Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and
Dashper Stuart; Gussy Mark; Calache Hanny; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M; Gibson Jane; Waters Elizabeth
Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a ...
Code INSEE de la commune : 73006Lien Atlas (MCC) :http://atlas.patrimoines.culture.fr/atlas/trunk/index.php?ap_theme=DOM_2.01.02&ap_bbox=6.561;45.491;6.670;45.620 Le diagnostic réalisé à Aime, au lieu-dit Le Poëncet, rue du Prince, concerne une surface de 250 m2. Cette emprise est localisée en limite occidentale du forum antique d’Aime. Deux murs de facture grossière, perpendiculaires, orientés est-ouest et nord-sud ont été mis au jour. En l’absence de mobilier pour la dater, seule leur orien...
Chemin, René; Feuillet, Marie-Pierre
Identifiant de l'opération archéologique : 9728 Date de l'opération : 2008 (SP) La création d'un lotissement au lieu-dit Les Chaudannes a suscité un diagnostic mené par P.-J. Rey dont les résultats ont conduit le service régional de l'Archéologie à prescrire un fouille. La commune d'Aime a déjà livré de nombreux vestiges pré et protohistoriques : occupation néolithique au Dos de Borgaz, à Saint-Sigismond, au Replat (nécropole de type Chamblandes) et à proximité du présent projet, occupation d...
Apsari, R.; Pratomo, D. A.; Hikmawati, D.; Bidin, N.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser energy dose to human enamel caries. The specifications of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser as followed: wavelength of 1064 nm and 6 ns pulse width. Caries enamel samples taken from human teeth molars of 17-35 ages and the type of media caries. Energy doses used in this study were 723.65 mJ/cm2, 767.72 mJ/cm2, and 1065.515 mJ/cm2; 5 Hz repetition rate, and 20 second exposure time. Samples characterized the surface morphology and the percentage of constituent elements, especially calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) with FESEM-EDAX. The fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of hydroxyapatite (HA) with XRD and hardness value using Vickers Microhardness Test. The results indicated that exposure of Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser on enamel caries resulting cracks, holes, and melt due to plasma production effects in the surface. Plasma production effect also resulted in micro properties such as percentage of Ca/P was close to normal, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA went up but did not change the crystal structure (in terms of the lattice structure). The hardness value also rose as linear as exposure energy dose caused by phototermal effect. Based on the results, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser can be used as contactless drill dental caries replacement candidate with the additional therapy effect such as localized caries in order to avoid the spread, the ratio of Ca/P approaching healthy teeth, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA rose and established stronger teeth with peak energy dose 1065.515 mJ/cm2.
Leroy, Roos; Declerck, Dominique
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012 Background. Caries in preschool children remains an important public health issue. Aim. To determine (i) which teeth and tooth surfaces are most susceptible to dental caries by age 3, (ii) where do caries lesions develop during 2-year follow-up, and (iii) to evaluate the impact of caries onset on the distribution of new caries experience. Design. One thousand and fifty seven consecutively born children were recruited in Flanders (Belgium)....
Nidhi Madan; Arun Rathnam; Neeti Bajaj
Background: Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental carie...
M Ajayi Deborah; M F Abiodun-Solanke Iyabode; O Gbadebo Shakeerah
Background: Rampant caries in adults has not been a focus of many researches unlike the childhood form of the disease. The disease is an interesting finding in an adult patient. When the condition occurs in children, it has been described as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, and the most recently adopted term, "early childhood caries". Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence of rampant caries among adult patients. Materials and Methods: Cases of rampant caries were id...
Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...
Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT) multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions ...
Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung
Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...
Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh
Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC).
Mobley Connie; Dounis Georgia; Ditmyer Marcia; Schwarz Eli
Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC) was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the car...
Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA
Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and furthe...
Marginean Roxana; Lucas Ramona; Lech Katarzyna; Larsen Jens; Lai Taavi; Hjorth Peter; Henderson John; Halis Ulaş; Germanavicius Arunas; Genova Aneta; Friedrich Fabian; Freidl Marion; Dragomirecka Eva; Dernovsek Mojca; Burton Alexandra
Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical il...
Weiser, P.; Becker, T; Losert, C.; Altpekin, K.; Berti, L.; Burti, L.; Burton, A
Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical ...
Šurdilović Dušan; Stojanović Ivana 1; Apostolović Mirjana
Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high ...
Hall-Scullin, Emma; Goldthorpe, Joanna; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin
Background The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents towards dental caries and their use or non-use of caries prevention regimens. Methods Adolescents aged 16 years from four state-funded secondary schools in North West of England (n = 19). Purposive sampling strategically selected participants with characteristics to inform the study aims (gender, ethnicity, and caries status). Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a f...
WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai
Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P ＜0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P ＜0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.
Baggio, Stéphanie; Abarca, Marcelo; Bodenmann, Patrick; Gehri, Mario; Madrid, Carlos
Background Early childhood caries (ECC) is a marker of social inequalities worldwide because disadvantaged children are more likely to develop caries than their peers. This study aimed to define the ECC prevalence among children living in French-speaking Switzerland, where data on this topic were scarce, and to assess whether ECC was an early marker of social inequalities in this country. Methods The study took place between 2010 and 2012 in the primary care facility of Lausanne Children’s Ho...
Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.
Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...
Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta
According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment. PMID:23484402
Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; Radha, Gubbihal
Background Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Bengaluru city I...
Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; G. Radha
Background: Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Ben...
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental
Strömberg Ulf; Holmn Anders; Magnusson Kerstin; Twetman Svante
Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool re...
Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.
Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar
Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.
Zanata, Régia Luzia; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Pereira, José Carlos; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Lauris, José Roberto P; Barbosa, Sílvia Helena
The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38) and experimental (43) groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions) was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later) and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization) was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2), however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque) and maternal factors. PMID:12964648
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries develops as a result of the metabolism of carbohydrates by cariogenic bacteria present in a complex biofilm. The present study aimed to examine if bacteria in pooled supragingival plaque samples quantified using a “checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization” based panel of caries-related bacteria, could reflect the caries experience in a manner similar to saliva samples analysed using a chair-side method in a previous investigation. Methods A total of 86 mothers and their children aged 4–6 years and 12–16 years old participated. Caries experience (DMFT/dmft; Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth for permanent and primary teeth was registered clinically and radiographically. Caries was recorded at the D3 level (caries into dentine. The D/d component was divided into three categories. A pooled supragingival plaque sample per participant was obtained from posterior approximal sites. Analyses of 15 bacterial species were performed using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation technique. Results No significant relationships were found between the bacterial scores and DMFT/dmft nor D/d groups. Conclusions Unlike the saliva samples and the chair-side method, interproximal pooled plaque samples analysed using the “checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique” did not reveal any significant relations between the bacterial counts and the caries experience.
Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…
Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S.; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS
Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional stu...
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industriali...
Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John DB
Background Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. Methods This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deeme...
Kalpana Bansal; Meetu Goyal; Renuka Dhingra
Background: Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, there has been minimal research showing the association of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate an association between S-ECC with IDA. The secondary objective was to find an association between severe caries and body weight of the child. The oral health-related quality of life of children with S-ECC wa...
Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.
Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.
Ericson Thorild; Källestål Carina; Johansson Ingegerd; Nordlund Åke; Sjöström Michael; Strömberg Nicklas
Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88) for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries) and prospective (2-year caries development) setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the ...
Mare Saag; Tero Vahlberg; Jana Olak; Sisko Honkala; Riina Runnel; Eino Honkala; Kauko K. Mäkinen
Caries has traditionally been assessed with WHO criteria including only obvious caries lesions. ICDAS has been developed to detect also the enamel caries lesions. This study aims to study caries and the associations of the number of caries lesions between the permanent and primary molars with ICDAS in the mixed dentition of the first and second grade primary school children. The clinical examinations of 485 children were conducted by four examiners with high reproducibility (inter- and intrae...
A Elangovan; J Mungara; Joseph, E
Background and Aim: Childhood overweight and obesity are becoming a major public health concern all over the world. Change in lifestyles and economic growth have led to sedentary lifestyle and altered dietary patterns. There are conflicting reports in the literature regarding the association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries from various parts of the world. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between BMI-for-age and dental caries in children ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was
De Bruyn, Hugo
Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical applications. Recently the importance of small amounts of fluoride in caries prevention and remineralization has been stressed and the importance of large arnounts of fluoride acquired in the teeth is ...
In clinical dentistry proper treatment of caries lesions is highly dependent on diagnostic accuracy. Aim The present dissertation aimed at the evaluation and comparisons between several modem methods for caries detection and quantification. Methods The employed methods for detection and quantification of caries lesions may be divided into two categories, namely laser fluorescence based methods and radiographic methods. Laser fluorescence The performance of the...
Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh
Background Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. Methods A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the chil...
Aljafari, Ahmad K; Gallagher, Jennifer Elizabeth; Hosey, Marie Therese
Background Despite overall improvements in oral health, a large number of children in United Kingdom (UK) are affected by dental caries; and the implementation of oral health promotion in some families remains a challenge. As such, children from those families suffer high caries rates, and are frequently referred for tooth extraction under General Anaesthesia (GA), one of the commonest reasons for paediatric hospital admissions. The aim of this investigation is to explore referring primary ca...
A. Kaur; K S Kwatra; Kamboj, P.
Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free ...
Söderström, Ulf; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin
BACKGROUND: The Public Dental Service of Västerbotten County (Sweden) recommends using population-based prevention strategies combined with an individual strategy for high-risk patients to manage caries. To facilitate this management strategy, all patients are evaluated for their risk of developing caries in the coming year using defined criteria. Using caries risk scoring over a seven-year period, the present study evaluates prophylactic measures, caries development, and non-operative treatm...
Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: The high occurrence of early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children dentistry. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp in 3-5 –year- old children with and without dental caries.Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 60 children aged 3 -5-years, without any history of systemic disease, who had not received any antibiotic therapy and fluoride usage during the last month. The cases were divided into three groups of early childhood caries, usual caries and caries-free. The infected dentin samples were collected from cervical and proximal in ECC and usual caries group, respectively. Also in all the three groups, the samples of dental plaque from buccal surfaces were collected and immediately immersed into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI broth medium. After that, the diluted sample was plated onto MitisSalivarius agar (Difco for detecting streptococcus mutans and Rogosa agar (Difco for detecting lactobacilli.spp. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and ANOVA.Results: of the samples taken from dental plaque, S. mutans is observed in 90% of ECC, 80% of proxymolcarries and in 25% of caries-free individuals. Based on the results, the presence of S.mutans in the group of caries is significantly higher than that of without caries, but there is no significant difference between the two groups of caries. In addition, lactobacill.spp is isolated from 60% ofthe samples, but there is no significant difference between two groups of caries and caries-free. The average of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index in the group with early childhood caries (6.95±1.572 and usual caries (5.80±1.105 is different significantly. Pearson correlation test shows that there is a significant relationship
In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye
Full Text Available Background: Mechanical method of caries removal is associated with the removal of sound tooth structure, production of pain, heat, annoying sounds, and vibrations. Chemomechanical caries removal method is based on removal of only carious dentin leaving sound dentin intact. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of mechanical and chemomechanical methods of caries removal in deciduous and permanent teeth. Study Design: A total of 30 carious teeth including 15 deciduous and 15 permanent teeth having dentinal caries selected randomly and cut into two halves through center of the lesion, were subjected to caries removal by mechanical (Group A, and chemomechanical methods (Group B. Time taken for removal of caries was noted with stopwatch. Samples were prepared and seen under the scanning electron microscope for the presence of bacterial colonies. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Software. Results: No significant difference was found for the presence of bacterial colonies in both groups of deciduous and permanent teeth; however, time taken for caries removal by the chemomechanical method was twice than the mechanical method. Conclusion: despite the insignificant presence of bacterial colonies and twice time taken as compared to mechanical method, chemomechanical method was easy to introduce, was painless, did not form smear layer and conserved the sound tooth structure.
Ahmadi Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Hendi, Seyedeh Sareh; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas
Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50...
Tao, Renchuan; Jurevic, Richard J.; Coulton, Kimberly K.; Tsutsui, Marjorie T.; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Kimball, Janet R.; Wells, Norma; Berndt, Jeffery; Dale, Beverly A.
Dental caries is a major worldwide oral disease problem in children. Although caries are known to be influenced by dietary factors, the disease results from a bacterial infection; thus, caries susceptibility may be affected by host factors such as salivary antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin LL37, and the alpha...
Kanasi, E.; Johansson, I; Lu, S.C.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Kent, R; Tanner, A.C.R.
Dental caries in pre-school children has significant public health and health disparity implications. To determine microbial risk markers for this infection, this study aimed to compare the microbiota of children with early childhood caries with that of caries-free children. Plaque samples from incisors, molars, and the tongue from 195 children attending pediatricians’ offices were assayed by 74 DNA probes and by PCR to Streptococcus mutans. Caries-associated factors included visible plaque, ...
Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic differences in oral health have been reported in many countries. Poverty and social exclusion are two commonly used indicators of socioeconomic position in Latin America. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries experience in 12-year-old children. Methods Ninety families, with a child aged 12 years, were selected from 11 underserved communities in Lima (Peru, using a two-stage cluster sampling. Head of households were interviewed with regard to indicators of poverty and social exclusion and their children were clinically examined for dental caries. The associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries prevalence were tested in binary logistic regression models. Results Among children in the sample, 84.5% lived in poor households and 30.0% in socially excluded families. Out of all the children, 83.3% had dental caries. Poverty and social exclusion were significantly associated with dental caries in the unadjusted models (p = 0.013 and 0.047 respectively. In the adjusted model, poverty remained significantly related to dental caries (p = 0.008, but the association between social exclusion and dental caries was no longer significant (p = 0.077. Children living in poor households were 2.25 times more likely to have dental caries (95% confidence interval: 1.24; 4.09, compared to those living in non-poor households. Conclusion There was support for an association between poverty and dental caries, but not for an association between social exclusion and dental caries in these children. Some potential explanations for these findings are discussed.
Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman; Paulina Miranda Reyes; Valeria Bravo León
Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years). Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to co...
Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo
The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate ...
The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of j...
Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman
Full Text Available Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years. Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to complete the Cariogram: caries experience, diet (content and frequency, stimulated salivary flow, hygiene index, related diseases and fluoride usage. The percentages of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk were obtained from Cariogram, and the subjects were classified into five risk groups. Results were compared for each variable with ANOVA, and a correlation between caries and Cariogram variables was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model was also used. Only three patients were classified as low risk, and none were classified as very low risk. Thus, only the four upper quintiles were considered for the analysis, and the lower quintile was not considered in the study. Neither DMFT nor the number of lesions were significantly different among the Cariogram's risk categories (p > 0.05. Only diet content was significantly correlated with caries experience (p = 0.006. Caries lesions failed to correlate with any Cariogram variable (p > 0.05. Age, not sex or caries risk scores, showed a strong and positive association with DMFT (p < 0.01. Caries risk from Cariogram appears to be unrelated with caries experience or caries lesions in a high-caries adult population.
Sundell, Anna Lena; Ullbro, Christer; Marcusson, Agneta;
cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) children with non-cleft controls in the same age using a computerized caries risk assessment model. METHODS: The study group consisted of 133 children with CL(P) (77 subjects aged 5 years and 56 aged 10 years) and 297 non-cleft controls (133 aged 5 years and 164 aged 10......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that children with oral clefts may have higher caries prevalence in comparison with non-cleft controls but the relative importance of the potential risk factors is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles in a group of...
Lena Sundell, Anna; Ullbro, Christer; Marcusson, Agneta; Twetman, Svante
Background: Previous studies have suggested that children with oral clefts may have higher caries prevalence in comparison with non-cleft controls but the relative importance of the potential risk factors is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles in a group of cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) children with non-cleft controls in the same age using a computerized caries risk assessment model. Methods: The study group consisted of 133 children with CL(P) (77 subj...
Gil, Giovana S; Morikava, Francine S; Santin, Gabriela C; Pintarelli, Tatiana P; Fraiz, Fabian C; Ferreira, Fernanda M.
Background In the present state of knowledge regarding the etiology of dental caries, it is unacceptable for studies addressing factors associated with this outcome to disregard oral hygiene. Simple, valid methods are needed for the assessment of oral hygiene in adolescents to allow this condition to be properly investigated in epidemiological studies on caries and assist in the establishment of health promotion measures. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the self-r...
del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo
Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft...
Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Paul A. Scuffham; Johnson, Newell W
Background The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and c...
Zhang, Shinan; Chau, Alex MH; Lo, Edward CM; Chu, Chun-Hung
Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral hea...
Amandeep Chopra; Nanak Chand Rao; Nidhi Gupta; Shelja Vashisth; Manav Lakhanpal
Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school...
Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA
Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and further analyze an age association. Subjects and Methods: Decayed-Filled teeth/Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (dft/DMFT) index scores of 150 subjects were evaluated, and concentrated oral rinse samples were collected from each participant for mycologic investigation. Based on the age and caries activity, the participants were categorized into three groups consisting of 50 each such as Group-I (caries active participants of 6–12 years age), Group-II (caries active participants in 13–18 years age), and Group-III (caries-free participants in 6–18 years age); CHROMagar™ was used as a primary culture medium for candidal growth. The data was statistically analyzed using Unpaired t-test, Chi-square test and Spearman's rank order. Results: The results demonstrated that as age increases, the dft/DMFT scores as well as the candidal growth decreased. In addition, the oral candidal carriage levels were found to be low in caries-free group (Group-III) when compared to the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of Candida was directly related to the caries status and inversely proportional to the age. PMID:27213089
Shivakumar K; Vidya S; Chandu G
Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from c...
Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment...
Jordan, A Rainer; Becker, Natascha; Jöhren, Hans-Peter; Zimmer, Stefan
In Germany, caries of young people has been declining since the late 1980s, while the prevalence of early childhood caries has remained steady. Data from a number of regional studies suggest a current prevalence between 10% and 15%. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal observational study data on the risk of caries in the permanent teeth of persons who as children had to undergo comprehensive treatment for caries under intubation general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare caries experience in the permanent teeth of patients who had to undergo surgical treatment under general anesthesia as a result of non-compliance with caries treatment in early childhood with the experience of patients who did not develop caries at a young age. Analysis of the data revealed that severe caries experience during early childhood resulted in a more severe caries experience during adulthood (difference: 14.8 DMFS; p = 0.001). This increase in caries experience applied to both untreated and treated carious surfaces, and was also apparent in relation to tooth extractions. When compared with persons whose first teeth had been caries-free, patients with severe childhood caries experience tended to show poorer dental hygiene in relation to smooth (p < 0.06) and interproximal (p < 0.04) surfaces. Patients who had been non-compliant as young children were not found to suffer from dental anxiety as young adults. Patients in the treatment and control groups differed with regard to dental health. Aside from being statistically relevant, these differences also have implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:26915485
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.
Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC. In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: Articles, guidelines, related books, and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD, American Association of Pediatrics (AAP and American Dental Association (ADA were searched for related topics cited since 1990. Early childhood caries definition, breast feeding and other variables such as sample size, study location and study design were analyzed.Results: According to data analysis, there was a lack of methodological consistency and inconsistent definitions of ECC and BF in the literature making it difficult to draw conclusions. Results about relationship between prolonged BF and ECC were inconclusive. There was a positive relationship between nocturnal BF and ECC. A history of BF did not have any effect on the caries incidence.Conclusion: Because of the role of breast feeding in children's health, it is important to inform the parents about the possibility of dental caries due to nocturnal breast feeding.
