesi için KOBİ ve Pazarlama İletişimi konuları teorik olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu teorik değerlendirmenin yanı sıra dış pazarlara açılma yöntemleri incelenmiş ve bu süreçte KOBİ’lerin kullandıkları pazarlama iletişimi yöntemleri ele alınmıştır. İzmir 11. Uluslararası Doğaltaş ve Teknolojileri Fuarındaki katılımcı KOBİ’lerle yapılan anket sonuçlarının değer...

  14. The Revitalization of Women’s Entrepreneurship Spirit In Micro Enterprises With Islamic Microfinance Institution (IMI (Study on The Contribution of BMTs Agam Madani in Agam sub-province, West Sumatra

    Hesi Eka Puteri


    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the contribution of Islamic Microfinance Institutions (IMI in the process of empowerment of women microenterprises, and recommended a related policy.Method – This study is a field research in 2012, which focused in BMTs Agam Madani at Agam district. The data is sourced from the observation, documentation and questionnaires from 60 women micro-entrepreneurs samples who receive working capital financing. This paper uses simple regression model in order to observe relationship between working capital and the increasing of revenue. This model is to measure the amount of the multiplier effect in working capital-to increasing of revenue.Result – This paper found that IMI is a good model to develop society more prosperous by developing BMTs in each district. These BMT has thousands of micro enterprises member and could revitalized the spirit of entrepreneurship of minangkabau’s women. A research to 60 women’s micro entrepreneur samples showed the positive significant influence between lending to revenue. A multiplier effect equal to 0.068.The small number of multiplier effect implied that many factors determining their revenue, not lending only.Conclusion – This finding could explain that IMI could empower micro entrepreneur woman. This finding also recommend few strategies: 1 Revitalization of BMTs as micro catalyst by revitalization of structure of organization, products variation, human resource compentence, sharia monitoring, public cooperation and implementating local cultural value 2 Revitalization of government role as fasilitator, coordinator, initiator and mediator in developing micro sector. Keywords : Women’s Entrepreneurship, Micro Enterprises, Islamic Microfinance Institution, BMTs Agam Madani 

  15. Kudret narı (Momordica charantia L.) tohumunun bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri ile tohum yağının yağ asitleri bileşimi

    GÖLÜKÇÜ, Muharrem; Toker, Ramazan; AYAS, Fırat; ÇINAR, Nurtaç


    Kudret narının meyvesi ve yaprakları antioksidan, antibakteriyel, anti-kanser, anti-hepatotoksik, antiviral, antiülserojenik ve larvisid etkileri dolayısıyla bazı hastalıkların kontrolü için gıda veya ilaç olarak kullanılabilmektedir. Kudret narı önemli oranda çekirdek içermesine rağmen genel olarak değerlendirilmemektedir. Bu çalışmada, kudret narı tohumunun bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özelliklerinin yanında tohum yağının yağ asidi bileşimi belirlenmiştir. Kudret narı tohumunun yağ içeriği sox...

  16. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana


    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  17. Muscle strain (image)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  18. Muscle strain treatment

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  19. Program Calibrates Strain Gauges

    Okazaki, Gary D.


    Program dramatically reduces personnel and time requirements for acceptance tests of hardware. Data-acquisition system reads output from Wheatstone full-bridge strain-gauge circuit and calculates strain by use of shunt calibration technique. Program nearly instantaneously tabulates and plots strain data against load-cell outputs. Modified to acquire strain data for other specimens wherever full-bridge strain-gauge circuits used. Written in HP BASIC.


    ÇÖKLÜ, Y. Ece


    Klasik mal/mamül pazarlamasının çeşitli alanlardaki hizmetlerin sunulmasında eksik ve yetersiz kaldığının görülmesiyle, artık genel pazarlamanın bir uzmanlık dalı olarak kabul edilen hizmet pazarlamasının, sağlıklı işleyişinin sağlanması için , diğerlerine oranla daha fazla ve etkin olması gereken temel faktörün 'iletişim fonksiyonu' olduğu açıkça ortaya çıkmış durumdadır.'Health Communications' yani Türkçe'de kullanımı ile 'sağlık iletişimi' anlayışı, son 10-15 yıldır daha da fazla önem veri...

  1. İşletmelerde Beceri Eğitimine (Staja) Giden Meslek Lisesi Çocuk Gelişimi Öğrencilerinin Staja İlişkin Görüşleri

    Kumru, Mehmet; Demirtaş, Zeynep


    Araştırmanın  amacı,  işletmelerde  beceri  eğitimine  (staja)  giden  meslek lisesi  çocuk  gelişimi öğrencilerinin staja ilişkin görüşlerinin belirlenmesidir. Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden görüşme tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda oluşturulmuştur. Açık uçlu beş sorudan oluşan görüşme formunda, öğrencilere stajla ilgili genel görüşleri, stajda yaptıkları çalışmalar, öğrencilerin kuramsal ...

  2. Azotlu gübre dozlarının İtalyan çimi ( Lolium italicum L.) çeşitlerinin ot verimi, kalitesi ve bazı tarımsal özelliklerine etkisi

    ÇOLAK, Ergül


    Evcil hayvanların kaliteli kaba yem ihtiyacının karşılanmasında kullanılan önemli bitkilerden biri de İtalyan çimidir. Bu araştırma, İtalyan çimi çeşitlerinin verimi ve kalitesini yükseltmede önemli bir potansiyeli olan azotlu gübrelerin değişik dozlarının etkilerini belirlemek üzere yapılmıştır. Orta Anadolu bölgesi kıraç koşullarında, 2008-2009 yıllarında yürütülmüştür.Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü deneme tarlasında tesadüf bloklarında bölünmüş parsell...

  3. Koyunbaba Mağarası (Kırklareli-Türkiye) yarasa faunasının mevsimsel populasyon değişimleri ve tünek seçimi

    Paksuz, Serbülent


    Bu çalışmada, Kırklareli il sınırları içinde yer alan Koyunbaba Mağarası yarasa faunasının mevsimsel populasyon değişimleri ve tünek seçimleri araştırılmıştır. Mağara Eylül 2007-Ağustos 2008 tarihlerinde toplam 15 araştırma gezisi düzenlenerek incelenmiştir. Yarasa türlerinin populasyon sayımı, sıcaklık ve nispi nem ölçümleri için Koyunbaba Mağarasında yarasaların tünek olarak kullandığı 7 istasyon belirlenmiştir. Yarasaların tünek seçimi 3 parametreye (tünek yeri, tünek tipi, tünek yüksekliğ...

  4. Japon Balığı (Carassius Auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet Anıl; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem Yeşim; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval


    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  5. Strains and Sprains

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Sports Medicine Center Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries Knee Injuries Broken ... Knee Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries Groin Strain Ankle Sprains Strains and Sprains Stretching ...

  6. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Jörg Schilling; Christian Bohley; Clemens Schriever


    A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is inves...

  7. Cross-site strain comparison of pharmacological deficits in the touchscreen visual discrimination test.

    Mohler, Eric G; Ding, Zhiyong; Rueter, Lynne E; Chapin, Douglas; Young, Damon; Kozak, Rouba


    The low rate of success for identifying effective treatments for cognitive dysfunction has prompted recent efforts to improve pharmaceutical discovery and development. In particular, investigators have emphasized improving translation from pre-clinical to clinical research. A specific area of focus has been touchscreen technology; this computer-automated behavioral testing method provides an objective assessment of performance that can be used across species. As part of a larger multi-site study with partners from the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), two US sites, AbbVie and Pfizer, conducted a cross-site experiment with a common protocol for the visual discrimination (VD) task using identical testing equipment, stimuli, and rats of the same strains, sex, and age from the same supplier. As most touchscreen-based rodent experiments have used Lister-Hooded rats that are not readily available outside of Europe, a strain comparison with male Long-Evans rats was conducted as part of the study. Rats were trained for asymptotic performance, and test sessions were performed once per week in a full crossover design with cognition-impairing drugs. Drugs tested were phencyclidine and S-ketamine (N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists), D-amphetamine (indirect dopamine agonist), and scopolamine (muscarinic antagonist). Satellite brain and plasma samples were taken to confirm appropriate exposures. Results indicate that both rat strains show similar patterns of impairment, although Lister-Hooded rats were more sensitive than Long-Evans rats to three out of four drugs tested. This suggests that researchers should fully explore dose-response relationships in their strain of choice and use care in the interpretation of reversal of cognitive impairment. PMID:26177580

  8. A violation of equality and the right to life: Sex selectionBir eşitlik ve yaşama hakkı ihlali: Cinsiyet seçimi

    Ayşe Koyun


    Full Text Available Abstract Sex selection, fetal sex identification and the use of non-medical purposes. Sex selection is applied to medical and non-medical reasons. Reinforce discrimination against women in the sex selection of non-medical reasons. Choosing the sex of the children asked to be owned, in favor of men from losing the value of girls, women's status within the family and society has led to a reduction. Sex differences in each value proposition is installed or sex discrimination is of concern ethically be done. Women and men, but a reality to be different, this difference in conditions resulting from the acquisition of positive, negative or situations where it is at a disadvantage, is considered among the main reasons for the emergence of inequality. Based on this point, without a health problem not only because of the individual's right to life taken away from sex is a sexist approach. Sex is just one of the things that make human beings human. Sex is not a disease, therefore, precautions must be taken in the prenatal period, determined in a property must be deactivated. All health professionals and organizations, non-medical sex selection should prevent, protect, and promote gender equality and the right to life must implement all the strategies. ÖzetCinsiyet seçimi, fetüsün cinsiyetinin belirlenmesi ve tıbbi olmayan amaçlar için kullanılmasıdır. Cinsiyet seçimi medikal ve medikal olmayan nedenlerle uygulanmaktadır. Medikal olmayan nedenlerle yapılan cinsiyet seçimi kadınlar aleyhine ayrımcılığı güçlendirmektedir. Sahip olunacak çocukların cinsiyetinin seçilmesinin istenmesi, erkek lehinde kız çocuklarının değerini kaybetmesini, kadının aile ve toplum içindeki statüsünün azalmasını gündeme getirmiştir. Her bir cinsiyete yüklenmiş değer farklılıklarının öne sürülmesi veya cinsiyet ayrımının yapılması etik yönden endişe yaratmaktadır. Kadın ve erkeğin farklı olması bir gerçeklik olmakla

  9. Diffraction tomography of strain

    Lionheart, W R B; Withers, P. J.


    We consider whether it is possible to recover the three dimensional strain field tomographically from neutron and x-ray diffraction data for polycrystalline materials. We show that the distribution of strain transverse to a ray cannot be deduced from one diffraction pattern accumulated along that path, but that a certain moment of that data corresponds to the transverse ray transform of the strain tensor and so may be recovered by inverting that transform given sufficient data. We show that t...

  10. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn


    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  11. Strain-engineered MOSFETs

    Maiti, CK


    Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in st

  12. Highly Strained Organophosphorus Compounds

    Slootweg, J.C.


    In our research on small, strained organophosphorus ring systems we became interested in the synthesis and applications of species that are even more strained than the parent phosphirane, by introducing an exocyclic double bond (methylenephosphirane), and by cyclopropyl spirofusion to the edge (e.g

  13. Evsel Atıklardan Elde Edilen Kompostun Mısır ve Biberin Gelişimi ve Besin Elementi İçeriğine Etkisi

    Derviş AYNACI


    Full Text Available Araştırmada, 1 ay süre ile 10 ayrı haneden mutfak atıkları toplanmış, toplanan evsel atıklardan elde edilen kompostun sera koşullarında mısır ve biber bitkilerinin gelişimi ve besin elementi içeriğine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Deneme 2 kg toprak alan saksılarda yürütülmüş olup, kompostun 6 (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 ve 4.00 ton/da dozu uygulanmıştır. Araştırma, 4 paralelli olarak, tesadüf parselleri deneme desenine göre planlanmış ve 2 ay süreyle yürütülmüştür. Araştırma sonunda hasat edilen bitkilerde kuru ağırlık değerleriyle N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn ve Mn konsantrasyonları belirlenmiştir. Uygulanan kompost miktarı arttıkça bitki kuru ağırlığı artmış, biber bitkisinin N konsantrasyonunda 2-2.4 kat arasında artışlar görülmüştür. Mısır bitkisi N konsantrasyonları da kompost dozlarından olumlu etkilenmiş fakat burada dozlar arası fark önemli olmamıştır. Bitkilerde P, K ve Ca konsantrasyonları kompost miktarı arttıkça olumlu yönde etkilenmiş, biberde Fe, Zn ve Mn konsantrasyonları, mısırda ise Mn konsantrasyonu etkisi istatistiksel anlamda önemli bulunmuştur.

  14. Sprains and Strains

    ... people at risk for strains. Gymnastics, tennis, rowing, golf, and other sports that require extensive gripping can ... Trials and You was designed to help people learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and ...

  15. The strained state cosmology

    Tartaglia, Angelo


    Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behaviour of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativ- ity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time repro- duces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theor...

  16. An Ultrasonic Strain Gauge

    Kersemans, Mathias; Allaer, Klaas; Degrieck, Joris; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Pyl, Lincy; Zastavnik, Filip; Sol, Hugo; Van Paegem, Wim


    A method is introduced for the measurements of strain exploiting the interaction between ultrasound waves and characteristics of the insonified specimen. First, the response of obliquely incident harmonic waves to a deterministic surface roughness is utilized. Analysis of backscattered amplitudes in Bragg diffraction geometry then yields a measure for the in-plane strain field by mapping any shift in angular dependency. Secondly, the analysis of the reflection characteristics of normal incide...

