Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.
Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be influenced by modification of life-style. Material and Methods. Data from the entrance and exit tests were collected from 197 students attending a grammar school in Novi Sad. Chi-square test and Student T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the statistical difference between categorized variables and the continuous variables, respectively. Results. The difference between the number of correct answers for all the students on the entrance test and exit test was statistically significant (p<0.0005 and the overall knowledge level after lectures was increased by 29.4%. The lowest level of knowledge on the entrance tests was noted among the students of the third grade of grammar school and after the lectures, the student’s knowledge level was increased by 82.3% (p<0.0005. Conclusion. Children and adolescents from Vojvodina and Serbia should be well informed about the cardiovascular disease risk factors and their prevention with special attention paid to the risk factors that can be influenced by changing lifestyle habits.
En-Zhi Jia; Hai-Yan Wang; Wen-Zhu Ma; Zhi-Jian Yang; Shi-Wei Chen; Guang-Yao Qi; Chun-Fa You; Jian-Feng Ma; Jing-Xin Zhang; Zhen-Zhen Wang; Wei-Chong Qian
AIM: To explore the relationship between the level of proinsulin with cardiovascular risk factors and sleep snoring.METHODS: Based on the random stratified sampling principle, 1 193 Chinese residents in Pizhou City, Jiangsu Province (530 males and 663 females, aged 35-59 years with an average age of 46.69 years) were recruited. Their sleep snoring habits were investigated. Biotin-avidin based double mAbs ELISA was used to detect specific insulin and proinsulin, and a risk factor score was established to evaluate the individuals according to the number of their risk factors.RESULTS: The results of Spearman correlation analysis and covariate ANOVA analysis after age and sex were controlled, indicated that not only the level of proinsulin (r = 0.156, P = 0.000, F= 5.980 P = 0.000), but also cardiovascular risk factors score (r = 0.194, P = 0.000,F= 11.135, P = 0.000) significantly associated with the frequency of sleep snoring, and the significant relationship between true insulin and frequency of sleep snoring was only shown in the covariate ANOVA analysis (F = 2.868,P = 0.022). The result of multivariate stepwise logistic regression after age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and true insulin were controlled showed that proinsulin (division by interval of quartile) was an independent risk factor for sleep snoring (OR = 1.220,95%CI: 1.085-1.373, P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: The interaction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, high proinsulin level and sleep breathing disorder may be a syndrome, which has not been recognized in human beings so far.
Jaraković Milana; Mihajlović Bojan; Čemerlić Snežana; Ađić Filip; Sladojević Miroslava; Mihajlović Bogoljub
Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be...
Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...
Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...
Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664
Marti, B; Tuomilehto, J; Salomaa, V.; Kartovaara, L.; Korhonen, H.J.; Pietinen, P.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine (1) whether health habits are associated with body fat distribution, as measured by the waist/hip girth ratio, and (2) to what extent environmental factors, including anthropometric characteristics, explain the variability in levels of cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN--The study was a population based cross sectional survey, conducted in the spring of 1987 as a part of an international research project on cardiovascular epidemiology. SETTING--The sur...
Parichehr Hanachi; Parvaneh Nazarali; Azam Ramezan khani
The aim of this study was Comparison of selective aerobic exercise and Pilates trainings onleptin and cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary women.Materials and Methods: Call the home health area 2 Tehran municipalities; Thirty four women(age: 30-40y) were recruited and divided randomly in groups as following: control (C; n=10);aerobic (EX; n=12) and Pilates(n=12). Participants of EX and Pilates groups performed trainings 3 sessions/week; 45min/session for 16 weeks at 60-75% of maximum hear...
Wu Phillis L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.
Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;
Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of...... cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...
Full Text Available Anetta Lasek-Bal, Przemyslaw Puz, Zofia KazibutowskaStroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Silesia, Professor Leszek Giec Upper Silesian Medical Centre, Katowice, PolandIntroduction: Hemostasis is affected by interactions between physiological processes, including those connected with the coagulation system, whose essence is converting fibrinogen into fibrin. The role of factor VIII (FVIII consists in activating factor X, which directly participates in the generation of thrombin, which is able to produce stable fibrin, which in turn forms blood clots. There are divergent opinions regarding the significance of high levels of FVIII in stroke pathogenesis.Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate FVIII activity in individuals with cryptogenic stroke in order to determine a potential relationship between it and cerebral ischemia.Material and methods: Nine patients suffering with stroke were used in this study: six women and three men aged 49–63 years. In all of the patients, the presence of known and potential risk factors for stroke had been excluded during previous diagnostic procedures. These patients accounted for 1.2% of the 719 people who suffered a stroke and were hospitalized in 2011 at the Stroke Unit. FVIII activity was examined in each of the nine qualified subjects within 1–2 months of the occurrence of stroke (the first test and repeated (the second test in five patients with abnormal results obtained from the first examination.Results: Increased activity of FVIII was found in 5 out of 9 patients. In patients with abnormal results, elevated FVIII was found in follow-up examinations in the 8th–10th month following stroke. Hemodynamic abnormalities in carotid or cerebral artery (presence of thrombus were found in 3 of the 5 patients with increased FVIII levels. In the first 24 hours following stroke the neurological state of patients with abnormal FVIII was worse than individuals with normal FVIII activity. The
Full Text Available Cardiovascular pathology appears to have a major impact in cognitive decline, and early identification and correction of cardiovascular morbidity could have a major protective impact on cognitive functioning. However, it is not clear how the risk factors for vascular disease can also be risk factors for a general cognitive decline. Regarding cholesterol, its implications in cognitive decline are not very well understood, considering that a high level of cholesterol has been associated with both an increased and decreased risk of dementia. In the present context, we decided to study correlations between cholesterol concentration and the various subdomains of some main psychometric tests, such as MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination and MoCA (The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, as well as some measurements for systemic arterial stiffness (brachial and aortic augmentation index and how they correlate with the aforementioned psychometric parameters. Our results provide additional evidence for a correlation between cholesterol levels and cognitive subdomains (with special focus on orientation, attention, recent memory and long-term memory. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between the brachial and aortic augmentation index and the results of both MMSE and MOCA tests.
Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C;
BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...
Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Waterham, E.; Teitsma-Jansen, A.M.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Boer, de M.J.; Deckers, J.W.; Zock, P.L.; Kromhout, D.
Background It is important to gain insight into opportunities for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate levels and trends in cardiovascular risk factors and drug treatment in Dutch post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients between 2002 and 2006 and to make compari
Kort, Sandra; Doorn, Jaap van; Sande, Ad; Leunissen, Ralph; Hokken-Koelega, Anita
textabstractBackground: IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 might protect against cardiovascular disease. Small for gestational age (SGA) birth could be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in later life. No data are available on the relationship between serum IGFBP-2 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and children born SGA. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine circulating IGFBP-2 levels in subjects born SGA and to inv...
Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J
In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.
A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)
Full Text Available Evidence regarding health benefits of physical activity is overwhelming and plays a critical role in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological investigations show approximately half the incidence of CAD in active compared to sedentary persons. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and international organizations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, a moderate level of occupational or recreational activity appears to confer a significant protective effect. Once coronary artery disease has become manifest, exercise training can clearly improve the functional capacity of patients and reduce overall mortality by decreasing the risk of sudden death. Well-designed clinical investigations, supported by basic animal studies, have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of exercise are related to direct and indirect protective mechanisms. These benefits may result from an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, enhanced fibrinolysis, improved endothelial function, decreased sympathetic tone, and other as-yet-undetermined factors. Hence physical fitness, more than the absence of ponderosity or other factors, is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic risk and long-term disease-free survival, in effect linking health span to life span. It is obviously in every individual′s interest to assume the responsibility for his or her own health and embrace this extremely effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment modality. The need for a comprehensive review of this particular topic has arisen in view of the high prevalence of physical inactivity and overwhelming evidence regarding CVD risk reduction with regular physical activity.
Lee, Sangsu; Kim, Do Hoon; Nam, Hyo Yun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu
Previous studies suggested that serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum GGT levels and CVD risk factors in Korean hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011 to 2012. The analysis included 1541 hypertensive participants. Study participants were divided into groups according to tertiles of serum GGT with cutoff points of 20 and 35 U/L. Serum GGT levels were positively associated with the components of MetS (P value creatinine ratio (P = 0.001). In hypertensive patients, serum GGT levels are positively associated with major cardiovascular risk factors such as MetS, DM, and urinary albumin excretion. PMID:26683926
Sady Montes Amador; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Lenia Ramos Rodríguez; Esther Cano Andino; Erick Andrés Pérez Martín
Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: ag...
Akande AA; Salisu OT; Omotoso ABO; Kolo PM
Objective:The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and elevated plasma tHcy level in Nigerian hypertensive. Methods: Thirty-six hypertensive patients were recruited with 36 age and sex-matched controls. The age, sex and anthropometric measurements including height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were taken. Plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), tri-glycerides and tHey were analyzed. The results of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher in the subjects than in the controls (P=0.01 and 0.03 respectively). On the other hand, means of HDL-C and triglycerides were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.06 and O. 68 respectively). Mean total plasma tHey was (12. 95±4.9)μmol/L in hypertensive patients when compared with (11.29±3.6)μmol/L in the controls (P =0.09), however the mean they was significantly higher in hypertensive patients who had stroke or myocardial infarction than those without these complications (one way Anova F = 3.63, P =0.04). Significant positive correlation was seen between tHcy and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and LDL-C. Conclusion:The study suggests that elevated plasma tH-ey may predict occurrence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive individuals.
Wang, D.; He, Y.; Li, Y.P.; Luan, D.C.; Zhai, F.Y.; Yang, X.G.; Ma, G.S.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002
Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico
Dong Wang; Yuna He; Yanping Li; Dechun Luan; Fengying Zhai; Xiaoguang Yang; Guansheng Ma
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water'' (high consumption ...
Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and
Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír
The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet...
Martínez Torres, Alejandra; Martínez Gaensly, Miguel
There is increasing evidence that certain microbial agents may have an etiopathogenic role in the development of atherothrombosis. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that causes peptic ulcer disease, has been suggested as one of the microbes involved in the development of atherothrombosis. This hypothesis is based on the following observations: a) a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular disease; b) the coincidence of Helicobacter pylori infection and cardiovascular risk factors, such as serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and plasma fibrinogen; c) Helicobacter pylori seropositivity correlates with acute-phase proteins associated with higher risk of coronary disease, such as C-reactive protein, and d) controversial PCR studies indicating the presence of Helicobacter pylori in atheromas. Analysis of the scientific evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection could indirectly contribute to the development and severity of atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:12113724
Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir
The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (placto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282
Mark F. McCarty
Full Text Available The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3–6 g daily that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline’s potential for aiding cardiovascular health.
Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B
Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715
Sady Montes Amador
Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.
Meier, Ch; Ackermann-Liebrich, U
It's been known for a long time, that certain diseases are more frequent in lower socioeconomic classes. But knowledge about the nature of this association, its main risk factors and how to improve health outcomes in lower social groups is still limited. Social class has been defined by different indicators by e.g. occupation and job position or the highest school qualification achieved. For international comparisons different classifications such as "The Registrar General's Social Class Classification " or the "International Standard Classification of Education" have been used. Several European Studies show a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in lower socioeconomic classes. But this studies also show that all socioeconomic groups have access to medical services. The Data from the Swiss Health Survey show the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases by three levels of education: Behaviouralfactors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity are more commonly present in the lower socioeconomic groups. People with a lower educational level visit their GP more often, whereas people with a higher level of educational consult specialists more frequently. Medical services are often used to check of blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol. An indication of state of health may be shown by medication and treatment for cardiovascular disease which is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. The present discussion of explanations of the poorer state of health in lower socioeconomic groups goes beyond the classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that after the correction for risk factors a correlation remains between social class and state of health. It is believed, that psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, control in the workplace or coping-strategies play an additional important role
Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel
The objective of the present study was to analyze the pattern of oral contraceptive (OC) use in teenagers and to examine the relationship between OC use and other cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted in 24 Belgian secondary schools. Most students (1526 adolecents aged 12-17 years) agreed to participate (participation rate: 83.6%). Smoking, physical activity habits, menarche, and OC use were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Total cholesterol level, blood press...
Giandalia, A; Russo, G T; Romeo, E L; Alibrandi, A; Villari, P; Mirto, A A; Armentano, G; Benvenga, S; Cucinotta, D
Although several observations indicate that serum TSH levels in the high normal range are related to cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in the general population, similar data are limited in diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations between TSH serum levels within the normal range and major metabolic and non-metabolic CVD risk factors in a cohort of euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects. Thyroid hormones, TSH levels, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose control, and blood pressure were measured in 490 euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects, consecutively attending two outpatient diabetic units in Southern Italy. In all subjects, we also calculated the Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), an obesity-related index associated with CVD risk. Diabetic women showed higher mean serum TSH levels and lower FT4 concentration than diabetic men, while FT3 levels were comparable in the two genders. Stratifying the study population according to quartiles of TSH levels, subjects in the highest TSH quartile were more likely to be female and younger, with higher values of BMI and waist circumference (P = 0.05 both), higher triglycerides (P = 0.002) and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01), higher VAI values (P = 0.02), and lower FT4 levels (P = 0.05), when compared to those in the lowest quartile. At multivariate analysis, a younger age, female gender, triglycerides levels, and waist circumference were independently associated with higher TSH levels. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic subjects with no evidence of thyroid disease, higher TSH concentrations within the normal range were more frequent in women and in younger subjects, and they were associated with visceral obesity and higher triglycerides concentrations, two well-known CVD risk factors. PMID:24385267
Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Won, Sungho; Relton, Caroline L; Davey Smith, George; Shin, Min-Jeong
Mendelian randomisation studies from Asia suggest detrimental influences of alcohol on cardiovascular risk factors, but such associations are observed mainly in men. The absence of associations of genetic variants (e.g. rs671 in ALDH2) with such risk factors in women - who drank little in these populations - provides evidence that the observations are not due to genetic pleiotropy. Here, we present a Mendelian randomisation study in a South Korean population (3,365 men and 3,787 women) that 1) provides robust evidence that alcohol consumption adversely affects several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels. Alcohol also increases HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Our study also 2) replicates sex differences in associations which suggests pleiotropy does not underlie the associations, 3) provides further evidence that association is not due to pleiotropy by showing null effects in male non-drinkers, and 4) illustrates a way to measure population-level association where alcohol intake is stratified by sex. In conclusion, population-level instrumental variable estimation (utilizing interaction of rs671 in ALDH2 and sex as an instrument) strengthens causal inference regarding the largely adverse influence of alcohol intake on cardiovascular health in an Asian population. PMID:26687910
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES, often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR. Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99, while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17. Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85 BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90, contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.
Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI
Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.
Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry, "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers, "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products, and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks. From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%, hypertension (HT; 37.9%, hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%, elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%, low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%, and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%. When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%, compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.
Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention. PMID:23840426
Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Mantilla, Ruben-Dario; Pineda-Tamayo, Ricardo; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel
Since cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we aimed to determine factors associated with such a complication in a large series of Colombian patients. This was a cross-sectional analytical study in which 800 consecutive Colombian patients with RA were assessed for variables associated with CVD. Furthermore, a systematic literature review was performed to address the state of the art about non-traditional risk factors for CVD in RA. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines were followed in data extraction, analysis, and reporting of articles selected. Hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, abnormal body mass index, abdominal obesity, and current smoking were all traditional risk factors significantly associated with CVD in Colombians. As non-traditional risk factors, familial autoimmunity, more than 10 years of duration of the disease, patients working on household duties, use of systemic steroids, and low education level were associated with CVD in the studied population. Out of a total of 9,812 articles identified in PubMed and Scopus databases, 140 fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included. Through this systematic review, several factors and outcomes related to CVD were confirmed and identified. These were categorized into genetics, RA-related, and others. Traditional risk factors do not completely explain the high rates of CVD in patients with RA; thus, novel risk factors related to autoimmunity are now recognized predicting the presence of CVD as strong as traditional risk factors. Our results may assist health professionals and policymakers in making decisions about CVD in patients with RA. PMID:23584985
Ye. D. Bazdyrev
Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.
Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L
Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430
Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig;
The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross...... pronounced in fat and unfit children based on the association with CRP levels. The association between fitness and fatness variables, insulin resistance, and clustered risk could be caused by other mechanisms related to these exposures. The role of IL-6 remains unclear....... between CVD risk scores and TNF-alpha and IL-6. C-reactive protein was associated with fitness, fatness, and CVD risk score. This study does not support an association between plasma IL-6 or TNF-alpha and low insulin sensitivity or clustering of CVD risk factors in a young cohort. Inflammation was more...
Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.
Chen, Fang; Yang, Wenying; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui
Abstract Aims/Introduction To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of microalbuminuria, and to explore the relationship between albuminuria and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods A nationally representative sample of 38,203 Chinese participants was categorized by different levels of urinary albumin‐to‐creatinine ratio (ACR; 0 –10 mg/g, 10 –20 mg/g, 20 –30 mg/g, 30 –300 mg/g). The prevalence of albuminuria was compared by using a single urinary ACR cut‐off po...
Atalić, Bruno; TOTH, JURICA; ATALIĆ, VLASTA; RADANOVIĆ, DANIJELA; Miškulin, Maja; LUČIN, ANA
Aims: The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was cond...
Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.
Chazot, Charles; Kirchgessner, Judith; Pham, Jenny; Vo-Van, Cyril; Lorriaux, Christie; Hurot, Jean-Marc; Zaoui, Eric; Grassmann, Aileen; Jean, Guillaume; Marcelli, Daniele
Survival of haemodialysis (HD) patients is influenced by many factors. Mortality is mainly of cardiovascular (CV) origin and related to both traditional and nontraditional CV risk factors. Low plasma Beta2-microglobulin (β2m) levels are associated with improved HD patient survival. HD session times that are longer than the conventional 4 h (i.e., extended dialysis) provide better middle molecule clearance and are also associated with a survival advantage. In this crossover randomised trial, we investigated the effect of membrane flux on CV risk factors and on β2m plasma levels in patients treated with extended dialysis. Dialysis session duration was between 5 and 8 h for all patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the treatment sequences low-flux/high-flux dialysis versus high-flux/low-flux dialysis in a crossover design after a 3-month run-in period, with each phase lasting 9 months. Of the initially enrolled 168 patients, 155 patients started the study after the run-in period, 117 patients completed Phase 1, and 83 patients completed the whole study. Lp(a), homocystein, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and serum albumin were comparable in the low-flux and high-flux treatments. The average β2m level was 43.3 ± 11.1 mg/l at the end of the low-flux phase. Independent of sequence assignation, average β2m was significantly lower at the end of the high-flux phase (27.5 ± 76.0 mg/l, p < 0.0001 versus end of low-flux phase). Both phosphate and nPNA were significantly lower at the end of the high-flux phase compared to the low-flux phase (p = 0.045 and p = 0.002, respectively). Inclusion of those patients who completed Phase 1 and who dropped out of the study during Phase 2 did not significantly change the results. In conclusion, this study did not find an influence of high-flux filters on several traditional CV risk factors in a population of HD patients treated with extended dialysis. However, high-flux filters are necessary to optimise middle molecule
Jovanović Dijana B.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.
Full Text Available Mahmoud Farshchian, Akram Ansar, Mohammadreza Sobhan Psoriasis Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. There is overwhelming evidence on the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with psoriasis as a result of hyperlipidemia, which is more common in these patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between the cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 55 patients with psoriasis and 55 matched (sex and age controls were entered the study at the Department of Dermatology between March 2011 and March 2013. Blood samples were obtained following 14 hours fasting status and serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were determined using standard laboratory methods, and other variables such as sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the type of disease were recorded. Results: Our findings showed that levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and smoking were significantly higher in psoriatic patients when compared with controls, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol was not significantly different between two groups. Body mass index of psoriatic patients was not significantly higher than controls. Patients with psoriasis also had an increased prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Our findings further verify lipid abnormalities in psoriatic patients. Psoriasis is associated with higher rate of hypertension, which may be resulted in increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Thus, serum lipid profile and blood pressure in all patients with psoriasis, regardless of disease severity, deserve consideration to be checked. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk factors, psoriasis, lipid profile
Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F;
Arterial hypertension is accompanied by increased morbidity and mortality and constitutes a substantial part of medical care. Antihypertensive intervention reduces the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aims of the study were to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors...... was independently associated with DBP. Office SBP was above 140 mmHg in 83% and above 160 mmHg in 44% of patients. During ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (AMBP), SBP was above 135 mmHg in 40% and above 155 mmHg in 15% of patients. In addition to male sex and hypertension there was a high percentage of other...
Full Text Available Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results.
Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...
Mansour, Manal; Nassef, Yasser E.; Shady, Mones Abu; Aziz, Ali Abdel; Malt, Heba A. El
BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in a sample of obese adolescent as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. The high blood lipid levels and obesity are the main risk factors for cardio vascular diseases. Atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity in adolescent and their blood lipids levels and blood glucose level. METHODS: This study was conducted with 100 adolescents of both gender age 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) greater than 95th percentiles and 100 normal adolescents as control group. The blood samples were collected from all adolescents after overnight fasting (10 hours) to analyze blood lipids (Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein) and hematological profile (Hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cell, C reactive protein and fasting blood glucose. RESULTS: There were statistical difference between the two groups for red blood cells (P<0.001), Hemoglobin (P < 0.001) and platelets (P = 0.002), CRP (P = 0.02). Positive correlation was found between the two groups as regards total cholesterol (P = 0.0001), P value was positive for HDL (P = 0.005 and Atherogenic index P value was positive (P = 0.002). Positive correlation was found between the two group as regards fasting blood glucose (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK and soluble scavenger receptor CD163 (sCD163 as markers of subtle inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM without clinical cardiovascular (CV disease and to evaluate their relationship with arterial stiffness (AS. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with T1DM and 68 age and sex-matched, healthy subjects were evaluated. Anthropometrical variables and CV risk factors were recorded. Serum concentrations of sTWEAK and sCD163 were measured. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV. All statistical analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: T1DM patients showed lower serum concentrations of sTWEAK (Men: 1636.5 (1146.3-3754.8 pg/mL vs. 765.9 (650.4-1097.1 pg/mL; p<0.001. Women: 1401.0 (788.0-2422.2 pg/mL vs. 830.1 (562.6-1175.9 pg/mL; p = 0.011 compared with their respective controls. Additionally, T1DM men had higher serum concentrations of sCD163 (285.0 (247.7-357.1 ng/mL vs. 224.8 (193.3-296.5 ng/mL; p = 0.012 compared with their respective controls. sTWEAK correlated negatively with aPWV in men (r = -0.443; p<0.001. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In men, the best multiple linear regression model showed that the independent predictors of sTWEAK were T1DM and WHR (R(2 = 0.640; p<0.001. In women, T1DM and SBP were the independent predictors for sTWEAK (R(2 = 0.231; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: sTWEAK is decreased in T1DM patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy subjects after adjusting for classic CV risk factors, although sTWEAK levels may be partially influenced by some of them. Additionally, T1DM men have higher serum concentrations of sCD163. These results point out an association between the inflammatory system and CV risk in T1DM.
Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;
Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma adi...... nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...... adiponectin has been associated with increased mortality and an increasing number of major adverse CV events (MACE). Because of these conflicting results, the true role of adiponectin remains to be elucidated. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we prospectively followed up 5,624 randomly selected men and...
Livio Dai Cas
Full Text Available The endothelium is a dynamic organ with many properties that takes part in the regulation of the principal mechanisms of vascular physiology. Its principal functions include the control of blood-tissue exchange and permeability, the vascular tonus, and the modulation of inflammatory or coagulatory mechanisms. Many vasoactive molecules, produced by the endothelium, are involved in the control of these functions. The most important is nitric oxide (NO, a gaseous molecule electrically neutral with an odd number of electrons that gives the molecule chemically reactive radical properties. Already known in the twentieth century, NO, sometimes considered as a dangerous molecule, recently valued as an important endogenous vasodilator factor. Recently, it was discovered that it is involved in several physiological mechanisms of endothelial protection (Tab. I. In 1992, Science elected it as “molecule of the year”; 6 yrs later three American researchers (Louis Ignarro, Robert Furchgott and Fried Murad obtained a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology “for their discoveries about NO as signal in the cardiovascular system”.
Hillman, Sara; Peebles, Donald M.; Williams, David J.
OBJECTIVE Fathers of low–birth weight offspring are more likely to have type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life. We investigated whether paternal insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors were evident at the time that fetal growth–restricted offspring were born. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We carried out a case-control study of men who fathered pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction, in the absence of recognized fetal disease (n = 42), compared with men who...
Monhart, Z.; Grünfeldová, H.; Zvárová, Jana; Janský, P.
Roč. 122, č. 2 (2010), e253. ISSN 0009-7322. [World Congress of Cardiology. 16.06.2010-19.06.2010, Beijing] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : cardiology * risk factors * myocardioal infarction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery
Jeffery, Robert W.
Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The aim of our investigation was the evaluation of an extensive cardiovascular profile in hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We studied 74 patients with ESRD (38 males, 36 females, maintained either on chronic HD (n= 50 or chronic PD (n= 24 and age and sex matched 20 healthy subjects as controls. The lipid profile, homo-cysteine (Hcy and C reactive protein (CRP were measured. When compared to a healthy popu-lation, HD patients displayed a marked atherogenic profile, as attested by increased levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A, CRP, Hcy and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, Apo B, albumin (ALB. A significant difference was noted concerning the rates of Apo B, HDL-C, TC, ALB and Hcy. Same biological disorders that those found at HD patients were noted in these PD patients. One also noted lower concentration in Apo A. there were a significant diffe-rence with the reference group concerning the rates of albumin, Apo A, HDL-Cl and Hcy. When compared to PD patients, HD patients had significantly decreased concentration of LDL-C. The peculiar metabolic changes observed in the present study confirm the marked tendency of patients with impaired renal function for developing cardiovascular diseases, irrespectively of the type of dialysis. We suggest including uremia-related risk factors in the panel for evaluation of cardio-vascular risk in dialysis patients.
En-Zhi Jia; Xin-Li Li; Hai-Yan Wang; Wen-Zhu Ma; Zhi-Jian Yang; Shi-Wei Chen; Guang-Yao Qi; Chun-Fa You; Jian-Feng Ma; Jing-Xin Zhang; Zhen-Zhen Wang; Wei-Chong Qian
AIM: To investigate the association between true insulin and proinsulin and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.METHODS: Based on the random stratified sampling principles, 1196 Chinese people (533 males and 663 females,aged 35-59 years with an average age of 46.69 years) were recruited. Biotin-avidin based double monoclonal antibody ELISA method was used to detect the true insulin and proinsulin, and a risk factor score was set to evaluate individuals according to the number of risk factors.RESULTS: The median (quartile range) of true insulin and proinsulin was 4.91 mIu/L (3.01-7.09 mIu/L) and 3.49 pmol/L (2.14-5.68 pmol/L) respectively, and the true insulin level of female subjects was significantly higher than that of male subjects (P = 0.000), but the level of proinsulin displayed no significant difference between males and females (P = 0.566). The results of covariate ANOVA after age and sex were controlled showed that subjects with any of the risk factors had a significantly higher true insulin level (P = 0.002 for hypercholesterolemia, P = 0.021 for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, P = 0.003 for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and P = 0.000 for other risk factors) and proinsulin level (P = 0.001 for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and P = 0.000 for other risk factors)than those with no risk factors. Furthermore, subjects with higher risk factor scores had a higher true insulin and proinsulin level than those with lower risk factor scores (P = 0.000). The multiple linear regression models showed that true insulin and proinsulin were significantly related to cardiovascular risk factor scores respectively (P = 0.000).CONCLUSION: True insulin and proinsulin are significantly associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.
Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose
A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147
Patel, P.; Mendall, M A; Carrington, D; Strachan, D. P.; Leatham, E; Molineaux, N; Levy, J.; Blakeston, C.; Seymour, C. A.; Camm, A J
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between seropositivity to chronic infections with Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae and both coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of a population based random sample of men. Coronary heart disease was assessed by electrocardiography, Rose angina questionnaire, and a history of myocardial infarction; serum antibody levels to H pylori and C pneumoniae were measured, risk factor levels determined, ...
Mariele Kliemann; Daniel Prá; Luiza L. Müller; Liziane Hermes; Jorge A Horta; Miriam B. Reckziegel; Miria S. Burgos; Sharbel W. Maluf; Silvia I.R. Franke; Juliana da Silva
The risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is related to lifestyle (e.g. diet, physical activity and smoking) as well as to genetic factors. This study aimed at evaluating the association between CVD risk factors and DNA damage levels in children and adolescents. Anthropometry, diet and serum CVD risk factors were evaluated by standard procedures. DNA damage levels were accessed by the comet assay (Single cell gel electrophoresis; SCGE) and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) ass...
Bergman Marković, Biserka; Katić, Milica; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcević, Ksenija; Jasna, Vucak; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica
Although Mediterranean country by its geographic position, according to cardiovascular mortality (CVM) rate, Croatia belongs to Central-East European countries with high CV mortality. Prevention by changing nutritional habits is population (public health programmes) or individually targeted. General practitioner (GP) provides care for whole person in its environment and GP's team plays a key role in achieving lifestyle changes. GPs intervention is individually/group/family targeted by counselling or using printed leaflets (individual manner, organized programmes). Adherence to lifestyle changes is not an easy task; it is higher when recommendations are simple and part of individually tailored programme with follow- ups included. Motivation is essential, but obstacles to implementation (by patient and GPs) are also important. Nutritional intervention influences most important CV risk factors: cholesterol level, blood pressure (BP), diabetes. Restriction in total energy intake with additional nutritional interventions is recommended. Lower animal fat intake causes CVM reduction by 12%, taking additional serving of fruit/day by 7% and vegetables by 4%. Restriction of dietary salt intake (3 g/day) lowers BP by 2-8 mm Hg, CVM by 16%. Nutritional intervention gains CHD and stroke redact in healthy adults (12%, 11% respectively). Respecting individual lifestyle and nutrition, GP should suggest both home cooking and careful food declaration reading and discourage salt adding. Recommended daily salt intake is < or =6 g. In BP lowering, salt intake restriction (10-12 to 5-6 g/day) is as efficient as taking one antihypertensive drug. Lifestyle intervention targeting nutritional habits and pharmacotherapy is the most efficient combination in CV risk factors control. PMID:20649077
von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.;
. Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men......Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent) and...... retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected...
Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E; Victor L. Fulgoni III
Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weig...
Z ABDEYASDAN; N. Sadeghi; M HASANPOOR; M Maaroofi; A HASAN ZADEH
Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. S...
Thomas, Emily H.; Wang, Emily A.; Curry, Leslie A.; Chen, Peggy G.
Background Despite greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with a history of incarceration, little is known about how prisons manage CVD risk factors (CVD-RF) to mitigate this risk. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with individuals with CVD-RF who had been recently released from prison (n = 26). These individuals were recruited through community flyers and a primary care clinic in Connecticut. Using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative met...
Fernando A. Atik; Silva, Isaac Azevedo; da Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro
Objective To determine the prevalence and profile of ascending aorta or aortic arch atheromatous disease in cardiovascular surgery patients, its risk factors and its prognostic implication early after surgery. Methods Between January 2007 and June 2011, 2042 consecutive adult patients were analyzed, with no exclusion criteria. Atheromatous aorta diagnosis was determined intraoperatively by surgeon palpation of the aorta. Determinants of atheromatous aorta, as well as its prognostic implicatio...
Wielgosz, A T; Spasoff, R. A.
Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...
