Sample records for catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling

  1. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Vinyl Boronates and Vinyl Silanes via Atom-Economical Ruthenium-Catalyzed Alkene-Alkyne Coupling.

    Trost, Barry M; Koester, Dennis C; Herron, Alastair N


    The synthesis of vinyl boronates and vinyl silanes was achieved by employing a Ru-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling reaction of allyl boronates or allyl silanes with various alkynes. The double bond geometry in the generated vinyl boronates can be remotely controlled by the juxtaposing boron- and silicon groups on the alkyne substrate. The synthetic utility of the coupling products has been demonstrated in a variety of synthetic transformations, including iterative cross-coupling reactions, and a Chan-Lam-type allyloxylation followed by a Claisen rearrangement. A sequential one-pot alkene-alkyne-coupling/allylation-sequence with an aldehyde to deliver a highly complex α-silyl-β-hydroxy olefin with a handle for further functionalization was also realized. PMID:26572804

  2. Ru Catalyzed Alkene-Alkyne Coupling. Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide P

    Trost, Barry M.; Papillon, Julien P. N.; Nussbaumer, Thomas


    A coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium complex catalyzed the formation of a carbon-carbon bond between two judiciously chosen alkene and alkyne partners in good yield, and in a chemo- and regioselective fashion, in spite of the significant degree of unsaturation of the substrates. The resulting 1,4-diene forms the backbone of the cytotoxic marine natural product amphidinolide P. The alkene partner was rapidly assembled from (R)-glycidyl tosylate, which served as a linchpin in a one-flask, seq...

  3. Evaluating Transition-Metal Catalyzed Transformations for the Synthesis of Laulimalide

    Trost, Barry M.; Amans, Dominique; Seganish, W. Michael; Chung, Cheol K.


    Laulimalide is a structurally unique 20-membered marine macrolide displaying microtubule stabilizing activity similar to that of paclitaxel and the epothilones. The use of atom economical transformations such as a rhodium-catalyzed cycloisomerization to form the endocyclic dihydropyran, a dinuclear zinc-catalyzed asymmetric glycolate aldol to prepare the syn 1,2-diol and an intramolecular ruthenium-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling to build the macrocycle enabled us to synthesize laulimalide v...

  4. Switching the regioselectivity in the copper-catalyzed synthesis of iodoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines.

    Samanta, Sadhanendu; Jana, Sourav; Mondal, Susmita; Monir, Kamarul; Chandra, Swapan K; Hajra, Alakananda


    A unique copper-catalyzed binucleophilic switching of 2-aminopyridine has been developed for the regioselective synthesis of 2- and 3-iodoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines using alkenes/alkynes as coupling partners in the presence of molecular iodine under aerobic reaction conditions. This method was also applied to the synthesis of 2-iodo-3-phenylbenzo[d]imidazo[2,1-b]thiazoles. This protocol offers an easy route towards the synthesis of 2,3-diarylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines. PMID:27182027

  5. Pinacol Coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Active Zinc

    Hui ZHAO; Wei DENG; Qing Xiang GUO


    Pinacol coupling reactions catalyzed by active zinc revealed high activity and extensive suitability. The efficiency of the reaction was improved apparently owing to decreasing reductive potential of zinc. In addition, the results indicated that the zinc activity has a direct relation to the coupling reactivity compared to untreated zinc or other general active zinc.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions

    Molnár, Árpád


    This handbook and ready reference brings together all significant issues of practical importance for interested readers in one single volume. While covering homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, the text is unique in focusing on such important aspects as using different reaction media, microwave techniques or catalyst recycling. It also provides a comprehensive treatment of modern-day coupling reactions and emphasizes those topics that show potential for future development, such as continuous flow systems, water as a reaction medium, and catalyst immobilization, among others. With i

  7. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions

    Lindh, Jonas


    Sustainable chemical processes are becoming increasingly important in all fields of synthetic chemistry. Catalysis can play an important role in developing environmentally benign chemical processes, and transition metals have an important role to play in the area of green chemistry. In particular, palladium(II) catalysis includes many key features for successful green chemistry methods, as demonstrated by a number of eco-friendly oxidation reactions catalyzed by palladium(II). The aim of the ...

  8. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions

    Fengtao Zhou


    Full Text Available Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds.

  9. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions


    Summary Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated) asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:26734106

  10. Oxo-rhenium catalyzed reductive coupling and deoxygenation of alcohols.

    Kasner, Gabrielle R; Boucher-Jacobs, Camille; Michael McClain, J; Nicholas, Kenneth M


    Representative benzylic, allylic and α-keto alcohols are deoxygenated to alkanes and/or reductively coupled to alkane dimers by reaction with PPh3 catalyzed by (PPh3)2ReIO2 (1). The newly discovered catalytic reductive coupling reaction is a rare C-C bond-forming transformation of alcohols. PMID:27174412

  11. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-S bond coupling reaction.

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Liu, Yi-Chen; Badsara, Satpal Singh


    Sulfur-containing molecules such as thioethers are commonly found in chemical biology, organic synthesis, and materials chemistry. While many reliable methods have been developed for preparing these compounds, harsh reaction conditions are usually required in the traditional methods. The transition metals have been applied in this field, and the palladium-catalyzed coupling of thiols with aryl halides and pseudo halides is one of the most important methods in the synthesis of thioethers. Other metals have also been used for the same purpose. Here, we summarize recent efforts in metal-catalyzed C-S bond cross-coupling reactions, focusing especially on the coupling of thiols with aryl- and vinyl halides based on different metals. PMID:24443103

  12. Synthesis of Aryldifluoroamides by Copper-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling.

    Arlow, Sophie I; Hartwig, John F


    A copper-catalyzed coupling of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl iodides with α-silyldifluoroamides is reported. The reaction forms α,α-difluoro-α-aryl amides from electron-rich, electron-poor, and sterically hindered aryl iodides in high yield and tolerates a variety of functional groups. The aryldifluoroamide products can be transformed further to provide access to a diverse array of difluoroalkylarenes, including compounds of potential biological interest. PMID:26929068

  13. Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions of tetrafluoroethylene with arylzinc compounds.

    Ohashi, Masato; Kambara, Tadashi; Hatanaka, Tsubasa; Saijo, Hiroki; Doi, Ryohei; Ogoshi, Sensuke


    Organofluorine compounds are widely used in all aspects of the chemical industry. Although tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is an example of an economical bulk organofluorine feedstock, the use of TFE is mostly limited to the production of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and copolymers with other alkenes. Furthermore, no catalytic transformation of TFE that involves carbon-fluorine bond activation has been reported to date. We herein report the first example of a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of TFE with arylzinc reagents in the presence of lithium iodide, giving α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in excellent yields. PMID:21322557

  14. Magical Power of d-block transition metals. Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling and Zr-Catalyzed Asymmetric Carboalumination (Zaca reaction)

    Año Internacional de la Quimica 2011


    Magical Porwer of d-block Transition Metals. Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling and Zr-Catalyzed Asymmetric Carboalumination (Zaca Reaction). Ei-ichi Negishi (Department of Chemistry - Purdue University). Premio Nobel de Química 2010

  15. Palladium-catalyzed Cascade Cyclization-Coupling Reaction of Benzyl Halides with N,N-Diallylbenzoylamide

    Yi Min HU; Yu ZHANG; Jian Lin HAN; Cheng Jian ZHU; Yi PAN


    A novel type of palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization-coupling reaction has been found. Reaction of N, N-diallylbenzoylamide 1 with benzyl halides 2 afforded the corresponding dihydropyrroles 3 in moderate to excellent yields.

  16. Pd/C catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction: Is it heterogeneous or homogeneous?

    Hoang, Tony Phuc

    The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction is a popular industrial method of creating covalent bonds between two carbons. This reaction can be catalyzed by a myriad of palladium catalyst including heterogeneous and homogeneous. The objective of this research is to study whether the Suzuki cross coupling reaction catalyzed by solid supported palladium catalysts is truly heterogeneous in nature (i.e. does the reaction occurs on the surface of the catalyst or does palladium leach from the solid support and catalyze the reaction in a homogenous manner).

  17. Iron-Catalyzed C-C Cross-Couplings Using Organometallics.

    Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine


    Over the last decades, iron-catalyzed cross-couplings have emerged as an important tool for the formation of C-C bonds. A wide variety of alkenyl, aryl, and alkyl (pseudo)halides have been coupled to organometallic reagents, the most currently used being Grignard reagents. Particular attention has been devoted to the development of iron catalysts for the functionalization of alkyl halides that are generally challenging substrates in classical cross-couplings. The high functional group tolerance of iron-catalyzed cross-couplings has encouraged organic chemists to use them in the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Even if some points remain obscure, numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling and several hypotheses have been proposed. PMID:27573401

  18. Palladium-catalyzed Coupling between Aryl Halides and Trimethylsilylacetylene Assisted by Dimethylaminotrimethyltin

    Cai Liangzhen; Yang Dujuan; Sun Zhonghua; Tao Xiaochun; Cai Lisheng; Pike Victor W


    Palladium-catalyzed coupling between aryl halides, especially less reactive ones or N-heteroaryls, and trimethylsilylacetylene in the presence of dimethylaminotrimethyltin generated the coupled products in high yields. The reaction does not need CuI and base as auxiliary agents.

  19. Iron-catalyzed coupling reactions of vinylic chalcogenides with Grignard reagents

    A general new method for the cross-coupling reaction between vinylic selenides and tellurides and Grignard reagents catalyzed by Fe(acac)3 at room temperature is described. This reaction proceeded with retention of configuration, providing the respective alkenes in good to excellent yields. This method is also efficient for the coupling reaction of divinyl chalcogenides with Grignard reagents. (author)

  20. Iron-catalyzed coupling reactions of vinylic chalcogenides with Grignard reagents

    Silveira, Claudio C.; Mendes, Samuel R.; Wolf, Lucas, E-mail: silveira@quimica.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica


    A general new method for the cross-coupling reaction between vinylic selenides and tellurides and Grignard reagents catalyzed by Fe(acac){sub 3} at room temperature is described. This reaction proceeded with retention of configuration, providing the respective alkenes in good to excellent yields. This method is also efficient for the coupling reaction of divinyl chalcogenides with Grignard reagents. (author)

  1. Fe-Catalyzed Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactions.

    Lv, Leiyang; Li, Zhiping


    Cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC), which enables the formation of carbon-carbon (C-C) and C-heteroatom bonds from the direct coupling of two C-H bonds or C-H/X-H bonds, represents a new state of the art in the field of organic chemistry. Iron, a prominent metal, has already shown its versatile application in chemical synthesis. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of cross-dehydrogenative coupling via iron catalysis, as well as its application in synthetic chemistry. PMID:27573390

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Perfluoro Organic Compounds

    Masato Ohashi


    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize our recent development of palladium(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of perfluoro organic compounds with organometallic reagents. The oxidative addition of a C–F bond of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE to palladium(0 was promoted by the addition of lithium iodide, affording a trifluorovinyl palladium(II iodide. Based on this finding, the first palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with diarylzinc was developed in the presence of lithium iodide, affording α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in excellent yield. This coupling reaction was expanded to the novel Pd(0/PR3-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with arylboronates. In this reaction, the trifluorovinyl palladium(II fluoride was a key reaction intermediate that required neither an extraneous base to enhance the reactivity of organoboronates nor a Lewis acid additive to promote the oxidative addition of a C–F bond. In addition, our strategy utilizing the synergetic effect of Pd(0 and lithium iodide could be applied to the C–F bond cleavage of unreactive hexafluorobenzene (C6F6, leading to the first Pd(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of C6F6 with diarylzinc compounds.

  3. Silver-catalyzed coupling reactions of alkyl halides with indenyllithiums

    Someya, Hidenori; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Oshima, Koichiro


    Coupling reactions of tertiary and secondary alkyl halides with indenyllithiums proceeded effectively in the presence of a catalytic amount of silver bromide to provide tertiary- and secondary-alkyl-substituted indene derivatives in good yields.

  4. Copper and amine free Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction catalyzed by efficient diphosphane-palladium catalyst

    Ting He; Lei Lei Wu; Xing Li Fu; Hai Yan Fu; Hua Chen; Rui Xiang Li


    The commercially available diphosphane ligand MeO-BIPHEP was first investigated in the palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira reaction in the absence of copper and amine. The coupling of various aryl bromides and aryl chlorides with phenylacetylene gave moderate to excellent yields.

  5. Chemoselective and Sequential Palladium-Catalyzed Couplings for the Generation of Stilbene Libraries via Immobilized Substrates.

    Traficante, Carla I; Fagundez, Catherine; Serra, Gloria L; Mata, Ernesto G; Delpiccolo, Carina M L


    A versatile palladium-catalyzed tandem synthetic sequence to afford E-stilbenes libraries has been developed. Excellent regio- and stereocontrol have been achieved by means of the sequence of Hiyama and Heck cross-couplings. Undesirable homocoupling byproducts were avoided employing immobilized substrates. PMID:27073985

  6. DFT Investigation of the Palladium-Catalyzed Ene-Yne Coupling

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Tanner, David Ackland; Skrydstrup, T.;


    The mechanism of the recently developed palladium-catalyzed ene-yne coupling has been evaluated by DFT methods. The calculations validate the previously proposed reaction mechanism and explain the stereoselectivity of the reaction (exclusive formation of the E isomer of the disubstituted alkene)....

  7. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;


    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  8. Preparation of fluorinated biaryls through direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates

    Fang, Xin


    The direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates gave the desired products of fluorinated biaryls in good to excellent yields. A diverse set of important functional groups including methoxy, aldehyde, ester, nitro and halide can be well tolerated in the protocol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Copper-catalyzed arylation of biguanide derivatives via C-N cross-coupling reactions.

    Zhang, Chen; Huang, Bo; Bao, Ai-Qing; Li, Xiao; Guo, Shunna; Zhang, Jin-Quan; Xu, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Rihao; Cui, Dong-Mei


    An efficient copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of biguanide hydrochloride derivatives with both aryl iodides and bromides under mild conditions has been developed. The reaction occurred in good yields and tolerated aryl halides containing functionalities such as nitriles, sulfonamides, ethers, and halogens. Alkyl and cyclic substituted biguanidines were also well tolerated. PMID:26444146

  10. Pd-catalyzed three-component coupling of terminal alkynes, arynes, and vinyl cyclopropane dicarboxylate.

    Garve, Lennart K B; Werz, Daniel B


    A palladium-catalyzed three-component coupling involving in situ generated arynes, terminal alkynes, and vinyl cyclopropane dicarboxylate has been developed. The process demonstrates the first example of aryne chemistry combined with the ring opening of vinyl cyclopropanes. This efficient method using readily available starting materials generates two new carbon-carbon bonds in one pot. PMID:25625685

  11. Cu(I)-NHC-catalyzed silylation of allenes: diastereoselective three-component coupling with aldehydes.

    Rae, James; Hu, Ya Chu; Procter, David J


    Copper-catalyzed silylation of aryl allenes using a silylborane reagent affords vinyl silane building blocks with high efficiency. The use of a seven-membered NHC ligand proved crucial for high regioselectivity. The catalytically generated allylcoppper intermediates were intercepted by aldehydes in a diastereoselective three-component coupling to furnish homoallylic alcohols. PMID:25146221

  12. Why You Really Should Consider Using Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Silanols and Silanolates

    Denmark, Scott E.; Ambrosi, Andrea


    The transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of organometallic nucleophiles derived from tin, boron, and zinc with organic electrophiles enjoys a preeminent status among modern synthetic methods for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. In recent years, organosilanes have emerged as viable alternatives to the conventional reagents, with the added benefits of low cost, low toxicity and high chemical stability. However, silicon-based cross-coupling reactions often require heating in the presen...

  13. Copper-Catalyzed Coupling of Oxime Acetates with Isothiocyanates: A Strategy for 2-Aminothiazoles.

    Tang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhongzhi; Qi, Chaorong; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng


    A new strategy for 2-aminothiazoles is developed via the copper-catalyzed coupling of oxime acetates with isothiocyanates. Various 4-substituted and 4,5-disubstituted 2-aminothiazoles were formed smoothly under mild reaction conditions. This process involved copper-catalyzed N-O bond cleavage, activation of vinyl sp(2) C-H bonds, and C-S/C-N bond formations. It is noteworthy that the oxime acetates were used not only as a substrate but also as a single oxidant. PMID:26729578

  14. Application of quinoxaline based diimidazolium salt in palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions

    Mujahuddin M Siddiqui; Mohammed Waheed; Sajad A Bhat; Maravanji S Balakrishna


    The reaction of 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)quinoxaline with imidazole afforded the quinoxaline bridged diimidazolium salt (1) in good yield. Diimidazolium salt (1) in conjunction with Pd(OAc)2 was employed as a catalyst for C–C cross-coupling reactions. The diimidazolium salt was found to be efficient in catalyzing Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction in ethanol under ambient conditions. Moderate to good selectivity of the trans product was observed in the Heck cross-coupling reaction. The molecular structure of 1 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study.

  15. A General Palladium-Catalyzed Hiyama Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides.

    Yuen, On Ying; So, Chau Ming; Man, Ho Wing; Kwong, Fuk Yee


    A general palladium-catalyzed Hiyama cross-coupling reaction of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides with aryl and heteroaryl trialkoxysilanes by a Pd(OAc)2 /L2 catalytic system is presented. A newly developed water addition protocol can dramatically improve the product yields. The conjugation of the Pd/L2 system and the water addition protocol can efficiently catalyze a broad range of electron-rich, -neutral, -deficient, and sterically hindered aryl chlorides and heteroaryl chlorides with excellent yields within three hours and the catalyst loading can be down to 0.05 mol % Pd for the first time. Hiyama coupling of heteroaryl chlorides with heteroaryl silanes is also reported for the first time. The reaction can be easily scaled up 200 times (100 mmol) without any degasification and purification of reactants; this facilitates the practical application in routine synthesis. PMID:26998586

  16. Pd- and Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in the synthesis of organic electronic materials

    Organic molecules and polymers with extended π-conjugation are appealing as advanced electronic materials, and have already found practical applications in thin-film transistors, light emitting diodes, and chemical sensors. Transition metal (TM)-catalyzed cross-coupling methodologies have evolved over the past four decades into one of the most powerful and versatile methods for C–C bond formation, enabling the construction of a diverse and sophisticated range of π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this review, we focus our discussion on recent synthetic developments of several important classes of π-conjugated systems using TM-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, with a perspective on their utility for organic electronic materials. (review)

  17. Heterogeneous Rhodium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling: Nonsymmetrical Biaryl Amines.

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masahiro; Shindo, Mitsuru


    The first heterogeneously catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative cross-coupling of aryl amines is reported herein. 2-Naphthylamine analogues were reacted with various electron-rich arenes using a heterogeneous Rh/C catalyst under mild aerobic conditions, thus affording nonsymmetrical biaryl amines in excellent yields with high selectivities. This reaction provides a mild, operationally simple, and efficient approach for the synthesis of biaryls which are important to pharmaceutical and materials chemistry. PMID:26996772

  18. Nickel-catalyzed asymmetric reductive cross-coupling between vinyl and benzyl electrophiles.

    Cherney, Alan H; Reisman, Sarah E


    A Ni-catalyzed asymmetric reductive cross-coupling between vinyl bromides and benzyl chlorides has been developed. This method provides direct access to enantioenriched products bearing aryl-substituted tertiary allylic stereogenic centers from simple, stable starting materials. A broad substrate scope is achieved under mild reaction conditions that preclude the pregeneration of organometallic reagents and the regioselectivity issues commonly associated with asymmetric allylic arylation. PMID:25245492

  19. Nickel-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reductive Cross-Coupling Between Vinyl and Benzyl Electrophiles

    Cherney, Alan H.; Reisman, Sarah E.