H C Girish; Sanjay Murgod; C J Manasa Ravath; Hegde, Ramesh B
Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correla...
Shanbhog, Raghavendra; Godhi, Brinda S; Nandlal, Bhojraj; Kumar, Shruti S; Raju, Veena; S Rashmi
Background: To determine the prevalence and severity of oral condition related to untreated dental caries with PUFA index and to relate period of institutional stay, oral hygiene practice and diet of orphan children to caries experience ratio.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges
Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.
Nørrisgaard, Pia Elisabeth; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the caries experience, prevalence and distribution related to tooth type and surfaces in the primary and permanent dentition in children and adolescents in Denmark in 2012. In addition, to examine if explanatory factors influence the inter-municipality variation in caries experience. Materials and methods Data was collected in the public Child Dental Health Service. In total, 5636 caries registrations on 3-, 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds were collected in 35 of the 98 Danish municipalities. Caries experience was expressed by mean def-s/DMF-S and caries prevalence by def-s = 0/DMF-S = 0. Inter-municipality variations were illustrated. Multivariate regression analyses were applied to assess the influence of fluoride concentration in drinking water, proportion of immigrants and personal income on the inter-municipality variation in mean def-s/DMF-S. Results Only 4.6% of 3-year-olds had def-s (mean = 0.25), compared to 44.9% of 9-year-olds (mean = 3.07), primarily located occlusally and interproximally on the primary molars. Mean DMF-S for the 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds were 0.27, 1.97 and 4.40, respectively. Caries were primarily located occlusally and in pits on the permanent molars, which also showed high frequencies of sealings. Mean def-s/DMF-S showed substantial inter-municipality variations, while the caries location in both dentitions was rather stable. The three background factors explained less than 25% of the variation in mean def-s/DMF. Conclusions The caries distribution within the primary and permanent dentition among 3-, 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds followed definite patterns concerning location on teeth and surfaces. Background factors only explained a minor part of the variation. PMID:26651538
<正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.
<正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.
Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Early childhood caries is an important oral health issue. Finding its prevalence would predict the need for oral health promotion disciplines for specific age groups. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the caries experience of children living in Tehran, Iran. It also would evaluate the impact of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES on this oral condition. Materials and Method: This epidemiological cross-sectional study was based upon stratified cluster random sampling. The samples consisted of 239 children (2- to 3- years old registered in Tehran’s public healthcare centers for “Healthy Child Program”. Mothers of the recruited children were interviewed for the background data; then children were examined for the oral health status according to ICDAS-II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and WHO (World Health Organization criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA.11 for SES classification considering six socioeconomic variables, and SPSS.21 for descriptive/analytical analyses. Results: Primary Component Analysis (PCA demonstrated five classes of SES ranging from the lowest to the highest. The distribution of caries-free (CF children was 10.87%, non-cavitated enamel caries (codes 01-02 were 28.03%, and about 61.1% had cavitated caries (codes 03-06. There was no significant difference in caries experience between the two genders. Cavitated lesions were more prevalent among Kurdish, who also had the least CF children. Caries prevalence, especially code 02, was more among children from 3rd class SES (moderate level. Gender, ethnicity, or SES had no impact on the CF status of the children; however, ethnicity showed significant impact on the prevalence of extensive caries (codes 05-06. Conclusion: The result of the present study is indicative of high caries prevalence among 2 to 3 years old children residing in Tehran. It highlights the need for comprehensive oral
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Childhood overweight and obesity are becoming a major public health concern all over the world. Change in lifestyles and economic growth have led to sedentary lifestyle and altered dietary patterns. There are conflicting reports in the literature regarding the association between body mass index (BMI and dental caries from various parts of the world. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between BMI-for-age and dental caries in children and to find out the role of diet with respect to BMI-for-age and dental caries. Materials and Methods: Demographics and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 600 children and BMI-for-age was calculated. Clinical examination for dental caries was carried out following WHO criteria. A diet recording sheet was prepared and children/parents were asked to record the dietary intake for 3 days. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using Chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and multiple linear regression. Results: After excluding improperly filled diet recording sheets, 510 children were included in the study. Caries prevalence was more in obese children than in other BMI groups. Caries scores increased as BMI-for-age increased, though this was not statistically significant. Consumption of fatty foods and snacks was more with obese children compared to other groups. A correlation was found between caries and snacks. Conclusion: Dental caries scores showed no relationship between BMI-for-age in children. Both snacks and fatty food items were consumed more by obese children, which seeks attention.
Du, Yuerong; 杜月蓉
Background Dental caries on primary and permanent teeth is a common chronic disease worldwide with negative effects on children`s quality of life, both in the present and future. Sugar intake is a risk factor for caries. However, the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental caries is unclear. Methods A systematic review of relevant literature was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect to locate every journal article in English assessing the as...
Doetzer, Andrea D; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Schlipf, Nina; Werneck, Renata; Mira, Marcelo T; Riess, Olaf; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina
Dental caries is a common multifactorial disease, resulting from the interaction of biofilm, cariogenic diet and host response over time. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a main salivary glycoprotein, which modulates the host immune-inflammatory and antibacterial response. Although a genetic component for caries outcome has been identified, little is known over the genetic aspects underlying its susceptibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between LTF polymorphisms and caries susceptibility. Six hundred seventy seven 12-year-old students were selected: 346 with (DMFT ≥ 1) and 331 without caries experience (DMFT = 0). Also, individuals concentrating higher levels of disease (polarization group, DMFT ≥ 2, n = 253) were tested against those with DMFT ≤ 1 (n = 424). Along with clinical parameters, three representative LTF tag SNPs (rs6441989, rs2073495, rs11716497) were genotyped and the results were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Allele A for tag SNP rs6441989 was found to be significantly less frequent in the polarization group, conferring a protective effect against caries experience [AA + AG × GG (OR: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.514-0.980, p = 0.045)], and remained significantly associated with caries protection in the presence of gingivitis (p = 0.020) and plaque (p = 0.035). These results might contribute to the understanding of the genetic control of caries susceptibility in humans. PMID:25998152
Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oyedele, Titus; Chukumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka; Agbaje, Hakeem; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Osho, Olusegun V
Background The objectives of this study were to assess the association between children and parents’ knowledge of caries preventive practices, the parents’ caries preventive oral health behaviours and children’s caries preventive oral health behaviour and caries experience. Method Three hundred and twenty four participants aged 8–12 years, 308 fathers and 318 mothers were recruited through a household survey conducted in Suburban Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to generate informati...
R.C. Poli-Frederico; Garcia, J.E.; Ferreira, F. B. A.; Maciel, S. M.; Segura, V. G.; M.R. Rodrigues; Pieralisi, F. J. S.
Aim. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in caries-free and caries-active preschool children in Brazil. Design. Twenty-eight preschool children were examined regarding caries experience by the dmft index. DNA from 280 isolates of S. mutans was extracted. S. mutans evaluated using to the PCR method, with primers for the glucosyltransferase gene. The genetic diversity of S. mutans isolates was analyzed by arbitrary primed-PCR (AP-PCR) reactions. The...
Jaime Aparecido Cury
Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".
Holbrook, W. Peter; Magnúsdóttir, Margrét O.
Background: Dental caries has been strongly associated with mutans streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. Many studies have linked these organisms to the carious process and counts of mutans streptococci have been used to monitor caries risk. The high levels of caries generally found in Iceland have enabled several studies to be performed on the variation within strains of S. mutans. Methods: This paper reports some studies showing phenotypic differences between stra...
Yoel González Beriau
Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective: To describe the characteristics of dental caries in the first permanent molars in children between 6 and 13 years-old, and to assess oral hygiene and knowledge about the subject in all the patients treated in the stomatology consultation Barrio adentro “El Guapo”, from November 2005 to March 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transversal study showed that most of the patients had dental caries. It was proved that many of them had, at least, on of the first molars affected by dental caries. The quotient first molar affected/ patient was higher than one. Results: There was a decrease in the percentage of healthy permanent first molars. Poor oral hygiene prevailed, with a medium knowledge level on the subject. Most of the parents didn´t know about the first molar dental cavity. Conclusions: It was needed to perform educative tasks aimed at this age group to avoid further damage to this important tooth, central for the development of the stomatognathic system.
Full Text Available Background: A previous study revealed Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a probiotic strain, could reduce mutans streptococci (MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of L. paracasei SD1 on the colonization of MS, and whether caries lesions developed. Methods: After informed consent, 122 children were recruited and randomly assigned to the probiotic or control groups. The probiotic group received milk-powder containing L. paracasei SD1 and the control group received standard milk-powder once daily for six months. Salivary MS and lactobacilli were enumerated using differential culture at baseline and at three-month intervals for 12 months. The persistence of L. paracasei SD1 was investigated using AP-PCR for DNA-fingerprinting. Oral health was examined at baseline and at the end of the study according to WHO criteria. Results: The long-term consumption could prolong colonization of L. paracasei SD1. Significantly reduced MS counts and increased lactobacilli levels were found among children in the probiotic group. There were less caries lesions in the probiotic group at the end of the study. A significant reduction of the development of new caries lesions (4.5 times was observed in the high caries risk group but not in the low caries risk group. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the long-term daily ingestion of the human-derived probiotic L. paracasei SD1 significantly reduces the number of MS and caries risk in the high caries group.
Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary
Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...
Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in den...
Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki
Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...