  17. MEMS Graphene Strain Sensor

    Young, Clinton Wen-Chieh

    Graphene is a two dimensional honeycomb structure of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms that has possibilities in many applications due to its excellent mechanical and electrical properties. One application for Graphene is in the field of sensors. Graphene's electronic properties do not degrade when it undergoes mechanical strain which is advantageous for strain sensors. In this thesis, certain properties, such as the piezo-resistivity and flexibility, of graphene will be explored to show how they can be utilized to make a strain sensing device. Our original fabrication process of patterning graphene and the transfer process of graphene onto a flexible substrate will be discussed. The development of a stretchable and flexible graphene based rosette strain sensor will also be detailed. Developing a novel, reliable patterning process for the graphene is the first step to manufacture a stretchable graphene based sensor. The graphene was patterned using a photolithography and etching process that was developed by our research team, then it was transferred to a flexible polymer substrate with the use of a combination of soft lithography and wet etching of the Ni foil with ferric chloride solution. Graphene patterning is an essential step in fabricating reliable and sensitive sensors. With this process, graphene can be consistently patterned into different shapes and sizes. To utilize the graphene as the sensing material it also needs to be transferred onto a flexible substrate. The innovative transfer process developed by our research team consistently adheres graphene to a flexible PDMS substrate while removing the original nickel substrate. In the end, the graphene was transferred from the metal substrate to the desired flexible substrate. This process was repeated multiple times to create a stack and multilayer device. While many graphene-based strain sensors have been developed, they are uni-directional and can only measure the strain applied on the sensor in a principle

  18. The new hyphomycete genera Brachyalara and Infundichalara, the similar Exochalara and species of 'Phialophora sect. Catenulatae' (Leotiomycetes)

    Réblová, M.; Gams, W.; Štěpánek, Václav


    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 67-86. ISSN 1560-2745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Chalara * Phylogeny * Glomerellales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.769, year: 2011

  19. Longitudinal misalignment based strain sensor

    Andrews, Jeffrey Pratt


    A practical fiber optic strain sensor has been developed to measure strains in the range of 0.0 to 2.0 percent strain with a resolution ranging between 10 and 100 microstrain depending on sensor design choices. This intensity based sensor measures strain by monitoring strain induced longitudinal misalignment in a novel fiber interconnection. This interconnection is created by aligning fibers within a segment of hollow core fiber. Related splice loss mechanisms are investigated ...

  20. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk


    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics. PMID:26344404

  1. The strained state cosmology

    Tartaglia, Angelo


    Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behavior of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time reproduces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theories. The possible role of structure topological defects is also mentioned. The conclusion is that SSC is at least as good as the ΛCDM standard cosmology, giving a more intuitive interpretation of the physical nature of the phenomena.

  2. Novel strained superjunction VDMOS

    Naugarhiya, Alok; Dubey, Shashank; Kondekar, Pravin N.


    In this paper, we have proposed novel strained superjunction (s-SJ) vertical double diffused MOS (VDMOS). Through channel engineering, we have introduced strain effects in s-SJ device using thin separate p-type silicon-germanium (p-SiGe) layer over silicon p-pillar. Further, we have designed process flow for the possible fabrication of s-SJ VDMOS. The proposed s-SJ devices fitted with less input capacitance (Cin) and 1.2∼3 times higher output current density than conventional SJ VDMOS. Therefore, 40% less gate charge (Qg) is required to turn-on the s-SJ VDMOS and Ron A is optimized in between 12% and 46%.

  3. Strains in general relativity

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  4. Strains in General Relativity

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea


    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a "fiducial observer." We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations.

  5. Geodetic surveying of strains

    Meixner, H.


    This article evaluates methods and apparatus used in the German Democratic Republic to assess vertical and horizontal deformations and strains caused by coal mining and mining of other deposits. Each of the methods is characterized; type of measuring apparatus and its accuracy is given. The following conventional methods of surveying are characterized: (I.) vertical strains: measurement with hydrostatic tube balance (apparatus produced by the Praezisionsmechanik Freiberg, with accuracy of 0.01 mm), trigonometric levelling (error up to 10 mm), geometric levelling (NI 007 and NI 008 apparatus produced by Carl Zeiss JENA), and direct height measuring; (II.) horizontal strains: direct surveying with accuracy higher than 5 mm/50 m, indirect surveying (theodolite THEO 010 A produced by the Carl Zeiss JENA), and alignment method (using apparatus produced by Praezisionsmechanik, Freiberg). Advanced surveying methods are also discussed: electro-optical method (using EOK 2000 range finder produced by Carl Zeiss JENA, with average error ranging from 5 mm to 10 mm), laser method (LF-1 and LFG-1 lasers produced by Carl Zeiss JENA), measuring gyroscope used to measure contorsion (MRK 2 gyroscope produced by the Praezisionsmechanik, Freiberg); photogrammetry: stereophotogrammetry and so-called parallel photogrammetry. (15 refs.) (In Polish)

  6. Temperature controlled strain gaged extensometer

    Ramos, G. L.; Seplow, S.


    Temperature controlled strain-gaged extensometer measures longitudinal and girth deflections of pressure vessels in excess of one percent strain during pressurization and depressurization with cryogenic fluids at cryogenic temperatures. The device is of beryllium-copper strips.

  7. Bitki Büyümesini Teşvik Eden Bazı Bakteri Strainlerinin ‘Şekerpare’ Kayısı Çöğürlerinin Bitki Gelişimi Üzerine Etkileri

    KARAKURT, Halil; Kotan, Recep; ASLANTAŞ, Rafet; Dadaşoğlu, Fatih; Karagöz, Kenan; Şahin, Fikrettin


    ÖZET: Bu çalışmada; bitki büyümesini teşvik eden bazı bakteriyel strainlerin (Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-79, RK-80 ve RK-92, Serratia liquefaciens strain RK-102 ve Pseudomonas putida strain RK-142) arazi şartlarında şekerpare kayısı çöğürlerinin bitki boyu, gövde çapı, yıllık sürgün sayısı, sürgün çapı, sürgün boyu, yaprak alanı, yan kök sayısı ve kök çapı üzerine etkilerinin araşt...

  8. MEMS Resonant Strain Sensor Integration

    Myers, David Richard


    Despite commercial availability since the 1950's, silicon strain sensors have not experienced the same success as other microdevices, such as accelerometers, pressure sensors, and inkjet heads. Strain sensors measure mechanical deformation and could be used in many structural components, improving safety, controls, and manufacturing tolerances. This thesis examines major strain sensing techniques and highlights both advantages and disadvantages of each. MEMS resonant strain gauges are iden...

  9. Strain calibration of optical FBG-based strain sensors

    Roths, Johannes; Wilfert, Andre; Kratzer, Peter; Jülich, Florian; Kuttler, Rolf


    A facility for strain sensitivity calibration of optical FBG-based strain sensors according to the German VDI/VDE 2660 guideline was established and characterized. Statistical analysis of several calibration measurement series performed with one single type of FBG strain sensor and application technique showed a reproducibility of 0.15%. Strain sensitivities for FBGs inscribed in two different types of optical fibres (GF1B and PR2008) showed significantly different strain sensitivities of k = 0.7885+/-0.0026 and k = 0.7758+/-0.0024, respectively.

  10. Precision determination of strains by strain measurement method

    Method for precision strain measurement determination of strains measurement determination of strains by direct measurement of the resistance of strain gauge resistors put on the sample, by constant current bridge MOD-61 of 0.05 class using a zero method by single bridge double-clamp circuit is described. Strain measurement technique was used to investigate residual stresses in tubular samples. Sample external diameter made up 30 mm, the length - 180, the wall thickness-11 mm. To evaluate the method sensitivity, annealed samples were investigated (annealing temperature-850-880 deg C, hold-up-2 h, cooling in the furnace). It is ascertained, that the method provides for 0.3-0.5 μm strain measurement accuracy even if sample strains do not exceed 3.0-3.6 μm and correspond to residual stress level of no more than 20 MPa

  11. Development of reversible strain gage

    A high-temperature strain gage which can be peeled after taking required apparent strain measurements in a furnace and can be attached reverse-side-up at the point of interest on a test structure was developed. Using the ''reversible'' strain gage with selected room-temperature curing type polyester adhesive, one can expect to measure thermal strain accurately, especially for on large structures, at the first test in temperature up to 250 deg C. The repeatability of apparent strains for about 100 reversible gages was within 50 microstrains of difference at 250 deg C (within 30 microstrains of difference for 80 % of the test gages). (author)

  12. Distributional records of Antarctic fungi based on strains preserved in the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE Mycological Section associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA

    Laura Selbmann


    Full Text Available This dataset includes information regarding fungal strains collected during several Antarctic expeditions: the Italian National Antarctic Research program (PNRA expeditions “X” (1994/1995, “XII” (1996/1997, “XVII” (2001/2002, “XIX” (2003/2004, “XXVI” (2010/2011, the Czech “IPY Expedition” (2007–2009 and a number of strains donated by E. Imre Friedmann (Florida State University in 2001, isolated from samples collected during the U.S.A. Antarctic Expeditions of 1980-1982. Samples, consisting of colonized rocks, mosses, lichens, sediments and soils, were collected in Southern and Northern Victoria Land of the continental Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula. A total of 259 different strains were isolated, belonging to 32 genera and 38 species, out of which 12 represented new taxa. These strains are preserved in the Antarctic section of the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE, which represents one of the collections associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, Italy, located at the Laboratory of Systematic Botany and Mycology, Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB, Tuscia University (Viterbo, Italy. The CCFEE hosts a total of 486 Antarctic fungal strains from worldwide extreme environments. Distributional records are reported here for 259 of these strains. The holotypes of the 12 new species included in this dataset are maintained at CCFEE and in other international collections: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, Netherlands; DBVPG, Industrial Yeasts Collection (University of Perugia, Italy; DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (Brunswick, Germany; IMI, International Mycological Institute (London, U.K..

  13. [Echinococcus and strain concepts].

    Utük, Armağan Erdem; Simsek, Sami


    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses and remains a public health and economic problem all over the world. Echinococcus granulosus includes a number of genetic variants and, up to date, analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences have identified ten distinct genetic types (genotypes G1-10). This categorization follows closely the pattern of strain variation emerging based on biological characteristics. The extensive variation in E. granulosus may influence life-cycle patterns, host specificity, development rate, antigenicity, transmission dynamics, sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, and pathology. In this review, the recent genetic characterizations of Echinococcus genus have been summarized. PMID:18351549

  14. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast to...... uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...... against the UPEC strain CFT073 was also studied. The different ABU strains displayed a wide variety of the measured characteristics. Half of the ABU strains displayed functional type 1 fimbriae while only one expressed functional P fimbriae. A good correlation between the growth rate of a particular...

  15. Reconstruction of axisymmetric strain distributions via neutron strain tomography

    Predicting the behaviour of structural components under a particular set of loading conditions requires knowledge of the residual elastic strain distribution throughout the bulk of these components. Characterising the 3D strain state at any particular point involves the measurement of six independent components which make up the second order strain tensor. Mapping the complete strain distribution throughout large volumes thus presents significant practical challenges. One possible solution to this problem is to reconstruct the 3D variation of strain components using tomographic techniques. The basic principle underpinning this idea is that the multi-component strain tensor can be reconstructed from a redundant set of lower order projection data. Here we demonstrate this fundamental concept for two samples: a shrink fit ‘ring-and-plug’ sample, and a spray-quenched circular cylinder, both possessing axially symmetric internal strain distribution. We present and contrast different approaches to the strain tomography problem. The methods described here can also be readily applied to high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements and represent an important step toward developing the tomographic reconstruction framework for strain tensor distributions of arbitrary complexity. The major benefit of neutron strain tomography is that the incident beam flux is utilised more fully, greatly reducing the data collection times. Using micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detectors, a spatial resolution of the order of 0.1 mm can be achieved .

  16. Strain in silicon nanowire beams

    Ureña, Ferran; Olsen, Sarah H.; Šiller, Lidija; Bhaskar, Umesh; Pardoen, Thomas; Raskin, Jean-Pierre


    In this work, strain in silicon free standing beams loaded in uniaxial tension is experimentally and theoretically investigated for strain values ranging from 0 to 3.6%. The fabrication method allows multiple geometries (and thus strain values) to be processed simultaneously on the same wafer while being studied independently. An excellent agreement of strain determined by two non-destructive characterization techniques, Raman spectroscopy and mechanical displacement using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) markers, is found for all the sample lengths and widths. The measured data also show good agreement with theoretical predictions of strain based upon continuum mechanical considerations, giving validity to both measurement techniques for the entire range of strain values. The dependence of Young's modulus and fracture strain on size has also been analyzed. The Young's modulus is determined using SEM and compared with that obtained by resonance-based methods. Both methods produced a Young's modulus value close to that of bulk silicon with values obtained by resonance-based methods being slightly lower. Fracture strain is analyzed in 40 sets of samples with different beam geometries, yielding values up to 3.6%. The increase in fracture strain with decreasing beam width is compared with previous reports. Finally, the role of the surface on the mechanical properties is analyzed using UV and visible lasers having different penetration depths in silicon. The observed dependence of Raman shift on laser wavelength is used to assess the thermal conductivity of deformed silicon.

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast to...... uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  18. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E


    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  19. Will the swine strain crowd out the seasonal influenza strain?

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B


    We use spatial and non spatial models to argue that competition alone may explain why two influenza strains do not usually coexist. The more virulent strain is likely to crowd out the less virulent one. This can be seen as a consequence of the Exclusion Principle of Ecology. We exhibit, however, a spatial model for which coexistence is possible.

  20. Tissue Velocity, Strain und Strain Rate bei Hunden mit Mitralklappenendokardiose

    Javornik, Ana


    In der vorliegenden Arbeit „Tissue Velocity, Strain und Strain Rate bei Hunden mit Mitralklappenendokardiose“ wurden erstmals die Geschwindigkeits- und Verformungsparameter zur Evaluierung von Hunden mit Mitralklappenendokardiose angewendet. Diese erweisen sich als neue und viel versprechende Möglichkeiten zur Quantifizierung der regionalen Myokardfunktion. Die myokardialen Funktionsparameter finden in der Humanmedizin weit verbreitete Anwendung und auch in der Tiermedizin erlangen sie zunehm...

  1. TL transgenic mouse strains

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4- CD8- double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tlaa-3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3b-TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3b-TL is driven by the promoter of H-2Kb. With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8+TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3b-TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL+ lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3b-TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  2. What Are Sprains and Strains?

    ... and Strains Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Sprains and Strains PDF Version Size: 119 KB Audio Version Time: 07: ... Twist a knee. Where Do Sprains Usually Occur? Sprains happen most often in the ankle. Sometimes when people fall and land on their ...