    A Ni-catalyzed asymmetric reductive cross-coupling between vinyl bromides and benzyl chlorides has been developed. This method provides direct access to enantioenriched products bearing aryl-substituted tertiary allylic stereogenic centers from simple, stable starting materials. A broad substrate scope is achieved under mild reaction conditions that preclude the pregeneration of organometallic reagents and the regioselectivity issues commonly associated with asymmetric allylic arylation.

  20. Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Redox-Active Esters with Boronic Acids.

    Wang, Jie; Qin, Tian; Chen, Tie-Gen; Wimmer, Laurin; Edwards, Jacob T; Cornella, Josep; Vokits, Benjamin; Shaw, Scott A; Baran, Phil S


    A transformation analogous in simplicity and functional group tolerance to the venerable Suzuki cross-coupling between alkyl-carboxylic acids and boronic acids is described. This Ni-catalyzed reaction relies upon the activation of alkyl carboxylic acids as their redox-active ester derivatives, specifically N-hydroxy-tetrachlorophthalimide (TCNHPI), and proceeds in a practical and scalable fashion. The inexpensive nature of the reaction components (NiCl2 ⋅6 H2 O-$9.5 mol(-1) , Et3 N) coupled to the virtually unlimited commercial catalog of available starting materials bodes well for its rapid adoption. PMID:27380912

  1. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of aryl boronic acids with aryl halides in water.

    Wang, Shaoyan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Zhizhi; Wang, Yue; Lei, Peng; Chi, Haijun


    An efficient Suzuki cross-coupling reaction using a variety of aryl halides in neat water was developed. The Pd-catalyzed reaction between aryl bromides or chlorides and phenyl boronic acids was compatible with various functional groups and affords biphenyls in good to excellent yields without requirement of organic cosolvents. The air stability and solubility in water of the palladium-phosphinous acid complexes were considered to facilitate operation of the coupling reaction and product isolation. The reaction conditions including Pd catalyst selection, temperature, base and catalyst recoverability were also investigated. PMID:25084408

  2. Rhodium-catalyzed C-C coupling reactions via double C-H activation.

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Qin, Liu; Dong, Lin


    Various rhodium-catalyzed double C-H activations are reviewed. These powerful strategies have been developed to construct C-C bonds, which might be widely embedded in complex aza-fused heterocycles, polycyclic skeletons and heterocyclic scaffolds. In particular, rhodium(iii) catalysis shows good selectivity and reactivity to functionalize the C-H bond, generating reactive organometallic intermediates in most of the coupling reactions. Generally, intermolecular, intramolecular and multi-component coupling reactions via double C-H activations with or without heteroatom-assisted chelation are discussed in this review. PMID:27099126

  3. Cobalt-catalyzed intermolecular C(sp(2))-O cross-coupling.

    Kundu, Debasish; Tripathy, Manisha; Maity, Pintu; Ranu, Brindaban C


    Cobalt(II)-catalyzed C(sp(2) )O cross-coupling between aryl/heteroaryl alcohols and vinyl/aryl halides in the presence of Cu(I) has been achieved under ligand-free conditions. In this reaction, copper plays a significant role in transmetalation rather than being directly involved in the CO coupling. This unique Co/Cu-dual catalyst system provides an easy access to a library of aryl-vinyl, heteroaryl-styryl, aryl-aryl, and heteroaryl-heteroaryl ethers in the absence of any ligand or additive. PMID:25926040

  4. Iron-catalyzed coupling of aryl sulfamates and aryl/vinyl tosylates with aryl Grignards.

    Agrawal, Toolika; Cook, Silas P


    The iron-catalyzed coupling of aryl sulfamates and tosylates with aryl Grignard reagents is reported for the first time. The methodology employs air-stable, low-cost FeF3·3H2O and the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr·HCl as the preligand to form a long-lived catalyst upon treatment with aryl Grignards. The reaction provides a range of cross-coupled products in good-to-excellent yields. In contrast to previous reports with aryl chlorides, these reactions proceed with low levels of Grignard homocoupling regardless of the iron source. PMID:25230097

  5. Total Synthesis of Laulimalide: Assembly of the Fragments and Completion of the Synthesis of the Natural Product and a Potent Analogue

    Trost, Barry M.; Amans, Dominique; Seganish, W. Michael; Chung, Cheol K.


    In this manuscript, we report the full account of our efforts to couple the northern and the southern building blocks, whose synthesis were described in the preceding paper, along with the modifications required which ultimately lead to a successful synthesis of laulimalide. Key highlights include an exceptionally efficient and atom-economical intramolecular ruthenium-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling to build the macrocycle followed by a highly stereoselective 1,3-allylic isomerization promot...

  6. Synthesis of Biaryls through Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling of Amides by Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Cleavage.

    Shi, Shicheng; Meng, Guangrong; Szostak, Michal


    The first Ni-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of amides for the synthesis of widely occurring biaryl compounds through N-C amide bond activation is reported. The reaction tolerates a wide range of electron-withdrawing, electron-neutral, and electron-donating substituents on both coupling partners. The reaction constitutes the first example of the Ni-catalyzed generation of aryl electrophiles from bench-stable amides with potential applications for a broad range of organometallic reactions. PMID:27101428

  7. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin


    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  8. Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Grignards with Allylic and Vinylic Bromides: Use of Sarcosine as a Natural Ligand.

    Frlan, Rok; Sova, Matej; Gobec, Stanislav; Stavber, Gaj; Časar, Zdenko


    Sarcosine was discovered to be an excellent ligand for cobalt-catalyzed carbon-carbon cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with allylic and vinylic bromides. The Co(II)/sarcosine catalytic system is shown to perform efficiently when phenyl and benzyl Grignards are coupled with alkenyl bromides. Notably, previously unachievable Co-catalyzed coupling of allylic bromides with Grignards to linearly coupled α-products was also realized with Co(II)/sarcosine catalyst. This method was used for efficient preparation of the key intermediate in an alternative synthesis of the antihyperglycemic drug sitagliptin. PMID:26158563

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Negishi Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl Halides with (Difluoromethyl)zinc Reagent.

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Serizawa, Hiroki; Ishii, Koki; Mikami, Koichi


    The palladium-catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with (difluoromethyl)zinc reagent bearing a diamine such as TMEDA is achieved to provide the difluoromethylated aromatic compounds in good to excellent yields. The advantages of (difluoromethyl)zinc reagent are that (1) the derivatives, which possess different stability and reactivity, can be readily prepared via ligand screening and (2) transmetalation of a difluoromethyl group from the zinc reagent to palladium catalyst efficiently proceeds without an activator. PMID:27442347

  10. Nickel-catalyzed Electrochemical Coupling of Phenyl Halide and Study of Mechanism

    ZHAO, Peng; LUO, Yi-Wen; XUE, Teng; ZHANG, Ai-Jian; LU, Jia-Xing


    Electrochemical coupling of phenyl halide catalyzed by NiCl2bpy in DMF has been investigated in this paper.Stainless steel was used as cathode and zinc as anode. Effects of potential, temperature and catalyst on electrolyses were studied to optimize the electrolytic conditions, with the maximal isolated yield under potentiostatic electrolysis to be 85%. Cyclic voltammetry of NiCl2bpy in the presence of phenyl bromide has been studied and mechanisms,concerned with several kinds of nickel complex, have been summarized.

  11. Intra- and Intermolecular Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Cross-Electrophile Coupling Reactions of Benzylic Esters with Aryl Halides.

    Konev, Mikhail O; Hanna, Luke E; Jarvo, Elizabeth R


    Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling reactions of benzylic esters and aryl halides have been developed. Both inter- and intramolecular variants proceed under mild reaction conditions. A range of heterocycles and functional groups are tolerated under the reaction conditions. Additionally, the first example of a stereospecific cross-electrophile coupling of a secondary benzylic ester is described. PMID:27099968

  12. Palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling of 1,1-diboronates with vinyl bromides and 1,1-dibromoalkenes.

    Li, Huan; Zhang, Zhikun; Shangguan, Xianghang; Huang, Shan; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo


    Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 1,1-diboronates with vinyl bromides and dibromoalkenes were found to afford 1,4-dienes and allenes, respectively. These reactions utilize the high reactivities of both 1,1-diboronates and allylboron intermediates generated in the initial coupling. PMID:25213194

  13. Copper-catalyzed coupling of oxime acetates with sodium sulfinates: an efficient synthesis of sulfone derivatives.

    Tang, Xiaodong; Huang, Liangbin; Xu, Yanli; Yang, Jidan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng


    Sulfone derivatives are important synthetic intermediates. However, the general method for their preparation is through traditional coupling reaction: the alkylation of sodium sulfinates with phenacyl halides. Based on our previous work on sodium sulfinates and oxime acetates, we herein report a novel method for sulfone derivatives by oxidative coupling with sodium sulfinates and oxime acetates using copper as catalyst. The sulfonylvinylamine products could be formed in excellent yields. Upon hydrolysis by silica gel in CH2 Cl2 , β-ketosulfones could also be efficiently constructed. Various sulfonylvinylamines and β-ketosulfones were obtained in good to excellent yields under the optimized reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies indicated that this transformation involved copper-catalyzed N-O bond cleavage, activation of a vinyl sp(2) C-H bond, and C-S bond formation. The oxime acetates act as both a substrate and an oxidant, thus the reaction needs no additional oxidants or additives. PMID:24677481

  14. General Copper-Catalyzed Coupling of Alkyl-, Aryl-, and Alkynylaluminum Reagents with Organohalides.

    Shrestha, Bijay; Thapa, Surendra; Gurung, Santosh K; Pike, Ryan A S; Giri, Ramesh


    We report the first example of a very general Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling of organoaluminum reagents with organohalides. The reactions proceed for the couplings of alkyl-, aryl-, and alkynylaluminum reagents with aryl and heteroaryl halides and vinyl bromides, affording the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. Both primary and secondary alkylaluminum reagents can be utilized as organometallic coupling partners. These reactions are not complicated by β-hydride elimination, and as a result rearranged products are not observed with secondary alkylaluminum reagents even for couplings with heteroaryl halides under "ligand-free" conditions. Radical clock experiment with a radical probe and relative reactivity study of Ph3Al with two haloarenes, 1-bromonaphthalene and 4-chlorobenzonitrile, having two different redox potentials indicates that the reaction does not involve free aryl radicals and radical anions as intermediates. These results combined with the result of the Hammett plot obtained by reacting Ph3Al with iodoarenes containing p-H, p-Me, p-F, and p-CF3 substituents, which shows a linear curve (R(2) = 0.99) with a ρ value of +1.06, suggest that the current transformation follows an oxidative addition-reductive elimination pathway. PMID:26735748

  15. Mechanism and Selectivity in Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Electrophile Coupling of Aryl Halides with Alkyl Halides

    Biswas, Soumik; Weix, Daniel J.


    The direct cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, such as an aryl halide with an alkyl halide, offers many advantages over conventional cross-coupling methods that require a carbon nucleophile. Despite its promise as a versatile synthetic strategy, a limited understanding of the mechanism and origin of cross selectivity has hindered progress in reaction development and design. Herein, we shed light on the mechanism for the nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of aryl halides w...

  16. Atom-efficient metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of indium organometallics with organic electrophiles.

    Pérez, I; Sestelo, J P; Sarandeses, L A


    The novel metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of indium organometallics with organic electrophiles is described. Triorganoindium compounds (R(3)In) containing alkyl, vinyl, aryl, and alkynyl groups are efficiently prepared from the corresponding lithium or magnesium organometallics by reaction with indium trichloride. The cross-coupling reaction of R(3)In with aryl halides and pseudohalides (iodide 2, bromide 5, and triflate 4), vinyl triflates, benzyl bromides, and acid chlorides proceeds under palladium catalysis in excellent yields and with high chemoselectivity. Indium organometallics also react with aryl chlorides as under nickel catalysis. In the cross-coupling reaction the triorganoindium compounds transfer, in a clear example of atom economy, all three of the organic groups attached to the metal, as shown by the necessity of using only 34 mol % of indium. The feasibility of using R(3)In in reactions with different electrophiles, along with the high yields and chemoselectivities obtained, reveals indium organometallics to be useful alternatives to other organometallics in cross-coupling reactions. PMID:11457178

  17. CO2 as Both a Selective Agent and Reaction Media in Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Ullmann-Type Coupling Reaction

    LI Jin-Heng李金恒; XIE Ye-Xiang谢叶香


    Carbon dioxide as both a selective agent and reaction media in the palladium-catalyzed Ullmann-type coupling has been described. The results showed that aryl chlorides could be easily activated in the presence of carbon dioxide and the chemoselectivity shifted toward the palladium-catalyzed Ullmann-type coupling reaction. In liquid carbon dioxide, homocoupling reactions of aryl halides, including less reactive aryl chlorides, were carried out smoothly in moderate to good yields using Pd/C, zinc, and H2O as the catalytic system at room temperature.

  18. Highly selective fluorogenic multianalyte biosensors constructed via enzyme-catalyzed coupling and aggregation-induced emission.

    Wang, Xiaorui; Hu, Jinming; Zhang, Guoying; Liu, Shiyong


    The development of a highly selective and fast responsive fluorogenic biosensor for diverse analytes ranging from bioactive small molecules to specific antigens is highly desirable but remains a considerable challenge. We herein propose a new approach by integrating substrate-selective enzymatic reactions with fluorogens exhibiting aggregation-induced emission feature. Tyrosine-functionalized tetraphenylethene, TPE-Tyr, molecularly dissolves in aqueous media with negligible fluorescence emission; upon addition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H2O2, effective cross-linking occurs due to HRP-catalyzed oxidative coupling of tyrosine moieties in TPE-Tyr. This leads to fluorescence emission turn-on and fast detection of H2O2 with high sensitivity and selectivity. As a validation of the new strategy's generality, we further configure it into the biosensor design for glucose through cascade enzymatic reactions and for pathologically relevant antigens (e.g., human carcinoembryonic antigen) by combining with the ELISA kit. PMID:24983204

  19. A facile synthesis of terminal arylacetylenes via Sonogashira coupling reactions catalyzed by MCM-41-supported mercapto palladium(0) complex

    Ya Ping Xu; Rong Hua Hu; Ramesh C.Kamboj


    A variety of terminal arylacetylenes have been conveniently synthesized in good to high yields via Sonogashira coupling of aryl iodides with (trimethylsilyl)acetylene catalyzed by MCM-41-supported mercapto palladium(0) complex,followed by desilylation under mild conditions.This polymeric palladium catalyst can be reused many times without any decrease in activity.

  20. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions running under air

    Per-Fredrik Larsson


    Full Text Available A new efficient ligand, N,N’’-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA, has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed regioselective intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H activation.

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei


    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of o-carborane-functionalized aromatics in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, the site selectivity can also be tuned by the substituents on cage carbon atom. PMID:25747772

  2. A copper-catalyzed coupling reaction of vinyl halides and carbazates: application in the assembly of polysubstituted pyrroles.

    Zhou, Chengang; Ma, Dawei


    CuI-catalyzed coupling of vinyl halides with carbazates gives N-protected N-alkenylhydrazines, which are condensed with ketones under acidic conditions to give polysubstituted pyrroles. The pyrrole synthesis may go through a similar mechanism with Fischer indole synthesis, which involves a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement and other reactions. PMID:24514455

  3. Nickel-catalyzed Kumada cross-coupling reactions of tertiary alkylmagnesium halides and aryl bromides/triflates.

    Joshi-Pangu, Amruta; Wang, Chao-Yuan; Biscoe, Mark R


    We report a Ni-catalyzed process for the cross-coupling of tertiary alkyl nucleophiles and aryl bromides. This process is extremely general for a wide range of electrophiles and generally occurs with a ratio of retention to isomerization >30:1. The same procedure also accommodates the use of aryl triflates, vinyl chlorides, and vinyl bromides as the electrophilic component. PMID:21553878

  4. Configurationally Stable, Enantioenriched Organometallic Nucleophiles in Stereospecific Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions: An Alternative Approach to Asymmetric Synthesis

    Wang, Chao-Yuan; Derosaa, Joseph


    Several research groups have recently developed methods to employ configurationally stable, enantioenriched organometallic nucleophiles in stereospecific Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. By establishing the absolute configuration of a chiral alkyltin or alkylboron nucleophile prior to its use in cross-coupling reactions, new stereogenic centers may be rapidly and reliably generated with preservation of the known initial stereochemistry. While this area of research is still in its infancy, such stereospecific cross-coupling reactions may emerge as simple, general methods to access diverse, optically active products from common enantioenriched organometallic building blocks. This minireview highlights recent progress towards the development of general, stereospecific Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions using configurationally stable organometallic nucleophiles. PMID:26388985

  5. Mild and Phosphine-Free Iron-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Nonactivated Secondary Alkyl Halides with Alkynyl Grignard Reagents

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Ren, Peng; Hu, Xile


    A simple protocol for iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of nonactivated secondary alkyl bromides and iodides with alkynyl Grignard reagents at room temperature has been developed. A wide range of secondary alkyl halides and terminal alkynes are tolerated to afford the substituted alkynes in good yields. A slight modification of the reaction protocol also allows for cross-coupling with a variety of primary alkyl halides.

  6. Hydroxymethylation beyond Carbonylation: Enantioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Formaldehyde with Allylic Acetates via Enantiotopic π-Facial Discrimination.

    Garza, Victoria J; Krische, Michael J


    Chiral iridium complexes modified by SEGPHOS catalyze the 2-propanol-mediated reductive coupling of branched allylic acetates 1a-1o with formaldehyde to form primary homoallylic alcohols 2a-2o with excellent control of regio- and enantioselectivity. These processes, which rely on enantiotopic π-facial discrimination of σ-allyliridium intermediates, represent the first examples of enantioselective formaldehyde C-C coupling beyond aldol addition. PMID:26958737

  7. Copper-Catalyzed Borylative Cross-Coupling of Allenes and Imines: Selective Three-Component Assembly of Branched Homoallyl Amines.

    Rae, James; Yeung, Kay; McDouall, Joseph J W; Procter, David J


    A copper-catalyzed three-component coupling of allenes, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and imines allows regio-, chemo-, and diastereoselective assembly of branched α,β-substituted-γ-boryl homoallylic amines, that is, products bearing versatile amino, alkenyl, and borane functionality. Alternatively, convenient oxidative workup allows access to α-substituted-β-amino ketones. A computational study has been used to probe the stereochemical course of the cross-coupling. PMID:26632675

  8. Synthesis of alkenyl sulfides through the iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of vinyl halides with thiols.