Full Text Available Background: Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, there has been minimal research showing the association of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate an association between S-ECC with IDA. The secondary objective was to find an association between severe caries and body weight of the child. The oral health-related quality of life of children with S-ECC was also assessed. Materials and Methods: Following the ethical approval, 60 children aged 2-6 years (30 with S-ECC and 30 controls with caries status <2 were recruited for this cross-sectional association study. Each child received a clinical examination for dental caries status using deft index and a blood investigation to determine various parameters; hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume (PCV. Children underwent venipuncture after due parental consent, and 2.5 mL blood was collected from each child to evaluate the above parameters. Following this, the parents filled up a 10 point questionnaire to determine the child′s quality of life. Data were then analyzed by t-test and Fischer′s exact t-test. Result: On comparison of percentage of children with IDA in S-ECC and control group, it was found that children with S-ECC were more likely to have IDA odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 10.77 (2.0, 104.9, (P = 0.001. In addition to this, S-ECC children were significantly more likely to have low Hb, MCV, and PCV levels (P < 0.001 which imply that S-ECC may be a risk marker for the development of anemia. More children (93% with severe caries were found to have less body weight than ICMR standard weight for age as compared to children with low caries (P < 0.05%. Conclusion: S-ECC is strongly associated with the anemia due to iron deficiency, and efforts should be made toward the preventive
Ramesh, Krishnan; Kunjappan, Shiji; Ramesh, Maya; Shankar, S.; Reddy, Subba
Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology. Early detection and preventive measures are essential for caries control. Caries activity tests are one of the methods of early detection, but all these are based on microbiological study. Aims: Compare the sensitivity and specificity of Snyder test (ST), lactobacillus count (LBC) and Cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries. Materials and Methods: 90 healthy mixed dentition children (79 boys and 11 gi...
Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina
Introduction: Dental caries is a universal disease. Dietary modification is important in reducing the occurrence of dental caries. Tea which is so frequently consumed with cariogenic starch rich food is proposed to have anticariogenic potential. The various mechanism has been proposed for same and one being inhibition of salivary amylase activity. Aim: To determine the effect of 1.5% black tea decoction on salivary amylase activity in children with high caries and no caries. Materials and Met...
Erika C Küchler; Deeley, Kathleen; Ho, Bao; Linkowski, Samantha; Meyer, Chelsea; Noel, Jacqueline; Kouzbari, M Zahir; Bezamat, Mariana; José M Granjeiro; Antunes, Leonardo S; Antunes, Livia Azeredo; de Abreu, Fernanda Volpe; Marcelo C. Costa; Tannure, Patricia N; SEYMEN, Figen
Background Our previous genome-wide linkage scan mapped five loci for caries experience. The purpose of this study was to fine map one of these loci, the locus 13q31.1, in order to identify genetic contributors to caries. Methods Seventy-two pedigrees from the Philippines were studied. Caries experience was recorded and DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from all subjects. Sixty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13q31.1 were genotyped. Association between caries experie...
Kaveh, Babak; Witkowska, Emilia
A cross-sectional study was performed with the aim to investigate the caries prevalence and associated factors in 6 to 15 year old school children living in a village outside Cluj-Napoca, Romania. All children were offered to be included and examined for dental caries according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Caries was scored at the tooth and surface levels D/d=decayed, M/m=missing, F/f=filled, T/t=tooth, S/s=surface (DMFT/DMFS/dmft/dmfs) for the permanent and deciduous dentitio...
Kandel Elizabeth A; Richards Jenna M; Binkley Catherine J
Abstract Background Untreated dental caries afflicts almost one third of school-aged children in the United States and many of them are from disadvantaged families. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of untreated caries in north central Kentucky, USA and to examine the relationships between the available demographic variables and untreated childhood caries as reported on the forms from the Smile Kentucky! program. Methods During the fall of 2008, caries st...
Twetman Svante; Isberg Per-Erik; Petersson Gunnel
Abstract Background To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren. Methods The study group consisted of 392 school children, 10-11 years of age, who volunteered after informed consent. A caries risk assessment was made at baseline with aid of the computer-based Cariogram model and expressed as "the chance of avoiding caries" and the children were divided into five risk groups. The caries increment (ΔDMFS) was extracted from ...
Devanand Gupta; Rizwan K Momin; Ayush Mathur; Kavuri Teja Srinivas; Ankita Jain; Neelima Dommaraju; Deepak Ranjan Dalai; Rajendra Kumar Gupta
Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Chil...
Holmén Anders; Magnusson Kerstin; Strömberg Ulf; Twetman Svante
Abstract Background Dental caries in children is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Thus, tools are needed to allocate resources and establish evidence-based programs that meet the needs of those at risk. The aim of the study was to apply a novel concept for presenting epidemiological data based on caries risk in the region of Halland in southwest Sweden, using geo-maps. Methods The study population consisted of 46,536 individuals between...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive
M.C.M. van Gemert-Schriks; J.P. van Amerongen
Within modern dentistry, a change from invasive to non-invasive strategies for the treatment of dental caries seems to be apparent. The foundation of non-invasive care is old, but is now interpreted differently as a result of new insights. Caries is a dynamic and multi-factorial process that takes p
Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;
Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...
Risya Cilmiaty; Afiono Agung Prasetyo; Khilyat Ulin Nur Zaini; Mandojo Rukmo; Suhartono Taat Putra; Widya Asmara
Background: Dental caries with necrotic pulp is a multifactorial disease that attacks enamel involving tooth pulp. The anaerobic bacteria infection in the pulp chamber could induce the formation of periapical granuloma. However, the presence of the most frequently anaerobic bacteria identified in apical periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, in periapical granuloma have not been confirmed. Purpose: The aims of study were to determine the presence of Porphyromonas g...
Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara
Background: The aim was to evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dental caries status of lock factory workers in Aligarh city. Materials and Methods: WHO Oral Health Assessment form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. A total of 850 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Descriptive analysis was done and the data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The preval...
Background The aim of this conference paper was to examine the evidence base for primary and secondary prevention of dental caries, erosions and dentin hypersensitivity through professional and self-care measures. Methods A mapping of systematic reviews (SR) of literature was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library through April 2014 using established MeSH-terms and disease-related search words in various combinations. The search was restricted to SR's published in English or Scandinav...
Full Text Available Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC in the earliest stage is preventable. The studies indicate oral bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis of dental caries. According to high prevalence of ECC, alternative therapies should be explored in order to reduce the occurrence of it. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a product containing Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% as a supplementary intervention for preventing ECC.Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven children aged 4 to 6 year-old were recruited. Maxillary incisors on each side of the mouth were selected either as a test or control group. Early caries detection examinations were conducted using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS clinically and photographically. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, a product containing a mixture of Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% was applied to the designated incisors of the test group participants. This application was performed every week for a 3-month. The control group participants received a placebo mixture during the same time interval. The caries detection examinations were conducted again after 6 months and the results were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS V.18, using McNemar test.Results: The incidence of carious lesions increased for the control group while it decreased in the test group (P
Marcelo Bönecker; Jenny Abanto; Gustavo Tello; Luciana Butini Oliveira
The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life.
Risqa Rina Darwita; Herwati Djoharnas; Febriana Setiawati Sugito
The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three yea...
CABRAL, Renata Nunes; Leandro Augusto HILGERT; Faber, Jorge; Soraya Coelho LEAL
Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk an...
Iranna Koppal, Pushpa; Sakri, Mohan Ravishankar; Akkareddy, Basavaprabhu; Hinduja, Dharam M; Gangolli, Raviraj Annayya; Patil, Basanagouda C
ABSTRACT Aim: Evaluate the coexistence of iron deficiency and early childhood caries. Evaluate whether iron deficiency can be considered as a risk marker for early childhood caries. Estimate the incidence of iron deficiency in children with early childhood caries. To evaluate and compare the iron status of children with and without severe early childhood caries. Materials and methods: Sixty children of age 2 to 6 years in whom blood investigations are advised by pediatricians are selected for...
Mielczarek, Agnieszka; Wiewior, Piotr
Use of lasers in dentistry dates back 20 years but is still not fully exploited, especially when concerning the hard dental tissues. Over the past many efforts and actions have been involved in testing and developing new methods for caries diagnosis. The implementation of these methods in general dental practice is unfortunately still limited because too little scientific evidence exists to support them. One of the age-old concerns for dentists is that decay is often discovered too late. Dentists commonly use x-ray imaging for early caries detection, but this method cannot reveal decay at a sufficiently early stage to avoid restorative methods. Generally, if a caries lesion si detected by x-ray, the mineral loss within the tooth is normally very high and will need invasive treatment. Several laser based techniques, as also other optical methods of detecting caries lesions at an early stage seem to be very promising. Fluorescence of tooth structure is observed when hard tissues are illuminated using laser light. Decayed areas appear dark and provide a contrast against the healthy background surrounding them, so discriminating sound and carious tissues. The aim of this study was to present the possibilities of using laser induced fluorescence in the diagnosis of early caries lesions. The current state-of-the-art is presented, as well as results of our investigations. In our studies an argon ion laser was used to illuminate the teeth and the fluorescence pictures were captured with a CCD camera and then analyzed. Results confirmed that laser induced fluorescence can be used as a sensitive method of caries diagnosis.
Wyne A; Guile E
Caries activity is the sum total of new carious lesions and the enlargement of existing cavities during a given time. An objective evaluation of caries activity requires clinical examination of quantification of factors associated with the pathogenesis of caries. Caries activity tests have been in use in dental research and clinical dentistry for years. They are useful in establishing categories of risk for caries, and for targeting specific preventive measures to these groups. They are even ...
Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of pr...
Caries is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world. Dental caries can be defined as destruction of the tissues of the tooth by bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. In this respect, some bacteria are considered more caries-promoting than others, as an example Streptococcus mutans. A common feature for caries-promoting bacteria is that they are acidogenic and aciduric. The most common bacteria used as probiotics, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, are, in theory, caries...
Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ekstrand, Kim
BACKGROUND: Studies examining the efficacy of sealing occlusal caries lesions in the primary dentition are limited, and no studies have so far examined the efficacy of infiltrating occlusal lesions on primary molar teeth. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of infiltrating, seal...