Agner, E; Jacobsen, K; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E; Baastrup, A; Stene, G M; Bech, J; Kjaer, A
A screening investigation was carried out in a large industry in the Copenhagen region and 1,472 of the employees were offered examination of blood cholesterol and measurement of blood pressure. At this examination the employees completed a one-page questionnaire about other cardiovascular risk factors. 45% of those invited participated in the investigation, the poorest participation was among women and the greatest among the male officials. On account of the limited number of female employees, the majority of results were only calculated for men. Over 1/3 of these had hypercholesteremia (greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l) and nearly 1/3 had, simultaneously, at least two cardiovascular risk factors in addition to age and male sex. Extensive occupational investigations under the auspices of WHO have demonstrated that energetic intervention at the place of work aimed at the cardiovascular risk factors can reduce the risk of development of coronary heart disease and death within a six-year follow-up period. It is therefore emphasized that similar interventions are very necessary also in Denmark. PMID:2238226
Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome compared to the normal population. Patients with psoriasis and PsA may also have increased risk from nonconventional risk factors such as raised levels of homocysteine and excessive alcohol consumption. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on CVD and all cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis and PsA. METHODS: Data sources: All studies identified from a Medline (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) search pertaining to CVD, individual risk factors in psoriasis, and PsA were included. Study selection: Studies included a healthy reference population, were published between 1975 and 2009, and were written in English. RESULTS: Our search yielded 14 studies that documented rates of CVD in patients with psoriasis and PsA compared to controls. Substantial evidence points to elevated risk of CVD in patients with psoriasis and PsA. CONCLUSION: It remains difficult to conclude if risk factors are caused by psoriasis or share a common pathogenesis. Physicians treating patients with psoriasis and PsA must be aware of all potential cardiovascular risk factors in their patients.
El Eter, E. [Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Cardiovascular Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Al-Masri, A.A. [Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Cardiovascular Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors.
The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors
Theodore J. Angelopoulos
Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m2 consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01, triglycerides (TGs (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01, and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01. The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant.
Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M
The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m² consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm) in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01), triglycerides (TGs) (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01), and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant. PMID:27023594
Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease and to determine the possible risk factors for the disease. In this study, a Statistical method of odds ratio analysis was performed to look at the association of one of the type of cardiovascular disease known as myocardial infarction with various risk factors such as diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, sex, smoking, obesity, family history and age in Malakand division. A total of 700 patients were examined and their personal and medical data were collected. For each patient, the phenomenon of myocardial infarction was studied in relation to different risk factors. The analyses suggest that hypertension, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol level and family history were important risk factors for the occurrence of myocardial infarction.
Kurukulasuriya L Romayne
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To summarize data supporting the effects of antidiabetes agents on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Studies reporting on the effects of antidiabetes agents on glycemic control, body weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure parameters are reviewed and summarized for the purpose of selecting optimal therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes. Results National guidelines recommend the aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes, including weight loss and achieving lipid and blood pressure treatment goals. All antidiabetes pharmacotherapies lower glucose; however, effects on cardiovascular risk factors vary greatly among agents. While thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and insulin are associated with weight gain, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are considered weight neutral and metformin can be weight neutral or associated with a small weight loss. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and amylinomimetics (e.g. pramlintide result in weight loss. Additionally, metformin, thiazolidinediones, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated beneficial effects on lipid and blood pressure parameters. Conclusion Management of the cardiovascular risk factors experienced by patients with type 2 diabetes requires a multidisciplinary approach with implementation of treatment strategies to achieve not only glycemic goals but to improve and/or correct the underlying cardiovascular risk factors.
Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...
Full Text Available Background: Police force constitutes a special occupational group. They have been shown to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases. A multitude of factors may be responsible for this. There is very limited documentation of their health status and health surveillance activities are inadequate. Aim: The present study was designed to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors among police officers. Materials and Methods: The design was cross-sectional and spanned 900 policemen ( n = 900. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for collecting historical data. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were carried out using standard techniques. MS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: MS was observed in 16.8% of the study population. High blood pressure and hyper-triglyceridemia were the commonest abnormalities. The prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors were high body mass index (65.6%, hypertension (37.7%, diabetes (7%, smoking (10%, and alcohol use (48%. Conclusion: Our study identified police officers as a high-risk group for developing CVDs. The findings underscore the need for regular surveillance and lifestyle interventions in this important occupational group.
Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C
Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26946252
Clare C. W. Yu; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; Alison M. McManus
Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters i...
Bi, Xinyan; Tey, Siew Ling; Leong, Claudia; Quek, Rina; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
Objective Vitamin D deficiency is a global health challenge and has been linked to type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. However, the relationship between vitamin D status, body composition, and cardiovascular risks has not been well characterized in Asian populations. The objectives of this study were to examine the factors associated with the low vitamin D levels in a sunny tropical region and to assess the role of vitamin D status in cardiovascular risk factors. Design and Methods Th...
Adam A. Lucero
Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.
Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong
The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations. PMID:26350421
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor
Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality world wide. Increasing rate of CAD mortality and projected rise in CAD mortality for 2020 in the developing world necessitates immediate prevention and control measures. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is generally due to reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis. It is increasingly common after the age of 60, but rare below the age of 30. Plaques (plates of fatty atheroma build up in different arteries during adult life. These can eventually cause narrowing of the arteries, or trigger a local thrombosis (blood clot which completely blocks the blood flow. Despite scientific evidence that evidence based drug therapy reduce mortality in patients with established CAD, these therapies continue to be underutilized in patients receiving conventional care. It is essential to identify and manage risk factors for coronary artery diseases and to implement unique and creative approaches to stimulate better adherence to practice guidelines, to improve the quality of care given to patients with CAD. Reduction of SBP, DBP, heart rate, and body fat%, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL after regular yogic practices is beneficial for cardiac and hypertensive patients. Emphasis focusing on conventional risk factors, lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation, reduction of central obesity through dietary modification and exercise, can be proved to be the key interventions for preventing CAD.
Tenenbaum, Alexander; Klempfner, Robert; Fisman, Enrique Z
The existence of an independent association between elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality has been largely controversial. The main difficulty in isolating the effect of hypertriglyceridemia on CV risk is the fact that elevated triglyceride levels are commonly associated with concomitant changes in high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and other lipoproteins. As a result of this problem and in disregard of the real biological role of TG, its significance as a plausible therapeutic target was unfoundedly underestimated for many years. However, taking epidemiological data together, both moderate and severe hypertriglyceridaemia are associated with a substantially increased long term total mortality and CV risk. Plasma TG levels partially reflect the concentration of the triglyceride-carrying lipoproteins (TRL): very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), chylomicrons and their remnants. Furthermore, hypertriglyceridemia commonly leads to reduction in HDL and increase in atherogenic small dense LDL levels. TG may also stimulate atherogenesis by mechanisms, such excessive free fatty acids (FFA) release, production of proinflammatory cytokines, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and impairment of fibrinolysis. Genetic studies strongly support hypertriglyceridemia and high concentrations of TRL as causal risk factors for CV disease. The most common forms of hypertriglyceridemia are related to overweight and sedentary life style, which in turn lead to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intensive lifestyle therapy is the main initial treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Statins are a cornerstone of the modern lipids-modifying therapy. If the primary goal is to lower TG levels, fibrates (bezafibrate and fenofibrate for monotherapy, and in combination with statin; gemfibrozil only for monotherapy) could be the preferable drugs. Also ezetimibe has mild positive effects in lowering TG
The relationship between physical activity level and selected cardiovascular risk factors and mortality of males ≥ 50 years in Poland – The results of follow-up of participants of National Multicenter Health Survey WOBASZ
Full Text Available Objectives: The role of leisure-time physical activity in reducing all-cause and cardiovascular mortality is well explored. The knowledge on occupational and commuting physical activity continues to be ambiguous and misleading. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of different kinds of physical activity on cardiovascular mortality risk in men. Material and Methods: Data analysis on physical activity level and other selected cardiovascular risk factors acquired from 3577 men in the age between 50–80 years who participated in the National Multicenter Health Survey WOBASZ (Wieloośrodkowe Ogólnopolskie Badanie Stanu Zdrowia, Poland (2003–2005 was linked with male mortality in 2004–2009. Data about causes of deaths were obtained from the Central Statistical Office and the Population Electronic Register. Results: Among males aged 50–59 years, the strongest risk factor was living in large settlements and provincial capitals as a place of residence and the most protective factor was occupational physical activity. In the age group 60–69 years and 70–80 years, the strongest protective effect was observed for leisure-time physical activity. In men aged between 70–80 years (unlike in the 50–59 years age group, the protective effect of large settlements and provincial capitals as a place of residence was noted. Conclusions: Occupational physical activity significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality in men aged 50–69 years, while for leisure-time activity the positive effect was observed in age group 60–69 years and 70–80 years. On the other hand, for the inhabitants of large settlements and provincial capitals, significantly higher risk of cardiovascular mortality in the age group 50–69 years and lower risk in the age group ≥ 70 years was noted, both in comparison with smaller places of residence.
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative, cutaneous disorder with the potential to lower levels of folate. This may result in raised levels of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to compare levels of red-cell folate (RCF) and homocysteine in patients with psoriasis and in healthy controls. Levels of homocysteine were also examined in the context of other major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In total, 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 controls had their RCF, homo-cysteine and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had a trend towards lower levels of RCF. Significantly raised levels of homocysteine were found in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P = 0.007). There was no correlation between homocysteine levels, RCF levels or disease activity as measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (P < 0.004) and higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. This may contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with psoriasis.
Trends in Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in the Minnesota Heart Survey (1980–2002) as Compared With the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1976–2002): A Partial Explanation for Minnesota's Low Cardiovascular Disease Mortality?
Wang, Huifen; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs, David R.; Zhou, Xia; Blackburn, Henry; Berger, Alan K.; Filion, Kristian B.; Luepker, Russell V
The authors compared trends in and levels of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors between the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area (Twin Cities) and the entire US population to help explain the ongoing decline in US CHD mortality rates. The study populations for risk factors were adults aged 25–74 years enrolled in 2 population-based surveillance studies: the Minnesota Heart Survey (MHS) in 1980–1982, 1985–1987, 1990–1992, 1995–1997, and 2000–2002 and the National Health an...
Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.
People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD, their well-established risk factors (CVRF and mental disorders are common and co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, potential causal mechanisms underlying their association still need to be elucidated. Several non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been suggested to explain this association: a mental disorders could increase vulnerability to CVD through poor health behaviour including smoking, unbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle or the side effects of psychotropic drugs; b CVD or their treatment could favour the development of mental disorders; or c mental disorders and CVD/CVRF could share risk factors such as common metabolic processes or common genes. Disentangling some of these mechanisms will require studying the temporal relationship of the appearance of CVD and mental disorders.Herein we review the existing epidemiological evidence of an association between these two types of disorders, and describe several mechanisms potentially involved. We will briefly describe the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study cohort, a population-based in Lausanne, Switzerland designed to address some of these questions.
Atkins, J. L.; Whincup, P. H.; Morris, R. W.; Wannamethee, S.G.
To explore associations between low muscle mass and a wide range of lifestyle, dietary and cardiovascular risk factors in older men including metabolic risk factors, markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation.
Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on body weight. The study involved 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and stably selected therapy for more than 6 months at the age from 45 to 65 years (mean age 53,19 ± 5,40 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk was assessed, taking into account risk factors by SCORE scale and amended for patients with RA. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, body mass index, body area index were determined. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 41 (41% patients with rheuma¬toid arthritis and was associated with traditional risk factors (age, obesity, rheumatoid factor, hyperuricemia and the duration of glucocorticoid therapy. Obesity and excess body mass occurred in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, herewith the highest level of inflammation indicators and risk of cardiovascular events was in overweight patients. Obesity was associated with duration of rheumatoid arthritis, the activity of the inflammatory process, the duration of glucocorticoids taking. It is found that the traditional SCORE scale does not fully reflect the risk of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis. Identification of hypertension and obesity increases the information content of the risk assessment of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis.
Dudina, Alexandra; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bacquer, Dirk De; Backer, Guy De; Ducimetière, Pierre; Jousilahti, Pekka; Keil, Ulrich; Menotti, Alessandro; Njølstad, Inger; Oganov, Rafael; Sans, Susana; Thomsen, Troels; Tverdal, Aage; Wedel, Hans; Whincup, Peter; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Conroy, Ronan; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Graham, Ian
Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity.......Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity....
Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: email@example.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)
Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.
Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate serum leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 levels in adult females receiving pharmacotherapy for various psychiatric disorders. METHODS: The study group consisted of 32 obese females (mean age 40.53 ± 11.00 years, mean body mass index 35.44 ± 5.33 kg/m² who were receiving treatment for psychiatric disorders, and the control group included 22 obese females (mean age 35.95 ± 9.16 years, mean body mass index 30.78 ± 3.33 kg/m² who were free of psychiatric disorders. Analyses were performed using a bioelectrical impedance device. Fasting blood samples were obtained for complete blood count and various biochemical tests, including determination of leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 activity. RESULTS: Body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance, alanine transaminase, aspartate tarnsaminase, and leptin levels were significantly higher in the study group than in controls. Although body weight was positively correlated with leptin levels in both groups, body weight was negatively correlated with adiponectin levels in the control group and positively correlated with adiponectin levels in the study group. In the study group, body mass index and hip circumference correlated positively with leptin levels, hip circumference correlated positively with adiponectin levels, and waist to hip ratio correlated positively with paraoxonase levels. In the control group, body mass index as well as waist and hip circumferences were positively correlated with leptin levels. Weight, body mass index, and hip circumference were also negatively correlated with the adiponectin/leptin ratio in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study indicates a higher risk for obesity-related disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, in patients treated with
Duggirala Sivaram Prasad; Zubair Kabir; Ashok Kumar Dash; Bhagabati Charan Das
Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnorma...
Maat, M de; Bladbjerg, E-M; Johansen, L G; de Knijff, P; Gram, J; Kluft, C; Jespersen, J
Greenland Inuit are a population with a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we stated that frequencies of potentially high risk alleles of the apolipoproteins, fibrinogen, factor V, glycoprotein IIIa and factor VII (FVII) genes have different allele frequencies in the Inuit when compared...... Greenland Inuit, aged 30-34 gamma. In addition, we compared the plasma levels of these factors and those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-Dimer in Inuit and in Danes, comparable for age and gender. Frequencies (f) were assessed of the alleles that are known as the potential high risk alleles in Caucasians...... measures and CVD risk in Caucasian populations, but for other measures this was not the case (allele frequencies of the PAI-1 polymorphism, and plasma levels of fibrinogen, FVII and t-PA). In conclusion there are clear differences in genetic background and plasma levels of risk factors in Greenland Inuit...
Italo Quenni Araujo de Vasconcelos
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A inatividade física na adolescência está relacionada com o acúmulo de gordura corporal, o que aparentemente pode aumentar a probabilidade do surgimento e desenvolvimento das alterações metabólicas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a predisposição dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em adolescentes com diferentes níveis de gasto energético. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 108 rapazes e 132 moças, com idades entre 12 e 17 anos. O gasto energético diário foi obtido pelo questionário proposto por Bouchard e cols. Previamente dividiu-se amostra através dos quartis de gasto energético (kcal/kg/dia para composição dos grupos: sedentário (GS, moderadamente ativo (GM e ativo (GA. Para avaliar as concentrações de colesterol total (CT, HDL-C e triglicérides (TG, utilizou-se o método enzimático-colorimétrico. O LDL-C foi calculado pela fórmula de Friedewald e cols. Para análise estatística utilizou-se a análise de variância de um fator, adotando pBACKGROUND: Physical inactivity in adolescence is related to body fat accumulation, which apparently can increase the probability of onset and development of metabolic changes. OBJECTIVE: To verify the predisposition to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with different levels of energy expenditure. METHODS: A total of 108 young men and 132 young women aged between 12 and 16 years were selected. Daily energy expenditure was obtained using the questionnaire proposed by Bouchard et al. The sample was previously divided according to the quartiles of energy expenditure (Kcal/kg/day into three groups: sedentary (SG, moderately active (MG, and active (AG. The enzyme-colorimetric method was used to determine the total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG levels. LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald et al's formula. The one-factor analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05. RESULTS: For the male gender, significant differences
Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta;
A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and hyper...... hypercholesterolemia....