    Lin, Yun-Yung; Wang, Yu-Jen; Lin, Che-Hung; Cheng, Jun-Hao; Lee, Chin-Fa


    We report here the iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkyl vinyl halides with thiols. While many works are devoted to the coupling of thiols with alkyl vinyl iodides, interestingly, the known S-vinylation of vinyl bromides and chlorides is limited to 1-(2-bromovinyl)benzene and 1-(2-chlorovinyl)benzene. Investigation on the coupling reaction of challenging alkyl vinyl bromides and chlorides with thiols is rare. Since the coupling of 1-(2-bromovinyl)benzene and 1-(2-chlorovinyl)benzene with thiols can be performed in the absence of any catalyst, here we focus on the coupling of thiols with alkyl vinyl halides. This system is generally reactive for alkyl vinyl iodides and bromides to provide the products in good yields. 1-(Chloromethylidene)-4-tert-butyl-cyclohexane was also coupled with thiols, giving the targets in moderate yields. PMID:22708836

  9. Resting State and Elementary Steps of the Coupling of Aryl Halides with Thiols Catalyzed by Alkylbisphosphine Complexes of Palladium

    Alvaro, Elsa; Hartwig, John F.


    Detailed mechanistic studies on the coupling of aryl halides with thiols catalyzed by palladium complexes of the alkylbisphosphine ligand CyPF-tBu (1-dicyclohexylphosphino-2-di-tert-butylphosphinoethylferrocene) are reported. The elementary steps that constitute the catalytic cycle, i.e. oxidative addition, transmetalation and reductive elimination, have been studied, and their relative rates are reported. Each of the steps of the catalytic process occurs at temperatures that are much lower t...

  10. Synthesis of Novel Aliphatic N-sulfonylamidino Thymine Derivatives by Cu(I)-catalyzed Three-component Coupling Reaction

    Krstulović, Luka; Ismaili, Hamit; Višnjevac, Aleksandar; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica; Žinić, Biserka


    A series of new aliphatic N-sulfonylamidino thymine derivatives containing nucleobase, N-sulfonyl and amidine pharmacophores in the structure were synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed threecomponent coupling of 1-propargyl thymine, benzenesulfonyl azides and amines or ammonium salts. Preliminary in vitro antitumor screening (human cervix adenocarcinoma -HeLa and leukemia cells - Jurkat) revealed promising activities of N,N-diethyl- (2) and N-4-cyanobenzyl- (6) derivatives of 4-acetamido...

  11. Anti-Markovnikov Hydroalkylation of Allylic Amine Derivatives via a Palladium–Catalyzed Reductive Cross-Coupling Reaction

    DeLuca, Ryan J.; Sigman, Matthew S.


    A palladium-catalyzed hydroalkylation reaction of allylic amine derivatives by alkylzinc reagents is reported. This reductive cross-coupling yields anti-Markovnikov products using a variety of allylic amine protecting groups. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that a reversible β-hydride elimination/hydride insertion process furnishes the primary Pd-alkyl intermediate, which then undergoes transmetallation followed by reductive elimination to form a new sp3-sp3 carbon-carbon bond.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed coupling of N-tosylhydrazones and β-bromostyrene derivatives: new approach to 2H-chromenes.

    Xia, Yamu; Xia, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo


    2H-Chromene is an important structural motif that exists in natural products and non-natural compounds possessing interesting biological activities. In this investigation, a highly efficient approach toward 2H-chromenes has been developed based on palladium-catalyzed coupling of N-tosylhydrazones and β-bromostyrenes. The mechanism of this reaction is proposed that involves the formation of vinyl palladium by carbene migratory insertion and the intramolecular nucleophilic substitution. PMID:25327448

  13. Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions of Unactivated Alkyl Halides Catalyzed by a Nickel Pincer Complex

    Di Franco, Thomas; Boutin, Nicolas; Hu, Xile


    A nickel(II) pincer complex, [((N2N)-N-Me)Ni-Cl], was used to catalyze alkyl-alkyl and alkyl-aryl Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of unactivated alkyl halides. The coupling of 9-alkyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane and 9-phenyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane reagents with alkyl halides was achieved in modest to good yields. The reactions tolerated a variety of useful functional groups including ester, ether, furan, thioether, acetal, and Boc groups.

  14. Amide as an efficient ligand in the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction in water/ethanol under aerobic conditions

    Hai Yang Liu; Kun Wang; Hai Yan Fu; Mao Lin Yuan; Hua Chen; Rui Xiang Li


    Amide, which is derived from proline and is inexpensive and air-stable, has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR,13C NMR, and MS. It was found to be an efficient ligand in the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. In the Pd/amide catalytic system, aryl bromides can be coupled with phenylboronic acid in ethanol/water (1:2;v/v) in excellent yields even with a low Pd loading of 0.01 mol%. Moreover, the scope of the reaction is broad, and a wide variety of functional groups are tolerant.

  15. Synthesis of heterocyclic triads by Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings and evaluation of their cell-specific toxicity profile.

    Salamoun, Joseph; Anderson, Shelby; Burnett, James C; Gussio, Rick; Wipf, Peter


    Two complementary approaches for the preparation of linked 5-membered heterocycles were developed. The Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with halogenated furan, thiophene, and selenophene led to higher overall yields, but C,H-bond activation was a more efficient strategy for the coupling at C(2) of oxazoles. Potency and selectivity of the final hydroxymethyl products in renal (A498), lung (NCI-H226), kidney (CAKI-1), and breast (MDA-MB-468, MCF7) carcinoma cell lines were determined. PMID:24641272

  16. Synthesis of Heterocyclic Triads by Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings and Evaluation of Their Cell-Specific Toxicity Profile

    Salamoun, Joseph; Anderson, Shelby; Burnett, James C.; Gussio, Rick; Wipf, Peter


    Two complementary approaches for the preparation of linked 5-membered heterocycles were developed. The Pd-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with halogenated furan, thiophene, and selenophene led to higher overall yields, but C,H-bond activation was a more efficient strategy for the coupling at C(2) of oxazoles. Potency and selectivity of the final hydroxymethyl products in renal (A498), lung (NCI-H226), kidney (CAKI-1), and breast (MDA-MB-468, MCF7) carcinoma cell lines were determined.

  17. Efficient Negishi coupling reactions of aryl chlorides catalyzed by binuclear and mononuclear nickel-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    Xi, Zhenxing; Zhou, Yongbo; Chen, Wanzhi


    We describe the first nickel-N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling reaction of a variety of unactivated aryl chlorides, heterocyclic chlorides, aryl dichlorides, and vinyl chloride. The mononuclear and binuclear nickel-NHC complexes supported by heteroarene-functionalized NHC ligands are found to be highly efficient for the coupling of unactivated aryl chlorides and organozinc reagents, leading to biaryls and terphenyls in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. For all aryl chlorides, the binuclear nickel catalysts show activities higher than those of mononuclear nickel complexes because of possible bimetallic cooperative effect. PMID:18841915

  18. Synthesis of trans-disubstituted alkenes by cobalt-catalyzed reductive coupling of terminal alkynes with activated alkenes.

    Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Cheng, Chien-Hong


    A cobalt-catalyzed reductive coupling of terminal alkynes, RC≡CH, with activated alkenes, R'CH=CH(2), in the presence of zinc and water to give functionalized trans-disubstituted alkenes, RCH=CHCH(2)CH(2)R', is described. A variety of aromatic terminal alkynes underwent reductive coupling with activated alkenes including enones, acrylates, acrylonitrile, and vinyl sulfones in the presence of a CoCl(2)/P(OMe)(3)/Zn catalyst system to afford 1,2-trans-disubstituted alkenes with high regio- and stereoselectivity. Similarly, aliphatic terminal alkynes also efficiently participated in the coupling reaction with acrylates, enones, and vinyl sulfone, in the presence of the CoCl(2)/P(OPh)(3)/Zn system providing a mixture of 1,2-trans- and 1,1-disubstituted functionalized terminal alkene products in high yields. The scope of the reaction was also extended by the coupling of 1,3-enynes and acetylene gas with alkenes. Furthermore, a phosphine-free cobalt-catalyzed reductive coupling of terminal alkynes with enones, affording 1,2-trans-disubstituted alkenes as the major products in a high regioisomeric ratio, is demonstrated. In the reactions, less expensive and air-stable cobalt complexes, a mild reducing agent (Zn) and a simple hydrogen source (water) were used. A possible reaction mechanism involving a cobaltacyclopentene as the key intermediate is proposed. PMID:22865622

  19. Tandem Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/acid-catalyzed cyclization between vinyl ether boronates and vinyl halides: a concise approach to polysubstituted furans.

    Butkevich, Alexey N; Meerpoel, Lieven; Stansfield, Ian; Angibaud, Patrick; Corbu, Andrei; Cossy, Janine


    Polysubstituted 2-(ω-hydroxyalkyl)furans were prepared by tandem Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/acid-catalyzed cyclization starting from appropriately substituted 3-haloallylic alcohols and dihydrofuran-, dihydropyran- or glycal-derived pinacol boronates. PMID:23855589

  20. Access to Isoquinolines and Isoquinolin-3-ols via Rh(III)-Catalyzed Coupling/Cyclization Cascade Reaction of Arylimidates and Diazo Compounds.

    Li, Xing Guang; Sun, Min; Jin, Qiao; Liu, Kai; Liu, Pei Nian


    A Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling/cyclization cascade reaction is described, which involves arylimidates and diazo compounds and proceeds via intermolecular C-C bond formation and subsequent intramolecular C-N bond formation. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the reaction is a two-step process: the initial Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling/cyclization proceeds very fast and the following dehydration is rather slow. The reaction provides a direct approach to isoquinolines and isoquinolin-3-ols without any oxidants. PMID:27042947

  1. Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of boronic esters with aryl iodides and application to the carboboration of alkynes and allenes.

    Zhou, Yiqing; You, Wei; Smith, Kevin B; Brown, M Kevin


    Copper-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura-type cross-coupling and carboboration processes are reported. The cross-couplings function well with a variety of substituted aryl iodides and aryl boronic esters and allows for orthogonal reactivity compared to palladium-catalyzed processes. The carboboration method includes both alkynes and allenes and provides access to highly substituted and stereodefined vinyl boronic esters. The alkyne carboboration method is highlighted in the simple one-pot synthesis of Tamoxifen. PMID:24677502

  2. Gold-catalyzed tandem reactions of methylenecyclopropanes and vinylidenecyclopropanes.

    Zhang, Di-Han; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min


    Gold catalysis is often the key step in the synthesis of natural products, and is a powerful tool for tandem or domino reaction processes. Both gold salts and complexes are among the most powerful soft Lewis acids for electrophilic activation of carbon-carbon multiple bonds toward a variety of nucleophiles. The core of these reactions relies on the interaction between gold catalysts and π-bonds of alkenes, alkynes, and allenes. Activation of functional groups by gold complexes provides a useful and important method for facilitating many different organic transformations with high atom efficiency. Although they are highly strained, methylenecyclopropanes (MCPs) and vinylidenecyclopropanes (VDCPs) are readily accessible molecules that have served as useful building blocks in organic synthesis. Because of their unique structural and electronic properties, significant developments have been made in the presence of transition metal catalysts such as nickel, rhodium, palladium, and ruthenium during the past decades. However, less attention has been paid to the gold-catalyzed chemistry of MCPs and VDCPs. In this Account, we describe gold-catalyzed chemical transformations of MCPs and VDCPs developed both in our laboratory and by other researchers. Chemists have demonstrated that MCPs and VDCPs have amphiphilic properties. When MCPs or VDCPs are activated by a gold catalyst, subsequent nucleophilic attack by other reagents or ring-opening (ring-expansion) of the cyclopropane moiety will occur. However, the C-C double bonds of MCPs and VDCPs can also serve as nucleophilic reagents while more electrophilic reagents are present and activated by gold catalyst, and then further cascade reactions take place as triggered by the release of ring strain of cyclopropane. Based on this strategy, both our group and others have found some interesting gold-catalyzed transformations in recent years. These transformations of MCPs and VDCPs can produce a variety of polycyclic and

  3. Titanium-catalyzed multicomponent couplings: efficient one-pot syntheses of nitrogen heterocycles.

    Odom, Aaron L; McDaniel, Tanner J


    Nitrogen-based heterocycles are important frameworks for pharmaceuticals, natural products, organic dyes for solar cells, and many other applications. Catalysis for the formation of heterocyclic scaffolds, like many C-C and C-N bond-forming reactions, has focused on the use of rare, late transition metals like palladium and gold. Our group is interested in the use of Earth-abundant catalysts based on titanium to generate heterocycles using multicomponent coupling strategies, often in one-pot reactions. To be of maximal utility, the catalysts need to be easily prepared from inexpensive reagents, and that has been one guiding principle in the research. For this purpose, a series of easily prepared pyrrole-based ligands has been developed. Titanium imido complexes are known to catalyze the hydroamination of alkynes, and this reaction has been used to advantage in the production of α,β-unsaturated imines from 1,3-enynes and pyrroles from 1,4-diynes. Likewise, catalyst design can be used to find complexes applicable to hydrohydrazination, coupling of a hydrazine and alkyne, which is a method for the production of hydrazones. Many of the hydrazones synthesized are converted to indoles through Fischer cyclization by addition of a Lewis acid. However, more complex products are available in a single catalytic cycle through coupling of isonitriles, primary amines, and alkynes to give tautomers of 1,3-diimines, iminoamination (IA). The products of IA are useful intermediates for the one-pot synthesis of pyrazoles, pyrimidines, isoxazoles, quinolines, and 2-amino-3-cyanopyridines. The regioselectivity of the reactions is elucidated in some detail for some of these heterocycles. The 2-amino-3-cyanopyridines are synthesized through isolable intermediates, 1,2-dihydro-2-iminopyridines, which undergo Dimroth rearrangement driven by aromatization of the pyridine ring; the proposed mechanism of the reaction is discussed. The IA-based heterocyclic syntheses can be accomplished

  4. Carborane phosphorus-derivatives as ligands for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions

    Synthesis of carborane-containing phosphine ligands possessing different steric and electronic properties has been considered. Testing of the given ligands in Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reaction demonstrated that sterically volume phosphine ligands with acceptor carborane substitutes possessed the most catalytic activity

  5. Copper-Catalyzed Enantioselective Intramolecular Alkene Amination/Intermolecular Heck-Type Coupling Cascade

    Liwosz, Timothy W.; Chemler, Sherry R.


    Enantioselective copper-catalyzed cycliza-tion of γ-alkenylsulfonamides and a δ-alkenylsulfonamide in the presence of a range of vinyl arenes results in variously functionalized 2-substituted chiral nitrogen heterocycles via a formal alkene C–H functionalization process. Application of this reaction to the concise synthesis of a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist is demonstrated.

  6. Copper-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular alkene amination/intermolecular Heck-type coupling cascade.

    Liwosz, Timothy W; Chemler, Sherry R


    Enantioselective copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-alkenylsulfonamides and a δ-alkenylsulfonamide in the presence of a range of vinyl arenes results in variously functionalized 2-substituted chiral nitrogen heterocycles via a formal alkene C-H functionalization process. Application of this reaction to the concise synthesis of a 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist is demonstrated. PMID:22257169

  7. Atom-Economic and Stereoselective Syntheses of the A- and B-Ring Subunits of the Bryostatins

    Trost, Barry M.; Yang, Hanbiao; Brindle, Cheyenne S.; Dong, Guangbin


    This article describes chemoselective and atom-economical methods for the stereoselective assembly of the A- and B-ring subunits of the bryostatins. A Ru-catalyzed tandem alkene-alkyne coupling/Michael addition was developed and applied to the synthesis of the bryostatin B-ring. We explored an acetylide-mediated epoxide-opening/6-exo-dig cyclization route to access the bryostatin A-ring; and the A-ring was eventually furnished via an acid-catalyzed tandem transketalization/ketalization sequen...

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Cross-Coupling/Tandem Reductive Cyclization Route to Key Members of the Uleine Alkaloid Family.

    Tang, Fei; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C


    The trisubstituted cyclohexenone 12, generated through a palladium-catalyzed Ullmann cross-coupling reaction between o-iodonitrobenzene and a 4,5-trans-disubstituted 2-iodo-2-cyclohexen-1-one, engaged in a tandem reductive cyclization process upon exposure to hydrogen gas in the presence of Raney cobalt. As a result, the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole 13 was obtained and this could be readily elaborated to the racemic modifications of the alkaloids uleine, dasycarpidone, noruleine, and nordasycarpidone (1-4, respectively). PMID:26914482

  9. B-N, B-O, and B-CN Bond Formation via Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of B-Bromo-Carboranes.

    Dziedzic, Rafal M; Saleh, Liban M A; Axtell, Jonathan C; Martin, Joshua L; Stevens, Simone L; Royappa, A Timothy; Rheingold, Arnold L; Spokoyny, Alexander M


    Carboranes are boron-rich molecules that can be functionalized through metal-catalyzed cross-coupling. Here, for the first time, we report the use of bromo-carboranes in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling for efficient B-N, B-O, and unprecedented B-CN bond formation. In many cases bromo-carboranes outperform the traditionally utilized iodo-carborane species. This marked difference in reactivity is leveraged to circumvent multistep functionalization by directly coupling small nucleophiles (-OH, -NH2, and -CN) and multiple functional groups onto the boron-rich clusters. PMID:27384544

  10. Preparation of 5-acyl- and 5-aryl-substituted 1-(benzyloxy)pyrazoles via directed ortho-lithiation/transmetalation and palladium catalyzed cross- coupling

    Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Begtrup, M.; Vedsø, P.


    Palladium(0) catalyzed cross-coupling of 1-(benzyloxy)pyrazol-5-ylzinc halides 3a,b, prepared by transmetalation of 1-(benzyloxy)-5-lithiopyrazole (2), with acyl chlorides produced 5 acyl-1-(benzyloxy)pyrazoles 4a-d in high yields. Similar coupling of the pyrazol-5-ylzinc halide with amino...

  11. Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidative Coupling of Phenols in the Presence of Geosorbents

    Huang, Qingguo; Weber, Walter J., Jr.


    This study focuses on elucidation of the reaction behaviors of peroxidase-mediated phenol coupling in the presence of soil/sediment materials. Our goal is a mechanistic understanding of the influences of geosorbent materials on enzymatic coupling reactions in general and the development of methods for predicting such influences. Extensive experimental investigations of coupling reactions were performed under strategically selected conditions in systems containing model geosorbents having different properties and chemical characteristics. The geosorbents tested were found to influence peroxidase-mediated phenol coupling through one or both of two principal mechanisms; i.e., (1) mitigation of enzyme inactivation and/or (2) participation in cross-coupling reactions. Such influences were found to correlate with the chemical characteristics of the sorbent materials and to be simulated well by a modeling approach designed in this paper. The results of the study have important implications for potential engineering implementation and enhancement of enzymatic coupling reactions in soil/subsurface remediation practice.

  12. Congested C-C Bonds by Pd-Catalyzed Enantioselective Allyl-Allyl Cross-Coupling, A Mechanism-Guided Solution

    Ardolino, Michael J.; Morken, James P.


    Under the influence of a chiral bidentate diphosphine ligand, the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric cross-coupling of allylboron reagents and allylic electrophiles establishes 1,5-dienes with adjacent stereocenters in high regio- and stereoselectivity. . A mechanistic study of the coupling utilizing reaction calorimetry and density functional theory analysis suggests that the reaction operates through an inner-sphere 3,3'-reductive elimination pathway, which is both rate- and stereodefining. Coupled wi...

  13. Selective coupling reaction between 2,6-diiodoanisoles and terminal alkynes catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2 and CuI

    Allan F. C. Rossini


    Full Text Available The cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and terminal alkynes, catalyzed by palladium complexes and copper (I salts, consists in an efficient synthetic tool for the formation of C-C bonds, resulting in disubstituted acetylenic compounds. Accordingly, in this work we present our preliminary results involving the selective cross-coupling reaction between 2,6-diiodoanisoles and terminal alkynes, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2 and CuI, in the formation of 2-iodo-alkynylanisoles (scheme 1.