Mialhe Fabio; Pereira Antonio; Meneghim Marcelo; Ambrosano Glaucia; Pardi Vanessa
Background: The detection of carious lesions in the initial stages of development is very important in order to prevent the occurrence of cavitation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare three methods-visual examination, FOTI, and bitewing radiographic examination-for the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy students (mean age 14 years) with low caries prevalence were examined by three examiners. ...
Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.
McGrady Michael G
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0. Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester. Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02. Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical; 2.51 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical; 3.44 (photo and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical; 0.58 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical; 0.98 (photo. The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical; 0.36 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical; 0.39 (photo. The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative
Jabin, Zohra; Chaudhary, Seema
Background: Psychological variable may affect early childhood caries (ECC), but this aspect has not been explored satisfactorily. This study evaluates the child temperament as a risk predictor for ECC.
Full Text Available Background: Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of chargecoupled devices (CCD, Photo Stimulable Phosphor (PSP and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries.Patients and Methods: Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: CCD Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland, PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland, and E-speed film (Kodak, USA. Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0, restricted to enamel (R1, reaching the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ and the outer half of the dentin (R2 and the inner half of the dentin (R3. The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination.Results: Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% DEJ and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin.The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96 %; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively.Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.
Smits, Marten Titus
Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary
Full Text Available Background: Habits formed in childhood dictate lifestyle choices made as adults. These encompass both oral hygiene and dietary habits which in turn affect dental caries status. Children largely acquire these habits from modeling/observing parents and other family members. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the caries status of 5-year-olds, and evaluate associations between dental caries and family-related factors. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 400 children were examined for dental caries using the WHO criteria. Parents were interviewed using a self-structured questionnaire to collect data with regard to variables under evaluation. Statistical analysis: Collected data was subjected to descriptive analysis using the SPSS 12.0 version. Risk factor association with dental caries was investigated using a stepwise logistic regression analysis with P-values 0 were: Mother with low basic education (OR = 1.3, higher number of siblings (OR = 1.4, high snacking frequency (OR = 2.0, parental inability to control sugar consumption (OR = 1.0 parental laxness about the child′s tooth brushing (OR = 1.5, parents brushing their own teeth less than twice daily (OR= 2.0 and unassisted brushing by the child (OR = 1.8. Conclusion: It is thus mandatory to focus on parents′ education level, attitudes and family-structure when planning preventive programs for young children.
Camilleri, George E.
Fluorine was probably discovered by the chemist Scheele in 1771, and eventually isolated in 1886 by Moissan. Its presence in bones and teeth was initially disputed but eventually confirmed in the middle of the eighteenth century. In this article the author discusses the few epidemiological studies which confirm the relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water, mottled enamel and the incidence of dental caries and also describes the Maltese scene in regards the caries level in...
Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI, diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810 in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997 format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72 as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21 which was followed by underweight (2.31 and obese children (2.23. Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two
Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M;
We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...
Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...
Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)
Full Text Available Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in dental cavity prevalence explanation. Twenty six papers about dental health with caries prevalences published from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed for completeness. This assessment includes carious lesion diagnosis and characteristics, age, sex and size characteristics of samples, and prevalence calculation method. The majority of the analyzed papers do not provide adequate information in the topics listed above. Only very few implicated factors other than diet as a contributor to caries lesions development.
Prabhakar, AR; Dodawad, Reshma; OS, Raju
Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. Materials and methods: The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups and subdivided according to gender. They were further divided into caries free and caries activ...
Ayele Fenta A; Taye Belaynew W; Ayele Tadesse A; Gelaye Kassahun A
Abstract Background Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pre...
Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B
Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021
A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal
Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary caries is responsible for 60 percent of all replacement restorations in the typical dental practice. The diversity of the bacterial sources and the different types of filling materials could play a role in secondary caries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the microbial spectrum of secondary caries biofilms around amalgam and composite resin restorations. Methods Clinical samples were collected from freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with clinical secondary caries. Samples were categorized into four groups according to the types of restoration materials and the classification of the cavity. Biofilms were harvested from the tooth-restoration interface using a dental explorer and after dilution were incubated on special agars. The bacteria were identified using the biochemical appraisal system. Statistical calculations were carried out using SPSS11.5 software to analyze the prevalence of the bacteria involved in secondary caries. Results Samples from a total of four groups were collected: two groups were collected from amalgam restorations, each had 21 samples from both Class I and Class II caries; and the other two groups were from composite resin restorations, each had 13 samples from both class I and class II caries. Our results showed: (1 Anaerobic species were dominant in both restoration materials. (2 In terms of the types of individual bacteria, no significant differences were found among the four groups according to the geometric mean of the detected bacteria (P > 0.05. However, there were significant differences among the detected bacteria within each group (P 0.05, but showed significant differences among the detected bacteria in each group (P 0.05, however, the detection rate of each bacterium within each group was statistically different among the detected bacteria (P Conclusions The proportion of obligatory anaerobic species was much greater than the facultative anaerobic species in the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries in children is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Thus, tools are needed to allocate resources and establish evidence-based programs that meet the needs of those at risk. The aim of the study was to apply a novel concept for presenting epidemiological data based on caries risk in the region of Halland in southwest Sweden, using geo-maps. Methods The study population consisted of 46,536 individuals between 3-19 years of age (75% of the eligible population from whom caries data were reported in 2010. Reported dmfs/DMFS>0 for an individual was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish. A parish-specific relative risk (RR was calculated as the observed-to-expected ratio, where the expected number of individuals with dmfs/DMFS>0 was obtained from the age- and sex-specific caries (dmfs/DMFS>0 rates for the total study population. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI® ArcGIS system. Results The geo-maps of preschool children (3-6 years, schoolchildren (7-11 years and adolescents (12-19 years displayed obvious geographical variations in caries risk, albeit most marked among the preschoolers. Among the preschool children the smoothed relative risk (SmRR varied from 0.33 to 2.37 in different parishes. With increasing age, the contrasts seemed to diminish although the gross geographical risk pattern persisted also among the adolescents (SmRR range 0.75-1.20. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk may provide a novel option to allocate resources and tailor supportive and preventive measures within regions with sections of the population with relatively high caries rates.
Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between3-5 years old.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the TehranWelfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects wasevaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed rom the right side (P=0.01.Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88 for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries and prospective (2-year caries development setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the numbers of incipient and manifest caries lesions at all surfaces. Results A wide but shallow gliding scale of one fifth caries promoting or protecting, and four fifths non-influential, variables occurred. The influential markers behaved in the order of plaque bacteria > diet > saliva, with previously known plaque bacteria/diet markers and a set of new protective diet markers. A differential variable patterning appeared for new versus progressing lesions. The influential biological multimarkers (n = 18 predicted baseline caries better (ROC area 0.96 than five markers (0.92 and a single lactobacilli marker (0.7 with sensitivity/specificity of 1.87, 1.78 and 1.13 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick, respectively. Moreover, biological multimarkers (n = 18 explained 2-year caries increment slightly better than reported before but predicted it poorly (ROC area 0.76. By contrast, multimarkers based on previous caries predicted alone (ROC area 0.88, or together with biological multimarkers (0.94, increment well with a sensitivity/specificity of 1.74 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick. Conclusion Multimarkers behave better than single-to-five markers but future multimarker strategies will require systematic searches for improved saliva and plaque bacteria markers.
Anila Namboodiripad P
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society′s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients′ histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.
Full Text Available Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong healthful habits.
Alexandre Rezende Vieira
Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.
Wennhall, Inger; Hajem, Samara; Ilros, Susanna;
BACKGROUND: Salt fluoridation is considered a cost-effective community strategy for reducing caries. AIM: To evaluate the effect of school-based and domestic distribution of F-salt to schoolchildren residing in a disadvantaged community. DESIGN: Seven hundred and thirty-three schoolchildren (12......-14 years), attending two public schools, were enrolled; one was assigned to intervention (IS), whereas the other served as reference (RS). Subjects in IS were given access to F-salt (250 ppm F) in marked jars at school lunch and through free supply for domestic use. The 2-year caries increment and...... progression rate, assessed from bitewing radiographs, was scored. Information on diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure was collected through a baseline questionnaire. RESULTS: The dropout rate was high (IS 27%; RS 18%). At baseline, the IS children displayed more unfavourable risk factors and a higher...
Jain, Mitali; Namdev, Ritu; Bodh, Meenakshi; Dutta, Samir; Singhal, Parul; Kumar, Arun
Background and aims. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a public health problem with biological, social and behavioural determinants and the notion that the principal etiology is inappropriate feeding modalities is no longer tenable. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between ECC and socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parental characteristics. Materials and methods. The study involved a dental examination of 1400 children aged 0-71 months, recording caries using Gruebbel's deft index and a structured questionnaire to interview parents or caretakers. The tabulated data was statistically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Results. The variables significantly associated with ECC were age (PPPPPPPPP>0.05). Conclusion. ECC is preventable and manageable with proper information and skills. It is important for healthcare professionals, family physicians and parents to be cognizant of the involved risk factors as their preventive efforts represent the first line of defense. PMID:26236439
Dülgergil, C. T.; Çolak, H.
Aim: In the deprived communities with high caries incidence, determination of high-risk children in early age is a valuable tool to apply the individual and/or community-level preventive measures. The purpose of this 5-years follow-up study was to examine the relationship between early caries occurrence on primary incisors and the future caries occurrence on both first permanent molars and all permanent dentition in the children living in rural Turkey. Materials and Methods: Total 34 children...
Background and aims Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection. Materials and methods Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a P...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.
Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo
The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified. PMID:26892361
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology. Early detection and preventive measures are essential for caries control. Caries activity tests are one of the methods of early detection, but all these are based on microbiological study. Aims: Compare the sensitivity and specificity of Snyder test (ST, lactobacillus count (LBC and Cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries. Materials and Methods: 90 healthy mixed dentition children (79 boys and 11 girls were selected and were divided into two groups, one with Decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT 0 and another group with DMFT 3-5. The salivary samples were collected for ST and LBC and plaque samples were collected for Cariostat. Caries activity was assessed. Results: The data obtained were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and over all accuracy. Conclusions: Our present study showed that the LBC was found to have a higher correlation in caries as the caries increased the count also increased with positive caries activity. A good correlation was found between Snyder and LBC for the caries activity 1, 2 and 3. But no correlation was seen for score 0. To conclude, a combination of all these tests was found to be good for assessing caries risk groups.
Deepak Viswanath; Anumula Vamsi Krishna
Background: Very few publications report on the relationship between ′salutogenesis′, as measured by the concept of Sense of Coherence (SOC), and generally speaking an individual′s overall oral health- related quality of life (OHRQL). To add to this, there is even lesser information regarding the behavioral aspect of dental anxiety. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between dental anxiety, SOC and dental caries in school children from Bangalore North. Material...
Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul
Background: Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into ...
Amaechi Bennett T; Gilbert Gregg H; Gullion Christina M; Vollmer William M; Shugars Daniel A; Bader James D; Brown John P
Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Des...
Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante
Background To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. Methods The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (...
Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush
Background Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and prevent...
Mostafa Sadeghi; Reza Darakhshan; Ali Bagherian
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a virulent form of dental caries that can destroy the primary dentition of preschool children. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between ECC with serum iron and serum ferritin levels. Materials and Methods: Following the ethical approval, 204 children aged 24–71 months were recruited for a double-blind, randomized cross-sectional study. Each child was examined clinically for dental caries using the World Health Orga...
Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in id...
Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de
The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:27305514
Celik, Esra Uzer; Gokay, Necmi; Ates, Mustafa
Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the caries risk in young adults using Cariogram and (2) compare the efficiency of Cariogram with the regression risk models created using the same variables in Cariogram by examining the actual caries progression over a 2-year period. Methods: This study included 100 subjects that were either twenty or twenty-one years-old. Data on general health, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride were obtained. Saliva analyses were performed, includ...
Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Hakan KURT; Kolsuz, Eray; ÖZTAŞ, Bengi; Tatar, İlkan; Çelik, Hakan Hamdi
The study aimed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of occlusal caries depth measurements obtained from different imaging modalities. The study comprised 21 human mandibular molar teeth with occlusal caries. Teeth were imaged using film, CCD, two different cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a microcomputer tomography (micro-CT). Thereafter, each tooth was serially sectioned, and the section with the deepest carious lesion was scanned using a high-resolution scanner. Eac...
Ayele Fenta A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Results Four hundred sixty three (55% children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%.The educational status of children’s father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80, monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45, regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20 and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80 were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusions Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem.
ALMASI, Afshin; RAHIMIFOROUSHANI, Abbas; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; PASDAR, Yahya; TARRAHI, Mohammad Javad; MOGHIMBEIGI, Abbas; AHMADI JOUYBARI, Touraj
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP) regression model. Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08–1.51) times more likely than boys (P=0.041). Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.19–1.63) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18–1.37) times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively. Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. PMID:27141498
Renata Nunes CABRAL
Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.
Mandel, I D
Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299
Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs
Cheng, Lei; Li, Jiyao; He, Libang; Zhou, Xuedong
Dental caries is considered as the most common polymicrobial oral disease in the world. With the aim of developing alternative approaches to reduce or prevent the decay, numerous papers showed the potential anticaries activity of a number of natural products. The natural products with anticaries effects are selected from e.g. food, beverages, flowers or traditional herbs. Most of the effective components are proven to be polyphenol compounds. Many of the natural products are studied as antibacterial agents, while some of them are found to be effective in shifting the de-/remineralization balance. However, the mechanisms of the anticaries effects are still unclear for most of the natural products. In the future, more efforts need to be made to seek novel effective natural products via in vitro experiment, animal study and in situ investigations, as well as to enhance their anticaries effects with the help of novel technology like nanotechnology. PMID:25871417
Loveren, van, C.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Duijster, D.
Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to explore parental and family-related determinants of childhood dental caries, and their potential role in socioeconomic inequalities in children’s dental he...
Lennon, A. M.; Wiegand, A.; Buchalla, W.; Wahl, B.; Werner, C.; Betke, H; Hannig, C.; Rödig, T; Attin, T.
The aim was to evaluate subjectivity (using inter- and intraexaminer repeatability), the effect of examiner experience, and residual caries diagnostic accuracy with visual tactile (VT) criteria and using a caries disclosing agent (CD). Thirty teeth with occlusal caries were excavated by a single operator not involved in the diagnostic part of the study. A test area was marked in each cavity. Four dentists with more than five and five dentists with less than five years' experience rated the ma...
Guglielmo Campus; Peter Lingström; Fabio Cocco; Egle Milia; Maria Grazia Cagetti; Stefano Mastroberardino
This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main relevant databases (Medline, Embase) were searched. Quality of the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) was classified using the “Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials” (CONSORT) checklist and the Impact Factor (IF) value ...
Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...
Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita
Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which they...... are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular...
Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.
Low intensive laser irradiation is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of HNL light and infrared lasers, its influence on the activation of microcirculation of the pulp enzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear. These data allow us to suppose that the low intensive laser irradiation may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP regression model.Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23(95% CI: 1.08-1.51 times more likely than boys (P=0.041. Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41(95% CI: 1.19-1.63 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18-1.37 times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively.Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. Keywords: Nutritional habits, Dental caries, Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson regression model, Schoolchildren
Ellefsen, Birita; Morse, Douglas E; Waldemar, Gunhild; Holm-Pedersen, Poul
doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00560.x Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease Objective: To identify indicators of root caries among persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background: Few studies have investigated dental caries in...... older adults with AD. Previously we found that persons with AD had significantly more root caries compared to persons with dementia other than AD. Methods: Participants were recruited from two university hospital clinics in Copenhagen, Denmark. A team of neurologists/geriatricians carried out the...
Perić Tamara; Marković Dejan; Živković Slavoljub
Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and preve...
Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga
Aim To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Methods Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permane...
Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G;
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...... hampered the synthesis of results. There is a great need to standardize study design, outcome measures and reporting of data in studies on caries risk assessment. The accuracy of prediction models should be validated in at least one independent population.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
Serra Majem, L; García Closas, R; Ramón, J M; Manau, C; Cuenca, E; Krasse, B
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between current dietary habits and dental caries in schoolchildren from an area of Spain on which the prevalence of caries was low. The results of an epidemiological study conducted on a random sample of 893 children from the cities of Girona and Figueres are presented. The method of dietary interview consisted of a food-frequency questionnaire. This showed a positive relationship between dental caries and consumption of ice cream, pastries, cakes, sliced bread, on the one hand, and sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free candies, on the other. A protective effect of skimmed milk and artificial sweeteners was also observed. Results reflect the role of certain foods in caries development, but also the outcome of selective dietary counseling to high-risk children. PMID:8281564
Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina
Introduction: Dental caries is a universal disease. Dietary modification is important in reducing the occurrence of dental caries. Tea which is so frequently consumed with cariogenic starch rich food is proposed to have anticariogenic potential. The various mechanism has been proposed for same and one being inhibition of salivary amylase activity. Aim: To determine the effect of 1.5% black tea decoction on salivary amylase activity in children with high caries and no caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 children in the age group of 12–15 years were selected for the study. They were further grouped based on their decayed missing filled surface (DMFS) score into high-caries group (DMFS above 10) and no-caries group (DMFS = 0). After 2 h of fasting, subjects consumed two salted crackers for 60 s following which they rinsed with water and then with black tea decoction (1.5%) the very next day. Retained food particles were recovered salivary amylase activity was noted as maltose to sucrose ratio via chromatography. Results: The average ratio of maltose to sucrose ratio percentage reduction in high-caries group was 43.63% and 41.17% in no caries group which was highly significant (P children with high- and no-caries index. PMID:27313414
Berg Joel H
Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...
Horst Jeremy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunologic responses of the tooth to caries begin with odontoblasts recognizing carious bacteria. Inflammatory propagation eventually leads to tooth pulp necrosis and danger to health. The present study aims to determine cytokine gene expression profiles generated within human teeth in response to dental caries in vivo and to build a mechanistic model of these responses and the downstream signaling network. Results We demonstrate profound differential up-regulation of inflammatory genes in the odontoblast layer (ODL in human teeth with caries in vivo, while the pulp remains largely unchanged. Interleukins, chemokines, and all tested receptors thereof were differentially up-regulated in ODL of carious teeth, well over one hundred-fold for 35 of 84 genes. By interrogating reconstructed protein interaction networks corresponding to the differentially up-regulated genes, we develop the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines highly expressed in ODL of carious teeth, IL-1β, IL-1α, and TNF-α, carry the converged inflammatory signal. We show that IL1β amplifies antimicrobial peptide production in odontoblasts in vitro 100-fold more than lipopolysaccharide, in a manner matching subsequent in vivo measurements. Conclusions Our data suggest that ODL amplifies bacterial signals dramatically by self-feedback cytokine-chemokine signal-receptor cycling, and signal convergence through IL1R1 and possibly others, to increase defensive capacity including antimicrobial peptide production to protect the tooth and contain the battle against carious bacteria within the dentin.