  3. Strain measurements at railway wheels

    The development of the radial strain component in railway wheels was investigated by neutron diffraction. In the as manufactured state four railway wheels were investigated. In all four wheels no significant strains were found. After 18,400 km usage first strain gradients close to the outer surface of the wheels were detected. In axial middle ranges the changes in strain are weak. After an usage of 61,000 km the gradients becomes strong at the axial outer position between about +700 με close below the tread and -500 με in a depth of 12.5 mm below the tread. At axial middle positions also strain gradients are formed. The end of live state (510,000 km) differs only slightly from the state measured after a usage of 61,000 km

  4. Pin clad strains in Phenix

    The Phenix reactor has operated for 4 years in a satisfactory manner. The first 2 sub-assembly loadings contained pins clad in solution treated 316. The principal pin strains are: diametral strain (swelling and irradiation creep), ovality and spiral bending of the pin (interaction of wire and pin cluster and wrapper). A pin cluster irradiated to a dose of 80 dpa F reached a pin diameter strain of 5%. This strain is principally due to swelling (low fission gas pressure). The principal parameters governing the swelling are instantaneous dose, time and temperature for a given type of pin cladding. Other types of steel are or will be irradiated in Phenix. In particular, cold-worked titanium stabilised 316 steel should contribute towards a reduction in the pin clad strains and increase the target burn-up in this reactor. (author)

  5. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging

    Mirea, Oana; Duchenne, Jurgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe


    Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications.

  6. Fırtına Havzası'nda yaylaların ve yaylacılığın zaman içerisindeki değişimi ve ortaya çıkan bazı çevresel sorunlar

    Sütlü, Ercan


    Bu çalışma, Fırtına Havzası'nda yer alan yaklaşık 60 yaylanın içerisinden seçilen 9 örnek yaylada yaşayan kişilerle birebir yapılan anket ve söyleşiler sonucunda geçmişten günümüze yaylacılık faaliyetlerinin nasıl değiştiğini ortaya koymak amacı ile yürütülmüştür. Ayrıca, mevcut yaylacılık kültürünün son durumunun ortaya konulmasının yanında, hem yaylacılık kültürünün değişimi hem de doğa temelli turizmdeki artışın neden olduğu bazı çevresel sorunlar da tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma sırasında ...

  7. Magnetostriction strain measurement: heterodyne laser interferometry versus strain gauge technique

    Gorji Ghalamestani, Setareh; Vandevelde, Lieven; J.J. Dirckx, Joris; Melkebeek, Jan


    Deformation of the ferromagnetic material, known as magnetostriction, causes vibrations and noise of electrical machines and transformer cores. A setup by using heterodyne laser interferometers has been built to measure the magnetostriction strains as a function of the applied magnetic field. The measurement results on a sample of nonoriented electrical steel are presented in this work. These results are compared with those obtained by using a strain gauge setup. The laser measurements are l...

  8. Mercury retention in several strains and strain crosses of chickens

    Miller, V.L.; Bearse, G.E.; Csonka, E.


    The retention of mercury from injections of mercuric chloride was determined in 32 samples of chicks from various strains and strain crosses of egg type stock. The chicks retaining the most mercury had some four times as much mercury in the liver and kidneys as the chicks retaining the lowest amount. The chicks selected for resistance to leukosis retained more mercury than the susceptible chicks within several leukosis breeding programs.

  9. Low TCR nanocomposite strain gages

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); Chen, Ximing (Inventor)


    A high temperature thin film strain gage sensor capable of functioning at temperatures above C. The sensor contains a substrate, a nanocomposite film comprised of an indium tin oxide alloy, zinc oxide doped with alumina or other oxide semiconductor and a refractory metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni, W, Ir, NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY deposited onto the substrate to form an active strain element. The strain element being responsive to an applied force.

  10. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    Staun, Jakob M.


    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence of the...... cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  11. Covalent functionalization of strained graphene

    Boukhvalov, Danil W.; Son, Young-Woo


    Enhancement of the chemical activity of graphene is evidenced by first-principles modelling of chemisorption of the hydrogen, fluorine, oxygen and hydroxyl groups on strained graphene. For the case of negative strain or compression, chemisorption of the single hydrogen, fluorine or hydroxyl group is energetically more favourable than those of their pairs on different sublattices. This behaviour stabilizes the magnetism caused by the chemisorption being against its destruction by the pair form...

  12. Hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile

    Cookson, Barry


    North America has seen increasing numbers of hospitalised patients and others in nursing homes and the community, with more severe Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea. This is also described in Northern Europe and surveillance systems are being developed or improved to monitor the situation. One strain (ribotype O27) is described in detail and, like other emerging strains, is demonstrating increasing antimicrobial resistance, notably to quinolone antibiotics. However, its association w...

  13. Biocontrol mechanisms of Thrichoderma strains

    Benítez Fernández, Concepción Tahía; Rincón Romero, Ana María; Limón Mirón, María del Carmen; Carballo Codón, Antonio


    The genus Trichoderma comprises a great number of fungal strains that act as biological control agents, the antagonistic properties of which are based on the activation of multiple mechanisms. Trichoderma strains exert biocontrol against fungal phytopathogens either indirectly, by competing for nutrients and space, modifying the environmental conditions, or promoting plant growth and plant defensive mechanisms and antibiosis, or directly, by mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. These indirect a...

  14. Strain evaluation in fatigue analysis

    Thermoplastic analysis and more precisely fatigue analysis of nuclear components working at high temperature is usually very difficult and very expensive. Simplified methods have been proposed and are generally used to perform analysis of these structures. These simplified methods require elastic analysis of the component. For a fatigue analysis it is necessary to obtain a very precise value of the strains so the elastic strains must be corrected in order to take plasticity into account. This later appears in two different ways. Non linearity of material which induces strain amplification when working in the plastic field especially near by geometric discontinuities. That can be taken into account with a coefficient Ke. Triaxiality and isovolumic character of strains in the plastic field. That also induces strain amplification with regard to elastic computation. It is proposed in this work to introduce a coefficient Kv to estimate this strain amplification. Several elastic and plastic calculations for typical geometries, have been done in order to test the importance of these parameters and to set up methods for evaluating the coefficients Ke and Kv

  15. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 189

    Town, Jennifer; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Susan M.


    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 189 is a potent inhibitor of the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. We determined the complete, finished sequence of the 6.8-Mbp genome of this strain, consisting of a single contiguous molecule. Strain 189 is closely related to previously sequenced strains of P. chlororaphis. PMID:27340063

  16. Strain Growth in Containment Vessels



    Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading.The elastic response of the vessel may become larger in a later stage compared to its response during the initial stage.The dynamic responses of infinitely long cylindrical containment vessels subjected to uniformly-distributed internal blast loading are studied using LS-DYNA.The development of bending modes and the interaction between the breathing mode and bending modes are observed.The methodology developed for dynamic elastic buckling analysis is employed to study the strain growth phenomenon in explosion containment vessels.It is shown that the dynamic instable vibration of a containment vessel is the basic mechanism of strain growth.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of strained silicon

    Hinsche, Nicki F.; Zahn, Peter [Martin-Luther-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 1, 06120 Halle/S. (Germany); Mertig, Ingrid [Martin-Luther-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 1, 06120 Halle/S. (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)


    Starting from bulk silicon, we study the change in thermoelectric properties due to symmetry breaking in rolled-up and layered Si which might lead to nanostructured thermoelectrics. Valley splitting in strained Si caused by tetragonal distortion was studied recently with respect to the enhancement of electron mobility. Our results show that the tetragonal distortion has a strong influence on the electronic transport properties. The electronic structure is calculated self consistently within the framework of density functional theory. The transport properties are studied in the diffusive limit applying the Boltzmann theory in relaxation time approximation. In detail, the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity, the thermopower and the resulting powerfactor in the in-plane and off-plane directions are studied in dependence on strain, doping level and temperature. It is shown, that the powerfactor at a given temperature can be enhanced slightly by strain for p-doping, while no enhancement is obtained for n-doping.

  18. Spin transport in graphene superlattice under strain

    Sattari, Farhad


    In this paper, the spin-dependent transport and the spin polarization properties for graphene superlattice with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) in the presence of zigzag and armchair direction strain are studied. It is found that for the zigzag direction strain the angular range of the spin-inversion can be efficiently controlled by the strain strength. In addition, the efficiency of spin-inversion and spin-dependent conductivity decreases by increasing the strain strength. When the armchair direction strain is applied to a monolayer graphene superlattice the spin polarization can be observed and increases by increasing the strain strength, whereas for the zigzag direction strain it is zero.

  19. Myocardial Strain and Strain Rate Imaging: Comparison between Doppler Derived Strain Imaging and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    Anita Sadeghpour


    Full Text Available Regional myocardial function has been traditionally assessed by visual estimation (1. Echocardiographic strain imaging which is known as deformation imaging, has been emerged as a quantitative technique to accurately estimate regional myocardial function and contractility. Currently, strain imaging has been regarded as a research tool in the most echocardiography laboratories. However, in recent years, strain imaging has gain momentum in daily clinical practice (2. The following two techniques have dominated the research arena of echocardiography: (1 Doppler based tissue velocity measurements, frequently referred to tissue Doppler or myocardial Doppler, and (2 speckle tracking on the basis of displacement measurements (3. Over the past two decades, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI and Doppler –derived strain (S and strain rate (SR imaging were introduced to quantify regional myocardial function. However, Doppler–derived strain variables faced criticisms, with regard to the angle dependency, noise interference, and substantial intraobserver and interobserver variability. The angle dependency is the major weakness of Doppler based methodology; however, it has the advantage of online measurements of velocities and time intervals with excellent temporal resolution, which is essential for the assessment of ischemia (4. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE or Non Doppler 2D strain echocardiography is a relatively new, largely angle-independent technique that analyzes motion by tracking natural acoustic reflections and interference patterns within an ultrasonic window. The image-processing algorithm tracks elements with approximately 20 to 40 pixels containing stable patterns and are described as ‘‘speckles’’ or ‘‘fingerprints’’. The speckles seen in grayscale B-mode (2D images are tracked consecutively frame to frame (5, 6. Assessment of 2D strain by STE is a semiautomatic method that requires definition of the myocardium

  20. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of Entamoeba histolytica strains

    Acosta-Avalos, D.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Silva, E. F.; Orozco, E.; de Menezes, L. F.; Vargas, H.


    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of E. histolytica are studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. It is shown that the pathogenic strain presents a spectrum similar to that of iron sulfur proteins. The non-pathogenic strain does not show any relevant absorption at the studied wavelength range. The differences observed between the optical absorption spectra of both strains opens the possibility of using photoacoustic spectroscopy as a reliable and simple technique to identify different types of E. histolytica strains.

  1. Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.


    A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...

  2. Job strain and alcohol intake

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;


    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  3. Trials with a Strain Gauge.

    Auty, Geoff


    Describes an attempt to match the goals of the practical demonstration of the use of a strain gauge and the technical applications of science and responding to student questions in early trials, while keeping within the level of electronics in advanced physics. (Author/JRH)

  4. Material mechanical characterization method for multiple strains and strain rates

    Erdmand, III, Donald L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Simunovic, Srdjan; Wang, Yanli


    A specimen for measuring a material under multiple strains and strain rates. The specimen including a body having first and second ends and a gage region disposed between the first and second ends, wherein the body has a central, longitudinal axis passing through the first and second ends. The gage region includes a first gage section and a second gage section, wherein the first gage section defines a first cross-sectional area that is defined by a first plane that extends through the first gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis. The second gage section defines a second cross-sectional area that is defined by a second plane that extends through the second gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis and wherein the first cross-sectional area is different in size than the second cross-sectional area.

  5. Submerged Culture of a Mycelial Formulation of a Bioherbicidal Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria with Mitigated Mycotoxin Production

    A mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361390) was shown to be highly efficacious in controlling the exotic invasive weed kudzu. The mycelium can be rapidly (48 h) produced in several media including soy flour-cornmeal medium. HPLC analyses revealed that the mycelial formu...

  6. Engineering piezoresistivity using biaxially strained silicon

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Richter, Jacob; Brandbyge, Mads;


    piezocoefficient on temperature and dopant density is altered qualitatively for strained silicon. In particular, we find that a vanishing temperature coefficient may result for silicon with grown-in biaxial tensile strain. These results suggest that strained silicon may be used to engineer the iezoresistivity to......We calculate the shear piezocoefficient of p-type silicon with grown-in biaxial strain using a 66 k·p method. We find a significant increase in the value of the shear piezocoefficient for compressive grown-in biaxial strain, while tensile strain decreases the piezocoefficient. The dependence of the...

  7. Plane strain test for metal sheet characterization

    Flores, Paulo; Bonnet, Félix; Habraken, Anne


    This article shows the influence of a plane strain test specimen geometry on the measurable strain field and the influence of free edge effects over the stress computation. The experimental strain field distribution is measured over the whole deformable zone of a plane strain test specimen by an optical strain gauge. The chosen material is the DC06 IF steel of 0.8 mm thickness. The stress field is computed for several geometries at different strain levels by a Finite Element (FE) commer...

  8. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.


    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...... oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale....

  9. Electronic Transport in Strained Graphene

    Aguilera, Juan Luis


    Graphene is a single atomic layer material with exceptional electronic and mechanical properties. Graphene has formed the basis of many nanoelectromechanical and strain sensing devices. However, the ultimate limit of miniaturization of such sensors has not yet been ascertained. In this work we present the fabrication and electrical characterization of nanoscale pressure sensors realized from suspended graphene membrane devices.We start in chapter 1 by describing the elemental electronic prope...

  10. Using Strain Analysis For Landslides

    Talich, Milan

    Vol. 4. Kyoto : International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), 2014, s. 178-184. [World Landslide Forum 3. Beijing (CN), 02.06.2014-06.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/436 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : strain analysis * deformation analysis * displacement vectors * mechanics of continuum * landslides Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Temperature-Compensating Inactive Strain Gauge

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.


    Thermal contribution to output of active gauge canceled. High-temperature strain gauges include both active gauge wires sensing strains and inactive gauge wires providing compensation for thermal contributions to gauge readings. Inactive-gauge approach to temperature compensation applicable to commercially available resistance-type strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 700 degrees F and to developmental strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 2,000 degrees F.