  14. Recyclable heterogeneous copper oxide on alumina catalyzed coupling of phenols and alcohols with aryl halides under ligand-free conditions.

    Swapna, Kokkirala; Murthy, Sabbavarapu Narayana; Jyothi, Mocharla Tarani; Nageswar, Yadavalli Venkata Durga


    An efficient alumina-supported CuO-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols and aliphatic alcohols with various aryl as well as heteroaryl halides under ligand-free conditions are reported. This protocol provides a variety of diaryl ether and bis-diaryl ether motifs by reacting different aryl/aliphatic halides with differently substituted phenols and saturated alcohols in the presence of a catalytic amount of CuO on alumina and KOH as a base at moderate temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The described methodology is simple, straightforward and efficient to afford the cross-coupled products in high yields under ligand-free conditions. The explored catalyst is inexpensive, air-stable and recyclable up to three cycles. PMID:21695321

  15. Photoelectrochemistry of the thallic/thallous couple - The thallic ion catalyzed photo-oxidation of propylene

    Switzer, J. A.; Moorehead, E. L.; Dalesandro, D. M.


    Liquid-junction photovoltaic and photoelectrosynthetic applications of the thallic/thallous couple have been investigated. In the liquid-junction photovoltaic mode the redox couple produces large photovoltages with several semiconductors (TiO2, MoS2, CdS, and GaAs), and does not absorb appreciable semiconductor ultra-bandgap light. The couple also shows photoelectrosynthetic utility, since the thallic ion is a selective two-electron oxidizing agent for a variety of organic substrates. Preliminary work on the photoassisted epoxidation of propylene at n-type semiconductor electrodes (TiO2) and powders (TiO2, WO3, and ZnO) is discussed.

  16. Pd(II/HPMoV-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Benzenes with Olefins

    Yasutaka Ishii


    Full Text Available The direct aerobic coupling reaction of arenes with olefins was successfully achieved by the use of Pd(OAc2/molybdovanadophosphoric acid (HPMoV as a key catalyst under 1 atm of dioxygen. This catalytic system could be extended to the coupling reaction of various substituted benzenes with olefins such as acrylates, aclrolein, and ethylene through the direct aromatic C-H bond activation.

  17. Kumada coupling of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl chlorides catalyzed by amido pincer nickel complexes.

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Zhong-Xia


    A series of amido pincer complexes of nickel were examined for their catalysis in the Kumada cross-coupling reaction. The P,N,O-pincer nickel complexes tested are active catalysts for the cross-coupling of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl chlorides with aryl Grignard reagents. The reactions can proceed at room temperature and tolerate functional groups in aryl chlorides with the aid of LiCl and ZnCl(2) additives. PMID:22077596

  18. Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-C/C-N Coupling of Imidates with α-Diazo Imidamide: Synthesis of Isoquinoline-Fused Indoles.

    Wang, He; Li, Lei; Yu, Songjie; Li, Yunyun; Li, Xingwei


    Imidate esters and diazo compounds have been established as bifunctional substrates for the construction of biologically active fused heterocycles via rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation and C-C/C-N coupling. This reaction occurs under mild conditions with high efficiency, step economy, and low catalyst loading. PMID:27280947

  19. A facile approach to asymmetrical biaryls via coupling reaction of aryl halides with sodium tetraphenylborate catalyzed by MCM-41-supported sulfur palladium(O) complex

    Qiu Hua Xu; Ping Ping Wang; Ming Zhong Cai


    Various functionalized asymmetrical biaryls can be synthesized in high to excellent yields via coupling reaction of aryl iodides or bromides with NaBPh4 catalyzed by MCM-41-supported sulfur palladium(O) complex. This palladium complex can be easily recovered and reused many times without loss of activity.

  20. Strategic use of nickel(0)-catalyzed enyne-epoxide reductive coupling towards the synthesis of (−)-cyatha-3,12-diene

    Sparling, Brian A.; Simpson, Graham L.; Jamison, Timothy F.


    Various situations are explored in which the nickel(0)-catalyzed enyne-epoxide reductive coupling was utilized to access key intermediates towards the total synthesis of (−)-cyatha-3,12-diene (1). Enantioenriched 3,5-dien-1-ols with a variety of functionality were obtained in a straightforward manner from easily accessible 1,3-enynes and terminal epoxides.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of diazo compounds and vinyl boronic acids: an approach to 1,3-diene compounds.

    Xia, Yamu; Xia, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo


    A palladium-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling of vinyl boronic acids and cyclic α-diazocarbonyl compounds has been reported. The reaction constitutes an efficient method for the synthesis of 1,3-diene compounds bearing a ring structure. Mechanistically, the reaction involves migratory insertion of palladium carbene as the key step. PMID:25019414

  2. Room-temperature Kumada cross-coupling of unactivated aryl chlorides catalyzed by N-heterocylic carbene-based nickel(II) complexes.

    Xi, Zhenxing; Liu, Bin; Chen, Wanzhi


    The Kumada cross-coupling reaction of a variety of unactivated aryl chlorides, vinyl chlorides, and heteroaryl chlorides catalyzed by nickel(II) complexes containing pyridine-functionalized NHC ligands is described. The catalysts are so active that the reactions proceed at room temperature in excellent yields. PMID:18412386

  3. Studies with Michael addition reaction and with palladium-catalyzed cross coupling

    Wimmer, Zdeněk; Jackson, F. W.

    Arcachon, 2002. s. P20. [COST Chemistry D12. Organic Transformations Selective Processes and Asymmetric Catalysis.. 25.09.2002-29.09.2002, Arcachon] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : cross coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  4. Efficient Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction catalyzed by Pd-Nanoparticles

    Kishor E Balsane; Suresh S Shendage; Jayashree M Nagarkar


    The Pd nano particles were electrochemically deposited on nafion-graphene. They showed excellent catalytic activity towards Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Benzenediazonium salts were used as alternative to aromatic halide. The developed protocol offers recyclability, easy workups with short reaction time and good-to-excellent product yield.

  5. Facile palladium catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling in air and water at ambient temperature

    Marziale, Alexander N.


    A new palladacyclic catalyst yields high activities in aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura coupling at room temperature. Using an optimized protocol, a broad range of products can be isolated in good to excellent yields and high purity by simple filtration. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Catalyzed by Amino Acid Hydrochloride Salts


    Using amino acid hydrochloride salt as a catalyst, the coupling reaction of CO2 with epoxides could proceed smoothly to give cyclic carbonates in very good yields and high selectivity. The reaction conditions such as the pressure of carbon dioxide, reaction temperature, time and catalyst loading were carefully investigated.

  7. Enantioselective CuH-Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Aryl Alkenes and Activated Carboxylic Acids.

    Bandar, Jeffrey S; Ascic, Erhad; Buchwald, Stephen L


    A new method for the enantioselective reductive coupling of aryl alkenes with activated carboxylic acid derivatives via copper hydride catalysis is described. Dual catalytic cycles are proposed, with a relatively fast enantioselective hydroacylation cycle followed by a slower diastereoselective ketone reduction cycle. Symmetrical aryl carboxyclic anhydrides provide access to enantioenriched α-substituted ketones or alcohols with excellent stereoselectivity and functional group tolerance. PMID:27121395

  8. Gas-phase studies of copper catalyzed aerobic cross coupling of thiol esters and arylboronic acids

    Tsybizová, A.; Schröder, Detlef; Roithová, J.; Henke, A.; Šrogl, Jiří


    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2014), s. 198-203. ISSN 0894-3230 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/0846 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0338 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : boronic acids * catalysis * copper * cross coupling * electrospray ionization * mass spectrometry * kinetic studies Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2014

  9. Substrate-Directed Hydroacylation: Rh-Catalyzed Coupling of Vinyl Phenols and Non-Chelating Aldehydes

    Murphy, Stephen K.; Bruch, Achim; Dong, Vy M.


    We report a protocol for branched-selective hydroacylation of vinylphenols with aryl, alkenyl and alkyl aldehydes. This cross-coupling yields α-aryl ketones that can be cyclized to benzofurans, and it enables access to eupomatenoid natural products in four steps or less from eugenol. Excellent reactivity and high levels of branched regioselectivity are obtained. We propose that aldehyde decarbonylation is overcome by using an anionic directing group on the olefin and a small bite-angle diphos...

  10. Practical Ni-Catalyzed Aryl-Alkyl Cross-Coupling of Secondary Redox-Active Esters.

    Cornella, Josep; Edwards, Jacob T; Qin, Tian; Kawamura, Shuhei; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Gianatassio, Ryan; Schmidt, Michael; Eastgate, Martin D; Baran, Phil S


    A new transformation is presented that enables chemists to couple simple alkyl carboxylic acids with aryl zinc reagents under Ni-catalysis. The success of this reaction hinges on the unique use of redox-active esters that allow one to employ such derivatives as alkyl halides surrogates. The chemistry exhibits broad substrate scope and features a high degree of practicality. The simple procedure and extremely inexpensive nature of both the substrates and pre-catalyst (NiCl2·6H2O, ca. $9.5/mol) bode well for the immediate widespread adoption of this method. PMID:26835704

  11. Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions of 4-bromo-6H-1,2-oxazines

    Reinhold Zimmer


    Full Text Available A number of 4-aryl- and 4-alkynyl-substituted 6H-1,2-oxazines 8 and 9 have been prepared in good yields via cross coupling reactions of halogenated precursors 2, which in turn are easily accessible by bromination of 6H-1,2-oxazines 1. Lewis-acid promoted reaction of 1,2-oxazine 9c with 1-hexyne provided alkynyl-substituted pyridine derivative 12 thus demonstrating the potential of this approach for the synthesis of pyridines.

  12. Nickel-catalyzed electrochemical couplings of vinyl halides: synthetic and stereochemical aspects

    Cannes; Condon; Durandetti; Perichon; Nedelec


    Homo- and cross-coupling involving alkenyl halides have been performed efficiently using an electroassisted nickel-complex catalysis. Valuable product such as conjugated dienes, beta,gamma- or gamma,delta-unsaturated esters, ketones, or nitriles, as well as alkenylated aryl compounds are thus prepared with high yields and high stereoselectivity. Partial isomerization is only observed in a few cases, when the alkenyl halide is involved in a late step of the catalytic cycle. This is the case in the preparation of (Z,Z)-1,3-diene. PMID:10959862

  13. Cross-coupling reaction of alkyl halides with grignard reagents catalyzed by Ni, Pd, or Cu complexes with pi-carbon ligand(s).

    Terao, Jun; Kambe, Nobuaki


    Transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of organic halides and pseudo-halides containing a C-X bond (X = I, Br, Cl, OTf, OTs, etc.) with organometallic reagents are among the most important transformations for carbon-carbon bond formation between a variety of sp, sp(2), and sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms. In particular, researchers have widely employed Ni- and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling to synthesize complex organic structures from readily available components. The catalytic cycle of this process comprises oxidative addition, transmetalation, and reductive elimination steps. In these reactions, various organometallic reagents could bear a variety of R groups (alkyl, vinyl, aryl, or allyl), but the coupling partner has been primarily limited to sp and sp(2) carbon compounds: alkynes, alkenes, and arenes. With alkyl coupling partners, these reactions typically run into two problems within the catalytic cycle. First, oxidative addition of alkyl halides to a metal catalyst is generally less efficient than that of aryl or alkenyl compounds. Second, the alkylmetal intermediates formed tend to undergo intramolecular beta-hydrogen elimination. In this Account, we describe our efforts to overcome these problems for Ni and Pd chemistry. We have developed new catalytic systems that do not involve M(0) species but proceed via an anionic complex as the key intermediate. For example, we developed a unique cross-coupling reaction of alkyl halides with organomagnesium or organozinc reagents catalyzed by using a 1,3-butadiene as the additive. This reaction follows a new catalytic pathway: the Ni or Pd catalyst reacts first with R-MgX to form an anionic complex, which then reacts with alkyl halides. Bis-dienes were also effective additives for the Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organozinc reagents with alkyl halides. This catalytic system tolerates a wide variety of functional groups, including nitriles, ketones, amides, and esters. In addition, we have extended

  14. Nucleus-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanism for TiO2-Catalyzed Water Splitting

    Sun, Yiyang; Lucking, Michael; West, Damien; Zhang, Shengbai


    Using first-principles calculations employing explicit interface of TiO2 crystal and liquid water, we reveal the microscopic mechanism of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). It is found that, during the formation of an O-O species, such as HO-OH and O-OH, an occupied molecular orbital with anti-bonding character evolves from the valence band and pops up all the way into the conduction band of TiO2. This occupied high-energy orbital results in a high reaction barrier making the OER forbidden in the dark. The presence of photoholes depletes this anti-bonding orbital, which significantly reduces the reaction energy and determines the reaction barrier in the rate-limting step. A novel reaction mechanism, termed necleus-coupled electron transfer (NCET), emerges from this study. In this mechanism, the oxidation of a pair of hydroxyl groups, which is an electron transfer reaction, is enabled by the movement of the nuclei (i.e., the two O atoms moving towards O-O bond formation) that pushes the reactive orbital (the σ2p * orbital in the present case) to become the frontier orbital (i.e., above the valence band maximum of TiO). Based on the NCET mechanism, we identify a reaction pathway of the OER that exhibits a kinetic barrier surmountable at room temperature. The presenter acknowledges NSF support under Award No. DMR-1104994.

  15. Pd-Catalyzed Coupling of γ-C(sp(3))-H Bonds of Oxalyl Amide-Protected Amino Acids with Heteroaryl and Aryl Iodides.

    Han, Jian; Zheng, Yongxiang; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Yan; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Shi, Da-Qing; Zeng, Runsheng; Zhao, Yingsheng


    Pd-catalyzed regioselective coupling of γ-C(sp(3))-H bonds of oxalyl amide-protected amino acids with heteroaryl and aryl iodides is reported. A wide variety of iodides are tolerated, giving the corresponding products in moderate to good yields. Various oxalyl amide-protected amino acids were compatible in this C-H transformation, thus representing a practical method for constructing non-natural amino acid derivatives. PMID:27286881

  16. A Palladium-Catalyzed Three-Component Cross-Coupling of Conjugated Dienes or Terminal Alkenes with Vinyl Triflates and Boronic Acids

    Liao, Longyan; Jana, Ranjan; Urkalan, Kaveri Balan; Sigman, Matthew S.


    A three-component coupling of vinyl triflates and boronic acids to alkenes catalyzed by palladium is reported. Using 1,3-dienes, selective 1,2-alkene difunctionalization is observed, whereas the use of terminal alkenes results in 1,1-alkene difunctionalization. The reaction outcome is attributed to the formation of stabilized, cationic Pd-π-allyl intermediates to regulate β-hydride elimination.

  17. Copper-assisted nickel catalyzed ligand-free C(sp2)-O cross-coupling of vinyl halides and phenols.

    Kundu, Debasish; Maity, Pintu; Ranu, Brindaban C


    A convenient and efficient protocol has been achieved for the cross-coupling of phenols and vinyl halides by a unique Ni/Cu catalytic system for the first time, where the reaction is catalyzed by Ni and Cu is involved in the transmetalation process. This procedure provides an easy access to a library of aryl-vinyl and aryl-styrenyl ethers. PMID:24502267

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong


    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L‑1, 35.9 μg L‑1 and 39.6 μg L‑1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L‑1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong


    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L−1, 35.9 μg L−1 and 39.6 μg L−1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L−1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples. PMID:27080702

  20. Dehydrogenative Coupling of Primary Alcohols To Form Esters Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Madsen, Robert


    The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride as the c...

  1. Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of epoxides with gem-diborylmethane: access to γ-hydroxyl boronic esters.

    Ebrahim-Alkhalil, Ahmed; Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Gong, Tian-Jun; Su, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao


    Herein, we describe a novel copper-catalyzed epoxide opening reaction with gem-diborylmethane. Aliphatic, aromatic epoxides as well as aziridines are converted to the corresponding γ-pinacolboronate alcohols or amines in moderate to excellent yields. This new reaction provides beneficial applications for classic epoxide substrates as well as interesting gem-diborylalkane reagents. PMID:26973991

  2. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Oxidative Coupling of Benzoic Acids with Geminal-Substituted Vinyl Acetates: Synthesis of 3-Substituted Isocoumarins.

    Zhang, Mingliang; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Han, Tiantian; Ruan, Wenqing; Wen, Ting-Bin


    The Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation initiated cyclization of benzoic acids with electron-rich geminal-substituted vinyl acetates was described. The reaction was employed to prepare a range of 3-aryl and 3-alkyl substituted isocoumarins selectively. PMID:25436434

  3. Solvent-Controlled, Tunable β-OAc and β-H Elimination in Rh(III)-Catalyzed Allyl Acetate and Aryl Amide Coupling via C-H Activation.

    Dai, Huimin; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zihao; Yan, Hong; Lu, Changsheng


    The Heck reaction between arenes and allyl acetate has led to cinnamyl derivatives and allyl products depending on the regioselectivity of β-elimination. The regioselectivity can be controlled by the solvent in the Rh(III)-catalyzed arene-allyl acetate coupling via C-H activation: (1) in THF, cinnamyl derivatives via β-H elimination were generated; (2) in MeOH, allyl products via β-OAc elimination were produced. Both routes have advantages such as excellent γ-selectivity toward allyl acetate, good to excellent yields, and broad substrate scope. PMID:27351917

  4. Directing Group in Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling: Copper-Catalyzed Site-Selective C-N Bond Formation from Nonactivated Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

    Liu, Zhao-Jing; Lu, Xi; Wang, Guan; Li, Lei; Jiang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Yu-Dong; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao


    Copper-catalyzed directed decarboxylative amination of nonactivated aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. This intramolecular C-N bond formation reaction provides efficient access to the synthesis of pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives as well as the modification of complex natural products. Moreover, this reaction presents excellent site-selectivity in the C-N bond formation step through the use of directing group. Our work can be considered as a big step toward controllable radical decarboxylative carbon-heteroatom cross-coupling. PMID:27439145

  5. Regioselective and Stepwise Syntheses of Functionalized BODIPY Dyes through Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions and Direct C-H Arylations.

    Feng, Zeya; Jiao, Lijuan; Feng, Yuanmei; Yu, Changjiang; Chen, Na; Wei, Yun; Mu, Xiaolong; Hao, Erhong


    Regioselective and stepwise syntheses of a series of functionalized BODIPY dyes through palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and direct C-H arylations have been developed. In particular, this method allows the straightforward synthesis of 2,6-dibromo-3,5-diarylBODIPYs and 2-bromo-3-arylBODIPYs from polybrominated BODIPYs. The X-ray structure of intermediates 5a-c indicated that the palladium was first inserted into the C-Br bonds at 3,5-positions of brominated BODIPYs. The resulting 2,6-dibromo-substituted BODIPYs are potential long wavelength photosensitizers which are not easily accessible using previous methods. PMID:27362954

  6. Copper-Catalyzed Coupling of 2-Siloxy-1-alkenes and Diazocarbonyl Compounds: Approach to Multisubstituted Furans, Pyrroles, and Thiophenes.