Gonçalves, Érica M; Cavalcanti, Laysa C; Firmino, Ramon T; Ribeiro, Gustavo L; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Menezes, Valdenice A
Investigations into the oral health status of indigenous populations are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries experience and associated factors among 342 indigenous children and adolescents aged 5-15 years of the Xukuru community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Brazil. A cross-sectional census study was carried out using the criteria of the World Health Organization to determine caries experience. Examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists and a questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers addressing socio-demographic data, diet and oral hygiene habits. Logistic regression analysis were performed, with dmft and DMFT as the dependent variables (P Caries experience (dmft/DMFT) was high in both the primary and permanent dentition (75.6% and 62.9%, respectively). Mean dmft and DMFT indices were 3.11 and 2.21, respectively. Caries experience in the primary dentition was associated with children residing in villages far from urban areas (P = 0.016), while caries in the permanent dentition was associated with older children (P caries experience, which was associated with age and group of villages. Public policies are needed to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:26062861
Pizzo, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Ignazio; Giuliana, Giovanna
The aim of this paper was to critically review the current role of community water fluoridation in preventing dental caries. Original articles and reviews published in English language from January 2001 to June 2006 were selected through MEDLINE database. Other sources were taken from the references of the selected papers. For the past 50 years community water fluoridation has been considered the milestone of caries prevention and as one of the major public health measures of the 20th century. However, it is now accepted that the primary cariostatic action of fluoride occurs after tooth eruption. Moreover, the caries reduction directly attributable to water fluoridation have declined in the last decades as the use of topical fluoride had become more widespread, whereas enamel fluorosis has been reported as an emerging problem in fluoridated areas. Several studies conducted in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities suggested that this method of delivering fluoride may be unnecessary for caries prevention, particularly in the industrialized countries where the caries level has became low. Although water fluoridation may still be a relevant public health measure in poor and disadvantaged populations, the use of topical fluoride offers an optimal opportunity to prevent caries among people living in both industrialized and developing countries. PMID:17333303
Mobley, Connie C
Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234
Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80) to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:20920261
Amaechi Bennett T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80 to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055
Background The aim of this conference paper was to examine the evidence base for primary and secondary prevention of dental caries, erosions and dentin hypersensitivity through professional and self-care measures. Methods A mapping of systematic reviews (SR) of literature was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library through April 2014 using established MeSH-terms and disease-related search words in various combinations. The search was restricted to SR's published in English or Scandinavian and all age groups were considered. The reference lists of the selected papers were hand-searched for additional review articles of potential interest. Meta-analyses, guidelines and treatment recommendations were considered only when SR's were lacking. In the event of updates or multiple systematic reviews covering the same topic, only the most recent article was included. No quality assessment of the systematic reviews was carried out. The quality of evidence was rated in four levels according to the GRADE scale. Results In total, 39 SR were included. For primary caries prevention, the quality of evidence was high for the use of fluoride toothpaste (with and without triclosan) and moderate for fluoride varnish and fissure sealants. The quality of evidence for fluoride gel, fluoride mouth rinse, xylitol gums and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was rated as low. For secondary caries prevention and caries arrest, only fluoride interventions and SDF proved consistent benefits, although the quality of evidence was low. Likewise, the GRADE score for preventing erosions located in the enamel with fluoride supplements was low. The quality of evidence for various professional and self-care methods to prevent and manage dentine hypersensitivity was very low. Conclusions There are knowledge gaps in many domains of cariology and preventive dentistry that must be addressed and bridged through clinical research of good quality. PMID:26392204
Natalia I. Chalmers
Full Text Available Background and objective: Bacterial invasion into pulps of primary teeth can lead to infection and premature tooth loss in children. This pilot study aimed to explore whether the microbiota of carious exposures of dental pulps resembles that of carious dentin or that of infected root canals. Design: Children with severe early childhood caries were studied. Children were consented and extent of caries, plaque, and gingivitis measured. Bacteria were sampled from carious lesion biofilms and vital carious exposures of pulps, and processed by anaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized from partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and identified by comparison with taxa in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (http://www.HOMD.org. The microbiotas of carious lesions and dental pulps were compared using univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: The microbiota of cariously exposed pulps was similar in composition to that of carious lesion biofilms except that fewer species/taxa were identified from pulps. The major taxa identified belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (mainly streptococci and Actinobacteria (mainly Actinomyces species. Actinomyces and Selenomonas species were associated with carious lesions whereas Veillonella species, particularly Veillonella dispar was associated with pulps. Other bacteria detected in pulps included Streptococcus mutans, Parascardovia denticolens, Bifidobacterium longum, and several Lactobacillus and Actinomyces species. By principal, component analysis pulp microbiotas grouped together, whereas those in caries biofilms were widely dispersed. Conclusions: We conclude that the microbiota of cariously exposed vital primary pulps is composed of a subset of species associated with carious lesions. Vital primary pulps had a dominant Firmicutes and Actinobacteria microbiota which contrasts with reports of endodontic infections which can harbor a gram-negative microbiota. The microbiota of exposed primary pulps may provide
Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J; Twetman, Svante; Holmstrup, Palle
Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) from 293 stimulated saliva samples was...... to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries....
Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.
Ana Gloria Vázquez de León
Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective: To describe the characteristics of dental caries in the first permanent molars in children between 6 and 13 years-old, and to assess oral hygiene and knowledge about the subject in all the patients treated in the stomatology consultation Barrio adentro “El Guapo”, from November 2005 to March 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transversal study showed that most of the patients had dental caries. It was proved that many of them had, at least, on of the first molars affected by dental caries. The quotient first molar affected/ patient was higher than one. Results: There was a decrease in the percentage of healthy permanent first molars. Poor oral hygiene prevailed, with a medium knowledge level on the subject. Most of the parents didn´t know about the first molar dental cavity. Conclusions: It was needed to perform educative tasks aimed at this age group to avoid further damage to this important tooth, central for the development of the stomatognathic system.Fundamento: La caries dental continúa siendo el principal problema de salud de la población infantil. El diente
Prabhu, Poornima; Rajajee, K. T. S. S.; Sudheer, K. A.; Jesudass, G.
Context: In the current scenario of developing countries, dental caries has been a long-standing challenge in the oral health issue and still on the rise. Aim: The aim of the following study is to estimate the caries prevalence in the primary dentition among children below 5 years of age. Meterials and Methods: Study population included both boys and girls below 5 years old attending KGF Dental College and Hospital, Karnataka. A simple random sampling method was used. A total of 672 children ...
Kaur Surrinder; Ghosh Srabani; Kanwar A; Gauba A
Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66%) patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1. Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1% had severe caries and 225 (23.6% were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries reported that their children complained of toothache (72.7%, and a significant portion stated that their children had problems eating certain kinds of food (49.4% and missed school (26.0% because of their teeth. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries (68.8% stated that oral health affects their children's life, while the same was stated by 9.8% of the parents or guardians of the caries-free children. Severe caries was found to have a negative impact on children's oral health-related quality of life.
Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci
Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin
Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...
Schwarz Eli; Do Loc; Bhole Sameer; Scott Jane A; Arora Amit; Blinkhorn Anthony S
Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feedin...
Sotirios, Kalfas; Georgios, Andreadis; Vassiliki, Topitsoglou
Background: The ecological plaque hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of caries implies a microbial shift towards a more aciduric dental plaque microbiota, due to a frequent carbohydrate intake. Acid tolerance has been suggested as an important property of the caries-associated bacteria and several in vitro studies with mixed cultures indicated that a low pH rather than the carbohydrate availability is responsible for microbiota shifts associated with the development of dental caries.Objectiv...
Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.
Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count
Full Text Available Background: The detection of carious lesions in the initial stages of development is very important in order to prevent the occurrence of cavitation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare three methods-visual examination, FOTI, and bitewing radiographic examination-for the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy students (mean age 14 years with low caries prevalence were examined by three examiners. The tooth surfaces judged as having caries by at least one examiner or one diagnostic method were scheduled for tooth separation. Results: The results showed that the incorporation of FOTI and radiographic examination represented an additional diagnostic yield of 50% and about 110%, respectively, compared to clinical examination alone. Conclusion: We conclude that FOTI or radiographic examination, or both, used as adjuncts to clinical examination, could improve the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Although FOTI should not replace bitewing radiographic examination, it does seem to have additional value for the detection of carious lesions on approximal surfaces of the posterior teeth in school children with low caries prevalence.
It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)
Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina
The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498
T Malek Mohammadi
Full Text Available Aim the main aim of this study was to examine the usability of a new dietary measure among a high caries population and examine whether reported food intake, when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity, was associated with increased caries rates within a high caries population. Key method Two hundred and eighteen children with caries were examined using standard caries diagnostic criteria. The examinations were carried out by a single calibrated dental examiner. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each participant and this was analysed by weighting foods’ cariogenic potential by the frequency of consumption, and summing the product. The total cariogenicity score for each child was then plotted against its dmft and dt and correlation coefficients were calculated. Result the mean cariogenicity score using this new measure was 71.02, with a range of 31.96 to 135.24. The standard deviation was 16.72. Total cariogenicity scores using the new measure and dmft were weakly correlated, with the Pearson correlation co-efficient being 0.130 and for dt 0.131. These correlations did not reach significance. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that in children with caries, reported food intake (when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity and caries are only weakly and non-significantly associated. Dietary intake, when measured in a way, which takes account of all food groups, was therefore not strongly associated with caries when measured on an individual level.
Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.
Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen
As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487
Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas
Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.
Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott
A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.
Ana Gloria Vázquez de León; Antonia Francisco Local; Nora Sexto Delgado; Yoel González Beriau
Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective
Sheiham Aubrey; Batchelor Paul A
Abstract Background The 'high-risk approach' is a commonly adopted strategy recommended for the prevention of dental caries in populations. The scientific basis for the strategy has been questioned. The objective of this study is to assess the contribution that children identified at 'high-risk' made towards the total of new caries lesions over a 4-year period, by analysing the distribution of new lesions per 100 children. Methods Data are from the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration ...
Velayudhannair Vivek; Sunila Thomas; Nair, Bindu J.; Alex Daniel Vineet; Jincy Thomas; Prasanna Ranimol; Vijayan, Aswathy K.
Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were cla...
Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;
This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....
Full Text Available Background: There is a relationship between dental caries and high blood sugar. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries among diabetic children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Diabetic children from pediatric ward of hospitals were compared to a control healthy group of children. Results: The mean DMFT was significantly higher in diabetic children compared to the control group. Conclusion: The result of this study confirms previous researches on prevalence of dental caries in children. Keywords: Dental Caries, Diabetes Mellitus, Pediatrics
Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.
Tušek Ivan; Carević Momir; Tušek Jasmina
Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, differ...
Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....
Gomez, Grace Felix
The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…
Ruchi; Anil Kumar; Vijay
: INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy are at high risk of developing decalcification, caries and white spot lesions. AIM: As little information is available about preventive measures taken by orthodontists, this study surveyed the measures used by orthodontists those practicing in Rajasthan in prevention of such problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire regarding preventive measures undertaken before, during and after the orthodontic treatmen...
Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente
Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in...
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim;
AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... restored root surface lesions, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active root caries was 4%, while 26% displayed restored root surfaces. The sugar intake was not related to root caries. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, in subjects aged 45 or over, smoking and wearing...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services. In...
Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido
Dental caries, still one of the most common diseases affecting people around the world, has a multifactorial nature encompassing necessary (biofilm accumulation), determinant (exposure to sugars and fluoride) and modulating factors (biological and social). The concepts about caries learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the concept that students at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, have about dental caries. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 274 students answered the discursive question "Conceptualize dental caries". Students' answers were analyzed by a content analysis technique that allowed the creation of response categories and classification of the concepts in categories. Frequencies were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Differences between the responses according to the students' class years were tested by the chi-square test. Differences with pdental caries. PMID:24789294
Guedes, Renata S; Piovesan, Chaiana; Floriano, Isabela; Emmanuelli, Bruno; Braga, Mariana M; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Mendes, Fausto M
AIM: To investigate the risk of sound surfaces, and initial and moderate caries lesions to progress to dentine cavitation in preschool children. DESIGN: A cohort study was designed with 639 children (12-59 months old) who had been examined by visual inspection during a survey in 2010. After 2 years...... lesions at baseline had higher risk of having a sound surface or a non-cavitated caries lesion progressing to cavitation when compared with caries-free children; however, this increased risk was not observed in children with only initial caries lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Initial caries lesions present a low......, 469 children were re-examined regarding the presence of dentine cavitations. The probability of progression was calculated for sound and carious (initial and moderate lesions) surfaces. Relative risk of progression and 95% confidence intervals for each condition compared with sound surfaces were...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth
Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita
ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in
Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease that has a profound impact on the health of both the individual and community health. On the other, the overweight and underweight in children is a major public health concern influenced by common factors with dental caries. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between DMFT (Decay-Missing-Filled-permanent teeth and anthropometry indices in 9-11 year old primary school children of the city of Shiraz, Iran-2012. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on primary school children, aged 9 to 11 years, selected by cluster random sampling in four areas of Shiraz city, in 2012. The prevalence of children with dental caries was calculated by measuring the number of teeth decayed, missing or filled duo to caries (DMFT indices using the WHO screening standards. Weight, height, and sitting height were measured and body mass index (BMI and leg height were calculated. The association between Anthropometry and DMFT were examined using bivariate correlation and linear regression tests by the SPSS software. The difference mean DMFT index between five groups of BMI was evaluated by ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: A total of 974 pupils were studied. Mean DMFT was 0.94±1.46. There were significant association between DMFT and BMI (r=-0/91 p=0/005. Mean DMFT was significantly reduced from underweight children to obese children (p=0/027. Conclusion: Underweight children have a higher risk of developing caries in their permanent teeth. Key words: Body Mass Index, Anthropometry, DMF Index
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.
Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.
Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan
Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939
Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan
Saliva contains various microbes and host biological components that could be used for caries risk assessment. This review focuses on the research topics that connect dental caries with saliva, including both the microbial and host components within saliva.
Merete Lempert, Susanne; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Froberg, Karsten ; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit
incidence. This study found that previous dairy intake, as well as milk intake or intake of dairy components, may be a predictor of future risk of caries measured by the DMFS count level. This relationship was inverse, meaning that a high intake of dairy products was associated with less future caries......The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between the intake of dairy products and the development in caries (DMFS, decayed, missing and filled surfaces) among children/adolescents over a period of 3 and 6 years, and to investigate whether dairy intake protects against caries incidence....... A total of 68.9% of the children were caries free at the age of 9 compared with 34.0% of the adolescents at the age of 15 (measured as DMFS = 0). A larger percentage of children/adolescents with a dairy intake above the mean were caries free compared with the group of children/adolescents with an...
Yutaka Nakahara; Tomoya Sano; Yasushi Kodama; Kiyokazu Ozaki; Tetsuro Matsuura
We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-wee...
Ronzio Cynthia R
Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.
Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob
A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results.
Lebedeva S.N.; Kharitonova T.L.; Kazakova L.N.
Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries
Understanding caries etiology and distribution is central to understanding potential opportunities for and likely impact of new biotechnologies and biomaterials to reduce the caries burden worldwide. This review asserts the appropriateness of characterizing caries as a "pandemic" and considers static and temporal trend reports of worldwide caries distribution. Oral health disparities within and between countries are related to sugar consumption, fluoride usage, dental care, and social determi...
Shivakumar K; Prasad Sumanth; Chandu G
A new emphasis on caries measurement and management is required for the dental community. The dental professionals need new approaches in caries detection, its assessment, and management. The future of research, practice, and education in Cariology requires the development of an integrated definition of dental caries, and uniform systems for measuring the caries process. Keeping this in view, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) has presented a new paradigm for the...
Wen, A.; Goldberg, D.; Marrs, C F; Weyant, R. J.; Marazita, M.L.; SRINIVASAN, U.; Zhang, L; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Foxman, B.
Using data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia Study, we examined variability in susceptibility to dental caries among children and adolescents in rural Appalachia. Among 210 participants who were caries-free at the initial visit, age at the baseline visit can be used as a proxy for the degree of caries resistance; probability of caries development at the tooth level decreased as age at the baseline visit increased. Participants who stayed caries-free for a longer period du...
Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;
Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...
Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam
obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...
Ritter, André V; Preisser, John S; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Chung, Yunro; Bader, James D; Shugars, Daniel A; Makhija, Sonia; Vollmer, William M
This study aimed to find the set of risk indicators best able to predict root caries (RC) incidence in caries-active adults utilizing data from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT). Five logistic regression models were compared with respect to their predictive performance for incident RC using data from placebo-control participants with exposed root surfaces at baseline and from two study centers with ancillary data collection (n = 155). Prediction performance was assessed from baseline variables and after including ancillary variables [smoking, diet, use of removable partial dentures (RPD), toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance]. A sensitivity analysis added treatment to the models for both the control and treatment participants (n = 301) to predict RC for the control participants. Forty-nine percent of the control participants had incident RC. The model including the number of follow-up years at risk, the number of root surfaces at risk, RC index, gender, race, age, and smoking resulted in the best prediction performance, having the highest AUC and lowest Brier score. The sensitivity analysis supported the primary analysis and gave slightly better performance summary measures. The set of risk indicators best able to predict RC incidence included an increased number of root surfaces at risk and increased RC index at baseline, followed by white race and nonsmoking, which were strong nonsignificant predictors. Gender, age, and increased number of follow-up years at risk, while included in the model, were also not statistically significant. The inclusion of health, diet, RPD use, toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance variables did not improve the prediction performance. PMID:27160516
The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 μm, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm2. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.
Tanaka Keiko; Miyake Yoshihiro; Sasaki Satoshi; Hirota Yoshio
Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was c...
Yao Yingshui; Ren Xiaohua; Song Xiuli; He Lianping; Jin Yuelong; Chen Yan; Lu Wei; Guo Daoxia; Ding Lingling; Tang Hui; Wei Ningkai; Qiu Shenwei; Li Chaopin
Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task ...
Skinner, John; Johnson, George; Phelan, Claire; Blinkhorn, Anthony
Background Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases of adolescents. In Australia there have been few epidemiological studies of the caries experience of adolescents with most surveys focusing on children. The New South Wales (NSW) Teen Dental Survey 2010 is the second major survey undertaken by the Centre for Oral Health Strategy. The survey is part of a more systematic and efficient approach to support State and Local Health District dental service planning and will also...
Castillo Ramon; Coldwell Susan E; Milgrom Peter; Castillo Jorge L; Lazo Rocio
Abstract Background Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program. Methods Three different types of milk (Ultra High Temperature (UHT), powder and evaporated) were tested for acceptability by 75 Peruvian children (25 per milk group, ages 4 to 7 ye...
Shinga-Ishihara, Chikako; Nakai, Yukie; Milgrom, Peter; Murakami, Kaori; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo
Background Diet is a major modifiable contributing factor in the etiology of dental caries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reliability and cross-cultural validity of the Japanese version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary intake in relation to dental caries risk in Japanese. Methods The 38-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, in which Japanese food items were added to increase content validity, was translated into Japanese, and administered to two samples. The fi...
Zhao, Alyssa; Blackburn, Corinne; Chin, Judith; Srinivasan, Mythily
Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cario...
Fernando, Surani; Speicher, David J; Bakr, Mahmoud M.; Benton, Miles C.; Lea, Rodney A.; Scuffham, Paul A; Mihala, Gabor; Johnson, Newell W.
Background Expenditure on dental and oral health services in Australia is $3.4 billion AUD annually. This is the sixth highest health cost and accounts for 7 % of total national health expenditure. Approximately 49 % of Australian children aged 6 years have caries experience in their deciduous teeth and this is rising. The aetiology of dental caries involves a complex interplay of individual, behavioural, social, economic, political and environmental conditions, and there is increasing intere...