  12. Strain Monitoring of Flexible Structures

    Litteken, Douglas A.


    , such as tensile testing, fatigue testing, and shear testing, but common measurement techniques cannot be used on fabric. Measuring strain in a material and during a test is a critical parameter for an engineer to monitor the structure during the test and correlate to an analytical model. The ability to measure strain in fabric structures is a challenge for NASA. Foil strain gauges, for example, are commonplace on metallic structures testing, but are extremely difficult to interface with a fabric substrate. New strain measuring techniques need to be developed for use with fabric structures. This paper investigates options for measuring strain in fabric structures for both ground testing and in-space structural health monitoring. It evaluates current commercially available options and outlines development work underway to build custom measurement solutions for NASA's fabric structures.

  13. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous ulcers (CU in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin?To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin.These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.

  14. Lewis Strain Gauge Laboratory: Status and plans

    An in-house lab was established for developing, testing, and evaluating high-temperature strain gauges and to aid in in-house applications of high-temperature strain instrumentation. The lab is automated to provide computer control of oven temperatures, imposed strain, and data sampling

  15. Influence of particles on work hardening strain and recovery strain

    Blum, W.; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Sklenička, Václav

    Brno: Ústav fyziky materiálů AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015 - (Dlouhý, A.; Kunz, L.). s. 137-137 ISBN 978-80-87434-07-9. [ICSMA-17 International Conference on the Strength of Materials /17./. 09.08.2015-14.08.2015, Brno] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : recovery strain * CuZr particles * crystallite boundaries * work hardening Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  16. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 1016 Ar+/cm2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation. (authors)

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii strain 119 identify recently isolated Danish strains as one group

    Jensen, L.; Petersen, E.; Henriksen, S.A.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Lind, Peter


    Four mAb raised against the Danish Toxoplasma gondii strain 119, were selected by screening hybridoma supernatants by indirect immunofluorescence against tachyzoites of the RH strain in order to obtain strain restricted markers. Strain restriction extended beyond discrimination of the 119 and RH...

  18. Local strains in waste tank deflagration analysis

    In recent years extensive effort has been expended to qualify buried nuclear waste storage tanks under accident conditions. One of these conditions is deflagration of the combustible gases which may build up over time. While much work has been done to calculate the general strain state, less effort has been made to address the local strains at structural discontinuities. An analytical method is presented for calculating these local strains and combining them with the general strain state. A closed form solution of the local strains is compared to a finite element solution

  19. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter;


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date of...

  20. Transient temperature response of strain gages

    When an electrical resistance strain gage bonded to a material is subjected to a temperature change, the resistance of the strain gage changes even though the material is free of stress. This temperature-induced resistance change is generally expressed in strain units and is commonly called apparent strain or thermal output. The thermal expansion coefficients and the temperature coefficient of resistance are temperature-dependent quantities and not necessarily linearly related to temperature. For transient temperature conditions, the two temperatures are different. The magnitude and effect of this temperature difference on apparent strain is studied

  1. Strain Engineering of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Dadgar, Ali; Pasupathy, Abhay; Herman, Irving; Wang, Dennis; Kang, Kyungnam; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    The application of strain to materials can cause changes to bandwidth, effective masses, degeneracies and even structural phases. In the case of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors, small strain (around 1 percent) is expected to change band gaps and mobilities, while larger strains are expected to cause phase changes from the triangular 2H phase to orthorhombic 1T' phases. We will describe experimental techniques to apply small and large (around 10 percent) strains to one or few layer samples of the TMD semiconductors, and describe the effect of the strain using optical (Raman, photoluminescence) and cryogenic transport techniques.

  2. Stress-strain properties of railway steel at strain rates of upto 105 per second

    This paper presents the stress-strain characteristics of railway steel at strain rates of up to 105/s at room temperature determined by a new technique. In determining the results, account has been taken of the strain-rate variation, the total strain and the strain rate history. The effect of friction, material inertia and temperature rise is also assessed and an empirical constitutive equation describing the strain-rate and strain sensitive flow stress for this type of steel is proposed. (orig.)

  3. Comparison between strain values of plates measured by ESPI technique and strain gauge method

    Comparison between strain values of plates measured by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry(ESPI) method and strain gauge method is discussed. Unlike traditional method, such ax strain gauge and moire method, ESPI method requires no special surface preparations or attachments and can be measured in-plane displacement with non-contacting in real-time. In this study, specimens are loaded in parallel using tensile testing machine. In front of a specimen three strain gauges are bonded with 5 mm gap from edge of a specimen strain values are measured at each strain gauge position and compared. The results by ESPI method agree well with the result by strain gauge method.

  4. Strain flexibility identification of bridges from long-gauge strain measurements

    Zhang, Jian; Xia, Qi; Cheng, YuYao; Wu, ZhiShen


    Strain flexibility, defined as the strain response of a structure's element to a unit input force, is import for structural safety evaluation, but its identification is seldom investigated. A novel long-gauge fiber optic sensor has been developed to measure the averaged strain within a long gauge length. Its advantage of measuring both local and global information of the structure offers an excellent opportunity of developing the strain flexibility identification theory. In this article, the method to identify structural strain flexibility from long-gauge dynamic strain measurements is proposed. It includes the following main steps: (a) macro strain frequency response function (FRF) estimation from macro strain measurements and its feature characterization; (b) general strain modal parameter identification; (c) scaling factor calculation, and (d) strain flexibility identification. Numerical and experimental examples successfully verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Numerical demonstration of MEMS strain sensor

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Ozevin, Didem


    Silicon has piezoresistive property that allows designing strain sensor with higher gauge factor compared to conventional metal foil gauges. The sensing element can be micro-scale using MEMS, which minimizes the effect of strain gradient on measurement at stress concentration regions such as crack tips. The challenge of MEMS based strain sensor design is to decouple the sensing element from substrate for true strain measurement and to compensate the temperature effect on the piezoresistive coefficients of silicon. In this paper, a family of MEMS strain sensors with different geometric designs is introduced. Each strain sensor is made of single crystal silicon and manufactured using deposition/ etching/oxidation steps on a n- doped silicon wafer in (100) plane. The geometries include sensing element connected to the free heads of U shape substrate, a set of two or more sensing elements in an array in order to capture strain gradients and two directional sensors. The response function and the gauge factor of the strain sensors are identified using multi-physics models that combine structural and electrical behaviors of sensors mounted on a strained structure. The relationship between surface strain and strain at microstructure is identified numerically in order to include the relationship in the response function calculation.

  6. Strain engineering of graphene: a review

    Si, Chen; Sun, Zhimei; Liu, Feng


    Graphene has intrigued the science community by many unique properties not found in conventional materials. In particular, it is the strongest two-dimensional material ever measured, being able to sustain reversible tensile elastic strain larger than 20%, which yields an interesting possibility to tune the properties of graphene by strain and thus opens a new field called ``straintronics''. In this article, the current progress in the strain engineering of graphene is reviewed. We first summarize the strain effects on the electronic structure and Raman spectra of graphene. We then highlight the electron-phonon coupling greatly enhanced by the biaxial strain and the strong pseudomagnetic field induced by the non-uniform strain with specific distribution. Finally, the potential application of strain-engineering in the self-assembly of foreign atoms on the graphene surface is also discussed. Given the short history of graphene straintronics research, the current progress has been notable, and many further advances in this field are expected.

  7. Strain gauges as intrusion detection sensors

    Strain gauges have been studied for use as intrusion detection sensors in several applications being investigated at Sandia National Laboratories. Strain gauges are attached to a metal structure to monitor the quiescent strain in the structure. The change in the quiescent strain, when an intruder adds weight to the structure provides the alarm mechanism. The basic theory of force sensors is covered to lay the foundation for this application. In this paper, how this basic theory is applied to security sensors is discussed, and how this class of sensors is applicable to security at Department of Energy facilities is covered. Several applications are described for strain gauges as security sensors. Test results are presented from a six-month test conducted at a Department of Energy facility using the strain gauge to monitor overhead lines crossing a security perimeter. Monitoring these overhead lines with strain gauges is valuable because the cost is much less than the cost to bury the lines

  8. Generalizing the Fermi velocity of strained graphene from uniform to nonuniform strain

    Oliva-Leyva, M.; Naumis, Gerardo G.


    The relevance of the strain-induced Dirac point shift to obtain the appropriate anisotropic Fermi velocity of strained graphene is demonstrated. Then a critical revision of the available effective Dirac Hamiltonians is made by studying in detail the limiting case of a uniform strain. An effective Dirac Hamiltonian for nonuniform strain is thus reported, which takes into account all strain-induced effects: changes in the nearest-neighbor hopping parameters, the reciprocal lattice deformation a...

  9. A Method to Measure Reference Strain in FBG Strain Sensor Interrogation System Involving Actuators

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei


    A method for reference strain measurement for FBG strain sensor in the testing stage while applying strain using actuators like piezo translators or micro screw is introduced. Unlike conventional methods of surface mounting, in our method the strain gauge is affixed directly to the optical fibre, which allows it to use with systems where the strain is applied directly using actuators while testing the FBG sensing system. Different bonding techniques were tested and a comparison with the resul...

  10. Application of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating strain sensor for measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developing by using JMTR. In order to evaluate the performance of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating sensor under irradiation environment, the heat-up tests in electric furnace before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed. As for capsule type strain gage, it is found that gage factor almost did not change and both its electric resistance and strain output decreased by irradiation effect. A correlation was found between the change ratio of the electric resistance of the capsule type strain gage and fast neutron fluence. As for fiber optic grating sensor, it is possible to measure strain under irradiation environment below 1x1023 n/m2 (E>1 MeV) by this sensor, because in-pile temperature characteristic was in agreement with out-of-pile test results. (author)

  11. IMI - An information system for effective Multidisciplinary Incident Management

    Lee, M.D.E. van der; Vugt, M. van der


    The field of crisis response and disaster management can be characterized, upon many other factors, by distributed operations, not daily routine work and multidisciplinary aspects. In designing and developing information systems for crisis response these factors need special attention. On behalf of

  12. IMIS: Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore turbines



    The report describes a feasibility study on the Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore wind turbines. The aspects covered are (1) Background and why the study is required; (2) Aims and objectives of the project; (3) Summary of methods adopted; (4) Design criteria according to the area for deployment; (5) Conclusions and recommendations. The ultimate goal will be to install and secure the wind turbine in position using an integrated approach to avoid using lifting vessels. To date, an initial feasibility study has been carried out where four different concepts were considered. The next phase of the project will be to address a number of possible risks and constraints before the chosen concept can be demonstrated to be viable. The work is being carried out by Setech Ltd, Armstrong Technology Associates Ltd and Smith Rea Energy Ltd for the DTI.

  13. The IMI PROTECT project: purpose, organizational structure, and procedures.

    Reynolds, Robert F; Kurz, Xavier; de Groot, Mark C H; Schlienger, Raymond G; Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Tcherny-Lessenot, Stephanie; Klungel, Olaf H


    The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European ConsorTium (PROTECT) initiative was a collaborative European project that sought to address limitations of current methods in the field of pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance. Initiated in 2009 and ending in 2015, PROTECT was part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative, a joint undertaking by the European Union and pharmaceutical industry. Thirty-five partners including academics, regulators, small and medium enterprises, and European Federation of Pharmaceuticals Industries and Associations companies contributed to PROTECT. Two work packages within PROTECT implemented research examining the extent to which differences in the study design, methodology, and choice of data source can contribute to producing discrepant results from observational studies on drug safety. To evaluate the effect of these differences, the project applied different designs and analytic methodology for six drug-adverse event pairs across several electronic healthcare databases and registries. This papers introduces the organizational structure and procedures of PROTECT, including how drug-adverse event and data sources were selected, study design and analyses documents were developed, and results managed centrally. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27038353

  14. Çocukta dil gelişimi

    Şenay Yapıcı


    Full Text Available Di], insanoğlunun doğduğu andan itibaren yüz yüze geldiği, onda kendini ifade ettiği bir olgu olarak, yaşamın ayrılmaz bir parçasıdır. Bu, o kadar kendiliğinden ve doğal olarak gelişir ki, çoğu insan, dili neredeyse genetik olarak sahip olduğumuz bir nitelik olarak algılayabilmektedir. Oysa, dil, içinde yaşadığımız kültürün bir yansıması olarak öğrendiğimiz bir etkinlikler bütünüdür. Bu etkinliklerin öğrenilmesinde, hangi kültürde, hangi dinde, hangi dilde doğulmuş olursa olsun, bir sistematik ve hiyerarşi olduğu görülmektedir. I icr b ir insanın k endine has oluşunu bağlı olarak, dil öğrenme performansı değişse bile, dilin öğrcnilmcsindcki hiyerarşik yapı aynı kalmaktadır.Bu çalışmada, insanın doğduğu andan itibaren öğrenmeye ve içsclleştirmeye başladığı dilin kazanılması süreci betimlenmeye çalışılmaktadır.

  15. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap


    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  16. Investigation of Electronic Devices for Strain Measurement

    Ričardas Masiulionis


    Full Text Available Importance of strain measuring for safety of buildings is shown. The strain monitoring should be one of the buildings security systems. Often used balanced and non-balanced Wheatstone bridge strain measurement methods are analyzed. The Wheatstone bridge method with feedback is improved. A new method based on small resistance changes by the digital balancing currents is presented. Computer and experimental models of measurement are investigated. The received results confirm theoretical assumptions.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Mechanical strain and degradation of laser heterostructures

    Ptashchenko, Alexander A.; Ptashchenko, Fedor A.; Maslejeva, Natalia V.; Sadova, Galina V.


    The effect of mechanical strain on degradation processes in GaAs-AlGaAs laser heterostructures (LHS) with stripe geometry and in light emitting diodes (LED) was experimentally studied. The strain was produced either by axial pressure or by indentation with a Wickers pyramid. We show that degradation affects the degree of polarization and the far-field distribution of laser emission. The effect of strain on the degradation intensity is estimated.