    Tan, Wei Wen; Yoshikai, Naohiko


    We report herein copper(II)-catalyzed cyclization reactions of silyl enol ethers derived from methyl ketones with α-diazo-β-ketoesters or α-diazoketones to afford 2-siloxy-2,3-dihydrofuran derivatives or 2,3,5-trisubstituted furans, respectively, under mild conditions. The former cyclization products serve as versatile 1,4-diketone surrogates, allowing facile preparation of 2,3,5-trisubstituted furans, pyrroles, and thiophenes. PMID:27259097

  7. Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of o-carboranyl with aryl iodides: facile synthesis of 1-aryl-o-carboranes and 1,2-diaryl-o-carboranes.

    Tang, Cen; Xie, Zuowei


    A nickel-catalyzed arylation at the carbon center of o-carborane cages has been developed, thus leading to the preparation of a series of 1-aryl-o-carboranes and 1,2-diaryl-o-carboranes in high yields upon isolation. This method represents the first example of transition metal catalyzed C,C'-diarylation by cross-coupling reactions of o-carboranyl with aryl iodides. PMID:25959849

  8. Silicon-Carbon Bond Formation via Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Silicon Nucleophiles with Unactivated Secondary and Tertiary Alkyl Electrophiles.

    Chu, Crystal K; Liang, Yufan; Fu, Gregory C


    A wide array of cross-coupling methods for the formation of C-C bonds from unactivated alkyl electrophiles have been described in recent years. In contrast, progress in the development of methods for the construction of C-heteroatom bonds has lagged; for example, there have been no reports of metal-catalyzed cross-couplings of unactivated secondary or tertiary alkyl halides with silicon nucleophiles to form C-Si bonds. In this study, we address this challenge, establishing that a simple, commercially available nickel catalyst (NiBr2·diglyme) can achieve couplings of alkyl bromides with nucleophilic silicon reagents under unusually mild conditions (e.g., -20 °C); especially noteworthy is our ability to employ unactivated tertiary alkyl halides as electrophilic coupling partners, which is still relatively uncommon in the field of cross-coupling chemistry. Stereochemical, relative reactivity, and radical-trap studies are consistent with a homolytic pathway for C-X bond cleavage. PMID:27187869

  9. Ruthenium Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Coupling of Propargyl Ethers with Alcohols: Siloxy-Crotylation via Hydride Shift Enabled Conversion of Alkynes to π-Allyls.

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Wandi; Chen, Te-Yu; Nguyen, Khoa D; Krische, Michael J


    The first enantioselective carbonyl crotylations through direct use of alkynes as chiral allylmetal equivalents are described. Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes modified by Josiphos (SL-J009-1) catalyze the C-C coupling of TIPS-protected propargyl ether 1a with primary alcohols 2a-2o to form products of carbonyl siloxy-crotylation 3a-3o, which upon silyl deprotection-reduction deliver 1,4-diols 5a-5o with excellent control of regio-, anti-diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Structurally related propargyl ethers 1b and 1c bearing ethyl- and phenyl-substituents engage in diastereo- and enantioselective coupling, as illustrated in the formation of adducts 5p and 5q, respectively. Selective mono-tosylation of diols 5a, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5k, and 5m is accompanied by spontaneous cyclization to deliver the trans-2,3-disubstituted furans 6a, 6c, 6e, 6f, 6k, and 6m, respectively. Primary alcohols 2a, 2l, and 2p were converted to the siloxy-crotylation products 3a, 3l, and 3p, which upon silyl deprotection-lactol oxidation were transformed to the trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones 7a, 7l, and 7p. The formation of 7p represents a total synthesis of (+)-trans-whisky lactone. Unlike closely related ruthenium catalyzed alkyne-alcohol C-C couplings, deuterium labeling studies provide clear evidence of a novel 1,2-hydride shift mechanism that converts metal-bound alkynes to π-allyls in the absence of intervening allenes. PMID:26418572

  10. Mechanisms by which reactions catalyzed by chloroplast coupling factor 1 are inhibited: ATP synthesis and ATP-H2O oxygen exchange

    The ATP-H2O back-exchange reaction catalyzed by membrane-bound chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) in the light is known to be extensive; each reacting ATP molecule nearly equilibrates its gamma-PO2 oxygens with H2O before it dissociates from the enzyme. Pi, ASi, ADP, and GDP, alternate substrates of photophosphorylation, each inhibit the exchange reaction. At all concentrations of these substrate/inhibitor molecules tested, the high extent of exchange per molecule of ATP that reacts remains the same, while the number of ATP molecules experiencing exchange decreases. Thus, these inhibitors appear to act in a competitive-type manner, decreasing ATP turnover, as opposed to modulating the rate constants responsible for the partitioning of E X ATP during the exchange reaction. This is consistent with the identity of CF1 catalytic sites for ATP-H2O back-exchange and ATP synthesis. The extent of ATP-H2O forward oxygen exchange, which occurs during net ATP synthesis prior to product dissociation, is unaffected by uncouplers, whether catalyzed by native CF1 (ATPase latent) or the dithiothreitol/light-activated ATPase form

  11. Concise Synthesis of a Pateamine A Analogue with In Vivo Anticancer Activity Based on an Iron-Catalyzed Pyrone Ring Opening/Cross-Coupling.

    Zhuo, Chun-Xiang; Fürstner, Alois


    The marine macrolide pateamine A and its non-natural sibling DMDA-Pat A are potent translation inhibitors targeting the eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A), an enzyme with RNA helicase activity. Although essential for every living cell, this protein target seems "drugable" since DMDA-Pat A has previously been shown to exhibit remarkable in vivo activity against two different melanoma mouse models. The novel entry into this promising compound presented herein is shorter and significantly more productive than the literature route. Key to success was the masking of the signature Z,E-configured dienoate subunit of DMDA-Pat A in the form of a 2-pyrone ring, which was best crafted by a gold-catalyzed cyclization. While the robustness of the heterocycle facilitated the entire assembly stage, the highly isomerization-prone seco-Z,E-dienoic acid could be unlocked in due time for macrolactonization by an unconventional iron-catalyzed ring opening/cross coupling. Moreover, the crystal structure analysis of an advanced intermediate gave first insights into the conformation of the macrodilactone framework of the pateamine family, which is thought to be critical for eliciting the desired biological response. PMID:27061139

  12. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.


    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The…

  13. Pd-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction of chloroalkylidene-β-lactones with LB-Phos as the ligand.

    Li, Pengbin; Lü, Bo; Fu, Chunling; Ma, Shengming


    In this paper, LB-Phos·HBF(4) salt has been applied for the Pd-catalysed Suzuki coupling reactions of optically active (Z)-α-choroalkylidene-β-lactones. Aryl, vinyl, alkyl and heteroaromatic boronic acids may be coupled with optically active β-lactones affording corresponding optically active products highly selectively and efficiently. PMID:23060006

  14. Rapid Access to 2,2'-Bithiazole-Based Copolymers via Sequential Palladium-Catalyzed C-H/C-X and C-H/C-H Coupling Reactions.

    Guo, Qiang; Jiang, Ruyong; Wu, Di; You, Jingsong


    A rapid access to 2,2'-bithiazole-based copolymers has been developed on the basis of the sequential palladium-catalyzed CH/CX and CH/CH coupling reactions. To assemble a "copolymer" through homopolymerization, a type of symmetric A-B-A-type building block is designed as the monomer and prepared via the regioselective C5H arylation of thiazole. A PdCl2 /CuCl-cocatalyzed oxidative CH/CH homopolymerization has been established to afford the 2,2'-bithiazole-based copolymers with high Mn (up to 69400). The current protocol features atom- and step-economy and exhibits a potential in the highly efficient construction of conjugated copolymers. PMID:27000723

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    İsmail Özdemir


    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  16. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.


    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki–Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a “green” alcohol solvent. The experiment employs heterocyclic substrates, which are important pharmaceutical building blocks. Thus, this laboratory procedure exposes students to a variety of co...

  17. Construction of quaternary stereogenic carbon centers through copper-catalyzed enantioselective allylic cross-coupling with alkylboranes.

    Hojoh, Kentaro; Shido, Yoshinori; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya


    A combination of an in situ generated chiral Cu(I) /DTBM-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst system and EtOK enabled the enantioselective SN 2'-type allylic cross-coupling between alkylborane reagents and γ,γ-disubstituted primary allyl chlorides with enantiocontrol at a useful level. The reaction generates a stereogenic quaternary carbon center having three sp(3) -alkyl groups and a vinyl group. This protocol allowed the use of terminal alkenes as nucleophile precursors, thus representing a formal reductive allylic cross-coupling of terminal alkenes. A reaction pathway involving addition/elimination of a neutral alkylcopper(I) species with the allyl chloride substrate is proposed. PMID:24668885

  18. Microwave-assisted heterogeneous cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by nickel-in-charcoal (Ni/C).

    Lipshutz, Bruce H; Frieman, Bryan A; Lee, Ching-Tien; Lower, Asher; Nihan, Danielle M; Taft, Benjamin R


    A study involving the relatively rare combination of heterogeneous catalysis conducted under microwave conditions is presented. Carbon-carbon bond formation, including Negishi and Suzuki couplings, can be quickly effected with aryl chloride partners by using a base metal (nickel) adsorbed in the pores of activated charcoal. Aminations were also studied, along with cross-couplings of vinyl alanes with benzylic chlorides as a means to stereodefined allylated aromatics. Reaction times for all these processes are typically reduced from several hours to minutes in a microwave reactor. PMID:17441078

  19. Synthesis of dienyl ketones via palladium(II)-catalyzed direct cross-coupling reactions between simple alkenes and vinyl ketones: application to the synthesis of vitamin A1 and bornelone.

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Ming-Xin; Xu, Yun-He; Loh, Teck-Peng


    An efficient and general method for the synthesis of conjugated dienyl ketones via palladium(II) acetate catalyzed direct cross-coupling between simple alkenes and vinyl ketones is reported. This method has been successfully applied for the synthesis of Vitamin A1 and bornelone. PMID:24131401

  20. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of C(sp2)–H Bonds and Alkyl-, Aryl- and Vinyl-Boron Reagents via Pd(II)/Pd(0) Catalysis

    Wasa, Masayuki; Chan, Kelvin S. L.; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Pd(II)-catalyzed cross-coupling of ortho-C–H bonds in benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid amides with alkyl-, aryl- and vinyl-boron reagents have been achieved via Pd(II)/Pd(0) catalysis, demonstrating the unprecedented versatility of C–H activation reactions.

  1. Construction of Substituted Benzenes via Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling/Cyclization Reaction of Vinyl Halides and Terminal Alkynes.

    Xie, Meihua; Wang, Shengke; Wang, Jun; Fang, Kuang; Liu, Changqing; Zha, Chao; Jia, Jing


    A tandem Sonogashira coupling/cyclization/aromatization sequence of β-halo vinyl sulfones/ketones with terminal alkynes has been developed for the construction of benzene rings. Polysubstituted functionalized benzenes containing a sulfonyl or an acyl group could be obtained in up to 95% yield. PMID:27015420

  2. Diastereo- and Enantioselective Iridium Catalyzed Coupling of Vinyl Aziridines with Alcohols: Site-Selective Modification of Unprotected Diols and Synthesis of Substituted Piperidines.

    Wang, Gang; Franke, Jana; Ngo, Chinh Q; Krische, Michael J


    The chiral cyclometalated π-allyliridium ortho-C,O-benzoate complex (R)-Ir-VIb derived from [Ir(cod)Cl]2, allyl acetate, 4-cyano-3-nitro-benzoic acid, and (R)-MeO-BIPHEP catalyzes the coupling of N-(p-nitrophenylsulfonyl) protected vinyl aziridine 3a with primary alcohols 1a-1l to furnish branched products of C-C bond formation 4a-4l with good levels of anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. In the presence of 2-propanol, but under otherwise identical conditions, vinyl aziridine 3a and aldehydes 2a-2l engage in reductive coupling to furnish an equivalent set of adducts 4a-4l with roughly equivalent levels of anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Using enantiomeric iridium catalysts, vinyl aziridine 3a reacts with unprotected chiral 1,3-diols 1m-1o in a site-selective manner to deliver the diastereomeric products of C-allylation syn-4m, -4n, -4o and anti-4m, -4n, -4o, respectively, with good isolated yields and excellent levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity. These adducts were directly converted to the diastereomeric 2,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines syn-5m, -5n, -5o and anti-5m, -5n, -5o. PMID:26074091

  3. Synthesis and Application of Chiral Spiro Cp Ligands in Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Oxidative Coupling of Biaryl Compounds with Alkenes.

    Zheng, Jun; Cui, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Chao; You, Shu-Li


    The vastly increasing application of chiral Cp ligands in asymmetric catalysis results in growing demand for novel chiral Cp ligands. Herein, we report a new class of chiral Cp ligands based on 1,1'-spirobiindane, a privileged scaffold for chiral ligands and catalysts. The corresponding Rh complexes are shown to be excellent catalysts in asymmetric oxidative coupling reactions, providing axially chiral biaryls in 19-97% yields with up to 98:2 er. PMID:27070297

  4. Synthesis of Lithium Boracarbonate Ion Pairs by Copper-Catalyzed Multi-Component Coupling of Carbon Dioxide, Diboron, and Aldehydes.

    Carry, Béatrice; Zhang, Liang; Nishiura, Masayoshi; Hou, Zhaomin


    The catalytic selective multi-component coupling of CO2 , bis(pinacolato)diboron, LiOtBu, and a wide range of aldehydes has been achieved for the first time by using an NHC-copper catalyst. This transformation has efficiently afforded a series of novel lithium cyclic boracarbonate ion pair compounds in high yields from readily available starting materials. This protocol has not only provided a new catalytic process for the utilization of CO2 , but it has also constituted a novel route for the efficient synthesis of a new class of lithium borate compounds that might be of interest as potential electrolyte candidates for lithium ion batteries. PMID:27061244

  5. An efficient protocol for copper-free palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling in aqueous media at low temperatures

    Marziale, Alexander N.


    A thorough study on copper-free Sonogashira cross-couplings in water was carried out using the palla-dacycle, [{Pd(μ-Cl){K2-P,C-P(iPr) 2(OC6H3-2-Ph)}}2] as pre-catalyst with different bases and palladium concentrations. The highly active pre-catalyst imparts good to near quantitative yields using a concentration of 0.25 mol % at 40 °C. This broadly applicable protocol exhibits high tolerance of functional groups and substitution patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A3-Coupling catalyzed by robust Au nanoparticles covalently bonded to HS-functionalized cellulose nanocrystalline films

    Jian-Lin Huang


    Full Text Available We decorated HS-functionalized cellulose nanocrystallite (CNC films with monodisperse Au nanoparticles (AuNPs to form a novel nanocomposite catalyst AuNPs@HS-CNC. The uniform, fine AuNPs were made by the reduction of HAuCl4 solution with thiol (HS- group-functionalized CNC films. The AuNPs@HS-CNC nanocomposites were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, TEM, ATR-IR and solid-state NMR. Characterizations suggested that the size of the AuNPs was about 2–3 nm and they were evenly distributed onto the surface of CNC films. Furthermore, the unique nanocomposite Au@HS-CNC catalyst displayed high catalytic efficiency in promoting three-component coupling of an aldehyde, an alkyne, and an amine (A3-coupling either in water or without solvent. Most importantly, the catalyst could be used repetitively more than 11 times without significant deactivation. Our strategy also promotes the use of naturally renewable cellulose to prepare reusable nanocomposite catalysts for organic synthesis.

  7. Silylesterification of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling between carboxylic and hydrosilane functions

    Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.


    Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.

  8. Amine-Catalyzed Highly Regioselective and Stereoselective C(sp(2) )-C(sp(2) ) Cross-Coupling of Naphthols with trans-α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes.

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Yueyue; Sun, Rengwei; Yu, Xinhong; Xie, Hexin; Wang, Wei


    A metal-free C(sp(2) )-C(sp(2) ) cross-coupling approach to highly congested (E)-α-naphtholylenals from simple naphthols and enals is described. The mild reaction conditions with pyridine hydrobromideperbromide (PHBP) as the bromination reagent in the presence of piperidine or diphenylprolinol trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether as promoters enable the process in good yields and with high chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. The process involves an unprecedented pathway of in situ regioselective 4-bromination of 1-naphthols and the subsequent unusual aromatic nucleophilic substitution of the resulting 4-bromo-1-naphthols with the α-C(sp(2) ) of enals through a Michael-type Friedel-Crafts alkylation-dearomatization followed by a cyclopropanation ring-opening cascade process. The noteworthy features of this strategy are highlighted by the highly efficient creation of a C(sp(2) )-C(sp(2) ) bond from readily available unfunctionalized naphthols and enals catalyzed by non-metal, readily available cyclic secondary amines under mild reaction conditions. PMID:26096893

  9. Cu-catalyzed Fe-driven C(sp)-C(sp) and C(s)p-C(sp2) cross-coupling: an access to 1,3-diynes and 1,3-enynes.

    Ahammed, Sabir; Kundu, Debasish; Ranu, Brindaban C


    An efficient Csp-Csp cross-coupling of alkynyl bromide and pinacol ester of alkynyl boronic acid catalyzed by CuFe2O4 nanoparticles has been accomplished in dimethyl carbonate to produce unsymmetric 1,3-diynes. This protocol is also extended for the Csp-Csp2 coupling of alkynyl bromide and alkenyl boronic acid to provide conjugated 1,3-enynes. The aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic alkynes couple with various substituted alkynyl/alkenyl boronates/boronic acids by this procedure to furnish a library of 1,3-diynes and enynes in high yields. The catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and recycled 10 times. PMID:25046329

  10. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Directed ortho-C-H Bond Functionalization of Aromatic Ketazines via C-S and C-C Coupling.

    Wen, Jing; Wu, An; Wang, Mingyang; Zhu, Jin


    Described herein is a convenient and efficient method for sulfuration and olefination of aromatic ketazines via rhodium-catalyzed oxidative C-H bond activation. A range of substituted substrates are supported, and a possible mechanism is proposed according to experimental results of kinetic isotopic effect, reversibility studies, and catalysis of rhodacycle intermediate c1. PMID:26417874

  11. Conjugate addition vs Heck reaction: a theoretical study on competitive coupling catalyzed by isoelectronic metal (Pd(II) and Rh(I)).