Full Text Available This study was carried out on 2200 men and women aged 20-70 years in isfahan who participatd in isfahan Cardiovacular Risk Facor survery, in order to find prevalence of cigarette smoking in this population and estimate the relation of smoking with other CAD risk factors. All information was obtained by standard questionnaires mainly concerning smoking habits of subjects and their personal characteristics, etc. Serum lipids and fasting blood glucose levels were measured from 12-14 hr fasting specimen by ELAN 2000 autoanalyzer. Blood pressure was measured according to WHO standardized method. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Isfanhan population is 11.1% (0.92 in women, 23.3% in men. Contrary to serum total cholesterol (T.cho and fasting blood sugar (FBS, the mean levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and body mass index (BMI were significantly higher in non-smokers than smokers (P<0.05. Hypertension and obesity were significantly more prevalent in non-smokers than smokers. When the prevalence of risk factors were studied in two BMI levels, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly more in smokers than non-smokers opposite to hypertension in either BMI level. Higher prevalence of low HDL-C and hypertension in either BMI level. Higher prevalence of low HDL-C and hypercholesterolemia was observed in smokdrs than non-smokers when BMI <27 kg/m2 was considered. The results of the present study revaled that hypertensions is more prevalent in non-smokers than smokers. The observation that high blood pressure was less common among smokers than non-smokers may be related to the lower prevalence of obesity in smokers.We conclude that due to the low prevalence of smoking in Iranian women, it is better to present the data regarding smoking as sex-based in our society. On the other hand Cigarette smoking is not only considered as a major risk factor for CVD but also it may have a role in
Full Text Available Background: Clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors constitutes a major public health challenge. Although a number of researchers have investigated the CVD risk factor clusters in China, little is known about the related prevalence and clustering associated with demographics in Jilin Province in China; this study aims to reveal that relationship. Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on a sample of 16,834 adults aged 18 to 79 years was conducted in Jilin in 2012. The prevalence and clustering of CVD risk factors were analysed through complex weighted computation. Quantitative variables were compared by the t test, and categorical variables were compared by the Rao-Scott-χ2 test. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the CVD risk factor clusters associated with demographics. Results: The prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight and smoking were 37.3%, 8.2%, 36.8%, 47.3%, and 31.0%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with gender, education level, age, occupation and family income (p < 0.05. Overall, compared with females, the adjusted ORs of ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 risk factors clusters in males were 3.70 (95%CI 3.26 to 4.20, 4.66 (95%CI 4.09 to 5.31, and 5.76 (95%CI 5.01 to 6.63, respectively. In particular, the adjusted ORs of ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 risk factors increased with age. Conclusions: CVD risk factor clusters are common among adults in northeast China, and they constitute a major public health challenge. More effective attention and interventions should be directed toward the elderly and toward persons with lower incomes and low levels of education.
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. So the present study was planned with the goals to determine and compare the cardia-vascular risk factors in the diabetic children with type 1 of diabetes mellitus. Method: This was an analytic, cross sectional study that has been done in two groups (case-control. In this research, 148 children, suffering from the typel diabetes mellitus being supported by the metabolism and endocrine research center, were chosen in the continues case manner and for the control group, 148 children, matched with the study group (according to the age and the sex, at 6-18 years old from the schools in Isfahan city randomly and at 2-6 years from the neiborhoods of the case group. The data-gathering tool was the questionnaires includes lipid profile, blood pressure, weight and height. To analyze the data we used the analytic (t student and logistic regression and descriptive (mean and standard deviation statistic methods and SPSS. Results: Findings revealed that the means of Lipid profile, systolic blood pressure and body mass index had not statistically significant differences in the two groups. But the mean of diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure in the control group were more than the case group and this difference was significant. The mean, 75 and 95 percentiles for cholesterol and LDL in all the age groups, mean, 75 and 95 percentile for triglyceride in all the age groups except the age group of 1-4 years in the diabetic and non diabetic groups were
Melsom, Toralf; Fuskevåg, Ole-Martin; Mathisen, Ulla Dorte; Strand, Harald; Schei, Jørgen; Jenssen, Trond Geir; Solbu, Marit Dahl; Eriksen, Bjørn Odvar
Background: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on either cystatin C or creatinine perform similarly in estimating measured GFR, but associate differently with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. This could be due to confounding by non-GFRrelated traits associated with cystatin C and creatinine levels. We investigated non-GFRrelated associations between eGFR and two types of non-traditional risk factors for CVD and death: L-arginine/dimethylarginine metabo...
Murray, L J; Bamford, K B; O'Reilly, D P; McCrum, E E; Evans, A. E.
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of ischaemic heart disease and whether such infection can explain the social class inequality in ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN--Cardiovascular risk factor levels, prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (Rose questionnaire angina, and/or a history of myocardial infarction), and serum antibodies to H pylori (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) were assessed in a cross sectional population based surv...
Bin Luo; Shuyu Zhang; Shoucun Ma; Ji Zhou; Baojian Wang
The purpose of this study is to explore possible potential implications of cold air in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rats. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to artificial cold air under laboratory conditions, and their systolic blood pressure, heart rate, vasoconstriction, CVD risk factors, and myocardial damage indicators after cold air exposure were determined and evaluated. Systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, and plasma level of norepinephrine, angiot...
Mendall, M. A.; Patel, P; Ballam, L.; Strachan, D.; Northfield, T C
OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that minor chronic insults such as smoking, chronic bronchitis, and two persistent bacterial infections may be associated with increases in C reactive protein concentration within the normal range and that variations in the C reactive protein concentration in turn may be associated with levels of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic coronary heart disease. DESIGN--Population based cross sectional study. SETTING--General practices in Merton, Sutton, and Wan...
Kurukulasuriya L Romayne; Sowers James R
Abstract Objectives To summarize data supporting the effects of antidiabetes agents on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Studies reporting on the effects of antidiabetes agents on glycemic control, body weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure parameters are reviewed and summarized for the purpose of selecting optimal therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes. Results National guidelines recommend the aggressive management o...
Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Sylvia Do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Silvia Eloiza Priore
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipop...
Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro
The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion. PMID:26238744
Full Text Available Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and its associated risk factors. A simple random sampling was carried out in 200 inhabitants of Western Utter Pradesh, India. An oral health visit and examination was made for an equal number of males and females of different age groups with cardiovascular diseases. Evaluation of the oral status was made by means of an oral hygiene index, community periodontal index of treatment needs and loss of attachment. Evaluation of oral status in patients with cardiovascular diseases and in the control group has shown a statistically significant low level of oral health in patients with cardiovascular diseases as compared to control. Prevalence of systemic diseases in different age groups significantly correlated with the prevalence of severe periodontal diseases. Treating gum disease may reduce the risk of heart disease and improve health outcomes for patients with periodontal disease and vascular heart problems.
Full Text Available Most cardiovascular diseases are caused by atherosclerosis, which is a result of interactions between risk factors such as gender, age, blood lipid concentrations, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, adiposity, physical activity and cigarette smoking. Identification of risk factors is the first step in cardiovascular disease prevention. As health workers contribute significantly to cardiovascular morbidity, the aim of our study was to analyze prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the level of mentioned risk in health workers employed in Health Centre Beočin. The study group consisted of 50 health workers. Obesity was evaluated according to BMI and body fat (BF% values, while central obesity was defined using waist circumference. Serum lipid concentrations and glycaemia were used in metabolic profile definition. The level of physical activity was assessed using IPAQ, and information about smoking status and family history of cardiovascular diseases was obtained from self-report. Framingham point-scoring system was used to predict the risk for development of coronary heart disease in the 10-year period. Overweight was found in 36%, and obesity in 18% subjects. 42% of examined subjects had higher fat mass, while 24% of them had obesity. Central fat accumulation was observed in 50% subjects. We registered 56% smokers, 70% subjects with positive family history, 28% subjects with hypertension, and 56% subjects with dyslipidemia. According to IPAQ results 20% of exanimate subjects were minimally active and 70% were insufficiently active. Estimated risk of coronary heart disease was 7.38%, and 10% subjects had risk over 20%. In spite of lower cardiovascular risk level, our results showed high prevalence of overweight, smoking and physical inactivity in health workers, which suggests the importance of their own lifestyle modification. It should be the first step in increasing motivation of their patients.
Burgos, Miria Suzana [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Camargo, Marcelo Dias [Grupo de Pesquisa em Cardiologia do Exercício HCPA/UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas da [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Borges, Tássia Silvana; Todendi, Pâmela Ferreira [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Reckziegel, Miriam Beatris [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Reuter, Cézane Priscila, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil)
Obesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk stratification in pediatrics. To analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. We evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. WC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r = 0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001, respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age, BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p < 0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y = 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). WC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies.
Obesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk stratification in pediatrics. To analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. We evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. WC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r = 0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001, respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age, BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p < 0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y = 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). WC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies
Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip
Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…
Lilian Leguen Gulgar; Maricel Castellanos; María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez
Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 th...
Brady, Sharmayne R E; de Courten, Barbora; Reid, Christopher M; Cicuttini, Flavia M; de Courten, Maximilian; Liew, Danny
People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk.......People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk....
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of anthropometry and clinical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs among ready-made garment (RMG of workers, majority are females, come from low-socioeconomics conditions. Population-based cross-sectional study with 614 individuals aged ≥18 years were recruited from six different RMG factories. In total, of 313 male (46% and 301 of female (56% workers had body mass index (BMI in the overweight and obese range as per Asian cut off values with corresponding reflection in waist hip ratio (WHR. High proportion of male 84% (95% confidence interval 81-87 had smoking habits. The prevalence of hypertension (HTN, dyslipidemia were 24% vs 15%; 56% vs 43% among males and females respectively. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.3% (5.3-9.4 and pre-diabetes was 10.6% (8.2-13 and it showed female preponderance (4.5% male vs 10.3% female. In multivariable logistic regression HTN showed significant association with age, gender, BMI; glycemic status with age, genderand WHR; dyslipidemia with BMI and WHR. A substantial proportion of RMG workers are at an increased risk of CVDs which need focused attention to reduce smoking (among males and body-weight and central obesity, particularly in females.
Regina Mara Fisberg
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the lipid profile and to verify its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors in students at a public university in São Paulo. METHODS: After obtaining clinical, anthropomorphic, and lipid profile data from 118 students, variables of the lipid profile were related to other risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 20.3 years (SD=1.5. The risk of cardiovascular disease was characterized by a positive family history of ischemic heart disease in 38.9%; sedentariness in 35.6%; limiting and increased total and LDL-C cholesterol levels in 17.7% and 10.2%, respectively; decreased HDL-C levels in 11.1%; increased triglyceride levels in 11.1%; body mass index >25 in 8.5%, and smoking in 6.7% of the subjects. Students' diet was found to be inadequate regarding protein, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and fiber contents. A statistically significant association between cholesterol and contraceptive use, between HDL-C and contraceptive use, age and percent body fat, and triglycerides and percent lean weight was observed. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of some risk factors of cardiovascular disease as well as the association between these factors with altered lipid profiles was observed in the young population studied.
M.ª C. Frías López
center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal history: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. Results: The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Conclusions: Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%, similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40% and obesity (23% and lowest in hypertension (23%. In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.
Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative
Aalten, J.; Hoogeveen, E.K.; Roodnat, J.I.; Weimar, W.; Borm, G.F.; Fijter, J.W. de; Hoitsma, A.J.
The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in renal transplant candidates is high. A better understanding of the relation between these risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is mandatory to improve transplantation outcome. In this retrospective cohort study 2187 adult patients w
Methods: The present study is a descriptive, cross-sectional survey on 1592 patients which suffered coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG from May 2009 to May 2013 in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran. Before surgery, all patients were carefully assessed and typical and atypical cardiovascular risk factors were determined and the desired data were collected. Results: More than 70.8% of subjects were men and 29.2% were women. Average age of all patients was 60.39±7.5 years and the mean weight was 73.91±6.3 kg. Typical risk factors including: smoking, plasma cholesterol level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and family history of cardiac problems, were common in these patients. Forty seven percent of patients had diabetes mellitus, 79.4% had hypercholesterolemia, 34.3% had a smoking history, 64.5% had hypertension and 44.2% of patients had a family history of cardiovascular disease. Among atypical risk factors, various types of angina (chest pain had high prevalence (88.8% of all. Also, mean body mass index (BMI were higher than normal (27.46±2.1 which showed the incidence of obesity among these patients. But, other atypical risk factors did not have high incidence. Conclusion: We demonstrated that typical and well known risk factors have also high prevalence in CABG patients. Our results indicates that we can recognize high risk persons with continuous and accurate screening as a safe and inexpensive preventive tool. This can be done in both apparently healthy subjects and in cardiovascular patients. We can prevent the occurrence of severe degrees of atherosclerosis and also CABG. So the cost and performing surgeries will be decreased.
Kong, Xianglei; Ma, Xiaojing; Yao, Jing; Zheng, Shuting; Cui, Meiyu; Xu, Dongmei
Background Previous studies indicated that the clustering of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is common, and multiple unhealthy lifestyles are responsible for the clustering of CVD risk factors. However, little is known about the direct association between the volume load and the clustering of CVD risk factors in general population. Methods We investigated the association of the clustering of CVD risk factors (defined as two or more of the following factors: hypertension, diabe...
María Teresa Chiang-Salgado
cardiovasculares en la vida adulta de los jóvenes.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using Body Mass Index (BMI measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson´s chi² test and multiple regression. RESULTS: We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for Total Cholesterol (CT, 16.2% for Low Density Lipoproteins (C-LDL and 5% for High Density Lipoproteins (C-HDL. The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1% and sedentarism (60.8%. Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Full Text Available Aleksandra Kołtuniuk, Joanna Rosińczuk Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of mortality among adults in Poland. A number of risk factors have significant influence on CVD incidence. Early identification of risk factors related to our lifestyle facilitates taking proper actions aiming at the reduction of their negative impact on health.Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of CVD risk factors between patients aged over 65 years and patients of other age groups in surgical wards.Material and methods: The study was conducted for assessment and finding the distribution of major risk factors of CVD among 420 patients aged 18–84 years who were hospitalized in surgical wards. Interview, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were conducted in all subjects. Statistical analysis of the material was performed using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and analysis of variance.Results: While abdominal obesity (83.3%, overweight and obesity (68%, hypertension (65.1%, hypercholesterolemia (33.3%, and low level of physical activity (29.1% were the most common CVD risk factors among patients over 65 years old, abdominal obesity (36.2%, overweight and obesity (36.1%, and current smoking were the most common CVD risk factors among patients up to the age of 35. In the age group over 65, the least prevalent risk factors for CVD were diabetes mellitus (14.8%, depressive episodes (13.6%, abuse of alcohol (11.4%, and smoking (7.8%. In the group under 35 years, we have not reported any cases of hypercholesterolemia and a lesser number of patients suffered from diabetes and HTN.Conclusion: Distribution of the major risk factors for CVD is quite high in the adult population, especially in the age group over 65
Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.
Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.
TAUTU, Oana-Florentina; DARABONT, Roxana; ONCIUL, Sebastian; DEACONU, Alexandru; COMANESCU, Ioana; ANDREI, Radu Dan; DRAGOESCU, Bogdan; CINTEZA, Mircea; DOROBANTU, Maria
Objectives: To analyze the predictive value of new cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for CV risk assessment in the adult Romanian hypertensive (HT) population. Methods: Hypertensive adults aged between 40-65 years of age, identified in national representative SEPHAR II survey were evaluated by anthropometric, BP and arterial stiffness measurements: aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), aortic augmentation index (AIXao), revers time (RT) and central systolic blood pressure (SBPao), 12 lead ECGs and laboratory workup. Values above the 4th quartile of mean SBP' standard deviation (s.d.) defined increased BP variability. Log(TG/HDL-cholesterol) defined atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum uric acid levels above 5.70 mg/dl for women and 7.0 mg/dl for males defined hyperuricemia (HUA). CV risk was assessed based on SCORE chart for high CV risk countries. Binary logistic regression using a stepwise likelihood ratio method (adjustments for major confounders and colliniarity analysis) was used in order to validate predictors of high and very high CV risk class. Results: The mean SBP value of the study group was 148.46±19.61 mmHg. Over forty percent of hypertensives had a high and very high CV risk. Predictors of high/very high CV risk category validated by regression analysis were: increased visit-to-visit BP variability (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.67-3.73), PWVao (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.22), RT (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), SBPao (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) and AIP (OR: 7.08; 95%CI: 3.91-12.82). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that the new CV risk factors such as increased BP variability, arterial stiffness indices and AIP are useful tools for a more accurate identification of hypertensives patients at high and very high CV risk. PMID:25705267
Full Text Available Introduction: cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and it has become a major public health issue. It is increasingly affecting young people probably due to a significant prevalence of risk factors present from early years. Objective: to evaluate the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a young population from Cartagena. Materials and methods: cross-sectional and descriptive study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and then a survey was performed and a blood sample was taken from 260 young people without past medical history, residents in Cartagena, for a period of 6 months. There were established socio-demographic characteristics, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using Epi-Info7. All participants signed an informed consent. Results: the mean age of the 260 people tested was 21, 63.8% were female and 36.2% male. Ninety-eight point six percent of the population requires changes in eating habits and 78.8% has decreased physical activity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.6% and 6.15%, respectively, being higher in women. Of the study population, 10.7% had a large waist circumference, 67.3% consume alcohol and only 3.5% smoked. The blood tests showed normal levels of glucose in 98% of the group and a prevalence of dyslipidemia in 25.7%. Conclusions: poor eating habits, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, overweightobesity and dyslipidemia are modifiable cardiovascular risk factors prevalent in young adults of Cartagena de Indias. Thus, it is necessary to implement strategies that lead to healthy lifestyles in order to improve future quality of life for this population. Rev. cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2:211-219 KEYWORDS Epidemiology, Risk factors, Cardiovascular diseases, Young adult
Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude
Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and n...