  18. Aggregation and distribution of strains in microparasites.

    Lord, C. C.; Barnard, B.; Day, K; Hargrove, J. W.; McNamara, J J; Paul, R E; Trenholme, K; Woolhouse, M. E.


    Recent research has shown that many parasite populations are made up of a number of epidemiologically distinct strains or genotypes. The implications of strain structure or genetic diversity for parasite population dynamics are still uncertain, partly because there is no coherent framework for the interpretation of field data. Here, we present an analysis of four published data sets for vector-borne microparasite infections where strains or genotypes have been distinguished: serotypes of Afri...

  19. Flat band superconductivity in strained Dirac materials

    Kauppila, V. J.; Aikebaier, F.; Heikkilä, T. T.


    We consider superconducting properties of a two-dimensional Dirac material such as graphene under strain that produces a flat band spectrum in the normal state. We show that in the superconducting state, such a model results in a highly increased critical temperature compared to the case without the strain, inhomogenous order parameter with two-peak shaped local density of states and yet a large and almost uniform and isotropic supercurrent. This model could be realized in strained graphene o...

  20. Strain rate sensitivity of automotive sheet steels : influence of plastic strain, strain rate, temperature, microstructure, bake hardening and pre-strain

    Larour, Patrick


    This experimental work shows the different parameters influencing the strain rate sensitivity behaviour of automotive sheet steel grades in crash conditions. Most investigations have been performed in the strain rate range [0,001-200/s] and temperature range [233-373K] with servohydraulic tensile testing machines. Additional Split-Hopkinson bar testing results up to 1000/s have also been included at room temperature. The focus has been laid on the “apparent” strain rate sensitivity, determine...

  1. Nonlinear strain gradient elastic thin shallow shells

    Lazopoulos, K.A.


    Abstract The governing equilibrium equations for strain gradient elastic thin shallow shells are derived, considering non-linear strains and linear constitutive strain gradient elastic relations. Adopting Kirchhoff's theory of thin shallow structures, the equilibrium equations, along with the boundary conditions, are formulated through a variational procedure. It turns out that new terms are introduced, indicating the importance of the cross-section area in bending of thin plates. ...

  2. High strain rate loading of zircaloy

    High strain rate tensile loading behaviours of Zircaloys subjected to various treatments were investigated at room temperature and at 3000C, and compared with those of static cases. It was observed that the dynamic stress-strain profiles were different depending upon the specimen treatment and that the higher peak stress and the lower sectional area reduction were always recognized in the high strain rate cases

  3. Film germanium strain gauges for cryogenic temperatures

    Strain-measuring characteristics of strain gauges (SG) based on germanium films on gallium arsenide designed for operation in 4-100 K temperature interval and strain range ε∼(±0.3%) are presented. SG are characterized by weak temperature dependences of resistance and strain sensitivity in the temperature range measured. It is shown that in the low-temperature region SG based on heteroepitaxial germanium films on gallium arsenide are no worse than the best domestic and foreign semiconducting and metal SG and are perspective for cryogenic object diagnostics under magnetic field effect

  4. High strain rate damage of Carrara marble

    Doan, Mai-Linh; Billi, Andrea


    Several cases of rock pulverization have been observed along major active faults in granite and other crystalline rocks. They have been interpreted as due to coseismic pervasive microfracturing. In contrast, little is known about pulverization in carbonates. With the aim of understanding carbonate pulverization, we investigate the high strain rate (c. 100 s-1) behavior of unconfined Carrara marble through a set of experiments with a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Three final states were observed: (1) at low strain, the sample is kept intact, without apparent macrofractures; (2) failure is localized along a few fractures once stress is larger than 100 MPa, corresponding to a strain of 0.65%; (3) above 1.3% strain, the sample is pulverized. Contrary to granite, the transition to pulverization is controlled by strain rather than strain rate. Yet, at low strain rate, a sample from the same marble displayed only a few fractures. This suggests that the experiments were done above the strain rate transition to pulverization. Marble seems easier to pulverize than granite. This creates a paradox: finely pulverized rocks should be prevalent along any high strain zone near faults through carbonates, but this is not what is observed. A few alternatives are proposed to solve this paradox.

  5. Comparison of Thermal Creep Strain Calculation Results Using Time Hardening and Strain Hardening Rules

    One of the design criteria for the fuel rod in PGSFR is the thermal creep strain of the cladding, because the cladding is exposed to a high temperature for a long time during reactor operation period. In general, there are two kind of calculation scheme for thermal creep strain: time hardening and strain hardening rules. In this work, thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules are compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule are compared with those by using MACSIS. Thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules were compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule were compared with those by using MACSIS. Tertiary creep started earlier in time hardening rule than in strain hardening rule. Also, calculation results by MACSIS with strain hardening and those obtained by using LIFE-METAL were almost identical to each other

  6. The treatment of secondary strains within a strain-based failure assessment diagram

    In a companion paper, proposals for the shape of a strain-based failure assessment diagram (FAD) have been made. The developments in that paper and in related works on strain-based fracture assessment have largely been for remotely applied strains, such as those produced by welding. This paper re-writes existing methods for treating secondary stresses within stress-based FADs in the framework of the proposed strain-based FAD. It is shown that residual strains must be included fully in the elastic regime but at large applied strains their contribution to fracture can be relaxed considerably. Practical methods for inclusion of secondary strains within the strain-based FAD are then developed and shown to be conservative relative to some detailed finite element calculations. -- Highlights: ► Methods for treating secondary stresses are written in the framework of a strain-based FAD. ► Residual strains have a full effect in the elastic regime but their influence is relaxed considerably at large applied strains. ► Practical methods for inclusion of secondary strains within a strain-based FAD are developed. ► The methods are shown to be conservative relative to some detailed finite element calculations

  7. True stress–strain curves of cold worked stainless steel over a large range of strains

    True stress–strain curves for cold worked stainless steel were obtained over a range of strains that included a large strain exceeding the strain for the tensile strength (post-necking strain). A specified testing method was used to obtain the stress–strain curves in air at room temperature. The testing method employed the digital image correlation (DIC) technique and iterative finite element analyses (FEA) and was referred to as IFD (Iteration FEA procedure based on DIC measurement) method. Although hourglass type specimens have been previously used for the IFD method, in this study, plate specimens with a parallel gage section were used to obtain accurate yield and tensile strengths together with the stress–strain curves. The stress–strain curves including the post-necking strain were successfully obtained by the IFD method, and it was shown that the stress–strain curves for different degrees of cold work collapsed onto a single curve when the offset strain was considered. It was also shown that the Swift type constitutive equation gave good regression for the true stress–strain curves including the post-necking strain regardless of the degree of cold work, although the Ramberg–Osgood type constitutive equation showed poor fit. In the regression for the Swift type constitutive equation, the constant for power law could be assumed to be nS = 0.5

  8. Development of golf tourism and golf tourism demand forecasts in Turkey: a study of Belek region Türkiye’de golf turizminin gelişimi ve golf turizmi talebi tahminleri: Belek bölgesine yönelik bir çalışma

    Murat Çuhadar


    Full Text Available Golf tourism has become one of the rapidly developing tourism types in Turkey, especially in the Belek region. In this study, detailed information about the development of golf tourism in Turkey from past to present was provided and  golf tourism demand to Belek region which is a major golf tourism destinastion in the world and Turkey was modeled and forecasted monthly by Box-Jenkins methodology for the May 2013 –December 2014 period. As a measure of golf tourism demand, number of monthly golf games were taken in the study and the monthly number of golf game statistics of January 2001 – April 2013 in the golf establishments in Belek tourism center were used. By producing ex-ante forecasts it is aimed to create a basis for tourism development plans prepared by the management of private and public sector and to provide support for administrators’ monthly planning decisions.Golf turizmi, Belek bölgesi başta olmak üzere Türkiye’de hızla gelişen turizm türlerinden biri haline gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’de golf turizminin geçmişten günümüze gelişimi hakkında ayrıntılı bilgiler sunularak, Türkiye’nin ve dünyanın önde gelen golf turizmi merkezlerinden olan Belek turizm merkezine yönelik golf turizmi talebi Box-Jenkins metodoljisi ile modellenmiş ve 2013 (Mayıs itibariyle ve 2014 yılları için aylık olarak tahmin edilmiştir. Çalışmada golf turizmi talebinin ölçüsü olarak golf oyun sayıları alınmış ve Ocak 2001 – Nisan 2013 döneminde Belek turizm merkezindeki golf tesislerinde gerçekleşen aylık golf oyun sayısı istatistiklerinden yararlanılmıştır. Yapılan tahminler ile, özel sektör ve kamu yönetimleri tarafından hazırlanan turistik gelişme planları için bir zemin oluşturulması ve ilgili yöneticilerin aylık planlamalarında karar almalarına destek sağlanması amaçlanmıştır.

  9. A comparison of eastern North American seismic strain-rates to glacial rebound strain-rates

    James, Thomas S.; Bent, Allison L.


    Glacial rebound strain-rates computed using a simple Laurentide glacial loading model are of the order of 10(exp -9) per year within the region of glaciation and extending several hundred kilometers beyond. The horizontal strain-rates receive approximately equal contributions from horizontal and vertical velocities, a consequence of the spherical geometry adopted for the Earth model. In the eastern United States and southeastern Canada the computed strain-rates are 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than an estimate of the average seismic strain-rate (Anderson, 1986) and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than predicted erosional strain-rates. The predicted glacial rebound strain-rates are not, in general, oriented in such a way as to augment the observed state of deviatoric stress, possibly explaining why the seismic strain-rates are much smaller than the glacial rebound strain-rates. An exception to this may be seismically active regions in the St. Lawrence valley.

  10. Predicting creep rupture from early strain data

    To extend creep life modelling from classical rupture modelling, a robust and effective parametric strain model has been developed. The model can reproduce with good accuracy all parts of the creep curve, economically utilising the available rupture models. The resulting combined model can also be used to predict rupture from the available strain data, and to further improve the rupture models. The methodology can utilise unfailed specimen data for life assessment at lower stress levels than what is possible from rupture data alone. Master curves for creep strain and rupture have been produced for oxygen-free phosphorus-doped (OFP) copper with a maximum testing time of 51,000 h. Values of time to specific strain at given stress (40-165 MPa) and temperature (125-350 deg. C) were fitted to the models in the strain range of 0.1-38%. With typical inhomogeneous multi-batch creep data, the combined strain and rupture modelling involves the steps of investigation of the data quality, extraction of elastic and creep strain response, rupture modelling, data set balancing and creep strain modelling. Finally, the master curves for strain and rupture are tested and validated for overall fitting efficiency. With the Wilshire equation as the basis for the rupture model, the strain model applies classical parametric principles with an Arrhenius type of thermal activation and a power law type of stress dependence for the strain rate. The strain model also assumes that the processes of primary and secondary creep can be reasonably correlated. The rupture model represents a clear improvement over previous models in the range of the test data. The creep strain information from interrupted and running tests were assessed together with the rupture data investigating the possibility of rupture model improvement towards lower stress levels by inverse utilisation of the combined rupture based strain model. The developed creep strain model together with the improved rupture model is

  11. The Stress-Strain Condition Estimation of Detail in Crack Tip by Integral Strain Gauges

    Syzrantsev, V.; Syzrantseva, K.


    The paper considers the task of stress-strain condition calculation of experimental sample in fatigue crack tip on weld boundary at its cyclic deforming. For this task decision authors use the information obtained by original means of cyclic strains measurement: Integral Strain Gauges. The results of carried experimental researches are compared with data of stress-strain condition estimation of detail in crack tip calculated by Finish Element Method.

  12. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.


    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with...... decreasing strain rate, above 500 F, and with increasing temperature; ductility at fracture in tension test is shown to be important factor in determining life under conditions of test. (20318)...

  13. Multiplying decomposition of stress/strain, constitutive/compliance relations, and strain energy

    Lee, Hyunsuk; Kim, Jinkyu


    To account for phenomenological theories and a set of invariants, stress and strain are usually decomposed into a pair of pressure and deviatoric stress and a pair of volumetric strain and deviatoric strain. However, the conventional decomposition method only focuses on individual stress and strain, so that cannot be directly applied to either formulation in Finite Element Method (FEM) or Boundary Element Method (BEM). In this paper, a simpler, more general, and widely applicable decompositio...

  14. Influence of Azospirillum Strains on the Nodulation of Clovers by Rhizobium Strains

    Plazinski, Jacek; Rolfe, Barry G.


    Mixed cultures of several Azospirillum and Rhizobium trifolii strains caused either an inhibition or stimulation of nodule formation on plant hosts as compared with nodulation of plants inoculated with R. trifolii alone. Azospirillum strains affected the nodulation process at a precise cell ratio (R. trifolii/Azospirillum cells) and time of inoculation. All Azospirillum strains used showed a variation in their ability to inhibit or enhance nodulation by R. trifolii strains. When nonviable cel...

  15. Crack growth monitoring by strain measurements

    Cracks detected during in-service inspections are not always removed when they are judged as hazardous. It is important to monitor the crack growth in order to secure the integrity of the cracked components. The author and a co-worker proposed a crack growth monitoring method, in which the elastic strain caused by internal pressure is continuously measured. The elastic strain acting at the outside surface of a pressurized pipe changes due to growth of a crack in the inside surface, and the magnitude of its change depends on the growth size. In this study, the author uses multiple strain gages to monitor the elastic strain acting on the cracked part of a pipe. An axial crack was introduced at the butt welding portion inside a carbon steel pipe. The strains were then measured under static internal pressure. The crack size was estimated based on the change in strains measured by strain gages attached onto the outside surface of the pipe. This study reveals that such a monitoring procedure could successfully identify not only the crack depth but also the surface length. The maximum estimation errors were 2.2 mm and 0.97 mm for the surface length and depth, respectively. The accuracy of the estimation improved as the number of strain gages increased. It was also apparent that the residual stress had subtle effect on the size estimation, albeit it may have significant influence when the crack propagates. (author)

  16. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.


    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter the...

  17. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.


    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter the...