    Peng, Qian; Yan, Hong; Zhang, Xinhao; Wu, Yun-Dong


    Density functional theory studies have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of the Pd(II)(bpy)- and Rh(I)(bpy)-catalyzed conjugate additions and their competitive Heck reactions involving α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The critical steps of the mechanism are insertion and termination. The insertion step favors 1,2-addition of the vinyl-coordinated species to generate a stable C-bound enolate intermediate, which then may isomerize to either an oxa-π-allyl species or an O-bound enolate. The termination step involves a competition between β-hydride elimination, leading to a Heck reaction product, and protonolysis reaction that gives a conjugate addition product. These two pathways are competitive in the Pd(II)-catalyzed reaction, while a preference for protonolysis has been found in the Rh(I)-catalyzed reaction. The calculations are in good agreement with the experimental observations. The potential energy surface and the rate-determining step of the β-hydride elimination are similar for both Pd(II)- and Rh(I)-catalyzed processes. The rate-determining steps of the Pd(II)- and Rh(I)-catalyzed protonolysis are different. Introduction of an N- or P-ligand significantly stabilizes the protonolysis transition state via the O-bound enolate or oxa-π-allyl complex intermediate, resulting in a reduced free energy of activation. However, the barrier of the β-hydride elimination is less sensitive to ligands. For the Rh(I)-catalyzed reaction, protonolysis is calculated to be more favorable than the β-hydride elimination for all investigated N and P ligands due to the significant ligand stabilization to the protonolysis transition state. For the Pd(II)-catalyzed reaction, the complex with monodentate pyridine ligands prefers the Heck-type product through β-hydride elimination, while the complex with bidentate N and P ligands favors the protonolysis. The theoretical finding suggests the possibility to control the selectivity between the conjugate addition and

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction of Organoboron Compounds with Carboxylic Derivatives%钯催化的有机硼化物与羧酸衍生物的交叉偶联反应

    杨军; 邓敏智; 于涛


    钯催化的交叉偶联反应是构建C—C键的常用方法,近年来,钯催化的有机硼化物与羧酸衍生物的交叉偶联反应已成为偶联反应研究中的热点.本文综述了最近十几年多种有机硼化物与酰氯、酸酐、羧酸、氯甲酸衍生物、羧酸活性酯、羧酸硫酯的交叉偶联反应研究进展,并对该反应在有机合成中的应用进行了讨论.%Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction has emerged as an important strategy to the formation of C-C bond. Recently, palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between organoboron compounds and carboxylic derivatives has become a hotspot of organic chemistry. In this paper, recent researches of organoboron compounds with acyl chlorides, acid anhydrides, carboxylic acids, chloroformic derivatives, carboxylic esters and thiol esters in Suzuki cross-coupling are summarized, and the examples of these reactions in synthesis are also discussed.

  13. Reações de acoplamento cruzado de organossilanos catalisadas por paládio: aspectos históricos, sintéticos e mecanísticos Palladium catalyzed cross coupling reactions of organosilicon compounds: historical, synthetic and mechanistic aspects

    Róbson R. Teixeira


    Full Text Available The development of the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions employing organosilicon compounds is described. Important synthetic methods utilized to prepare organosilicons and different types of cross-coupling reactions involving these compounds are presented. Mechanistic aspects are also discussed.

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation and Arylation Reactions

    Sävmarker, Jonas


    Palladium-catalyzed reactions have found widespread use in contemporary organic chemistry due to their impressive range of functional group tolerance and high chemo- and regioselectivity. The pioneering contributions to the development of the Pd-catalyzed C-C bond forming cross-coupling reaction were rewarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2010. Today, this is a rapidly growing field, and the development of novel methods, as well as the theoretical understanding of the various processes...

  15. Hydroxymethylations of aryl halides by Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings with (benzoyloxy)methylzinc iodide - the scope and limitations of the reaction

    Hasník, Zbyněk; Šilhár, Peter; Hocek, Michal

    -, č. 4 (2008), s. 543-546. ISSN 0936-5214 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR 1QS400550501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cross-coupling reactions * hydroxymethylations * organozinc reagents Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2008

  16. Build/Couple/Pair Strategy Combining the Petasis 3-Component Reaction with Ru-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Metathesis and Isomerization

    Ascic, Erhad; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette;


    A “build/couple/pair” pathway for the systematic synthesis of structurally diverse small molecules is presented. The Petasis 3-component reaction was used to synthesize anti-amino alcohols displaying pairwise reactive combinations of alkene moieties. Upon treatment with a ruthenium alkylidene...

  17. The Oxidative Coupling of 2,6-Xylenol Catalyzed by Polymeric Complexes of Copper, 2. Physicochemical Study on Copper(II) Complexes of Partially Dimethylaminomethylated Polystyrene

    Schouten, Arend Jan; Wiedijk, Dick; Challa, Ger; Borkent, J.


    The polymeric catalyst formed by complexation of copper(II) chloride and partially dimethylaminomethylated polystyrene was investigated to explain its behaviour in the oxidative coupling of 2,6-xylenol. Viscometric studies indicated that at low polymer concentrations coordination of tertiary amine g

  18. Label-free and enzyme-free colorimetric detection of microRNA by catalyzed hairpin assembly coupled with hybridization chain reaction.

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Hongyong; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Feifan; Zou, Pei


    In this study, a simple, label-free, and enzyme-free colorimetric biosensor has been developed for amplified detection of let-7a microRNA (miRNA) on the basis of dual signal amplification strategy. The sensing system mainly consists of four unlabeled hairpin probes termed H1, H2, H3, and H4. Upon sensing of the target miRNA, hairpin H1 is opened. Then hairpin H2 hybridizes with H1 forming H1-H2 duplex and frees the target miRNA that can be recycled to trigger another reaction cycle. In addition, the newly formed H1-H2 duplex hybridizes with hairpin H3, and this triggers the autonomous cross-opening of the two hairpins H3 and H4 through hybridization chain reaction. During this process, numerous split G-quadruplex structures are generated and further associate with cofactor hemin to form massive peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes. The resulting DNAzymes catalyze the H2O2-mediated oxidation of colorless 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(2-)) to the green-colored ABTS(•-), inducing a remarkably amplified colorimetric signal. This newly developed sensing system exhibits high sensitivity toward miRNA with a detection limit of 7.4fM and a large dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude from 10fM to 10nM. Furthermore, it exhibits a good performance to discriminate single-base difference among the miRNA family members and holds a great potential for early diagnosis in gene-related diseases. PMID:26985582

  19. Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction in the synthesis of 5-aryl-1-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]uracils as potential multisubstrate inhibitors of thymidine phosphorylase

    Pomeisl, Karel; Holý, Antonín; Pohl, Radek


    Roč. 48, č. 17 (2007), s. 3065-3067. ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant ostatní: Descartes Prize(XE) HPAW-CT-2002-9001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * thymidine phosphorylase * Suzuki coupling * pyrimidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2007

  20. Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction in the synthesis of 5-aryl substituted pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates as potential multisubstrate inhibitors of thymidine phosphorylase

    Pomeisl, Karel; Holý, Antonín; Pohl, Radek

    Dublin : University College Dublin, 2007. s. 329. [European Symposium on Organic Chemistry /15./. 08.07.2007-13.07.2007, Dublin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant ostatní: Descartes Prize(XE) HPAW-CT-2002-9001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * thymidine phosphorylase * Suzuki coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. C(sp2)–C(sp2) cross coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladacycle phosphine complex: A simple and sustainable protocol in aqueous media

    Seyyed Javad Sabounchei; Marjan Hosseinzadeh


    The Heck reactions of various aryl halides with olefins using {[Ph2PCH2PPh2CH=C(O)(C10H7)] PdCl2} as efficient catalyst has been investigated. The mononuclear palladacycle complex showed excellent activity in aqueous phase including the C(sp2)–C(sp2) cross coupling reactions. The advantages of the protocol are high yields, short reaction time, a cleaner reaction profile and notable simplicity.

  2. Coupled evolution of BrOx-ClOx-HOx-NOx chemistry during bromine-catalyzed ozone depletion events in the arctic boundary layer

    M. J. Evans; Jacob, Daniel James; Atlas, E.; Cantrell, C; Eisele, F.; Flocke, F.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, R; Ridley, B.; Wert, B; Talbot, R.; Blake, D.; B. Heikes; Snow, J.; Walega, J


    Extensive chemical characterization of ozone (O3) depletion events in the Arctic boundary layer during the TOPSE aircraft mission in March–May 2000 enables analysis of the coupled chemical evolution of bromine (BrOx), chlorine (ClOx), hydrogen oxide (HOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) radicals during these events. We project the TOPSE observations onto an O3 chemical coordinate to construct a chronology of radical chemistry during O3 depletion events, and we compare this chronology to results from...

  3. Palladium-phosphinous acid complexes catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid in water/alcoholic solvents

    Ben Li; Cuiping Wang; Guang Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang


    Highly active,air-stable and water-soluble palladium-phosphinous acid complexes have been applied to Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides under mild conditions in water/alcoholic solvents.Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid occurred efficiently using palladium phosphinous acid complexes (POPd) and phase transfer catalyst (tetrabutylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol) in water/ethanol mixture,water/propanol mixture and neat water respectively,the corresponding yields of cross-coupling heteroaryl-aryls were satisfied.The tert-butyl substituted ligand di-tert-butylphosphino in combination with POPd was found to be more active than the same family derived catalysts dipalladium complexes POPdl and POPd2,and other two kinds of Pd-catalysts Pd(PPh3)4 and Pd2(dba)3.The mechanism of Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between heteroaryl bromides and phenylboronic acid in water was proposed with respect to the key role of phase transfer catalyst on the transmetallation step.Compared with other solid phase transfer catalysts,TBAB was tested as the ideal one.The alkalinity of base and the molar proportion between POPd and TBAB were investigated in water and alcoholic solvents.Notably,in the presence of TBAB adding alcoholic solvents into water enhanced the yields of target products.However in terms of the liquid phase transfer catalyst of PEGs,mixing water into PEGs could slightly decrease the yields with respect to the water free PEGs bulk phase,which was probably due to the homogenous liquid conditions in pure PEGs and weak interactions between PEGs and heteroaryl bromide molecules in water depending on their molecular chain lengths.

  4. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether

    Andrews, Ian P.; Kwon, Ohyun


    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethy...

  5. Palladium-catalyzed double cross-coupling of E-vinylic dibromides with PhZnCl and the synthesis of tamoxifen

    Pilli, Ronaldo A.; Robello, Luis Gustavo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    (E)-1,2-vinylic dibromides 11a-f were stereoselectively prepared via bromination of acetylenic compounds with pyridinium tribromide in MeOH/CCl{sub 4} at low temperature and double cross-coupled with PhZnCl under Pd(0) catalysis (Negishi protocol) to afford tri- and tetrasubstituted olefins 14a-e. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator clinically prescribed in breast cancer therapy, was prepared in 7 steps and 30% overall yield from 4-iodophenol (3) as a 2.3:1 mixture of (Z)- and (E)-isomers. (author)

  6. Palladium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H Arylation of N-Boc benzylalkylamines via a deprotonative cross-coupling process.

    Hussain, Nusrah; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Walsh, Patrick J


    Diarylmethylamines are key intermediates and products in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein we disclose a novel method toward the synthesis of these important compounds via CH functionalization. Presented is a reversible deprotonation of N-Boc benzylalkylamines at the benzylic CH with in situ arylation by a NiXantPhos-based palladium catalyst (50-93 % yield, 29 examples). The method is also successful with N-Boc-tetrahydroisoquinolines. The advantages of this method are it avoids strong bases, low temperatures, and the need to transmetallate to main group metals for the coupling. PMID:26129922

  7. Hemin/G-quadruplex-based DNAzyme concatamers for in situ amplified impedimetric sensing of copper(II) ion coupling with DNAzyme-catalyzed precipitation strategy.

    Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Wei, Qiaohua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping


    A new signal-amplification strategy based on copper(II) (Cu(2+))-dependent DNAzyme was developed for sensitive impedimetric biosensing of Cu(2+) in aqueous solution by coupling with target-induced formation of hemin/G-quadruplex-based DNAzyme and enzymatic catalytic precipitation technique. Initially, the target analyte cleaved the Cu(2+)-specific DNAzyme to generate an initiator strand on the sensor. Thereafter, the initiator strand underwent an unbiased strand-displacement reaction between hairpin probes in turn to construct a nicked double-helix, accompanying the formation of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme on the long duplex DNA. The newly formed DNAzyme could oxidize the 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) to produce an insoluble precipitation on the sensor, thus resulting in a local alteration of the conductivity. Under the optimal conditions, the resistance increased with the increasing Cu(2+) in the sample, and exhibited a wide dynamic working range from 0.1 pM to 5.0 nM with a detection limit of 60 fM. The methodology also displayed a high selectivity for Cu(2+) relative to other potentially interfering ions owing to the highly specific Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme, and was applicable for monitoring Cu(2+) in real river samples. Thus, our strategy has a good potential in the environment surveys. PMID:26093122

  8. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Armour, Edward A.G.


    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  9. Gold-catalyzed naphthalene functionalization

    Iván Rivilla


    Full Text Available The complexes IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene, M = Cu, 1a; M = Au, 1b, in the presence of one equiv of NaBAr'4 (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl, catalyze the transfer of carbene groups: C(RCO2Et (R = H, Me from N2C(RCO2Et to afford products that depend on the nature of the metal center. The copper-based catalyst yields exclusively a cycloheptatriene derivative from the Buchner reaction, whereas the gold analog affords a mixture of products derived either from the formal insertion of the carbene unit into the aromatic C–H bond or from its addition to a double bond. In addition, no byproducts derived from carbene coupling were observed.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions.

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias


    Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions have become a powerful tool for advanced organic synthesis. This type of reaction is of significant value for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, as well as advanced materials. Both, academic as well as industrial laboratories continuously investigate new applications of the different methodologies. Clearly, this area constitutes one of the major topics in homogeneous catalysis and organic synthesis. Among the different palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions, several carbonylations have been developed and widely used in organic syntheses and are even applied in the pharmaceutical industry on ton-scale. Furthermore, methodologies such as the carbonylative Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions allow for the preparation of interesting building blocks, which can be easily refined further on. Although carbonylative coupling reactions of aryl halides have been well established, palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions are also interesting. Compared with the reactions of aryl halides, oxidative carbonylation reactions offer an interesting pathway. The oxidative addition step could be potentially avoided in oxidative reactions, but only few reviews exist in this area. In this Minireview, we summarize the recent development in the oxidative carbonylation reactions. PMID:23307763

  11. Tritium catalyzed deuterium tokamaks

    A preliminary assessment of the promise of the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium (TCD) tokamak power reactors relative to that of deuterium-tritium (D-T) and catalyzed deuterium (Cat-D) tokamaks is undertaken. The TCD mode of operation is arrived at by converting the 3He from the D(D,n)3He reaction into tritium, by neutron capture in the blanket; the tritium thus produced is fed into the plasma. There are three main parts to the assessment: blanket study, reactor design and economic analysis and an assessment of the prospects for improvements in the performance of TCD reactors (and in the promise of the TCD mode of operation, in general)

  12. Kinase-Catalyzed Biotinylation

    Senevirathne, Chamara; Green, Keith D.; Pflum, Mary Kay H.


    Kinase-catalyzed protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in a variety of biological processes. Methods to detect phosphoproteins and phosphopeptides in cellular mixtures will aid in cell biological and signaling research. Our laboratory recently discovered the utility of γ-modified ATP analogues as tools for studying phosphorylation. Specifically, ATP-biotin can be used for labeling and visualizing phosphoproteins from cell lysates. Because the biotin tag is suitable for protein detec...

  13. Hydrogen evolution catalyzed by cobaloximes.

    Dempsey, Jillian L; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Winkler, Jay R; Gray, Harry B


    Natural photosynthesis uses sunlight to drive the conversion of energy-poor molecules (H(2)O, CO(2)) to energy-rich ones (O(2), (CH(2)O)(n)). Scientists are working hard to develop efficient artificial photosynthetic systems toward the "Holy Grail" of solar-driven water splitting. High on the list of challenges is the discovery of molecules that efficiently catalyze the reduction of protons to H(2). In this Account, we report on one promising class of molecules: cobalt complexes with diglyoxime ligands (cobaloximes). Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical methods all have been utilized to explore proton reduction catalysis by cobaloxime complexes. Reduction of a Co(II)-diglyoxime generates a Co(I) species that reacts with a proton source to produce a Co(III)-hydride. Then, in a homolytic pathway, two Co(III)-hydrides react in a bimolecular step to eliminate H(2). Alternatively, in a heterolytic pathway, protonation of the Co(III)-hydride produces H(2) and Co(III). A thermodynamic analysis of H(2) evolution pathways sheds new light on the barriers and driving forces of the elementary reaction steps involved in proton reduction by Co(I)-diglyoximes. In combination with experimental results, this analysis shows that the barriers to H(2) evolution along the heterolytic pathway are, in most cases, substantially greater than those of the homolytic route. In particular, a formidable barrier is associated with Co(III)-diglyoxime formation along the heterolytic pathway. Our investigations of cobaloxime-catalyzed H(2) evolution, coupled with the thermodynamic preference for a homolytic route, suggest that the rate-limiting step is associated with formation of the hydride. An efficient water splitting device may require the tethering of catalysts to an electrode surface in a fashion that does not inhibit association of Co(III)-hydrides. PMID:19928840

  14. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents

    Shrestha, Bijay


    Summary We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  15. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents

    Bijay Shrestha


    Full Text Available We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1 as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Environmentally Benign Acylation.

    Suchand, Basuli; Satyanarayana, Gedu


    Recent trends in research have gained an orientation toward developing efficient strategies using innocuous reagents. The earlier reported transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylations involved either toxic carbon monoxide (CO) gas as carbonylating agent or functional-group-assisted ortho sp(2) C-H activation (i.e., ortho acylation) or carbonylation by activation of the carbonyl group (i.e., via the formation of enamines). Contradicting these methods, here we describe an environmentally benign process, [Pd]-catalyzed direct carbonylation starting from simple and commercially available iodo arenes and aldehydes, for the synthesis of a wide variety of ketones. Moreover, this method comprises direct coupling of iodoarenes with aldehydes without activation of the carbonyl and also without directing group assistance. Significantly, the strategy was successfully applied to the synthesis n-butylphthalide and pitofenone. PMID:27377566

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Fluoroalkylamines

    Brusoe, Andrew T.; Hartwig, John F.


    We report the synthesis of fluorinated anilines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of fluoroalkylamines with aryl bromides and aryl chlorides. The products of these reactions are valuable because anilines typically require the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on nitrogen to suppress aerobic or metabolic oxidation, and the fluoroalkyl groups have steric properties and polarity distinct from those of more common electron-withdrawing amide and sulfonamide units. The fluoroalkylaniline products are unstable under typical conditions for C–N coupling reactions (heat and strong base). However, the reactions conducted with the weaker base KOPh, which has rarely been used in cross-coupling to form C–N bonds, occurred in high yield in the presence of a catalyst derived from commercially available AdBippyPhos and [Pd(allyl)Cl]2. Under these conditions, the reactions occur with low catalyst loadings (<0.50 mol % for most substrates) and tolerate the presence of various functional groups that react with the strong bases that are typically used in Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides. The resting state of the catalyst is the phenoxide complex, (BippyPhosPd(Ar)OPh); due to the electron-withdrawing property of the fluoroalkyl substituent, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction is reductive elimination to form the C–N bond. PMID:26065341

  18. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.


    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  19. Diversity synthesis using the complimentary reactivity of rhodium(II)- and palladium(II)-catalyzed reactions.

    Ni, Aiwu; France, Jessica E; Davies, Huw M L


    Rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of aryldiazoacetates can be conducted in the presence of iodide, triflate, organoboron, and organostannane functionality, resulting in the formation of a variety of cyclopropanes or C-H insertion products with high stereoselectivity. The combination of the rhodium(II)-catalyzed reaction with a subsequent palladium(II)-catalyzed Suzuki coupling offers a novel strategy for diversity synthesis. PMID:16839138

  20. Modern Arylation Methods

    Ackermann, Lutz


    Today, arylation methods are belonging to the most important reaction types in organic synthesis. Lutz Ackermann, a young and ambitious professor has gathered a number of top international authors to present the first comprehensive book on the topic. Starting from a historical review, the book covers hot topics like Palladium-catalyzed arylation of N-H and alpha-C-H-acidic Bonds, Copper-catalyzed arylation of N-H and O-H Bonds, direct arylation reactions, carbanion aromatic synthesis, arylation reactions of alkenes, alkynes and much more. This compact source of high quality information is indi

  1. Catalyzing alignment processes

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik


    time and in combination with other social processes establish more aligned and standardized environmental performance between countries. However, examples of the introduction of environmental management suggests that EMS’ only plays a minor role in developing the actual environmental objectives......This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved...... they are implemented in and how the changing context is reflected in the environmental objectives that are established and prioritised. Our argument is, that the ability of the standard to achieve an impact is dependant on the constitution of ’coherent’ environmental issues in the context, where the management system...