T V Popkova
Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications (CVC including myocardial infarction (MI, sudden death and stroke (ST are the main cause of premature mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Chronic inflammation plays the key role in the development of CVC in RA. Objective. To analyze prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, significance of traditional risk factors (Rf, DMARDs and RA features in the development of clinical and subclinical signs of atherosclerosis (AT. To compare results with data of QUEST-RA. Material and methods. Traditional Rf and CVD frequency in RA pts were assessed with a questionnaire. Coronary heart disease, MI and ST were diagnosed according to medical documents. Subclinical signs of atherosclerosis were evaluated with carotid artery sonography. Results. Traditional CVD Rf were evaluated in 563 pts (496 female, 93 male aged 54 (44-54 years with disease duration 72 (24-144 months. Clinical signs of AT were revealed in5,6%, subclinical – in 11% of RA pts. Hyperlipidemia was present in 82%, increase of intima-media thickness – in 51%, family strain of CVD – in 44%, hypertension – in 38% of pts with RA. Traditional Rf, extra-articular features of RA, CVC and early AT signs weremore frequent in men than in women (p<0,005. Thickness of intima-media complex in 11men exceed that in women (p<0,005. RA pts were divided into two groups (I – with CVD and II – without CVD to assess relationship between traditional Rf and CVC. Frequency of traditional Rf (hypertension and increased intima-media thickness in group I was higher than in group II. Relative risk of their development was 4,78 and 2,09 respectively (p<0,05. 38% of RA pts had extra-articular features of RA (OR=2,02; p=0,04. Thickness of intima-media complex correlated with duration of treatment with hydroxichloroquine and sulfasalazine (r=0,34; p=0,0002 and r=0,28; p=0,008 respectively. CVC were not associated with administration of other DMARDs.
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is the major cause of mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with hemodialysis (HD), even in children. Adiponectin (ADPN) is an adipocyte derived plasma protein having anti-atherogenic properties. ADPN levels are elevated in ESRD but it has been reported that ESRD patients with low plasma ADPN levels have a high risk of cardiovascular death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between ADPN and atherosclerotic risk factors in children on hemodialysis.Twenty-eight children (17 boys and 11girls) with a mean age of 10.6 ± 3.34 years undergoing hemodialysis (HD) for a mean period of 11.96 ± 8.32 months (ranged from 6 to 36 months) and 10 healthy age and sex matched control subjects were enrolled in this study. The acute effect of a hemodialysis session on serum ADPN and other atherosclerotic risk factors , including blood pressure, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed by comparison of pre- and post-hemodialysis determinations. Serum levels of ADPN and TNF-α were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) while CRP was measured by the semi-quantitative latex agglutination assay.The data showed that serum ADPN levels were twice higher in the HD group as compared to the control subjects. Concerning the atherosclerotic risk factors, TNF-α, CRP and triglycerides levels showed significant elevation in the HD group. Meanwhile, serum albumin, cholesterol and phosphorus levels showed significant decreases. The linear regression analysis showed that adiponectin was negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.68,P < 0.0001), and body mass index (r = -0.73, P < 0.0007); ADPN levels are directly related to HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001) and inversely related to triglycerides level (r = -0.63, P < 0.0003). No relationship was found between adiponectin and CRP.It could be concluded that
Lilian Leguen Gulgar
Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 through July 2012. The variables analyzed were age, sex, blood pressure, waist circumference, tobacco use, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A and B, TC/HDL ratio and apo B/apo AI ratio. Results: women older than 45 years had a higher prevalence of elevated waist circumference (60.0 %, hypertension (46.7 % and type 2 diabetes mellitus (54.3 % with hypertriglyceridemia (43.3 %, low HDLc levels (36.7 % and were 2.8 times more likely to develop elevated waist circumference; 66.7 % of the diabetic patients had low HDLc levels, 33.3 % developed hypertriglyceridemia and 66.7 % had a high total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. Conclusions: an association between age older than 45 years, female sex, obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus was observed. There was a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels in obese and diabetic patients. Increased risk of low HDL cholesterol and high total cholesterol / HDL cholesterol ratio were also found.
Schmidt, T; Wijga, A; Von Zur Mühlen, A; Brabant, G; Wagner, T O
In participants of a comprehensive residential three month yoga and mediation training programme living on a low fat lacto-vegetarian diet changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones were studied. Substantial risk factor reduction was found. Body mass index, total serum and LDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, and blood pressure were significantly reduced especially in those with elevated levels. Urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, aldosterone, as well as serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were reduced, while cortisol excretion increased significantly. PMID:9401632
Castelao, J Esteban; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela
Many risk factors that promote cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been identified. These include hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, decreased estrogen in post-menopausal women, increased homocysteine, and cigarette smoking. It has recently become clear that a mechanism common to these risk factors is oxidative stress. CVD risk factors specific to women are parity, oophorectomy, pre-eclampsia, and menopause. There are several proposed mechanisms to explain these women-specific associations, such as reduced lifetime exposure to estrogen and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. One fact that did not receive much attention is the role of the oxidation hypothesis in these reproductive factors-CVD associations. In fact, pregnant, oophorectomized, and post-menopausal women exhibit higher levels of lipid peroxidation than non-pregnant, non-oophorectomized and pre-menopausal women, respectively. We propose that the increased levels of lipid peroxidation during these states are responsible, at least in part, for their increased risk of CVD. This review extends the concept of the oxidation hypothesis of CVD to reproductive risk factors in women. It also addresses the potential role of oxidative stress in the hyperthyroidism-CVD relationship, as hyperthyroidism is a common disorder that most frequently occurs in women. We also discuss how screening human populations for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels could help identify groups with a high level of ROS that may be at risk of developing CVD. PMID:18308480
Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation is the basis of treatment for advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor for mortality in prostate cancer. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study on 2011, 35 patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer as candidates for ADT were enrolled. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC were measured at the beginning and after the 5 th month of ADT. Results: The mean level of TG increased significantly from 130.82 ± 41.57 mg/dl to 150.05 ± 48.29 mg/dl (P < 0.012. Furthermore, serum level of TC increased from 197.62 ± 40.71 mg/dl to 212.54 ± 38.25 mg/dl, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. A non-significant increase in the serum level of FBS from 96.74 ± 14.04 mg/dl to 99.17 ± 15.23 mg/dl was also seen (P = 0.27. Conclusion: ADT in prostate cancer may lead to an increase in TG and TC levels. In patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease patient′s lipid profile should be considered during ADT.
Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.
Luo, Bin; Zhang, Shuyu; Ma, Shoucun; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Baojian
The purpose of this study is to explore possible potential implications of cold air in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rats. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to artificial cold air under laboratory conditions, and their systolic blood pressure, heart rate, vasoconstriction, CVD risk factors, and myocardial damage indicators after cold air exposure were determined and evaluated. Systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, and plasma level of norepinephrine, angiotensinⅡ, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and fibrinogen in treatment groups increased significantly compared with control groups. No significant variations were found in plasma Mb and cTnT and myocardial tissue between the treatment and control groups. Results indicate that: (1) higher levels of SBP, WBV and LDL/HDL, total cholesterol (TC), and FG in blood may indicate higher CVD risks during cold air exposure; (2) cold air may exert continuous impacts on SBP and other CVD risk factors. PMID:22851943
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore possible potential implications of cold air in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in rats. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to artificial cold air under laboratory conditions, and their systolic blood pressure, heart rate, vasoconstriction, CVD risk factors, and myocardial damage indicators after cold air exposure were determined and evaluated. Systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, and plasma level of norepinephrine, angiotensinⅡ, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and fibrinogen in treatment groups increased significantly compared with control groups. No significant variations were found in plasma Mb and cTnT and myocardial tissue between the treatment and control groups. Results indicate that: (1 higher levels of SBP, WBV and LDL/HDL, total cholesterol (TC, and FG in blood may indicate higher CVD risks during cold air exposure; (2 cold air may exert continuous impacts on SBP and other CVD risk factors.
Sean O Henderson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality varies across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., and the extent that known risk factors can explain the differences has not been extensively explored. METHODS: We examined the risk of dying from acute myocardial infarction (AMI and other heart disease (OHD among 139,406 African-American (AA, Native Hawaiian (NH, Japanese-American (JA, Latino and White men and women initially free from cardiovascular disease followed prospectively between 1993-1996 and 2003 in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC. During this period, 946 deaths from AMI and 2,323 deaths from OHD were observed. Relative risks of AMI and OHD mortality were calculated accounting for established CVD risk factors: body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, amount of vigorous physical activity, educational level, diet and, for women, type and age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT use. RESULTS: Established CVD risk factors explained much of the observed racial and ethnic differences in risk of AMI and OHD mortality. After adjustment, NH men and women had greater risks of OHD than Whites (69% excess, P<0.001 and 62% excess, P = 0.003, respectively, and AA women had greater risks of AMI (48% excess, P = 0.01 and OHD (35% excess, P = 0.007. JA men had lower risks of AMI (51% deficit, P<0.001 and OHD (27% deficit, P = 0.001, as did JA women (AMI, 37% deficit, P = 0.03; OHD, 40% deficit, P = 0.001. Latinos had underlying lower risk of AMI death (26% deficit in men and 35% in women, P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: Known risk factors explain the majority of racial and ethnic differences in mortality due to AMI and OHD. The unexplained excess in NH and AA and the deficits in JA suggest the presence of unmeasured determinants for cardiovascular mortality that are distributed unequally across these populations.
Muhihi, Alfa; Njelekela, Marina; Mpembeni, Rose; Masesa, Zablon; KITAMORI, KAZUYA; Mori, Mari; Kato, Norihiro; Mtabaji, Jacob; Yamori, Yukio
Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and middle aged men in a fast growing city of Mwanza in Tanzania. Methods Physical activity was assessed among 97 healthy men aged 20–50years using Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Quest...
Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; Lamberts, SWJ
Recently, a method to measure free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels has been developed. Free IGF-I levels may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total (bound and free) IGF-I. The associations between the circulating IGF-I/IGF binding protein (IGFBP) system and cardiova
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55-80 years and women aged 60-80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. RESULTS: In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive
Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen
The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels in adults with a history of weight loss to levels in adults who did not lose weight, after both groups subsequently experienced an approximate 1-year interval of weight maintenance. Extant data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) were used to identify 5,151 adults who were weight maintainers (maintained weight within ±3.0% over two consecutive periods of ~1 year) or weight-loss maintainer...
Maria Izabel Siqueira de ANDRADE
Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests a nutritional transition process in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Obesity, which was once an uncommon occurrence in such patients, has grown in this population at the same prevalence rate as that found in the general population, bringing with it an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the nutritional status and occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods A case-series cross-sectional study was conducted involving male and female adult outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease. Data were collected on demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and anthropometric variables as well as the following cardiovascular risk factors: sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, abdominal obesity, medications in use, comorbidities, alcohol intake and smoking habits. The significance level for all statistical tests was set to 5% (P< 0.05. Results The sample comprised 80 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 56 of whom (70.0% had ulcerative colitis and 24 of whom (30.0% had Crohn's disease. Mean age was 40.3±11 years and the female genre accounted for 66.2% of the sample. High frequencies of excess weight (48.8% and abdominal obesity (52.5% were identified based on the body mass index and waist circumference, respectively, in both groups, especially among those with ulcerative colitis. Muscle depletion was found in 52.5% of the sample based on arm muscle circumference, with greater depletion among patients with Crohn’s disease (P=0.008. The most frequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease were a sedentary lifestyle (83.8%, abdominal obesity (52.5% and excess weight (48.8%. Conclusion The results of the complete anthropometric evaluation draw one’s attention to a nutritional paradox, with high frequencies of both - muscle depletion, as well as excess weight and abdominal obesity.
Klakk, H; Grøntved, A; Møller, N C;
This study aimed to examine the prospective association of three different measures of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with 2-year change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. Two-year longitudinal data in schoolchildren aged 7-11 years (n = 365-729) was used...... baseline was associated with increased CVD risk factor levels at follow-up. The magnitudes of associations were similar regardless of adiposity measure [TBF%: β 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.39; BMI: β 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14-0.33; WC: β 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.31], and no evidence of nonlinear...
Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The anthropometric measurements were used for calculating indices and assessing nutritional status. The receiver operating characteristic curve tested whether neck circumference could predict cardiovascular risk. We also investigated how neck circumference related to the study parameters. The significance level was set at 5% (p0.5; p<0.05, varying from 0.610 for high-density lipoprotein to 0.817 for blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Neck circumference was capable of predicting excess fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.
Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude
Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444
Pascal M. Bayauli
Conclusion: Our findings highlight the staggering rates of cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa and underscore the pressing need to move their prevention and control higher on the political agenda.
Conclusions: Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the Catalan population attended at primary care centers. About two thirds of individuals with hypertension or DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low.
Petersen, K R; Skouby, S O; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen;
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors within lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and endothelial function in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five women with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes m...
Full Text Available Introduction In the last three decades numerous epidemiologic studies have shown the correlation between risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Clinical research has proven that rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA have higher prevalence of classical risk factors in relation to general population, and over the last few years there has been an emphasis on some new risk factors which can contribute to cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Material and methods This study examined risk factor values for CVD in 88 patients with RA treated at Rheumatology Department, Clinical Hospital Center, Zemun. All patients have been thoroughly examined (clinical findings, laboratory and echocardiographic examination. Apart from classical factors, 'new' risk factors have been examined in all patients: C-reactive proteine (CRP, high-sensitive C-reactive proteine (hs-CRP and homocystein. Results It has been determined that RA patients have more frequent higher new risk factors in comparison to classical ones. 84.1% of patients had higher CRP values, 97.1% had hsCRP and 39.5% had homocystein. The mean CRP values, especially hsCRP have been higher in patients with positive rheumatoid factor finding. Discussion Rheumatoid arthritis patients may have worse 'background atherosclerosis' than even subjects matched for classical cardiovascular risk factors. Continuous exposure to high grade systemic inflammation may be linked to accelerated atherosclerosis. Conclusions Timely identification of patients with risk factors, particularly with new risk factors, enables adequate approach in prevention of and treatment for CVD in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Júlio Brugnara Mello; Vinícius Martins Farias; Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann; Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann
Abstract Pedometers have been used in some studies to measure physical activity in adolescents. However, cutoff points of steps per day that classify physical activity levels are not yet fully established. The aims of this study were to identify the possibility the number of steps/day to predict cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents and to propose cutoff points to the number of steps/day for adolescents. Method: 1,045 adolescents (51.7 % girls) aged 11-17 were randomly selected...
Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; McMurray, Robert G; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo
Background:Clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors has been found in children as young as 9 years of age. However, the stability of this clustering over the course of childhood has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to determine tracking of clustered CVD risk from...... young school-age through adolescence and examine differences in tracking between levels of overweight/obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)).Methods:Six year-old children (n = 434) were measured three times in 7 years. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and VO(2peak) were measured. Fasting blood...
Olinto, Maria Teresa A.; Gigante, Denise P.; Horta, Bernardo; Silveira, Vera; OLIVEIRA, ISABEL; Willett, Walter C.