  18. Nanocomposite Strain Gauges Having Small TCRs

    Gregory, Otto; Chen, Ximing


    Ceramic strain gauges in which the strain-sensitive electrically conductive strips made from nanocomposites of noble metal and indium tin oxide (ITO) are being developed for use in gas turbine engines and other power-generation systems in which gas temperatures can exceed 1,500 F (about 816 C). In general, strain gauges exhibit spurious thermally induced components of response denoted apparent strain. When temperature varies, a strain-gauge material that has a nonzero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) exhibits an undesired change in electrical resistance that can be mistaken for the change in resistance caused by a change in strain. It would be desirable to formulate straingauge materials having TCRs as small as possible so as to minimize apparent strain. Most metals exhibit positive TCRs, while most semiconductors, including ITO, exhibit negative TCRs. The present development is based on the idea of using the negative TCR of ITO to counter the positive TCRs of noble metals and of obtaining the benefit of the ability of both ITO and noble metals to endure high temperatures. The noble metal used in this development thus far has been platinum. Combinatorial libraries of many ceramic strain gauges containing nanocomposites of various proportions of ITO and platinum were fabricated by reactive co-sputtering from ITO and platinum targets onto alumina- and zirconia-based substrates mounted at various positions between the targets.

  19. High-Temperature Resistance Strain Gauges

    Lei, Jih-Fen


    Resistance strain gauges developed for use at high temperatures in demanding applications like testing aircraft engines and structures. Measures static strains at temperatures up to 800 degrees C. Small and highly reproducible. Readings corrected for temperature within small tolerances, provided temperatures measured simultaneously by thermocouples or other suitable devices. Connected in wheatstone bridge.

  20. Whole genome sequences of four Brucella strains.

    Ding, Jiabo; Pan, Yuanlong; Jiang, Hai; Cheng, Junsheng; Liu, Taotao; Qin, Nan; Yang, Yi; Cui, Buyun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Cuihua; Mao, Kairong; Zhu, Baoli


    Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis are intracellular pathogens of livestock and humans. Here we report four genome sequences, those of the virulent strain B. melitensis M28-12 and vaccine strains B. melitensis M5 and M111 and B. suis S2, which show different virulences and pathogenicities, which will help to design a more effective brucellosis vaccine. PMID:21602346

  1. Job strain and time to pregnancy

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, J P; Henriksen, T B; Kolstad, H A; Andersson, A M; Ernst, E; Giwercman, A; Skakkebaek, N E; Olsen, J


    The association between fertility and job strain defined as high job demands and low job control has not previously been studied. A follow-up study was conducted with prospective collection of information on job strain among women, achievement of pregnancy, and potential confounding variables....

  2. Marital Role Strain and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Frank, Ellen; And Others


    Responses to a questionnaire pertaining to discrepancies between an individual's ideal and actual marital role behaviors and level of sexual satisfaction indicated lower levels of role strain in nonpatient couples. A higher level of role strain correlated with increased sexual dissatisfaction. (Author)

  3. A Natural Vaccine Candidate Strain Against Cholera



    El Tor Vibrio cholerae(EVC)strains may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic(EEVC)strains and non-epidemigenic(NEEVC)strains-based on a phage-biotyping system.A large number of EEVC strains have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes.One such naturally occurring strain(designated IEM101)has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin(CT),accessory cholera enterotoxin(ACE),zonula occludens toxin(ZOT),but possesses RS1 sequences and toixn-coregulated pilus A gene(tcpA)although tcpA is poorly expressed.It expresses type B pili but does not posses type C pili.It is an El Tor Ogawa strain and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loop tests.Active immunization of rabbits with strain IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent strains of V.cholerae Ol.Oral administration cased no side effects in 15 human volunteers.colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.

  4. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development in both the IMI-R and -S strain. • Electron beam irradiation induces DNA damage in both the S and IMI-R strain. • The expression of several specific genes were higher in the IMI-R strain. • 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary treatment for both strains of this species

  5. On fracture in finite strain gradient plasticity

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof


    In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields are...... investigated. Differences and similarities between the two approaches within continuum SGP modeling are highlighted and discussed. Local strain hardening promoted by geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in the vicinity of the crack leads to much higher stresses, relative to classical plasticity...... predictions. These differences increase significantly when large strains are taken into account, as a consequence of the contribution of strain gradients to the work hardening of the material. The magnitude of stress elevation at the crack tip and the distance ahead of the crack where GNDs significantly alter...

  6. Mechanical strain effects on black phosphorus nanoresonators.

    Wang, Cui-Xia; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon


    We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of mechanical strain on single-layer black phosphorus nanoresonators at different temperatures. We find that the resonant frequency is highly anisotropic in black phosphorus due to its intrinsic puckered configuration, and that the quality factor in the armchair direction is higher than in the zigzag direction at room temperature. The quality factors are also found to be intrinsically larger than those in graphene and MoS2 nanoresonators. The quality factors can be increased by more than a factor of two by applying tensile strain, with uniaxial strain in the armchair direction being the most effective. However, there is an upper bound for the quality factor increase due to nonlinear effects at large strains, after which the quality factor decreases. The tension induced nonlinear effect is stronger along the zigzag direction, resulting in a smaller maximum strain for quality factor enhancement. PMID:26649476

  7. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. -- Research Highlights: → Step by step explanation of the dark field electron holography technique. → Presentation of the theoretical equations to obtain quantitative strain map. → Description of experimental parameters influencing dark field holography results. → Quantitative strain measurement on a SiGe layer embedded in a silicon matrix.

  8. Pseudomagnetic fields and triaxial strain in graphene

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions ("pseudoma......Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions......-binding calculations of single pseudomagnetic dots in extended graphene sheets confirm these predictions, and are also used to study the effect of rotating the strain direction with respect to the underlying graphene lattice, and varying the size of the pseudomagnetic dot....

  9. Review of graphene-based strain sensors

    Zhao Jing; Zhang Guang-Yu; Shi Dong-Xia


    In this paper,we review various types of graphene-based strain sensors.Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms,which exhibits prominent electrical and mechanical properties and can be a good candidate in compact strain sensor applications.However,a perfect graphene is robust and has a low piezoresistive sensitivity.So scientists have been driven to increase the sensitivity using different kinds of methods since the first graphene-based strain sensor was reported.We give a comprehensive review of graphene-based strain sensors with different structures and mechanisms.It is obvious that graphene offers some advantages and has potential for the strain sensor application in the near future.

  10. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement

    Beche, A., E-mail: [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rouviere, J.L. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.P.; Cooper, D. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)


    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Step by step explanation of the dark field electron holography technique. {yields} Presentation of the theoretical equations to obtain quantitative strain map. {yields} Description of experimental parameters influencing dark field holography results. {yields} Quantitative strain measurement on a SiGe layer embedded in a silicon matrix.

  11. Near tip strain evolution under cyclic loading

    J. Tong


    Full Text Available The concept of ratchetting strain as a crack driving force in controlling crack growth has previously been explored at Portsmouth using numerical approaches for nickel-based superalloys. In this paper, we report the first experimental observations of the near-tip strain evolution as captured by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique on a compact tension specimen of stainless steel 316L. The evolution of the near-tip strains with loading cycles was studied whilst the crack tip was maintained stationary. The strains were monitored over the selected distances from the crack tip for a given number of cycles under an incremental loading regime. The results show that strain ratchetting does occur with load cycling, and is particularly evident close to the crack tip and under higher loads. A finite element model has been developed to simulate the experiments and the simulation results are compared with the DIC measurements.

  12. Microstructure and strain hardening of steels

    In the present work, the relation between metallurgical microstructures and strain hardening behaviour of both fcc and bcc steels was investigated. In order to obtain large strains, a new experimental method was developed and the data mathematically prepared for further analysis. It was found that the strain hardening rate increases with decreasing particle size or increasing yield stress of ferritic steels. The strain hardening rate is found to be correlated to the specific microstructure. A new model was formulated to describe large deformations. This has been done on the basis of already existing models. According to the new model, the strain hardening in stage IV is caused by the dislocations in cell interiors instead of those in the cell walls. (orig.)

  13. Nanoscale strain mapping in battery nanostructures

    Ulvestad, A., E-mail:; Kim, J. W.; Dietze, S. H.; Shpyrko, O. G. [Department of Physics, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0319 (United States); Cho, H. M.; Meng, Y. S. [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0448 (United States); Harder, R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Fohtung, E. [Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States)


    Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging is used to map the local three dimensional strain inhomogeneity and electron density distribution of two individual LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4−δ} cathode nanoparticles in both ex-situ and in-situ environments. Our reconstructed images revealed a maximum strain of 0.4%. We observed different variations in strain inhomogeneity due to multiple competing effects. The compressive/tensile component of the strain is connected to the local lithium content and, on the surface, interpreted in terms of a local Jahn-Teller distortion of Mn{sup 3+}. Finally, the measured strain distributions are discussed in terms of their impact on competing theoretical models of the lithiation process.

  14. Irreducible decomposition of strain gradient tensor in isotropic strain gradient elasticity

    Lazar, Markus


    In isotropic strain gradient elasticity, we decompose the strain gradient tensor into its irreducible pieces under the n-dimensional orthogonal group O(n). Using the Young tableau method for traceless tensors, four irreducible pieces (n>2), which are canonical, are obtained. In three dimensions, the strain gradient tensor can be decomposed into four irreducible pieces with 7+5+3+3 independent components whereas in two dimensions, the strain gradient tensor can be decomposed into three irreducible pieces with 2+2+2 independent components. The knowledge of these irreducible pieces is extremely useful when setting up constitutive relations and strain energy.

  15. Strain relaxation in nano-patterned strained-Si/SiGe heterostructure on insulator

    In order to evaluate the strain stability, arrays of strained Si/SiGe nano-stripes and nano-pillars were fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography (EBL) and Reactive-Ion Etching (RIE). The strain relaxation in the patterned strained Si on SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) was investigated by high-resolution UV micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman measurements before and after patterning indicate that most of the strain in the top strained Si is maintained until scaling down to 300 nm, and relaxation of <15% is observed in pillars with a dimension of 150 nm x 150 nm. In the nano-patterned heterostructure strained Si/SiGe, the observed relaxation is small, which is mainly attributed to the fully relaxed and dislocation-free SiGe virtual substrate fabricated by modified Ge condensation.

  16. Strain mapping analysis of textile composites

    Ivanov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Sergey; Lomov, Stepan; Verpoest, Ignaas


    The focus of the work is meso-scale analysis (scale level of the fabric unit cell) of textile composite deformation and failure. The surface strain measurement is used for: (1) experimental investigation, which includes study of strain distribution at various stages of deformation, plasticity detection, damage initiation; (2) numerical validation of the correspondent finite element (FE) models. Two examples are considered: carbon-epoxy triaxial-braided and glass polypropylene-woven composite. The surface strain measurement (by digital image correlation technique) accompanies the tensile tests, aiming at: (1) elastic anisotropic constants characterisation, (2) study of non-linear material behaviour (for the thermoplastic composite), (3) control of homogeneity of the macro-strain distribution, and (4) analysis of damage initiation in brittle composites. Validation of meso-FE models by strain measurements encounters difficulties arising from (1) resolution of the strain measurements, (2) irregularities of the initial structure such as random layer nesting, ply interaction, and deviation of yarns from their theoretical position, which affects the measured strain fields. The paper discusses these difficulties and demonstrates a qualitative agreement with the FE analysis of idealised composite configurations.

  17. Thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'Drosophila nebulosa'

    The detection of thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'D. nebulosa' is described, as well as some conclusions on the genetic nature of these differences are presented. The strains used in this experiment were MF 204, from 'Morro de Ferro', in Pocos de Caldas (MG) (one of the biggest radioactive anomalies in the world) whose radioresistance is due to its additive genetic components (Kratz, 1973 and 1975); 85(87) R, an induced radioresistant strain; and MF K a control 'pooled' strain obtained near 'Morro do Ferro'. Survival tests, 72 hours after temperature shocks, performed in the interval of 360C to 390C showed a decreasing gradient of thermoresistance with the following regression coefficients: MF 204 b=-5,4; 85(87)R b=-7,2 and MF K b=-7,9. Bifactorial analysis (strains and sexes) performed at 380C and 390C confirmed differences among strains (P<01 and P<0,5, respectively) suggesting a poligenic control of the thermoresistance. Consitent and verified relations among strains, being simultaneously resistant to different kinds of mutagenic factors, are considered evidence of the existence of general mechanisms in mutagenic control. Therefore, the results, together with results of Tsukamoto, Ogaki and Kikkawa 1957, Ogaki 1962 and Nakashima-Tanaka 1966, Parsons 1969, add to the hypotheses of the existence of general mechanisms in mutagenic control

  18. Piezoelectric strain sensor/actuator rosettes

    In-plane anisotropy in the linear piezoelectric constitutive law for [011]c cut and poled PMN–0.29PT is demonstrated to enable its use as a sensor/actuator rosette. The equations for a 0°/45°/90° rosette are developed using the conditions of coupling between the in-plane strain of the crystal and a substrate, and zero out-of-plane stress on the crystal (plane stress conditions in the crystals). The crystals are bonded to a substrate aluminum plate that is instrumented with strain gages next to the crystals. The plate is subjected to bending about different axes and the resulting electric displacement change of the crystals is monitored. The strain components calculated using the change of electric displacement are compared with the strain components measured using strain gages. This sensor/actuator rosette approach is demonstrated to enable both sensing principal strain components and actuating principal strains in an electronically controllable direction. (fast track communication)


    Duc Tran


    Full Text Available Dunaliella strains were isolated from a key site for salt production in Vietnam (Vinh Hao, Binh Thuan province. The strains were identified based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS markers. The phylogenetic tree revealed these strains belong to the clades of Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella viridis. Results of this study confirm the ubiquitous nature of Dunaliella and suggest that strains of Dunaliella salina might be acquired locally worldwide for the production of beta-carotene. The identification of these species infers the presence of other Dunaliella species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella primolecta, Dunaliella parva, but further investigation would be required to confirm their presence in Vietnam. We anticipate the physiological and biochemical characteristics of these local species will be compared with imported strains in a future effort. This will facilitate selection of strains with the best potential for exploitation in the food, aquaculture and biofuel industries. The Dunaliella strains isolated and identified in this study are maintained at the Laboratory of Algal Biotechnology, International University and will be made available for research and educational institutions.