  2. Palladium(0)-catalyzed methylenecyclopropanation of norbornenes with vinyl bromides.

    Mao, Jiangang; Bao, Weiliang


    Highly strained methylenecyclopropane derivatives have been achieved via a novel and efficient Pd(0)-catalyzed domino reaction. The formal [2 + 1] cycloaddition reaction of vinyl bromides to norbornenes involves a Heck-type coupling and a C(sp(2))-H bond activation. PMID:24784731

  3. 钯催化的交叉偶联反应——2010年诺贝尔化学奖获奖工作介绍%Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling ReactionsIntroduction of Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2010



    钯催化的交叉偶联反应是非常实用的合成新方法.文章给出了Heck反应、Negishi反应和Suzuki反应的概念,对其反应机理作了详细的说明,并对其在复杂化合物和天然产物全合成中的应用作了评价.%Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions provide chemists with a more precise and efficient new methodologies. The concepts of the Heck reaction and Negishi reaction as well as Suzuki reaction are given, the reaction mechanisms are proposed, and applications of these reactions in the total synthesis of natural products are commented.

  4. Scope and Mechanistic Investigations on the Solvent-Controlled Regio- and Stereoselective Formation of Enol Esters from the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Coupling Reaction of Terminal Alkynes and Carboxylic Acids

    Yi, Chae S.; Gao, Ruili


    The ruthenium-hydride complex (PCy3)2(CO)RuHCl was found to be a highly effective catalyst for the alkyne-to-carboxylic acid coupling reaction to give synthetically useful enol ester products. Strong solvent effect was observed for the ruthenium catalyst in modulating the activity and selectivity; the coupling reaction in CH2Cl2 led to the regioselective formation of gem-enol ester products, while the stereoselective formation of (Z)-enol esters was obtained in THF. The coupling reaction was ...

  5. TBAHS CATALYZED COUPLING REACTIONS OF ARYL IODIDES AND ARYL BROMIDES WITH THIOLS UNDER SOLVENT FREE CONDITIONS TBAHS katalysierten Kupplungen von Aryliodiden und-Arylbromiden mit Thiolen unter lösungsmittelfreien freien Bedingungen

    Gajendera Singha, Ajay kumarb , Sakshi Malikc, Preeti Chaudharyd


    Full Text Available A recyclable and efficient Tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate (TBAHS catalysed coupling reaction of aryl halides (iodide and bromide with aryl and alkyl thiols under solvent-free conditions were developed.

  6. A kinetic and spectroscopic study on the copper catalyzed oxidative coupling polymerization of 2,6-dimethylphenol. X-ray structure of the catalyst precursor tetrakis(N-methylimidazole)bis(nitrato)copper(II)

    Baesjou, PJ; Driessen, WL; Challa, G; Reedijk, J


    The complex of copper(II) nitrate with N-methylimidazole (Nmiz) ligand has been studied as a catalyst for the oxidative coupling of 2,6-dimethylphenol by means of kinetic and spectroscopic measurements. The order of the reaction in copper is fractional and depends on the N/Cu ratio and the base/Cu r

  7. A broadly applicable NHC-Cu-catalyzed approach for efficient, site-, and enantioselective coupling of readily accessible (pinacolato)alkenylboron compounds to allylic phosphates and applications to natural product synthesis.

    Gao, Fang; Carr, James L; Hoveyda, Amir H


    A set of protocols for catalytic enantioselective allylic substitution (EAS) reactions that allow for additions of alkenyl units to readily accessible allylic electrophiles is disclosed. Transformations afford 1,4-dienes that contain a tertiary carbon stereogenic site and are promoted by 1.0-5.0 mol % of a copper complex of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). Aryl- as well as alkyl-substituted electrophiles bearing a di- or trisubstituted alkene may be employed. Reactions can involve a variety of robust alkenyl-(pinacolatoboron) [alkenyl-B(pin)] compounds that can be either purchased or prepared by various efficient, site-, and/or stereoselective catalytic reactions, such as cross-metathesis or proto-boryl additions to terminal alkynes. Vinyl-, E-, or Z-disubstituted alkenyl-, 1,1-disubstituted alkenyl-, acyclic, or heterocyclic trisubstituted alkenyl groups may be added in up to >98% yield, >98:2 SN2':SN2, and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio (er). NHC-Cu-catalyzed EAS with alkenyl-B(pin) reagents containing a conjugated carboxylic ester or aldehyde group proceed to provide the desired 1,4-diene products in good yield and with high enantioselectivity despite the presence of a sensitive stereogenic tertiary carbon center that could be considered prone to epimerization. In most instances, the alternative approach of utilizing an alkenylmetal reagent (e.g., an Al-based species) represents an incompatible option. The utility of the approach is illustrated through applications to enantioselective synthesis of natural products such as santolina alcohol, semburin, nyasol, heliespirone A, and heliannuol E. PMID:24467274

  8. Intermolecular Dehydrative Coupling Reaction of Arylketones with Cyclic Alkenes Catalyzed by a Well-Defined Cationic Ruthenium-Hydride Complex: A Novel Ketone Olefination Method via Vinyl C–H Bond Activation

    Yi, Chae S.; Lee, Do W.


    The cationic ruthenium-hydride complex [(η6-C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+BF4− was found to be a highly effective catalyst for the intermolecular olefination reaction of arylketones with cycloalkenes. The preliminary mechanistic analysis revealed that electrophilic ruthenium-vinyl complex is the key species for mediating both vinyl C–H bond activation and the dehydrative olefination steps of the coupling reaction.

  9. Cobalt-Catalyzed Enantioselective Vinylation of Activated Ketones and Imines.

    Huang, Yuan; Huang, Rui-Zhi; Zhao, Yu


    We present here an unprecedented cobalt-catalyzed enantioselective vinylation of α-ketoesters, isatins, and imines to deliver a range of synthetically useful allylic alcohols and amines in high enantiopurity. This method employs commercially available and easy to handle catalysts and reagents and exhibits a high degree of practicality. The efficiency, selectivity, and operational simplicity of this catalytic system coupled with the substrate generality render this method a valuable tool in organic synthesis. PMID:27139596

  10. An efficient synthesis of isocoumarins via a CuI catalyzed cascade reaction process


    3-Alkyl isocoumarins are provided by CuI/amino acid-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reaction of o-bromo benzoic acids and terminal alkynes and the subsequent additive cyclization. This cascade process allows synthesis of diverse isocoumarins by varying both coupling partners bearing a wide range of functional groups.

  11. Effect of enzyme dehydration on alcalase-catalyzed dipeptide synthesis in near-anhydrous organic media.

    Vossenberg, P.; Beeftink, H.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Tramper, J.


    The effect of enzyme dehydration by molecular sieves on the coupling of phenylalanine amide and the carbamoylmethyl ester of N-protected phenylalanine in near-anhydrous tetrahydrofuran was investigated. This coupling was catalyzed by Alcalase covalently immobilized onto macroporous acrylic beads (Co

  12. Kinetics of Alcalase-catalyzed dipeptide synthesis in near-anhydrous organic media

    Vossenberg, P.; Beeftink, H.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Tramper, J.


    The coupling kinetics of phenylalanine amide and the carbamoylmethyl ester of N-protected phenylalanine in near-anhydrous tetrahydrofuran were investigated. This coupling was catalyzed by Alcalase covalently immobilized onto macroporous acrylic beads; these immobilized enzymes were hydrated prior to

  13. Iodine-catalyzed coal liquefaction

    Joseph, J.T.; Duffield, J.E.; Davidson, M.G. (Amoco Oil Company, Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.)

    Coals of two different ranks were liquefied in high yields using catalytic quantities of elemental iodine or iodine compounds. Iodine monochloride was found to be especially effective for enhancing both coal conversion and product quality. It appears that enhancement in coal conversion is due to the unique ability of iodine to catalyze radical-induced bond scission and hydrogen addition to the coal macromolecule or coal-derived free radicals. The starting iodine can be fully accounted for in the reaction products as both organic-bound and water-soluble forms. Unconverted coal and the heavy product fractions contain the majority of the organic-bound iodine. The results of iodine-catalyzed coal reactions emphasize the need for efficient hydrogen atom transfer along with bond scission to achieve high conversion and product quality. 22 refs., 12 tabs.

  14. Stau-catalyzed Nuclear Fusion

    Hamaguchi, K.; Hatsuda, T.(Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan); Yanagida, T. T.


    We point out that the stau may play a role of a catalyst for nuclear fusions if the stau is a long-lived particle as in the scenario of gravitino dark matter. In this letter, we consider d d fusion under the influence of stau where the fusion is enhanced because of a short distance between the two deuterons. We find that one chain of the d d fusion may release an energy of O(10) GeV per stau. We discuss problems of making the stau-catalyzed nuclear fusion of practical use with the present tec...

  15. Gold-catalyzed naphthalene functionalization

    Iván Rivilla; M. Mar Díaz-Requejo; Pedro J. Pérez


    The complexes IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, M = Cu, 1a; M = Au, 1b), in the presence of one equiv of NaBAr'4 (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl), catalyze the transfer of carbene groups: C(R)CO2Et (R = H, Me) from N2C(R)CO2Et to afford products that depend on the nature of the metal center. The copper-based catalyst yields exclusively a cycloheptatriene derivative from the Buchner reaction, whereas the gold analog affords a mixture of products derived either f...

  16. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  17. Direct activation of allylic alcohols in palladium catalyzed coupling reactions

    Gümrükçü, Y.


    The direct use of allylic alcohols in substitution reactions without pre-activation of the hydroxyl-group into a better leaving group or the use of additional stoichiometric in situ activators remains challenging due to the poor leaving group ability of the hydroxyl-group. Hence, it is important to develop new methods to activate (bio-mass derived) allyl-alcohols, which allow ‘green’ chemical processes for a broad substrate range. This may have a considerable impact on the methodology for fin...

  18. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Kalyani, Dayanand;


    these enzymes may help degrading lignin, using oxygen as the oxidant. Laccases can catalyze polymerization of lignin, but the question is whether and how laccases can directly catalyze modification of lignin via catalytic bond cleavage. Via a thorough review of the available literature and detailed...

  19. Catalyzed electrolytic plutonium oxide dissolution

    Catalyzed electrolytic plutonium oxide dissolution (CEPOD) was first demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in early 1974 in work funded by the Exxon Corporation. The work, aimed at dissolution of Pu-containing residues remaining after the dissolution of spent mixed-oxide reactor fuels, was first publicly disclosed in 1981. The process dissolves PuO2 in an anolyte containing small (catalytic) amounts of elements that form kinetically fast, strongly oxidizing ions. These are continuously regenerated at the anode. Catalysts used, in their oxidized form, include Ag2+, Ce4+, Co3+, and AmO22+. This paper reviews the chemistry involved in CEPOD and the results of its application to the dissolution of the Pu content of a variety of PuO2-containing materials such as off-standard oxide, fuels dissolution residues, incinerator ash, contaminated soils, and other scraps or wastes. Results are presented for both laboratory-scale and plant-scale dissolves

  20. Coupling of Vinyl Aziridines and Isocyanates

    Zhang, Kainan; Chopade, Pramod R.; Louie, Janis


    Thermal coupling of vinyl aziridines and phenyl isocyanate was evaluated. Although oxazolidinone products were predominant, some reactions afforded a seven-membered ring heterocycle. When Ni/IMes was employed as a catalyst, a wider array of vinyl aziridines underwent coupling reactions. The Ni catalyzed reactions generally afforded vinyl imidazolidinones as major products.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Polyfluorophenylation of Porphyrins with Bis(polyfluorophenylzinc Reagents

    Toshikatsu Takanami


    Full Text Available A facile and efficient method for the synthesis of pentafluorophenyl- and related polyfluorophenyl-substituted porphyrins has been achieved via palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of brominated porphyrins with bis(polyfluorophenylzinc reagents. The reaction is applicable to a variety of free-base bromoporphyrins, their metal complexes, and a number of bis(polyfluorophenylzinc reagents.

  2. C3 functionalization of indolizines via In(iii)-catalyzed three-component reaction.

    Jung, Youngeun; Kim, Ikyon


    Post-functionalization at the C3 position of indolizines via In(iii)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction with amines and aldehydes allowed rapid access to a new class of indolizines with diverse functional groups at the C3 position in good to excellent yields. PMID:26380932

  3. A new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component synthesis of (diarylmethylsulfonamides

    Antoine Pignon


    Full Text Available The synthesis of (diarylmethylsulfonamides and related compounds by a new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component reaction between sulfonamides, carbonyl compounds and organic bromides is described. This organometallic Mannich-like process allows the formation of the coupling products within minutes at room temperature. A possible mechanism, emphasizing the crucial role of manganese is proposed.

  4. A new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides

    Pignon, Antoine; Martens, Thierry


    Summary The synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides and related compounds by a new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component reaction between sulfonamides, carbonyl compounds and organic bromides is described. This organometallic Mannich-like process allows the formation of the coupling products within minutes at room temperature. A possible mechanism, emphasizing the crucial role of manganese is proposed. PMID:24605162

  5. An Improved Protocol for the Pd-catalyzed α-Arylation of Aldehydes with Aryl Halides

    Martín, Rubén; Buchwald, Stephen L.


    An improved protocol for the Pd-catalyzed α-arylation of aldehydes with aryl halides has been developed. The new catalytic system allows for the coupling of an array of substrates including challenging electron-rich aryl bromides and less reactive aryl chlorides. The utility of this method has been demonstrated in a new total synthesis of (±)-sporochnol.

  6. Synthesis of sulfonamides via copper-catalyzed oxidative C-N bond cleavage of tertiary amines.

    Ji, Jing; Liu, Zhengyi; Liu, Ping; Sun, Peipei


    A copper-catalyzed coupling reaction of sulfonyl chlorides with tertiary amines via the oxidative C-N bond cleavage of tertiary amines was developed. Sulfonamides were synthesized using this strategy in moderate to good yields. The reaction was applicable to various tertiary amines, as well as sulfonyl chlorides. PMID:27356858

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;


    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a...

  8. Homocoupling of benzyl halides catalyzed by POCOP-nickel pincer complexes

    Chen, Tao


    Two types of POCOP-nickel(II) pincer complexes were prepared by mixing POCOP pincer ligands and NiX 2 in toluene at reflux. The resulting nickel complexes efficiently catalyze the homocoupling reactions of benzyl halides in the presence of zinc. The coupled products were obtained in excellent to quantitative yields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of Flurbiprofen via Suzuki Reaction Catalyzed by Palladium Charcoal in Water


    Flurbiprofen 1, an excellent nonsteroidal an tiinflammatory drug, was synthesized in 5steps in 69% overall yield. The key step of constructing the biaryl fragment was successfully achieved via Pd/C-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction in water using sodium tetraphenylborate as phenylation reagent.

  10. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process

    Jiancan Zhao


    Full Text Available A Fe(acac3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(arylvinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71–95%. The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained.

  11. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process

    Jiancan Zhao; Hong Fang; Jianlin Han; Yi Pan


    A Fe(acac)3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(aryl)vinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71–95%). The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained.

  12. Z-Selective copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation with Grignard reagents.

    Giannerini, Massimo; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    Allylic gem-dichlorides undergo regio- and enanantioselective (er up to 99:1) copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation with Grignard reagents affording chiral Z-vinyl chlorides. This highly versatile class of synthons can be subjected to Suzuki cross coupling affording optically active Z-alkenes and 1,3-cis,trans dienes. PMID:22352853

  13. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process.

    Zhao, Jiancan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi


    A Fe(acac)3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(aryl)vinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71-95%). The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained. PMID:24062833

  14. Z-Selective Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation with Grignard Reagents

    Giannerini, Massimo; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín


    Allylic gem-dichlorides undergo regio- and enanantioselective (er up to 99:1) copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation with Grignard reagents affording chiral Z-vinyl chlorides. This highly versatile class of synthons can be subjected to Suzuki cross coupling affording optically active Z-alkenes and 1,3-cis,trans dienes.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings in organic synthesis:An introduction to the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry%有机合成中钯催化交叉偶联反应:2010年诺贝尔化学奖成果简介

    陈垚; 赖文勇; 解令海; 黄维


    The 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to Professor Richard F. Heck, Professor Ei-ichi Negishi and Professor Akira Suzuki for “palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings in organic synthesis”. The discoveries made by the these three organic chemists have had a great impact on academic research and industrial applications. Their reactions have proved extremely powerful and are widely used for the synthesis of organic electronic materials, new drugs, pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. In this report, we present a brief introduction to the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the related Heck, Nigishi,and Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. We also discuss the recent advances and applications involving these reactions, especially in the field of organic electronics.%瑞典皇家科学院将2010年诺贝尔化学奖授予美国和日本的3位科学家理查德.海克(Richard F.Heck)、根岸英-(Ei-ichi Negishi)和铃木章(Akira Suzuki),以表彰他们在"有机合成中钯催化交叉偶联反应"方面所做出的杰出贡献.他们的研究成果极大地促进了有机合成化学的发展,广泛应用于合成制备具有特殊光电功能的高性能有机电子材料、具有复杂结构的天然产物和生物活性化合物以及一些精细化学品,对学术界和工业界产生了重要影响.本文简要介绍了Heck反应、Negishi反应和Suzuki-Miyaura反应的基本知识,并讨论了其发展和应用概况.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Aryl Acetic Acid Derivatives via Dienolate Intermediates with Aryl Chlorides and Bromides

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jiadi; Walsh, Patrick J.


    To date, examples of α-arylation of carboxylic acids remain scarce. Using a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP), a method for palladium-catalyzed γ-arylation of aryl acetic acids with aryl halides has been developed. This protocol is applicable to a wide range of aryl bromides and chlorides. A procedure for the palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of styryl acetic acids is also described.

  17. Microwave-assisted Cu-catalyzed Ullmann ether synthesis in a continuous-flow milli-plant

    Benaskar, F.; Patil, N G; Meuldijk, J.; Hulshof, L.A.; Hessel, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Engels, V.; Wheatley, A.E.H.; Rebrov, E.V.


    The combination of milli-scale processing and microwave heating has been investigated for the Cu-catalyzed Ullmann etherification in fine-chemical synthesis, providing improved catalytic activity and selective catalyst heating. Wall-coated and fixed-bed milli-reactors were designed and applied in the Cu-catalyzed Ullmann-type CO coupling of phenol and 4-chloropyridine. In a batch reactor the results show clearly increased yields for the microwave heated process at low microwave powers, wherea...

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed C–C Bond Formations via Activation of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Song, Bingrui


    Applications of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions regio-selectively forming Csp3-Csp2, and Csp2-Csp2 bonds were explored in this thesis. Several important organic building blocks such as aryl acetates, diaryl acetates, imines, ketones, biaryls, styrenes and polysubstituted alkenes were successfully accessed from carboxylic acids and their derivatives by the means of C–H activation and decarboxylative cross-couplings. An efficient ...