Purpose: Diet is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The scientific literature has consistently shown the effects of certain diets on health; however, given the variety of cultures and dietary habits across the world, it is likely that much remains to be learned about dietary patterns and health outcomes. We assessed the associations between main dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among 4,202 young Brazilian adults in a cross-sectional ...
Pattyn, Nele; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Eshghi, Saeed R. Toghi; Vanhees, Luc
Background Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise in different populations and for single cardiovascular risk factors, but none have specifically focused on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and the concomitant effect of exercise on all associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objective The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized and clinical controlled trials (RCTs, CTs) investigating the effect of exercise on car...
INTRODUCTION: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, st...
Leotta, G; Maule, S; Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Tredici, M; Canadè, A; Verhovez, A; Veglio, F
A prolongation of QT interval increases the risk for coronary heart disease, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death in diabetic patients, after myocardial infarction, and in the elderly. An association between QT prolongation and cardiovascular risk factors has been demonstrated in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) in a healthy young population (n=170, age 22-25 years, 84 males) and to investigate the association of QTc and QT dispersion (QTd) with cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol, smoking habits, and hypertensive familiarity). A prolonged QTc was observed in 10% of female and 5% of male subjects; in multiple regression analysis, QTc showed a significant positive relationship with blood glucose in females (P=0.04) and systolic blood pressure in male subjects (P=0.03), while QTd was not significantly related with any of the factors. In conclusion, the association between QTc length, glucose levels, and blood pressure is present also in young healthy subjects. QT measurement may represent a useful marker in the screening of young subjects for cardiovascular prevention. Journal of Human Hypertension (2005) 19, 623-627. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001874; published online 19 May 2005. PMID:15905890
Truesdale, Kimberly P; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen
The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels in adults with a history of weight loss to levels in adults who did not lose weight, after both groups subsequently experienced an approximate 1-year interval of weight maintenance. Extant data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) were used to identify 5,151 adults who were weight maintainers (maintained weight within ± 3.0% over two consecutive periods of ~1 year) or weight-loss maintainers (lost >3.0- <5.0% or ≥ 5.0% of body weight in the first interval and maintained that loss in the second interval). Mixed models regression was used to accommodate repeated measures and adjust for gender, age, smoking, cardiorespiratory fitness, decade of clinic visit, interval length, and BMI at the time of risk factor measurement. Coefficients from the model were used to calculate the adjusted risk factor levels in the three groups. Differences in total cholesterol (-3.8 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval: -5.5, -2.0), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (-3.0 mg/dl, confidence interval: -4.8, -1.1), triglycerides (-6.1 mg/dl, confidence interval: -10.6, -1.7) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.8 mg/dl, confidence interval: -1.4, -0.3) indicated that levels were slightly more favorable in the ≥ 5.0% weight-loss maintenance group than weight maintenance group. Levels were similar for glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. This work indicates that, when adjusted for covariates including current BMI, adults with a history of weight loss may have CVD risk factors to levels as good, or perhaps even better than, those observed in adults who maintain their weight. PMID:21394090
Zhao, X S; Wang, R; Bin, L R; Wa, S Q G
Blood pressure levels were evaluated among prehypertension patients with associated cardiovascular risk factors to determine the effect of different interventions with respect to new endpoint events. A total of 1112 patients were equally and randomly divided into control, lifestyle, drug, and lifestyle + drug groups, and were followed-up for 12 months. We collected the age, height, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipid levels, blood glucose levels, and other clinical data from all subjects at the baseline and at the end of the follow-up period. The average systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the intervention groups were significantly reduced after the intervention (lifestyle + drug > drug > lifestyle). SBP and DBP were higher in the control group than before intervention (P heart rate, triglyceride (TG) levels, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and family history were the major factors affecting blood pressure. Increased BMI, TG, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alcohol consumption, family history, SBP, and DBP were major risk factors of hypertension. At the end of the follow-up period, there were 67 cases of hypertension, 32 cases of diabetes, and 12 cases of the endpoint events. Hypertension and diabetes events were reduced in the intervention groups relative to the control group (P 0.05). Therefore, hypertension and related cardiovascular events can be controlled with different interventions. PMID:25062420
Crystel M Gijsberts
Full Text Available Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic. We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.
Full Text Available Healthy lifestyle behaviors are associated with lower risk of having cardiovascular disease (CVD. There is a cluster of risk factors that predisposes people to CVD. Overweight/obesity, unhealthy diet, inactivity, and smoking are major lifestyle risk factors for CVD, which are also associated with other potent clinical risk factors including raised plasma lipids, coagulation factors and measures of inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between lifestyle factors and some established clinical cardiovascular risk factors: C-reactive protein (CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C and fibrinogen in Scottish adults with a high prevalence of CVD. Cross-sectional data from 5460 participants aged 16-74 years whom had valid biochemical measurements in the Scottish Health Survey (SHS 1998 were analysed. Trained staff obtained anthropometric measures. Levels of physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and dietary habits were measured by questionnaires. Non-HDL-C was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from total cholesterol. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS with different statistical tests. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI was significantly associated with all risk factors in both sexes as obese subjects had the highest concentrations of CRP, total and non-HDL-C and fibrinogen, and the lowest concentrations of HDL-C (P 4 mmol/l and HDL-c ≤ 1 mmol/l for obese subjects compared with BMI<25 kg/m² were 4.8, 2.2, 4.8, 3.6 respectively. These figures for current smokers compared with non-smokers were 2.0, 2.1 2, and 1.5 respectively (P< 0.01. After BMI and smoking, physical activity was most important factor that showed significant association with CRP, fibrinogen and HDL-C. Total fruit and vegetable consumption had a significant association with CRP, and alcohol intake with HDL-C. Overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity were the main independent variables associated with the clinical
Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease, with serious short- and long-term complications and a potential fatal outcome. Despite the knowledge of several inherited and acquired risk factors for VTE, still 30-50 % of the VTE events occur in the absence of obvious predisposing factors. Traditionally, arterial and venous thrombosis has been considered as separate disease entities with different pathology, epidemiology and treatments...
Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun
The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China. PMID:26944225
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.
D. S. Buchan
Full Text Available Problem statement: Approximately 70% of the total ethnic minority population of Scotland is of South Asian ancestry, although relatively little is known about their cardiovascular risk profile. Determining the risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry may inform the creation of interventions to reduce risk and improve the quality of life in this population. Approach: The purpose of this pilot investigation was to examine the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry. A sample of 48 South Asian adolescents (26 females, 22 males, 16Â±2 years of age resident in the city of Glasgow participated in this study. Stature, mass, waist circumference, physical activity, blood pressure, diet and 10 metabolic markers of CVD risk were recorded. Results: Boys had a significantly (pâ¤0. 01 greater body mass, stature and were more physically active than girls. The boys also had significantly (pâ¤0. 05 higher fasting levels of glucose, LDL and C-Reactive Protein (CRP and recorded lower levels of HDL than girls. High fat diets, low physical activity, elevated CRP, glucose and insulin levels and low HDL levels were the risk factors most often identified as being as non-desirable. About 88% of the cohort had between 2 and 6 CVD risk factors while 40% of boys and 20% of girls presented with 5 or more risk factors. Conclusion/Recommendations: Results suggest that preventive measures, including increased physical activity and dietary management may be warranted for the youth of South Asian ancestry."
Ravinandana Gowda; Mumtaz Ali
BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor in many chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, auto immune disease and tuberculosis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine serum 25 - hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients with primary hypertension. This study also attempts to demonstrate an inverse co - relation between vitamin D levels and primary hypertension. ...
Webber, Larry S.; Rice, Janet C.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rose, Donald; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.
Background: Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing during adulthood, there have been few assessments of obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, and levels of physical activity among adult elementary school staff. Methods: Data were collected from 745 African-American and White female school personnel in a suburban school district in…
Full Text Available Robert Bodén,1,2 Gunnar Edman,3,4 Johan Reutfors,2 Claes-Göran Östenson,3 Urban Ösby3,4 1Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine Solna, Centre for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Psychiatry, Tiohundra AB, Norrtälje, Sweden Abstract: It is well known that abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are highly prevalent in patients receiving maintenance treatment with antipsychotics, but there is limited knowledge about the association between cardiovascular risk factors and treatment with antipsychotic drugs. In this naturalistic study we investigated a sample of 809 antipsychotic-treated patients from Swedish psychosis outpatient teams. Cardiovascular risk factors (eg, metabolic syndrome, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and low-density lipoprotein values were measured, and their associations to current antipsychotic pharmacotherapy were studied. Ten antipsychotic drugs were compared in a stepwise logistic regression model. For the patients, the presence of the components of metabolic syndrome ranged from 35% for hyperglycemia to 64% for elevated waist circumference. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with clozapine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–3.04, reduced high-density lipoprotein with both clozapine and olanzapine (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.01–2.97; and OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.32–3.13, hypertension with perphenazine (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.21–3.59, and hyperglycemia inversely with ziprasidone (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.89 and positively with haloperidol (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.18–3.48. There were no significant relationships between any of the antipsychotic drugs and increased waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, or low-density lipoprotein levels. In
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia are now the most encountered diseases and causes of death in older people with intellectual disabilities. Although cardiovascular disease is a major risk for older people with intellectual disabilities...
Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro
The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associat...
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are common in renal transplant recipients and renal insuf-ficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported that cardiovascular risk factors may contribute to the outcome of renal transplantation. This study was performed to determine the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the outcome of renal transplantation in Iranian subjects. This is a retrospective, observational study including patients of 20-85 years of age who had undergone renal transplantation. Parameters documented and analyzed included demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, past medical history, date of last transplan-tation, the outcome of transplant, last measured serum creatinine, cause of graft failure, rejection, and death. A total of 192 patients were analyzed including 152 in the case group (with identifiable cardiovascular risk factors and 40 controls (transplant recipients without identifiable risk factors. The mean serum creatinine in the case and control groups were 1.33 ± 0.13 and 1.29 ± 0.36 mg/dL respectively (P= 0.493. Response to transplantation was categorized based on a report from the World Health Organization. Complete response to grafting occurred in the control group more than the case group (P= 0.009, while frequency of partial response to grafting was higher in the case group (0.008. A history of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD could significantly predict the outcome of grafting (P= 0.008 as could the occurrence of renal failure (P= 0.022. Results were consistently reproduced using multivariate cumulative log it model. Our study indicates that the measured cardiovascular risk factors do not significantly influence the outcome of renal transplantation.
André Costa Matos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in the rural community of Cavunge, in the Brazilian state of Bahia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 160 individuals (age > 19 years randomly drawn from those listed in the population census of the Cavunge Project. The following parameters were studied: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, waist-hip ratio (WHR, physical activity, and overall cardiovascular risk classified according to the Framingham score. The assessing parameters used were those established by the III Brazilian Consensus on Hypertension and the II Brazilian Consensus on Dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Of the randomly drawn individuals, 126 with a mean age of 46.6 + 19.7 years were included in the study, 43.7% of whom were males. The frequency of arterial hypertension was 36.5%; 20.4% of the individuals had cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL; 31.1% of the individuals had LDL-C levels > 130 mg/dL; 4% were diabetic; and 39.7% had a high-risk Framingham score. Abdominal obesity was observed in 41.3% of the population and in 57.7% of the females. High caloric-expenditure (HCE physical activities were performed by 56.5% of the individuals. The HCE group had a greater frequency of normal triglyceride levels (63% vs 44%; P=0.05, no diabetes, and WHR tending towards normal (46% vs 27%, P=0.08 as compared with those in the low caloric-expenditure group. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are frequently found in rural communities. The greatest frequency of normal triglyceride levels and normal WHR in the HCE group reinforces the association between greater caloric expenditure and a better risk profile.
Abshire, Demetrius Alexander
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…
C.F. de Winter (Channa)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia are
Conclusions: The present results suggest that BR replacement in the diet may be useful to decrease inflammatory marker level and several cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female.
Wilson, Amy C.; Mitsnefes, Mark M.
In young adults with onset of chronic kidney disease in childhood, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. The likely reason for increased cardiovascular disease in these patients is high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors during childhood chronic kidney disease. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid ar...
Botez C; Brujbu Isabella Cristina; V.R. Murariu
The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of d...
Cupisti, Adamasco; Aparicio, Michel; Barsotti, Giuliano
Dietary manipulation, including protein, phosphorus, and sodium restriction, when coupled with the vegetarian nature of the renal diet and ketoacid supplementation can potentially exert a cardiovascular protective effect in chronic renal failure patients by acting on both traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors. Blood pressure control may be favored by the reduction of sodium intake and by the vegetarian nature of the diet, which is very important also for lowering serum cholesterol and improving plasma lipid profile. The low protein and phosphorus intake has a crucial role for reducing proteinuria and preventing and reversing hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, which are major causes of the vascular calcifications, cardiac damage, and mortality risk of uremic patients. The reduction of nitrogenous waste products and lowering of serum PTH levels may also help ameliorate insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in diabetic patients, as well as increase the responsiveness to erythropoietin therapy, thus allowing greater control of anemia. Protein-restricted diets may have also anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Thus, putting aside the still debatable effects on the progression of renal disease and the more admitted effects on uremic signs and symptoms, it is possible that a proper nutritional treatment early in the course of renal disease may be useful also to reduce the cardiovascular risk in the renal patient. However, conclusive data cannot yet be drawn because quality studies are lacking in this field; future studies should be planned to assess the effect of renal diets on hard outcomes, as cardiovascular events or mortality. PMID:17654313
Full Text Available There is much uncertainty about the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. One possible cause may be alterations in the autonomic nervous system, which plays an important role in the normal physiological regulation of pressure. Therefore, we studied the relationship between resting blood pressure and arterial plasma catecholamines, cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivities, and cardiovascular risk factors in young men (aged 19 years with low, normal, and high blood pressures, who were unaware of their blood pressure status. In the initial cross-sectional study, lower blood pressure was associated with a better lipoprotein profile, lower fructosamine concentration, and waist-hip-ratio. Mental stress test was the only test that induced differential responses between the 3 blood pressure groups, where the high blood pressure group showed the most and the low blood pressure group the least pronounced response in blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamines. Adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during mental stress test were significant predictors of future systolic blood pressure in a follow- up study over 18 years, while plasma catecholamine levels at rest and during the cold pressor test did not show significant associations with later blood pressure. Noradrenaline response to mental stress was a weak positive predictor for future waist circumference. None of the other parameters during rest or cold pressor test were significantly related to changes in Body Mass Index, waist circumference, or triceps skinfold thickness. Noradrenaline response to the cold pressor test was positively related to fasting plasma glucose and HOMA-IR at followup in univariate analyses. In the multiple regression analyses, noradrenaline response was an independent positive predictor of HOMA-IR. There were no significant associations with plasma catecholamines at rest or during mental stress test. Thus, reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is
Chiu Feng-Hsiang; Chuang Chung Hsun; Li Wen-Cheng; Weng Yi-Ming; Fann Wen-Chih; Lo Hsiang-Yun; Sun Cheng; Wang Shih-Hao
Abstract Background Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin levels have been independently associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine if their serum levels were associated with cardiovascular risk factors or metabolic syndrome as well as their correlation in the Taiwanese population. Methods This retrospective study included 999 subjects (> 18 y), who underwent a physical examination in Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou and Chiayi in Tai...
Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz
Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...
John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso
Full Text Available La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aumento en la ingesta alimentaria, lo que puede traducirse en tabaquismo u obesidad. La intervención farmacológica sobre el sistema endocanabinoide puede contribuir al manejo de estos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, teniendo en cuenta que a tales beneficios se suman otros independientes de la suspensión del tabaquismo o la reducción de peso, como el aumento del colesterol de alta densidad, la disminución de triglicéridos y la mejoría del control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados adelantados en poblaciones con diferentes características, han evaluado la utilidad de la regulación farmacológica del sistema endocanabinoide; confirmando su eficacia en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos.The need for an optimal treatment for smoking, obesity and their comorbidities, well-known cardiovascular risk factors; has prompted the search for novel therapeutic targets. This is the case of the endocannabinoid system, involved in several physiological phenomena including the reinforcement of certain behaviors and the regulation of appetite.