  20. Strain gradient plasticity: energetic or dissipative?

    Fleck, N. A.; Willis, J. R.


    For an infinite slab of strain gradient sensitive material subjected to plane-strain tensile loading, computation established and analysis confirmed that passivation of the lateral boundaries at some stage of loading inhibits plastic deformation upon further loading. This result is not surprising in itself except that, remarkably, if the gradient terms contribute to the dissipation, the plastic deformation is switched off completely and only resumes at a clearly defined higher load, corresponding to a total strain , say. The analysis presented in this paper confirms the delay of plastic deformation following passivation and determines the exact manner in which the plastic flow resumes. The plastic strain rate is continuous at the exact point of resumption of plastic flow and, for the first small increment in the imposed total strain, the corresponding increment in plastic strain, , is proportional to . The constant A in the relation , where denotes the plastic strain increment at the centre of the slab, has been determined explicitly; it depends on the hardening modulus of the material. The presence of energetic gradient terms has no effect on the value of unless the dissipative terms are absent, in which case passivation reduces the rate of plastic deformation but introduces no delay. This qualitative effect of dissipative gradient terms opens the possibility of experimental discrimination of their presence or absence. The analysis employs an incremental variational formulation that is likely to find use in other problems.

  1. Revisiting the gauge fields of strained graphene

    Iorio, Alfredo; Pais, Pablo(Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Casilla, 1469 , Valdivia, Chile)


    We show that, when graphene is only subject to strain, the spin connection gauge field that arises plays no measurable role, but when intrinsic curvature is present and strain is small, spin connection dictates most the physics. We do so by showing that the Weyl field associated with strain is a pure gauge field and no constraint on the $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetime appears. On the other hand, for constant intrinsic curvature that also gives a pure-gauge Weyl field, we find a classical manife...



    The strain distribution of equal-cross section lateral extrusion(ECSLE) has been simulated by finite element method. Considering the effect of friction and the width of sample, the simulation results are very close to the reality. The simulated results showed that, around the corner of die, the strain is distributed by sharp layers, and the gradient of the layers is very large, which means that the deformation is just plane shear deformation; the larger the width of sample or the smaller the friction, the more uniform the strain distribution is.

  3. Semiconductor strain metrology principles and applications

    Wong, Terence KS


    This book surveys the major and newly developed techniques for semiconductor strain metrology. Semiconductor strain metrology has emerged in recent years as a topic of great interest to researchers involved in thin film and nanoscale device characterization. This e-book employs a tutorial approach to explain the principles and applications of each technique specifically tailored for graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. Selected topics include optical, electron beam, ion beam and synchrotron x-ray techniques. Unlike earlier references, this e-book specifically discusses strain metrol

  4. Self-diffusion in compressively strained Ge

    Under a compressive biaxial strain of ∼ 0.71%, Ge self-diffusion has been measured using an isotopically controlled Ge single-crystal layer grown on a relaxed Si0.2Ge0.8 virtual substrate. The self-diffusivity is enhanced by the compressive strain and its behavior is fully consistent with a theoretical prediction of a generalized activation volume model of a simple vacancy mediated diffusion, reported by Aziz et al.[Phys. Rev. B 73, 054101 (2006)]. The activation volume of (-0.65±0.21) times the Ge atomic volume quantitatively describes the observed enhancement due to the compressive biaxial strain very well.

  5. Strain gage balances and buffet gages

    Ferris, A. T.


    One-piece strain gage force balances were developed for use in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This was accomplished by studying the effects of the cryogenic environment on materials, strain gages, cements, solders, and moisture proofing agents, and selecting those that minimized strain gage output changes due to temperature. In addition, because of the higher loads that may be imposed by the NTF, these balances are designed to carry a larger load for a given diameter than conventional balances. Full cryogenic calibrations were accomplished, and wind tunnel results that were obtained from the Langley 0-3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel were used to verify laboratory test results.

  6. Strains in pyrolytic graphite under irradiation

    The studies of strains in pyrolytic graphite caused by development of amorphization in the irradiation zone showed that the local strains attain tens of percent; their distribution is inhomogeneous both in magnitude and in sign. The tendency toward formation of a biaxial field of compressive strains becomes marked with an increase in the fluence, although the formation of small regions in the form of narrow sectors within whose boundaries compression is observed in the radial direction and extension is observed in the tangential direction is also possible. 14 refs., 6 figs

  7. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unit cell of strained GeSi

    The local structure within the unit cell of strained-GeSi layers grown on Si(001) has been examined by polarization-dependent extended x-ray-absorption fine structure. First-neighbor bond lengths are found to deviate only slightly from their unstrained values; however, the distortion of the cubic-unit cell by strain leads to measurable polarization-dependent changes in first-shell coordination and second-shell distances. A unifying picture of bond lengths and elasticity in strained-layer semiconductors is presented. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Construction of Killer Wine Yeast Strain

    Seki, Tetsuji; Choi, Eon-Ho; Ryu, Dewey


    A double-stranded RNA plasmid which confers the superkiller phenotype was transferred into a wine yeast (Montrachet strain 522) and its leucine-requiring derivative (strain 694) by cytoduction, using the protoplast fusion technique. The killer wine yeast constructed completely suppressed the growth of killer-sensitive strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in yeast extract-peptone-glucose medium at pH 4.5, whereas the killer effect was somewhat decreased at pH 3.5. The wine yeast harboring the k...

  10. A new radial strain and strain rate estimation method using autocorrelation for carotid artery

    Ye, Jihui; Kim, Hoonmin; Park, Jongho; Yeo, Sunmi; Shim, Hwan; Lim, Hyungjoon; Yoo, Yangmo


    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is of clinical interest since it can prevent any adverse effects of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this paper, a new carotid artery radial strain estimation method based on autocorrelation is presented. In the proposed method, the strain is first estimated by the autocorrelation of two complex signals from the consecutive frames. Then, the angular phase from autocorrelation is converted to strain and strain rate and they are analyzed over time. In addition, a 2D strain image over region of interest in a carotid artery can be displayed. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed radial strain estimation method, radiofrequency (RF) data of 408 frames in the carotid artery of a volunteer were acquired by a commercial ultrasound system equipped with a research package (V10, Samsung Medison, Korea) by using a L5-13IS linear array transducer. From in vivo carotid artery data, the mean strain estimate was -0.1372 while its minimum and maximum values were -2.961 and 0.909, respectively. Moreover, the overall strain estimates are highly correlated with the reconstructed M-mode trace. Similar results were obtained from the estimation of the strain rate change over time. These results indicate that the proposed carotid artery radial strain estimation method is useful for assessing the arterial wall's stiffness noninvasively without increasing the computational complexity.

  11. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous activity of fungal isolates.

    Nicola, Lidia; Tosi, Solveig; Savini, Dario


    Four filamentous fungi associated with nematodes were isolated and identified from litter samples collected in the Integral Natural Reserve "Bosco Siro Negri" (PV, Italy): Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Arthrobotrys oligospora var. oligospora, Pochonia bulbillosa, and Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata. Their capacity to break down the nematode population was evaluated in vitro by means of simple and reproducible multiwell plates method. All fungal strains were able to cause a death-rate significantly different from the controls (p traps. On the contrary P. bulbillosa and P. chlamydosporia, known to attack mainly the nematode life stage of cysts, showed lower activity against adult nematodes. PMID:23553775

  12. Information about the Current Strain of Clostridium difficile

    ... treatment of this epidemic strain different? How does fluoroquinolone resistance affect management of this strain? What should ... guidelines on internet) Top of page How does fluoroquinolone resistance affect management of this strain? Increased fluoroquinolone ...

  13. Screening of Trichoderma strains tolerant to benzimidazole

    LIU Kai-qi; XIANG Mei-mei; LIU Ren; ZENG Yong-san; ZHOU Hong-zi; YU Jin-feng; JIANG Xin-yin; ZHANG Yue-li


    @@ The screening of isolates and the assay of biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma were studied systematically in laboratory and greenhouse in vivo. The proteins tolerant to benzimidazole in Trichoderma strains were purified, and their physical and chemical properties were detected. Compared their biological activities in vitro and vivo in greenhouse, nine biocontrol strains (including Ty- 10-2, LTR-2, Tj-5-1, Tj-5-4, Ty- 11-1, Tj-11-3, Ty- 11-3, Tj-3-3-2, Tj-3-3-4) were screened. These biocontrol strains had faster rates of growth and higher inhibition to gray mould (Bortrytis cinerea),and the inhibition was stable. The effects of controlling gray mould in greenhouse with the screened Trichoderma strains were 70 % and 50 % in vivo.

  14. Axillary vein thrombosis mimicking muscular strain.

    Louis, J.


    Axillary vein thrombosis may occur on strenuous activity with a clinical picture similar to a simple strain. It carries significant morbidity but a good outcome is possible with early treatment. The aetiology, investigation, and treatment are discussed.

  15. Energy Harvesting Wireless Strain Networks Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Research LC (PPLC) and Virginia Tech (VT) propose to develop an energy harvesting wireless strain node technology that utilizes single-crystal piezoelectric...

  16. Five challenges in modelling interacting strain dynamics

    Paul S. Wikramaratna


    Full Text Available Population epidemiological models where hosts can be infected sequentially by different strains have the potential to help us understand many important diseases. Researchers have in recent years started to develop and use such models, but the extra layer of complexity from multiple strains brings with it many technical challenges. It is therefore hard to build models which have realistic assumptions yet are tractable. Here we outline some of the main challenges in this area. First we begin with the fundamental question of how to translate from complex small-scale dynamics within a host to useful population models. Next we consider the nature of so-called “strain space”. We describe two key types of host heterogeneities, and explain how models could help generate a better understanding of their effects. Finally, for diseases with many strains, we consider the challenge of modelling how immunity accumulates over multiple exposures.

  17. [Improvement of Trichoderma strains for biocontrol].

    Benítez, T; Rey, M; Delgado-Jarana, J; Rincón, A M; Limón, M C


    The use of the fungal genus Trichoderma to control fungal plant diseases is a promising alternative to the use of chemical compounds. The aim of this work has been to obtain Trichoderma strains with improved capacity as biological control agents. To do so, the hydrolytic capacity on fungal cell walls of strains of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum has been increased. On one hand, transformation experiments with genes which coded for chitinases and glucanases have been carried out in T. harzianumstra ins. On the other hand, the medium composition has also been modified in order to eliminate proteolytic degradation of some of the overproduced enzymes. Finally, hybrid chitinolytic enzymes with substrate-binding domains have been produced as an alternative to obtain improved biocontrol strains. The transformant strains, when compared with the wild type, showed improved antifungal capacity against the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani, in in vitro experiments. PMID:15762779

  18. Dynamic Force Measurement with Strain Gauges

    Lee, Bruce E.


    Discusses the use of four strain gauges, a Wheatstone bridge, and an oscilloscope to measure forces dynamically. Included is an example of determining the centripetal force of a pendulum in a general physics laboratory. (CC)

  19. Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation

    Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes


    The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.

  20. Strain Rate Induced Amorphization in Metallic Nanowires

    Qi, Y.; Cagin, T.; Goddard, W.A. III [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Ikeda, H.; Samwer, K.; Johnson, W.L. [Keck Laboratory of Engineering Materials, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)


    Using molecular dynamics simulations with a many-body force field, we studied the deformation of single crystal Ni and NiCu random alloy nanowires subjected to uniform strain rates but kept at 300thinspthinspK. For all strain rates, the Ni nanowire is elastic up to 7.5{percent} strain with a yield stress of 5.5thinspthinspGPa, far above that of bulk Ni. At high strain rates, we find that for both systems the crystalline phase transforms continuously to an amorphous phase, exhibiting a dramatic change in atomic short-range order and a near vanishing of the tetragonal shear elastic constant perpendicular to the tensile direction. This amorphization which occurs directly from the homogeneous, elastically deformed system with no chemical or structural inhomogeneities exhibits a new mode of amorphization. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. 3D Morphing Using Strain Field Interpolation

    Han-Bing Yan; Shi-Min Hu; Ralph R Martin


    In this paper, we present a new technique based on strain fields to carry out 3D shape morphing for applicationsin computer graphics and related areas.Strain is an important geometric quantity used in mechanics to describe the deformation of objects.We apply it in a novel way to analyze and control deformation in morphing.Using position vector fields, the strain field relating source and target shapes can be obtained.By interpolating this strain field between zero and a final desired value we can obtain the position field for intermediate shapes.This method ensures that the 3D morphing process is smooth.Locally, volumes suffer minimal distortion, and no shape jittering or wobbling happens: other methods do not necessarily have these desirable properties.We also show how to control the method so that changes of shape (in particular, size changes) vary linearly with time.

  2. Five challenges in modelling interacting strain dynamics

    Wikramaratna, Paul S; Kurcharski, Adam; Gupta, Sunetra;


    Population epidemiological models where hosts can be infected sequentially by different strains have the potential to help us understand many important diseases. Researchers have in recent years started to develop and use such models, but the extra layer of complexity from multiple strains brings...... with it many technical challenges. It is therefore hard to build models which have realistic assumptions yet are tractable. Here we outline some of the main challenges in this area. First we begin with the fundamental question of how to translate from complex small-scale dynamics within a host to...... useful population models. Next we consider the nature of so-called “strain space”. We describe two key types of host heterogeneities, and explain how models could help generate a better understanding of their effects. Finally, for diseases with many strains, we consider the challenge of modelling how...

  3. Strain Gauges Mounted To Retain Calibration

    Butler, Barry L.


    Silicon-based semiconductor strain gauges mounted in such way they retain original calibration for several years instead of few months. Improvement effected by bonding gauges to ceramic substrates with glasses instead of epoxies as adhesives.

  4. Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains (For Parents)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones, ... home. What to Do: For a Suspected Broken Bone: Do not move a child whose injury involves ...

  5. Strain field of a buried oxide aperture

    Kießling, F.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M.; Schulze, J.-H.; Strittmatter, A.; Schliwa, A.; Pohl, U. W.