  19. Palladium-catalyzed insertion of N-tosylhydrazones and trapping with carbon nucleophiles.

    Zhou, Ping-Xin; Ye, Yu-Ying; Liang, Yong-Min


    A Pd-catalyzed three-component cross-coupling reaction of vinyl iodide, N-tosylhydrazone, and carbon nucleophiles is reported, and a one-pot procedure is also developed. The cross-coupling is proposed to proceed through a palladium-carbene migratory insertion, carbopalladation other than classic palladium-carbene migratory insertion, and β-H elimination. Moreover, the reaction proceeds under mild conditions and with high stereoselectivity. PMID:24070001

  20. Advances in nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions to construct carbocycles and heterocycles.

    Thakur, Ashish; Louie, Janis


    Transition-metal catalysis has revolutionized the field of organic synthesis by facilitating the construction of complex organic molecules in a highly efficient manner. Although these catalysts are typically based on precious metals, researchers have made great strides in discovering new base metal catalysts over the past decade. This Account describes our efforts in this area and details the development of versatile Ni complexes that catalyze a variety of cycloaddition reactions to afford interesting carbocycles and heterocycles. First, we describe our early work in investigating the efficacy of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands in Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions with carbon dioxide and isocyanate. The use of sterically hindered, electron donating NHC ligands in these reactions significantly improved the substrate scope as well as reaction conditions in the syntheses of a variety of pyrones and pyridones. The high reactivity and versatility of these unique Ni(NHC) catalytic systems allowed us to develop unprecedented Ni-catalyzed cycloadditions that were unexplored due to the inefficacy of early Ni catalysts to promote hetero-oxidative coupling steps. We describe the development and mechanistic analysis of Ni/NHC catalysts that couple diynes and nitriles to form pyridines. Kinetic studies and stoichiometric reactions confirmed a hetero-oxidative coupling pathway associated with this Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition. We then describe a series of new substrates for Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions such as vinylcyclopropanes, aldehydes, ketones, tropones, 3-azetidinones, and 3-oxetanones. In reactions with vinycyclopropanes and tropones, DFT calculations reveal noteworthy mechanistic steps such as a C-C σ-bond activation and an 8π-insertion of vinylcyclopropane and tropone, respectively. Similarly, the cycloaddition of 3-azetidinones and 3-oxetanones also requires Ni-catalyzed C-C σ-bond activation to form N- and O-containing heterocycles. PMID:26200651

  1. Muon catalyzed fusion under compressive conditions

    The viability of a symbiotic combination of Muon Catalyzed Fusion (μCF) and high density generation processes has been investigated. The muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates are formulated in the temperature and density range found under moderate compressive conditions. Simplified energy gain and power balance calculations indicate that significant energy gain occurs only if standard type deuterium-tritium (dt) fusion is ignited. A computer simulation of the hydrodynamics and fusion kinetics of a spherical deuterium-tritium pellet implosion including muons is performed. Using the muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates formulated and under ideal conditions, the pellet ignites (and thus has a significant energy gain) only if the initial muon concentration is approximately 1017 cm-3. The muons need to be delivered to the pellet within a very short-time (≅ 1 ns). The muon pulse required in order to make the high density and temperature muon catalyzed fusion scheme viable is beyond the present technology for muon production. (orig.)

  2. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transformations of Alcohols: Mechanistic Investigations and Methodology Development

    Makarov, Ilya; Madsen, Robert; Fristrup, Peter

    The mechanism of the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines was studied in detail by employing the combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The Hammett study revealed that a small positive charge is formed at the benzylic position in the......-substituted ruthenium complex afforded the amide in 38% yield. It indicated that in silico ligand screening might be used for catalyst optimization if it is combined with a more comprehensive experimental study. An improved protocol was developed for the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative self-coupling of primary...... unknown ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative Guerbet reaction with secondary alcohols to give ketones was discovered. The reaction conditions were optimized and the scope and the limitations were studied. It was found that only acyclic 2-methyl carbinols and simple cyclic alcohols underwent this...

  3. Rhodium-catalyzed acyloxy migration of propargylic esters in cycloadditions, inspiration from the recent "gold rush".

    Shu, Xing-Zhong; Shu, Dongxu; Schienebeck, Casi M; Tang, Weiping


    Transition metal-catalyzed acyloxy migration of propargylic esters offers versatile entries to allene and vinyl carbene intermediates for various fascinating subsequent transformations. Most π-acidic metals (e.g. gold and platinum) are capable of facilitating these acyloxy migration events. However, very few of these processes involve redox chemistry, which are well-known for most other transition metals such as rhodium. The coupling of acyloxy migration of propargylic esters with oxidative addition, migratory insertion, and reductive elimination may lead to ample new opportunities for the design of new reactions. This tutorial review summarizes recent developments in Rh-catalyzed 1,3- and 1,2-acyloxy migration of propargylic esters in a number of cycloaddition reactions. Related Au- and Pt-catalyzed cycloadditions involving acyloxy migration are also discussed. PMID:22895533

  4. Cross-Coupling Reaction with Lithium Methyltriolborate

    Norio Miyaura


    Full Text Available We newly developed lithium methyltriolborate as an air-stable white solid that is convenient to handle. The good performance of this triolborate for metal-catalyzed bond-forming reactions was demonstrated in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with haloarenes. Cross-coupling reaction of [MeB(OCH23CCH3]Li with aryl halides occurred in the presence of Pd(OAc2/RuPhos complex in refluxing MeOH/H2O and the absence of bases.

  5. Cross-Coupling Reaction with Lithium Methyltriolborate

    Norio Miyaura; Hajime Ito; Yasunori Yamamoto; Kazuya Ikizakura


    We newly developed lithium methyltriolborate as an air-stable white solid that is convenient to handle. The good performance of this triolborate for metal-catalyzed bond-forming reactions was demonstrated in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with haloarenes. Cross-coupling reaction of [MeB(OCH2)3CCH3]Li with aryl halides occurred in the presence of Pd(OAc)2/RuPhos complex in refluxing MeOH/H2O and the absence of bases.

  6. Cross-Coupling Reaction with Lithium Methyltriolborate

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Ikizakura, Kazuya; Ito, Hajime; Miyaura, Norio


    We newly developed lithium methyltriolborate as an air-stable white solid that is convenient to handle. The good performance of this triolborate for metal-catalyzed bond-forming reactions was demonstrated in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with haloarenes. Cross-coupling reaction of [MeB(OCH2)3CCH3]Li with aryl halides occurred in the presence of Pd(OAc)2/RuPhos complex in refluxing MeOH/H2O and the absence of bases.

  7. Homogeneous and heterogeneous photoredox-catalyzed hydroxymethylation of ketones and keto esters: catalyst screening, chemoselectivity and dilution effects

    Axel G. Griesbeck


    Full Text Available The homogeneous titanium- and dye-catalyzed as well as the heterogeneous semiconductor particle-catalyzed photohydroxymethylation of ketones by methanol were investigated in order to evaluate the most active photocatalyst system. Dialkoxytitanium dichlorides are the most efficient species for chemoselective hydroxymethylation of acetophenone as well as other aromatic and aliphatic ketones. Pinacol coupling is the dominant process for semiconductor catalysis and ketone reduction dominates the Ti(OiPr4/methanol or isopropanol systems. Application of dilution effects on the TiO2 catalysis leads to an increase in hydroxymethylation at the expense of the pinacol coupling.

  8. Gold-Catalyzed Direct Arylation

    Ball, L. T.; Lloyd-jones, G. C.; Russell, C. A.


    Biaryls (two directly connected aromatic rings, Ar1-Ar2) are common motifs in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and organic materials. Current methods for establishing the Ar1-Ar2 bond are dominated by the cross-coupling of aryl halides (Ar1-X) with aryl metallics (Ar2-M). We report that, in the presence of 1 to 2 mole percent of a gold catalyst and a mild oxidant, a wide range of arenes (Ar1-H) undergo site-selective arylation by arylsilanes (Ar2-SiMe3) to generate biaryls (Ar1-Ar2), with litt...

  9. G Protein-coupled receptors

    Ross, Elliott M.


    G protein-coupled receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins can diffuse laterally in the plasma membrane such that one receptor can catalyze the activation (GDP/GTP exchange) of multiple G proteins. In some cases, these processes are fast enough to support molecular signal amplification, where a single receptor maintains the activation of multiple G proteins at steady-state. Amplification in cells is probably highly regulated. It depends upon the identities of the G receptor and G protein - som...

  10. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    Green, Daniel; Silverstein, Eva; Starr, David


    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Amination of Bromoanthancene

    YU Ming-Xin; CHEN Xiao-Hang; CHENG Chien-Hong


    @@ Triarylamines are an important class of compounds, because they have been used as the hole-transport layer in electroluminescent devices. [1] New palladium catalyzed methods to form arylamines have emerged recently from Hartwing and Bucchwald . [2,3] Our group have investigated unusual diboration of allenes catalyzed by palladium complex and organic iodides. [4] Here we will report that arylamines react with bromoanthrancene (or dibromoanthancene) to afford triarylamines in the presence of Ligand-palladium complex. The structures of products were de termined by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 13C (DEPT), IR and MS (HREI and EI) spectra.

  12. Peroxidase catalyzed conjugation of peptides, proteins and polysaccharides via endogenous and exogenous phenols.

    Oudgenoeg, G.


    The research was directed towards peroxidase mediated cross-linking of proteins and polysaccharides. Two approaches were explored, cross-linking by use of ferulic acid (FA)oand cross-linking by use of catechol. Within each approach, first model studies were performed with small peptides, of which the findings were applied in subsequent studies with proteins. First, a kinetically controlled incubation that leads to covalently coupled adducts of the tripeptide Gly-Tyr-Gly (GYG) and FA, catalyze...

  13. Synthesis of alpha-tetrasubstituted triazoles by copper-catalyzed silyl deprotection/azide cycloaddition

    Zachary L. Palchak; Nguyen, Paula T; Larsen, Catharine H


    Propargylamines are popular substrates for triazole formation, but tetrasubstituted variants have required multistep syntheses involving stoichiometric amounts of metal. A recent cyclohexanone–amine–silylacetylene coupling forms silyl-protected tetrasubstituted propargylamines in a single copper-catalyzed step. The development of the tandem silyl deprotection–triazole formation reported herein offers rapid access to alpha-tetrasubstituted triazoles. A streamlined two-step approach to this unc...

  14. Regiochemical Control in the Metal-Catalyzed Transposition of Allylic Silyl Ethers

    Hansen, Eric C.; Lee, Daesung


    A novel mode of regiochemical control over the allylic [1,3]-transposition of silyloxy groups catalyzed by Re2O7 has been developed. This strategy relies on a cis-oriented vinyl boronate, generated from the Alder ene reaction of homoallylic silyl ethers and alkynyl boronates, to trap out the allylic hydroxyl group. The resulting cyclic boronic acids are excellent partners for cross coupling reactions. High chirality transfer is observed for the rearrangement of enantioenriched allylic silyl e...

  15. Diastereoselective metal-catalyzed synthesis of C-aryl and C-vinyl glycosides.

    Nicolas, Lionel; Angibaud, Patrick; Stansfield, Ian; Bonnet, Pascal; Meerpoel, Lieven; Reymond, Sébastien; Cossy, Janine


    Cobalt, the catalyst of choice: The diastereoselective cobalt-catalyzed cross-coupling of 1-bromo glycosides and aryl or vinyl Grignard reagents is described. A convenient and inexpensive catalyst, [Co(acac)(3)]/tmeda (acac = acetylacetonate, tmeda = N,N'-tetramethylethylenediamine), gives full α selectivity in the mannose and galactose series, and an α selectivity in the glucose series with α/β ratios of 1.3:1-3:1. PMID:23023954

  16. Thermodynamic driving force effects in the oxygen reduction catalyzed by a metal-free porphyrin

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Cyclic voltammetry and the stopped-flow kinetic measurements are used to investigate the thermodynamic driving force effects in the molecular oxygen reduction with the methyl (Me)-substituted ferrocenes MenFc (n = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) at the polarized water|1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface and in the homogeneous DCE phase, which is catalyzed by 5,10,15,20-meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) dissolved in DCE. Ferrocene derivatives are characterized by their reversible half-wave potentials E1/2rev which are inferred from cyclic voltammetric data, and by the coresponding formal potentials E′0(SHE,o) referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode in DCE. It is shown that the reduction of the activated oxygen with MenFc is the rate-determining step in both electrochemical and chemical catalytic cycles. Plots of the logarithm of the rate constant of the catalyzed, non-catalyzed and electrocatalyzed oxygen reduction vs. the reversible half-wave potential for the MenFc+/MenFc redox couples in DCE have approximately the same slopes. Their values correspond to the Brønsted coefficient of about 1/2, which is characteristic for reactions with the symmetric activation barrier. A comparison of rates of the catalyzed and non-catalyzed oxygen reduction points to the inhibitory effect of water in the former case. Observed difference between the rates of the catalyzed and electrocatalyzed oxygen reduction was ascribed to the inhibitory effect of the present counteranion.

  17. Enyne Metathesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Carbene Complexes

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert


    Enyne metathesis combines an alkene and an alkyne into a 1,3-diene. The first enyne metathesis reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium carbene complex was reported in 1994. This review covers the advances in this transformation during the last eight years with particular emphasis on methodology...

  18. Palladium Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Fristrup, Peter


    The atom-efficiency of one of the most widely used catalytic reactions for forging C-C bonds, the Tsuji-Trost reaction, is limited by the need of preoxidized reagents. This limitation can be overcome by utilization of the recently discovered palladium-catalyzed C-H activation, the allylic C...

  19. Sulfilimimines in metal-catalyzed redox reactions

    Voltrová, Svatava; Šrogl, Jiří

    Praha : -, 2009. s. 593-593. ISBN 978-80-02-02160-5. [ESOC 2009. European Symposium on Organic Chemistry /16./. 12.07.2009-16.07.2009, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sulfilimines * metal catalyzed oxidations * benzoisothiazolone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    Stamenković Olivera S.


    Full Text Available The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial application, the factors which influence the kinetics of chemically-catalysed transesterification are also considered. The advantages of lipase-catalyzed transesterification compared to the chemically-catalysed reaction, are pointed out. The cost of down-processing and ecological problems are significantly reduced by applying lipases. It was also emphasized that lipase-catalysed transesterification should be greatly improved in order to make it commercially applicable. The further optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification should include studies on the development of new reactor systems with immobilized biocatalysts and the addition of alcohol in several portions, and the use of extra cellular lipases tolerant to organic solvents, intracellular lipases (i.e. whole microbial cells and genetically-modified microorganisms ("intelligent" yeasts.

  1. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.


    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  2. CuO-Al2O3 catalyzed oxidation of primary benzylamines and secondary dibenzylamines to N-benzylbenzaldimines

    Jing Hui Zeng


    Full Text Available CuO-Al 2O 3 catalyzed one-pot oxidation with O 2 and self-coupling of benzylamines to give N-benzylbenzaldimines was described in good yields. Similarly, secondary dibenzylamines were oxidized to N-benzylbenzaldimines.

  3. N-Arylation of amines, amides, imides and sulfonamides with arylboroxines catalyzed by simple copper salt/EtOH system

    Zheng, Zhang-Guo; Wen, Jun; Wang, Na; Wu, Bo; Yu, Xiao-Qi


    The coupling of arylboroxines with a variety of amines, amides, imides and sulfonamides catalyzed by a copper salt/EtOH system has been developed. In the absence of a base or additive the corresponding N-arylation products were obtained in moderate to excellent yields.

  4. Kinetics of aggregation growth with competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death

    An aggregation growth model of three species A, B and C with the competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death is proposed. Irreversible aggregation occurs between any two aggregates of the like species with the constant rate kernels In(n = 1,2,3). Meanwhile, a monomer birth of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a B species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed birth rate kernel K(k,j) = Kkjv and a monomer death of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a C species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed death rate kernel L(k,j)=Lkjv, where v is a parameter reflecting the dependence of the catalysis reaction rates of birth and death on the size of catalyst aggregate. The kinetic evolution behaviours of the three species are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. The form of the aggregate size distribution of A species ak(t) is found to be dependent crucially on the competition between the catalyzed birth and death of A species, as well as the irreversible aggregation processes of the three species: (1) In the v k(t) satisfies the conventional scaling form; (2) In the v ≥ 0 case, the competition between the catalyzed birth and death dominates the process. When the catalyzed birth controls the process, ak(t) takes the conventional or generalized scaling form. While the catalyzed death controls the process, the scaling description of the aggregate size distribution breaks down completely

  5. Nickel-catalyzed vinylation of aryl chlorides and bromides with vinyl ZnBr.MgBrCl.

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tetsu


    The Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl halides and vinylzinc bromide for the synthesis of styrene derivatives was investigated. Of the catalysts surveyed, the combination of Ni(acac)(2) and Xantphos was found to be the most effective for this cross-coupling. This catalyst could be used in reactions with various aryl bromides and chlorides, including electron-rich aryl chlorides such as chloroanisoles. PMID:19354270

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Diarylation of o-Carboranes By Direct Cage B-H Activation.

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei


    Palladium-catalyzed intermolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics by direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of cage B(4,5)-diarylated-o-carboranes in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. Traceless directing group -COOH plays a crucial role for site- and di-selectivity of such intermolecular coupling reaction. A Pd(II)-Pd(IV)-Pd(II) catalytic cycle is proposed to be responsible for the stepwise arylation. PMID:26463595

  7. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative sulfonylation of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids.

    Rokade, Balaji V; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah


    Copper-catalyzed, ligand-promoted decarboxylative coupling of readily available α,β-unsaturated acids with sodium aryl sulfinates is presented. This method provides a new avenue for the synthesis of vinyl sulfones via a decarboxylative radical coupling strategy by employing a catalytic amount of Cu(ClO4)2·6H2O, TBHP in decane as an oxidant, and 1,10-phenanthroline as a ligand. The salient feature of this method is that it furnishes exclusively the (E)-isomer. PMID:25098975

  8. Parameters critical to muon-catalyzed fusion

    We have demonstrated that muon catalysis cycling rates increase rapidly with increasing deuterium-tritium gas temperatures and densities. Furthermore, muon-capture losses are significantly smaller than predicted before the experiments. There remains a significant gap between observation and theoretical expectation for the muon-alpha sticking probability in dense d-t mixtures. We have been able to achieve muon-catalyzed yields of 150 fusion/muon (average). While the fusion energy thereby released significantly exceeds expectations, enhancements by nearly a factor of twenty would be needed to realize energy applications for a pure (non-hybrid) muon-catalyzed fusion reactor. The process could be useful in tritium-breeding schemes. We have also explored a new form of cold nuclear fusion which occurs when hydrogen isotopes are loaded into metals. 22 refs., 10 figs

  9. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as ''Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed

  10. Copper Catalyzed Oceanic Methyl Halide Production

    Robin Kim, Jae Yun; Rhew, Robert


    Methyl halides are found in all of Earth’s biomes, produced naturally or through manmade means. Their presence in the atmosphere is problematic, as they catalyze depletion of stratospheric ozone. To understand the full environmental impact of these compounds, it is important to identify their chemical cycling processes. Iron increases methyl halide production in soils and oceans, yet copper’s influence remains unknown despite its similar chemical oxidation properties to iron. I experimentally...