West, Nancy A; Hamman, Richard F.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Marcovina, Santica M.; Liese, Angela D.; Zeitler, Philip S.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Dabelea, Dana
OBJECTIVE—To compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among recently diagnosed youth with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic youth and investigate whether demographic, behavioral, or metabolic factors might account for observed differences. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from 106 type 2 diabetic and 189 nondiabetic multiethnic youth, aged 10–22 years, were analyzed. Prevalence of CVD risk factors were age and race/ethnicity adjusted using direct standardization. Multiple linear regres...
Muhaisen, Rafat M.; Sharif, Fadel A.; Yassin, Maged M.
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD and end-stage renal disease. There is accumulating evidence that the increase in CVD burden is present in CKD patients prior to dialysis, due both to conventional risk factors and kidney-specific disease. Detection and initiation of treatment for CVD risk factors at early stages of CKD should be ...
Edin-Liljegren, A; S. Hassler; Sjölander, P.; Daerga, L.
Objective. To investigate the occurrence of clinical, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among reindeer herding (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). Study Design. A retrospective cohort study, comparing risk factors behind CVD between Sami and non-Sami, RS and NRS, and Sami men and women. Methods. A cohort of 611 Swedish Sami (276 men and 335 women) was constructed from national population registers. A twice as large control cohort of non-Sami was...
Rasiah, Rajah; Thangiah, Govindamal; Yusoff, Khalid; Manikam, Rishya; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Mustafa, Rujhan; Bakar, Najmin Binti Abu
Background Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups. Methods Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team ...
Nazirudeen Mohammad K; Ahmed Nader M; Omar Aziza O; Jaber Tariq M; Nagelkerke Nico JD; Revel Anthony D; Baynouna Latifa M; Al Sayed Mamdouh F; Nour Fuad A; Abdouni Sameh
Abstract Background Over the last 30 years the citizens of the United Arab Emirates have experienced major changes in life-style secondary to increased affluence. Currently, 1 in 5 adults have diabetes mellitus, but the associations (clustering) among risk factors, as well as the relevance of the concept of the metabolic syndrome, in this population is unknown. Aim To investigate the prevalence and associations among cardiovascular risk factors in this population, and explore to what extent a...
Fox, Caroline S
Type 2 diabetes is a common disorder and an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) is a population-based epidemiologic study that has contributed to our knowledge of CVD and its risk factors. This review will focus on the contemporary contributions of the FHS to the field of diabetes epidemiology, including data on diabetes trends, genetics, and future advances in population-based studies.
Selma C Liberato; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina; Hills, Andrew P
Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors an...
Claudia Daniele Tavares Dutra; Anny Karulinny Mesquita Moura; Daniele Almeida Saraiva; Rosa Maria Dias; Sandro Henrique de Souza Dantas Oliveira; Andréa das Graças Ferreira Frazão; Rosana Maria Feio Libonati
Introduction: Lipodystrophy is quite common in HIV positive patient using antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objective: to investigate the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with HIV lipodystrophic syndrome (HIVLS). Methods: Transversal study with adult patients with HIVLS. Social-demographic, anthropometric and risk factors for CVD were collected. Results: 117 patients were studied, being 63.2% male, average age 44.61 (± 9.22). The majority (53,8%) presented the mixed form...
Conclusions: Overall we did not find significant associations between birth weight and nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. However, the 2 nd quintile of birth weight might suggest clustering of risk factors.
Diederichsen, Louise C. Pyndt Raun; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Simonsen, Jane A;
OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in adults with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) compared to healthy controls and to assess the association between CV risk factors, PM/DM, and CAC score. METHODS......: Traditional CV risk factors were assessed in a cross-sectional, observational study of 76 patients with PM/DM and in 48 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. CAC was quantified by means of cardiac computed tomography scan and expressed in Agatston units. The associations between CV risk factors, PM/DM, and...... of triglycerides (P = 0.0009). High CAC score occurred more frequently in patients (20% versus 4%; P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis of patient factors associated with CAC were age (P = 0.02) and smoking (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In this study, traditional CV risk factors and severe CAC were commonly...
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the most common and yet one of the most preventable causes of death in the world. Rapid urbanization in South Africa is accompanied by rapid changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure that increase the burden of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors, modifiable or nonmodifiable, exist that increases a person’s chances of developing cardiovascular disease. Though some knowledge is available about the prevalence of the risk factors in South Africa, no information is available regarding the community of Ga-Rankuwa. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease amongst the working-age people (18-40 years in Ga-Rankuwa community. A quantitative survey was done and the sample was selected from zone 1,2,4, and 16 of Ga-Rankuwa from July 2005 to October 2005. The sampling method was census sampling (n=604. The data-gathering was self-report using a structured questionnaire as well as physical measurement. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated that risk factors, specifically obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, were very prevalent in Ga-Rankuwa community. Different distributions of risk factors exist in the various sex and age groups. This finding again emphasises the importance of not developing health interventions with a single focus, for example hypertension or obesity. The risk factors are interwoven and affect each other. It is important to initiate a comprehensive health project to lower the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of physical activity (PA in the general population are difficult to characterize. Historically measurement has been based on self-report, which can be subject to bias. PA monitor use has created opportunities to improve surveillance and analytic research on activity and health. The aims of the current study were to investigate the associations between objectively measured PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors and obesity. Methods Data on PA from accelerometers, demographics, blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipids, self-reported hypertension and diabetes were obtained for adults, ages 20-65, in the NHANES surveys, 2003-2006. Outcomes were assessed as levels of moderate and vigorous activity, percentage of participants meeting recommended guidelines, and the correlations between activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Accelerometry data were available on 3,370 adults. Based on standard algorithms, activity levels were extremely low in all age-gender-race/ethnic groups, with an average of only 1 bout of vigorous activity lasting longer than 1 minute/day. Results Men spent 35 minutes in moderate activity/day, women 21 minutes; >75% of this activity was accumulated in 1-minute bouts. Levels of activity declined sharply after age 50 in all groups. Negative associations were observed between minutes of combined moderate and vigorous activity and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index and obesity, and a positive association was seen with HDL-cholesterol (all P ≤ 0.03, suggesting valid rank ordering of participants by activity level. Conclusion The magnitude of the gap between self-report and accelerometry activity must be a result of either a vast social acceptability bias in reporting or inaccurate measurement with accelerometry. Therefore, due to the low validity of self reported PA data for epidemiologic research, it is pertinent to encourage the use of valid, objective
Maeder, Micha T; Schoch, Otto D; Rickli, Hans
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality. Epidemiological studies have established these associations, and there are now numerous experimental and clinical studies which have provided information on the possible underlying mechanisms. Mechanistic proof-of-concept studies with surrogate endpoints have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has the potential to reverse or at least to attenuate not only OSA but also the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with OSA. However, no randomized studies have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by CPAP improves clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and/or established cardiovascular disease and concomitant OSA. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of OSA as a potential cardiovascular risk factor, the impact of OSA on cardiac function, the role of OSA as a modifier of the course of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, and the insights from studies evaluating the impact of CPAP therapy on the cardiovascular features associated with OSA. PMID:27051291
Melissa S. Burroughs Peña
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.
E. V. Minakov
Full Text Available Aim. To study erectile dysfunction prevalence among out-patients with arterial hypertension (HT and/or coronary heart disease (CHD as well as to study risk factors of erectile dysfunction.Material and methods. The anonymous poll was carried out among 103 male patients with HT and/or CHD. General information about patient, medical history, treatment was analyzed. All patients were examined by cardiologists. Erectile function was assessed with The International Index Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaire.Results. 86 (84% questionnaires were returned. 62 (72% patients from 86 responding had erectile dysfunction. Age, blood pressure level, abdominal obesity, beta-blocker therapy and chronic heart failure affected erectile function.Conclusion. The erectile dysfunction was common disorder among male patients with HT and/or CHD. Early erectile dysfunction diagnosis, prevention and therapy are necessary to provide high level of compliance in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Osler, M; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Davidsen, Mette;
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in...... cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups. DESIGN: Data from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92, were analysed to estimate trends in biological (weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and behavioural (smoking, physical...... most educated groups. In fact, the prevalence of heavy smoking increased in the least educated women. There was no significant interaction for the remaining biological and behavioural risk factors between time of examination and educational level, indicating that the trend was the same in the different...
杜娟; 金蕾; 韩继啸; 张慧儿; 徐益敏
目的：了解中老年职工同型半胱氨酸（Hcy）血清分布特点，为防治高同型半胱氨酸血症（HHcy）提供依据。方法选择某炼化公司40岁以上的体检职工5113人，分析不同性别、年龄血清 Hcy 水平和 HHcy 检出率及 HHcy 与心血管疾病危险因素的关联性。结果各年龄组男性血清 Hcy 水平及 HHcy 检出率均明显高于女性，差异有统计学意义（P ＜0.01）；男女 HHcy 检出率均随年龄增加呈增高趋势（P ＜0.01）；Logistic 回归分析显示，男性（OR ＝3.99，95％CI：3.12～5.10）、年龄大（OR ＝1.02，95％CI：1.01～1.03）、有高血压（OR ＝2.56，95％CI：2.04～3.22）、收缩压高（OR ＝1.01，95％CI：1.01～1.02）和 BMI 值大（OR ＝1.40，95％CI：1.04～1.89）是 HHcy 独立危险因素；而肌酐清除率高（OR ＝0.39，95％CI：0.31～0.49）是保护因素。结论年龄大、收缩压高、BMI 值大和肌酐清除率低与 Hcy 水平有关联。%Objective To understand the distribution of serum Homocysteine (Hcy)among the middle -aged and the elderly in a refining and chemical company and to provide suggestions for prevention and control of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).Methods A total of 5 113 employees aged over 40 who received annual physical examination in our medical center in 2013 were enrolled in this study.Serum Hcy levels and HHcy positive rate were analyzed by gender and age.The relationship between HHcy and major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were also analyzed.Results Serum Hcy levels and HHcy positive rate among male were higher than female in each phase of age The difference was statistically significant (P <0.01 ).Within the same gender group,HHcy positive rate increased significantly with age (P <0.01 ).Linear correlation and logistic regression showed that male (OR =3.99,95%CI =3.12 -5.10),age (OR =1.02,95%CI =1.01 -1.02),history of hypertension(OR =2.56,95%CI =2.04 -3.22),systolic pressure
The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71 or control group (n = 75 using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference. In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive
Andreassen, Ole A; Djurovic, Srdjan; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J; Kendler, Kenneth S; O'Donovan, Michael C; Rujescu, Dan; Werge, Thomas; van de Bunt, Martijn; Morris, Andrew P; McCarthy, Mark I; Roddey, J Cooper; McEvoy, Linda K; Desikan, Rahul S; Dale, Anders M
between SCZ and cardiovascular-disease (CVD) risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, low- and high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and type 2 diabetes. Using stratified quantile-quantile plots, we show enrichment of SNPs associated with SCZ as a function...... with SCZ at a conditional FDR level of 0.01. Of these, ten loci are associated with both SCZ and CVD risk factors, mainly triglycerides and low- and high-density lipoproteins but also waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. Together, these findings suggest the feasibility of...
Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor in etiology of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown association between vegetarian diet and low total serum cholesterol as well as LDL-cholesterol which is a pointer to low risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary fiber, antioxidants and other classes of nutrients have been reported to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors. Fruits and vegetables being rich sources of fiber and antioxidants have been the focus in intervention studies. The current work reports the effect local fruits and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors in African hypertensive subjects in an 8 week study. Though there was no significant difference in the Body Mass Index and HDL-cholesterol at the end of the eighth week, there were significant reductions (P -1; total serum cholesterol (226.60 ± 6.15 to 179.20 ± 5.78 and LDL-cholesterol (135.69 ± 5.56 to 93.07 ± 7.18 mgdL-1. We concluded that consumption of combination of local fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in Africans.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. Methods Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042 aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR for correlation of age and risk factors. Results In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8% and 18 (1.4%, overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8 in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol ( Conclusion Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.
Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Meystre, Stéphane
The 2014 i2b2 natural language processing shared task focused on identifying cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity and smoking status among other factors found in health records of diabetic patients. In addition, the task involved detecting medications, and time information associated with the extracted data. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a natural language processing (NLP) application conceived for this i2b2 shared task. For increased efficiency, the application main components were adapted from two existing NLP tools implemented in the Apache UIMA framework: Textractor (for dictionary-based lookup) and cTAKES (for preprocessing and smoking status detection). The application achieved a final (micro-averaged) F1-measure of 87.5% on the final evaluation test set. Our attempt was mostly based on existing tools adapted with minimal changes and allowed for satisfying performance with limited development efforts. PMID:26318122
Evelise Helena Fadini Reis Brunori
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the relationship between different presentations of acute coronary syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors among hospitalized individuals.METHOD: cross-sectional study performed in a teaching hospital in São Paulo, in the State of São Paulo (SP. Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric data of 150 individuals hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome were collected through interviews and review of clinical charts. Association between these data and the presentation of the syndrome were investigated.RESULTS: there was a predominance of ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. There was significant association of systemic hypertension with unstable angina and high values of low density lipoprotein with infarction, without influence from socio-demographic characteristics.CONCLUSION: arterial hypertension and high levels of low-density lipoprotein were associated with different presentations of coronary syndrome. The results can provide support for health professionals for secondary prevention programs aimed at behavioural changing.
Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the current leading causes of death and disability globally. Objective: To assess the effects of a basic educational program for cardiovascular prevention in an unselected outpatient population. Methods: All participants received an educational program to change to a healthy lifestyle. Assessments were conducted at study enrollment and during follow-up. Symptoms, habits, ATP III parameters for metabolic syndrome, and American Heart Association’s 2020 parameters of cardiovascular health were assessed. Results: A total of 15,073 participants aged ≥ 18 years entered the study. Data analysis was conducted in 3,009 patients who completed a second assessment. An improvement in weight (from 76.6 ± 15.3 to 76.4 ± 15.3 kg, p = 0.002, dyspnea on exertion NYHA grade II (from 23.4% to 21.0% and grade III (from 15.8% to 14.0% and a decrease in the proportion of current active smokers (from 3.6% to 2.9%, p = 0.002 could be documented. The proportion of patients with levels of triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (from 46.3% to 42.4%, p 100 mg/dL (from 69.3% to 65.5%, p < 0.001 improved. A ≥ 20% improvement of AHA 2020 metrics at the level graded as poor was found for smoking (-21.1%, diet (-29.8%, and cholesterol level (-23.6%. A large dropout as a surrogate indicator for low patient adherence was documented throughout the first 5 visits, 80% between the first and second assessments, 55.6% between the second and third assessments, 43.6% between the third and fourth assessments, and 38% between the fourth and fifth assessments. Conclusion: A simple, basic educational program may improve symptoms and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but shows low patient adherence.