    The strain field of an AlOx current aperture, fabricated by selective oxidation of an AlAs/GaAs layer buried in a circular GaAs mesa, is studied. Components of the strain tensor for a thin cross-section lamella cut out of such a structure are evaluated from dark-field electron holography, proving the validity of simulations based on linear elasticity. Simulation of the entire structure is utilized to prepare mesa surfaces with tailored strain fields for controlling the nucleation site of InGaAs quantum dots. The experimental proof of strain simulations allows estimating the magnitude of piezoelectricity, yielding for the studied mesa structures a piezoelectric potential up to 50 mV.

  6. Microalgal Strains Sent to External Users

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over 200 microalgal strains maintained in the Milford Microalgal Culture Collection are available to aquaculture facilities and researchers. Approximately 100...

  7. Review of strain buckling: analysis methods

    This report represents an attempt to review the mechanical analysis methods reported in the literature to account for the specific behaviour that we call buckling under strain. In this report, this expression covers all buckling mechanisms in which the strains imposed play a role, whether they act alone (as in simple buckling under controlled strain), or whether they act with other loadings (primary loading, such as pressure, for example). Attention is focused on the practical problems relevant to LMFBR reactors. The components concerned are distinguished by their high slenderness ratios and by rather high thermal levels, both constant and variable with time. Conventional static buckling analysis methods are not always appropriate for the consideration of buckling under strain. New methods must therefore be developed in certain cases. It is also hoped that this review will facilitate the coding of these analytical methods to aid the constructor in his design task and to identify the areas which merit further investigation

  8. Tuning strain in flexible graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators

    Guan, Fen; Kumaravadivel, Piranavan; Averin, Dmitri V.; Du, Xu


    The structural flexibility of low dimensional nanomaterials offers unique opportunities for studying the impact of strain on their physical properties and for developing innovative devices utilizing strain engineering. A key towards such goals is a device platform which allows the independent tuning and reliable calibration of the strain. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators (GNEMRs) on flexible substrates. Combining substrate bending and electrostatic gating, we achieve the independent tuning of the strain and sagging in graphene and explore the nonlinear dynamics over a wide parameter space. Analytical and numerical studies of a continuum mechanics model, including the competing higher order nonlinear terms, reveal a comprehensive nonlinear dynamics phase diagram, which quantitatively explains the complex behaviors of GNEMRs.

  9. Survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; G. Marquesa, Irina; Karst, Søren Michael;


    Successful application of bioaugmentation for enhanced degradation of environmental pollutants is often limited by the lack of methods to monitor the survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains. However, recent advancements in sequencing technologies and molecular techniques now a...

  10. Strain imaging by Bragg edge neutron transmission

    Santisteban, J R; Fitzpatrick, M E; Steuwer, A; Withers, P J; Daymond, M R; Johnson, M W; Rhodes, N; Schooneveld, E M


    The Bragg edges appearing in the transmitted time-of-flight spectra of polycrystalline materials have been recorded using a two-dimensional array of detectors. Subsequent analysis has enabled maps of the elastic strain to be produced.

  11. Some remarks on the strain decomposition

    F. Nicot; Darve, F.


    An impressive amount of constitutive relations have been developed in the past few decades. With respect to the class of elasto-plastic phenomenological models, elastic and plastic strain decomposition is generally stated as a basic assumption, so as to treat the elastic (i.e., recoverable) and plastic (i.e., unrecoverable) parts of the strains separately. For incrementally nonlinear relations this decomposition is not possible. In a first part of this paper a detailed discussion of elastic a...

  12. Framework for Concentrated Strain Deployable Trusses

    Mejia-Ariza, Juan Manuel


    This research presents a simplified framework for the analysis of deployable trusses using the concentrated strain approach and uses it to provide key insights into the many design decisions to be made in the development of concentrated strain architectures. The framework uses Euler Column Theory to derive closed form solutions to estimate truss performance. The results are compared to a classical solution and shown to give similar results. A range of strut and hinge hierarchy choices are con...

  13. High-Temperature Adhesive Strain Gage Developed

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts, Gary D.


    Researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have developed a unique strain gage and adhesive system for measuring the mechanical properties of polymers and polymer composites at elevated temperatures. This system overcomes some of the problems encountered in using commercial strain gages and adhesives. For example, typical commercial strain gage adhesives require a postcure at temperatures substantially higher than the maximum test temperature. The exposure of the specimen to this temperature may affect subsequent results, and in some cases may be higher than the glass-transition temperature of the polymer. In addition, although typical commercial strain gages can be used for short times at temperatures up to 370 C, their long-term use is limited to 230 C. This precludes their use for testing some high-temperature polyimides near their maximum temperature capability. Lewis' strain gage and adhesive system consists of a nonencapsulated, unbacked gage grid that is bonded directly to the polymer after the specimen has been cured but prior to the normal postcure cycle. The gage is applied with an adhesive specially formulated to cure under the specimen postcure conditions. Special handling, mounting, and electrical connection procedures were developed, and a fixture was designed to calibrate each strain gage after it was applied to a specimen. A variety of tests was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the gages at elevated temperatures on PMR-15 neat resin and titanium specimens. For these tests, which included static tension, thermal exposure, and creep tests, the gage and adhesive system performed within normal strain gage specifications at 315 C. An example of the performance characteristics of the gage can be seen in the figure, which compares the strain gage measurement on a polyimide specimen at 315 C with an extensometer measurement.

  14. Relations between microbarograph and strain data

    Mentes, G.; Eper-Pápai, I.


    Abstract The relationship between barometric and strain data related to seasonal characteristics within a year was studied on the basis of parallel records from a quartz tube extensometer and a microbarograph at the Geodynamical Observatory in Sopronbanfalva, Hungary. Both strain and barometric data series were combined into groups according to the three `Lloyd? seasons and they were subjected to spectrum, tidal, regression and coherence analysis. All of the analysis methods establ...

  15. FRP rupture strains in FRP wrapped columns

    Li, Shiqing


    Applying lateral confinement to concrete columns using fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is a very promising technique. FRP rupture is the typical failure mode of FRP wrapped columns under axial compression. numerous experiments have shown that the FRP rupture strain in an FRP wrapped circular column is significantly lower than the FRP ultimate rupture strain determined from flat coupon test of FRP. Despite a large number of studies on the application of FRP confined columns, the mech...

  16. Conductive lithographic film fabricated resistive strain gauges

    Hay, GI; Evans, PSA; Harrison, DJ; Southee, DJ; Simpson, G; Harrey, PM


    This paper reports progress in sensor fabrication by the conductive lithographic film (CLF) printing process. Work describing strain sensitive structures manufactured using a modified printing process and conductive inks are addressed. The performance of a 'single ink' strain sensitive structure when printed on six alternative polymer substrates (GlossArt, PolyArt, Teslin, Mylar C, Mylar and Kapton) is analysed. Though not intending to compete with conventional gauges in high tolerance measur...

  17. Characterization of lithographically printed resistive strain gauges

    Hay, G.I.; Evans, P.S.A.; Harrison, D J; Southee, D; Simpson, G; Harrey, P.M.


    This paper reports progress in sensor fabrication by the conductive lithographic film (CLF) printing process. Work describing strain-sensitive structures manufactured using a modified printing process and conductive inks is addressed. The performance of a "single-ink" strain-sensitive structure when printed on six alternative substrates (GlossArt, PolyArt, Teslin, Mylar C, Melinex, and Kapton) is analyzed. Though not intending to compete with conventional gauges in high-tolerance measurement,...

  18. Hydraulic Calibrator for Strain-Gauge Balances

    Skelly, Kenneth; Ballard, John


    Instrument for calibrating strain-gauge balances uses hydraulic actuators and load cells. Eliminates effects of nonparallelism, nonperpendicularity, and changes of cable directions upon vector sums of applied forces. Errors due to cable stretching, pulley friction, and weight inaccuracy also eliminated. New instrument rugged and transportable. Set up quickly. Developed to apply known loads to wind-tunnel models with encapsulated strain-gauge balances, also adapted for use in calibrating dynamometers, load sensors on machinery and laboratory instruments.

  19. Strain gauge for high temperature tests

    A strain gauge is described that is intended to measure longitudinal and lateral strains during tubular specimen loading by an axial force and internal pressure at test temperatures up to 1000 K. The use of the gauge for creep study of steel type Kh18N10T at 870 K under complex stress state is given as an example. Experimental data confirm the suitability of the gauge for the purpose mentioned and sufficient accuracy of parameters determined. 3 refs., 3 figs

  20. Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains

    Adamo Giusy; Brocca Stefania; Passolunghi Simone; Salvato Benedetto; Lotti Marina


    Abstract Background Yeast strains endowed with robustness towards copper and/or enriched in intracellular Cu might find application in biotechnology processes, among others in the production of functional foods. Moreover, they can contribute to the study of human diseases related to impairments of copper metabolism. In this study, we investigated the molecular and physiological factors that confer copper tolerance to strains of baker's yeasts. Results We characterized the effects elicited in ...

  1. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.;


    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    Yamamura Ken-ichi; Kawakami Minoru


    Abstract Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the rel...

  3. A tunable strain sensor using nanogranular metals

    Friedemann Völklein; Alexander Kaya; Jens Müller; Pintu Das; Heiko Reith; Fabrizio Porrati; Roland Sachser; Markus Baranowski; Christina Grimm; Schwalb, Christian H.; Michael Huth


    This paper introduces a new methodology for the fabrication of strain-sensor elements for MEMS and NEMS applications based on the tunneling effect in nano-granular metals. The strain-sensor elements are prepared by the maskless lithography technique of focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) employing the precursor trimethylmethylcyclopentadienyl platinum [MeCpPt(Me)3]. We use a cantilever-based deflection technique to determine the sensitivity (gauge factor) of the sensor element. W...

  4. Elastic constants from microscopic strain fluctuations

    Sengupta, Surajit; Nielaba, Peter; Rao, Madan; Binder, K.


    Fluctuations of the instantaneous local Lagrangian strain $\\epsilon_{ij}(\\bf{r},t)$, measured with respect to a static ``reference'' lattice, are used to obtain accurate estimates of the elastic constants of model solids from atomistic computer simulations. The measured strains are systematically coarse- grained by averaging them within subsystems (of size $L_b$) of a system (of total size $L$) in the canonical ensemble. Using a simple finite size scaling theory we predict the behaviour of th...

  5. Elastically Relaxed Free-standing Strained-Si Nanomembranes

    Roberts, Michelle M.; Klein, Levente J.; Savage, Don E.; Slinker, Keith A.; Friesen, Mark; Celler, George; Eriksson, Mark A.; Lagally, Max G.


    Strain plays a critical role in the properties of materials. In silicon and silicon-germanium, strain provides a mechanism for control of both carrier mobility and band offsets. In materials integra-tion, strain is typically tuned through the use of dislocations and elemental composition. We demonstrate a versatile method to control strain, by fabricating membranes in which the final strain state is controlled by elastic strain sharing, i.e., without the formation of defects. We grow Si/SiGe ...

  6. Strain-tunable Josephson current in graphene-superconductor junction

    Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, B.


    Strain effects on Josephson current in a graphene-superconductor junction are explored theoretically. It is demonstrated that the supercurrent is an oscillatory function of zigzag direction strain with a strain-dependent oscillating frequency. Interestingly, it is found that the Josephson current under armchair direction strain can be turned on/off with a cutoff strain. In view of the on/off properties of the Josephson current, we propose the strained graphene Josephson junction to be utilized as a supercurrent switch.

  7. Whole Genome Analysis of a Wine Yeast Strain

    Hauser, Nicole C.; Kurt Fellenberg; Rosario Gil; Sonja Bastuck; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Pérez-Ortín, José E.


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains frequently exhibit rather specific phenotypic features needed for adaptation to a special environment. Wine yeast strains are able to ferment musts, for example, while other industrial or laboratory strains fail to do so. The genetic differences that characterize wine yeast strains are poorly understood, however. As a first search of genetic differences between wine and laboratory strains, we performed DNA-array analyses on the typical wine yeast strain T73 an...

  8. The mechanical consequences of load bearing in the equine third metacarpal across speed and gait: the nonuniform distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density

    Rubin, Clinton T.; Seeherman, Howard; Qin, Yi-Xian; Gross, Ted S.


    Distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density (SED) were determined across the midshaft of the third metacarpal (MCIII, or cannon bone) of 3 adult thoroughbred horses as a function of speed and gait. A complete characterization of the mechanical demands of the bone made through the stride and from mild through the extremes of locomotion was possible by using three 3-element rosette strain gauges bonded at the diaphyseal midshaft of the MCIII and evaluating the strain...

  9. Commonly administered BCG strains including an evolutionarily early strain and evolutionarily late strains of disparate genealogy induce comparable protective immunity against tuberculosis

    Horwitz, Marcus A.; Harth, Günter; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Gali, Saša


    BCG has been administered to over 4 billion persons worldwide, but its efficacy in preventing tuberculosis in adults has been highly variable. One hypothesis for its variability is that different strains of BCG vary in protective efficacy, and moreover, that evolutionarily early strains are more efficacious than the more attenuated evolutionarily late strains, which lack region of deletion 2. To examine this hypothesis, we tested six widely used BCG strains – the evolutionarily early strain B...

  10. Differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains through RFLP

    Luis José Carrión


    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmosis is a disease that considerably affects the poultry sector, which is reflected in the decrease of the production parameters in fertile and commercial egg laying broilers. Presentation costs are so high that it is impossible for the poultry industry to survive without thinking of its effective control or eradication. There is great interest in the type of M. gallisepticum (Mg strains, both vaccine and field, which are key aspects to handle the disease, but there is still no definitive method for Mg strain characterization. Genes related to surface proteins —gapA and mgc2,lipoprotein (lp— that make it possible to identify and characterize the Mg genomically are currently being studied. In this study, regions of the lp gene were amplified from strains F and Ts-11 of Mg through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, which gave an amplicon of 455 bp for each of the strains; each of the amplicons was applied the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP test with the Taq I enzyme, which made it possible to differentiate vaccine strains from field strains obtained from tracheal swab samples taken at commercial farms. It was demonstrated that PCRRFLP is an appropriate method of diagnosis of mycoplasmosis in our environment.