Valores de pressão arterial e suas associações com fatores de risco cardiovasculares em servidores da Universidade de Brasília Blood pressure levels and their association with cardiovascular risk factors among employees of the University of Brasília, a Brazilian public university
Tatiana Valverde da Conceição
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar e classificar, de acordo com o JNC 7, os níveis de pressão arterial dos servidores acima de quarenta anos da Universidade de Brasília, e estimar a prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovasculares presentes em tal população. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal na Universidade de Brasília, onde os servidores acima de quarenta anos responderam a um questionário e tiveram pressão arterial, peso e altura medidos. Os níveis de pressão arterial foram classificados de acordo com o JNC 7 e os dados demográficos dos indivíduos de cada categoria foram analisados. A porcentagem dos fatores de risco foi calculada. A análise estatística foi feita através do teste ANOVA e do teste qui-quadrado, quando aplicável. RESULTADOS: Setecentos e quatro servidores participaram do estudo, incluindo 438 homens e 266 mulheres. A mediana de idade foi 47 anos. Segundo o JNC 7, 139 (19,8% pessoas foram classificadas como normotensas; 298 (42,3% como pré-hipertensas e 267 (37,9% como hipertensas. Os fatores de risco avaliados foram sobrepeso/obesidade (56,8%, tabagismo (19,5%, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas (53,6%, sedentarismo (48,4% e hipertensão (37,9%. CONCLUSÃO: A alta freqüência de níveis pressóricos elevados e fatores de risco cardiovasculares apontam para a necessidade de medidas preventivas e terapêuticas de doenças cardiovasculares direcionadas aos servidores da universidade.OBJECTIVE: To verify and classify, according to the JNC 7, the blood pressure levels (BPL of the employees of University of Brasilia, a public university in Brazil, who are older than 40 years of age, and to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Brasilia, with employees over 40 years of age. They answered a questionnaire and had their blood pressure, weight and height measured. The BPLs were classified according to the JNC 7
Full Text Available Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,1 Jacqueline Nkondi Nsenga,2 Etienne Mokondjimobe,3 Thierry Gombet,3 Itoua Ngaporo Assori,3 Jean Rosaire Ibara,3 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,3 Dieudonné Ngoma Vangu,4 Simon Mbungu Fuele41Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Marien Ngouabi, Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo; 4Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center, Limete, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the CongoBackground: Helicobacter pylori is now incriminated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.Objective: To examine the importance of H. pylori infection as a cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor.Methods: Two hundred five patients (128 with H. pylori infection [HP-seropositive] and 77 without had a baseline assessment for other potential CVD risk factors and were followed prospectively for 10 years (1999–2008. They were assessed on a monthly basis for the outcomes of carotid plaque, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke. In the HP-seropositive group, male sex and quartile 4 for IgG anti-H. pylori antibodies (anti-HP Ab were correlated with traditional CVD risk factors, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina pectoris.Results: At the baseline assessment, the levels of carotid intima-media thickness, blood fibrinogen, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and uric acid were higher in H. pylori-infected patients than in the uninfected group. Serum HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in the HP-seropositive group. Men had higher levels of IgG anti-HP Ab, waist circumference, blood pressure, uric acid, and total cholesterol than women. Within the HP-seropositive group, individuals in quartile 4 for IgG anti-HP Ab had higher rates of elevated fibrinogen, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, arterial hypertension, and high total
Abstract Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved.
Garcia-Rojas, IJ; Choi, B; Krause, N.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background: Psychosocial job factors (PJF) have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. The paucity of data from developing economies including Mexico hampers the development of worksite intervention efforts in those regions. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 2,330 Mexican workers assessed PJF (job strain [JS], social support [SS], and job insecurity [JI]) and biological cardiovascular disease risk factors [CVDRF] by questionnaire and ...
Divya Shetty; Mahima Dua; Kiran Kumar; Raghu Dhanpal; Madhusudan Astekar; Devi Charan Shetty
Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of in...
Yan, Yu X.; Dong, Jing; Liu, You Q.; Yang, Xing H.; Li, Man; Shia, Gilbert; Wang, Wei
Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in urban China. Despite indications that SHS may be associated with progression or development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, there are few reports on SHS investigations. To explore the relationship between SHS and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 4,881 workers employed in 21 companies in urban Beijing. Blood pressure, glucose...
Aslibekyan, S.; Jensen, M K; Campos, H.; Linkletter, C. D.; Loucks, E. B.; Ordovas, J. M.; Deka, R.; Rimm, E. B.; Baylin, A
Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, rs174589, rs174627), intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in a matched population based case–control study of Costa Rican adults (n = 1756). Generalized...
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease(CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatmentin two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in theirmean age.Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groupswith mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of twogroups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data onphysical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary records,physical activity, smoking and actual medication use wererecorded.Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a moreadverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, overweight,hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia withoutdifferences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behavior.Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adultswere current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activitywas different in terms of more continuous sports in seniorscontrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twicea week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly lesscarbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides,more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and proteinwas higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third ofseniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipidmodifying drugs.Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs andtheir risk factors shall be considered for various age groups ofpopulation. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessityof preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity inyounger adults and dietary habits in seniors.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and actual medication use were recorded. Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a more adverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, over-weight, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia without differences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behav-ior. Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adults were current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activ-ity was different in terms of more continuous sports in seniors contrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twice a week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly less carbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides, more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and protein was higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third of seniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipid modifying drugs. Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs and their risk factors shall be considered for various age groups of population. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessity of preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity in younger adults and dietary habits in seniors.
Hassan, Memy Hegazy; Abd-Allah, Gamil Mohamed
High blood glucose level, lipid profile disturbances and plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare effects of glimepiride/metformin combination versus gliclazide/metformin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred and eighty T2DM patients were randomly allocated for treatment with placebo (control), metformin (500 mg twice daily), glimepiride (3mg once daily), gliclazide (80 mg once daily), metformin plus glimepiride or metformin plus gliclazide for 3 months. We evaluated plasma levels of glucose (PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), Hcy, vitamin B12, folic acid and lipid profile before treatment and 3 months post treatment. Compared to metformin treated patients, glimepiride plus metformin induced significant reductions in: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial PG level, HbA1C % and Hcy level. Conversely, plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 were significantly increased. The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased; low-density lipoprotein was markedly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased and hence risk ratio was signiﬁcantly decreased. Similar results but with lower values were obtained using combination of metformin plus gliclazide on glycemic control only. Combination of glimepiride with metformin was superior to gliclazide plus metformin in alleviating the cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:26408873
Ingaramo, Roberto A
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. In South America, the native population comprises a great number of different ethnic groups. The cardiovascular risk factors observed in these groups have proved similar to and even higher than those found in general non-native populations. Relatively recent epidemiologic information reveals that many native communities have healthy habits with low prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes, while their prevalence is higher in those who have kept close contact with non-native populations and have westernized their habits. The differences in the presence of risk factors in these populations have been explained as the result of several interacting factors including genetic to environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural causes. PMID:26780771
Janner, Julie Hjortsø; Godtfredsen, N S; Ladelund, S;
in Denmark. All subjects had AIx measured non-invasively by the SphygmoCor device (SphygmoCor, West Ryde, Australia). To analyse the association between AIx and CVD risk factors multiple linear regression analyses were used stratified by gender and age. The main determinants of AIx were age, heart...... rate, height and systolic blood pressure in both age groups with few gender differences. Associations between AIx and cardiovascular risk factors further differed by age: In young subjects AIx was associated with cholesterol, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, current smoking, low weight, poor......The augmentation index (AIx) is a measure of systemic arterial stiffness, and previous studies have demonstrated an association between AIx and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is limited knowledge about the age and gender differences of the observed associations...
Anstey, Kaarin J; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Garde, Ellen;
) was drawn randomly from the community, followed for 8 years, and assessed on cognitive function, health, and lifestyle risk factors at 4 yearly intervals. A summary risk score (PATHrisk) was computed for presence of smoking, hypertension, depression, high body mass index, diabetes, and insufficient...... choice RT over 8 years. Education was associated with cognitive test performance and was weakly protective against slowing of RT. Individual risk factors, primarily diabetes, smoking, and depression, were associated with cognitive function, and smoking was associated with decline in simple RT. CONCLUSION......: Reliable change in cognitive function was detected in midlife, and decline occurred primarily in measures of cognitive speed. It appears that in midlife, the overall burden of cardiovascular risk factors is more important than individual risk factors. Midlife is a critical period for identifying modifiable...
de Winter, Channa F.; Magilsen, Karla W.; van Alfen, J. Claudia; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.
The prevalence and correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in older adults with intellectual disability was examined. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 50- to 90-year-old clients (N = 470) of three Dutch intellectual disability care providing organizations and found that healthy behavior was low, with 98.9% of the participants having an…
Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...
Maynard, S; Keijzers, G; Hansen, A-M;
comet assay) (P = 0.046) and BMI (P = 0.002), and positively associated with all of the physical performance parameters (all P < 0.001). Also, we found several associations between physical performance parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the load of short telomeres was inversely...
This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.
Objective To investigate the status of the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension control among hypertensive patients in the outpatient setting in China.Methods This multi-center cross-sectional study was carried out from June to December 2009.Study patients were consecutively recruited from 46
Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei
Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349
E. Alemao (Evo); H. Cawston (Helene); F. Bourhis (Francois); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); K. Liao (Katherine); D.H. Solomon (Daniel)
markdownabstractObjective. RA is associated with a 50-60% increase in risk of cardiovascular (CV) death. This study aimed to compare management of CV risk factors in RA and matched non-RA patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using UK clinical practice data. Patients presen
Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T;
Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...
S.A. de Man (Stella)
textabstractThe studies on physical fitness in children as descnbed in this thesis address the following questions: (1) is there a relation between physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors, notably blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins, at a young age? (2) what is the effect of in
Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei
Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349
Raquel Pastréllo Hirata
Full Text Available Workers in the transportation industry are at greater risk of an incorrect diet and sedentary behavior. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of professional bus drivers with regard to clinical and demographic variables, lipid profile, and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 659 interstate bus drivers collected retrospectively, including anthropometric characteristics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, meatoscopy, and audiometry. All participants were male, with a mean age of 41.7±6.9 years, weight of 81.4±3.3 kg, and BMI 27.2±3.3 Kg/m2; the mean abdominal and neck circumferences were 94.4±8.6 cm and 38.9±2.2 cm; 38.2% of the sample was considered hypertensive; mean HDL cholesterol was 47.9±9.5 mg/dL, mean triglyceride level was 146.3±87.9 mg/dL, and fasting glucose was above 100 mg/dL in 249 subjects (39.1%. Drivers exhibited reduced audiometric hearing at 4–8 kHz, being all sensorineural hearing loss. The clinical characterization of a young male population of interstate bus drivers revealed a high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors, as obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia, as well as contributing functional characteristics, such as a low-intensity activity, sedentary behavior, long duration in a sitting position, and high-calorie diet, which lead to excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities.
Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world and the first leading cause of death in Iran. Controlling the risk factors for these diseases can reduce more than 50% of disabilities resulted from these illnesses. In this regard, it is important to consider the behaviors associated with individuals’ lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to review the studies that have used educational interventions in order to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, based on methods, application of models, and theories of health education and health promotion and the effect of intervention on reducing risk factors. Methods: Electronic search of databases was performed using the key words in English and Persian. Databases reviewed were, Scientific Information Database (SID, Iran Medex, PubMed, Ebsco and Cochrane. The databases search was conducted from February 2012 to May 2012. Results: Interventions to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were divided into two types based on use of models and theories of health education and without use of models and theories of health education. In the 19 articles reviewed, 9 studies were conducted based on theories and models of health education,and 10 studies did not use theories and models of health education. Conclusion: The results indicate that training based on theories and models of health education and using the standardized programs have a greater impact on reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Time, place and length of intervention, the characteristics of the individuals and use of modern methods of training are important for some of the audience with regard to the effectiveness of the training in order to reduce risk factors.
Sven O. E. Ebbesson
Full Text Available Background: Although saturated fatty acids (FAs have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods: In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin. Results: The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs.
Oluseyi A Adejumo
Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for cardiovascular disease and rapid progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD to end-stage renal disease. Prompt evaluation, modification, and treatment of these factors in predialysis patients will reduce morbidity and mortality. This study assessed some cardiovascular risk factors in predialysis CKD patients in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This was a case–control study that involved 76 consecutive predialysis CKD patients and 38 age-and sex-matched controls without CKD over 1 year period. Both groups were assessed for cardiovascular risk factors, and comparisons were made. A P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: The mean ages of the CKD versus control group were 48.00 ± 15.28 versus 45.34 ± 15.35 years. The male:female ratio was 1.7:1 for both groups. The common etiologies of CKD in this study were hypertension 30 (39.5%, diabetes mellitus 23 (30.3%, and chronic glomerulonephritis 19 (25%. There were 38 (50% in CKD stage 3, 31 (40.8% in CKD stage 4, and 7 (9.2% in CKD stage 5. The common cardiovascular risk factors found in the CKD versus control were hypertension (96.1% vs. 42.1%, anemia (96.1% vs. 23.7%, left ventricular hypertrophy (77.6% vs. 23.7%, dyslipidemia (67.1% vs. 39.5%, hypocalcemia (60.1% vs. 18.5%, hyperphosphatemia (63.2% vs. 0%, and hyperuricemia (57.9% vs. 15.8%. These risk factors were significantly higher in CKD group. Hyperphosphatemia and hypoalbuminemia significantly increased across CKD stages 3–5. Anemia was significantly more common in males whereas dyslipidemia was more common in female CKD patients. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors were highly prevalent in predialysis CKD subjects even in early stages. Hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia significantly increased across the CKD stages 3–5 whereas anemia and dyslipidemia showed significant gender differences. Cardiovascular risk factors should be
Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.
Forrester, T. E.; Wilks, R. J.; Bennett, F. I.; Simeon, D.; Osmond, C.; Allen, M.; Chung, A. P.; Scott, P
OBJECTIVE--To determine relation between schoolchildren's blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level, and cholesterol concentration and their anthropometry, socioeconomic status, and birth measurements. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study. SETTING--27 schools closest to University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. SUBJECTS--2337 children aged 6-16 years who were born at university hospital were recruited, and their birth records were recovered: 1610 had suitable records, 659 had ...
Mezzano, D; Muñoz, X; Martínez, C; Cuevas, A; Panes, O; Aranda, E; Guasch, V; Strobel, P; Muñoz, B; Rodríguez, S; Pereira, J; Leighton, F
We studied hemostatic and inflammatory cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) in 26 vegetarians (23 lacto- or ovolactovegetarians and 3 vegans), matched by age, sex and socioeconomic status with omnivorous controls. Vegetarians had significantly lower proportion of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in plasma lipids, significantly shortened bleeding time, and increased blood platelet count and in vitro platelet function (aggregation and secretion). Plasma levels of all coagulation or fibrinolytic factors and natural inhibitors synthesized in the liver were lower in vegetarians than in controls. Whereas for some factors this decrease was statistically significant (fibrinogen, factor VIIc, antithrombin III, protein S, plasminogen) for the remaining (factors VIIIc, Vc, prothrombin, protein C) a trend in the same direction was found. For hemostatic proteins of predominantly extrahepatic origin (von Willebrand factor. tPA, PAI-1) this tendency was not present. No significant differences in inflammatory proteins (C-reactive protein and alpha1-protease inhibitor) were detected in both groups. tHcy was significantly increased in vegetarians, and correlated only with cobalamin levels. The increased platelet function and tHcy found in vegetarians may counteract the known cardiovascular health benefits of vegetarian diet (VD). PMID:10404767
Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob
This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…
Wichitsranoi, Jatuporn; Ladawan, Suphannika; Sirijaichingkul, Suchart; Settasatian, Nongnuch; Leelayuwat, Naruemon
[Purpose] This research aimed to investigate the relationship between aerobic capacity (VO2,peak) and cardiovascular risk factors in normolipidemic and dyslipidemic Thai men and women. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 104 dyslipidemic and 100 healthy participants. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipid and blood glucose levels. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and body composition were measured before exercise. Each subject underwent exercise testing to determine VO2, peak. Heart rate...
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases by its frequency, epidemic expenditure, socio-medical consequences and with high mortality are becoming the biggest problem of modern medicine. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases declines due to prevention measures in developed countries, in developing countries and countries in transition it increases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of harmful habits and connection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in economically active population in the Canton of Sarajevo.Methods: The study was conducted among the active population of Sarajevo Canton. Randomly selected 443 respondents from different groups of workers aged 18-65 years, who voluntarily joined the study. Weperformed a study intersection descriptive method of research. Instrument for conducting research was a set of questionnaires, designed for research purposes.Results: The results study showed that the study group, current smokers occupy 45%, 1.8% occasional smokers who smoke and the rest of nonsmokers. It was shown that subjects who consume alcohol in biggestpercentage 73.4% consumed the same day, while the smallest percentage 2.7% comprise the same subjects who consumed annually.Conclusions: The prevalence of harmful habits as risk factors for cardiovascular disease among subjects in the Sarajevo Canton is evident represented. It is a significant development of the country, because it affects the health promotion strategy, which consequently changes the behavior based on individual needs. Health education and promotion of health can be reduced or completely prevented by a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the relationship of cocoa intake to central and peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with some cardiovascular risk factor. Findings Design: A cross-sectional study of 351 subjects (mean age 54.76 years, 62.4% males. Measurements: Intake of cocoa and other foods using a food frequency questionnaire, central and peripheral (ambulatory and office blood pressure, central and peripheral augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index. Results: Higher pulse wave velocity and greater cardiovascular risk were found in non-cocoa consumers as compared to high consumers (p Conclusions In subjects with some cardiovascular risk factors, cocoa consumption does not imply improvement in the arterial stiffness values. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064.