Sample records for caproates

  1. Conversion of L-lactate into n-caproate by a continuously fed reactor microbiome.

    Kucek, Leo A; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T


    Conversion of lactate to n-caproate had been described for the type strain Megasphaera elsdenii in batch systems. Recently, investigators have also described production of n-caproate from endogenous or exogenous lactate with batch-fed reactor microbiome systems. However, no reports exist of lactate to n-caproate conversion within a continuously fed bioreactor. Since continuously fed systems are advantageous for biotechnology production platforms, our objective was to develop such a system. Here, we demonstrated continuous lactate to n-caproate conversion for more than 165 days. The volumetric n-caproate production rate (productivity) was improved when we decreased the operating pH from 5.5 to 5.0, and was again improved when we utilized in-line product recovery via pertraction (membrane-based liquid-liquid extraction). We observed a maximum n-caproate productivity of 6.9 g COD/L-d for a period of 17 days at an L-lactate loading rate of 9.1 g COD/L-d, representing the highest sustained lactate to n-caproate conversion rate ever reported. We had to manage two competing lactate conversion pathways: 1) the reverse β-oxidation pathway to n-caproate; and 2) the acrylate pathway to propionate. We found that maintaining a low residual lactate concentration in the bioreactor broth was necessary to direct lactate conversion towards n-caproate instead of propionate. These findings provide a foundation for the development of new resource recovery processes to produce higher-value liquid products (e.g., n-caproate) from carbon-rich wastewaters containing lactate or lactate precursors (e.g., carbohydrates). PMID:26905795

  2. Relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations and gestational age at delivery in twin gestation.

    Caritis, Steve N


    We sought to evaluate in women with twin gestation the relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) concentration and gestational age at delivery and select biomarkers of potential pathways of drug action.

  3. Second trimester cervical length and risk of preterm birth in women with twin gestations treated with 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate.

    Durnwald, Celeste P


    To compare rates of preterm birth before 35 weeks based on cervical length measurement at 16-20 weeks in women with twin gestations who received 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) or placebo.

  4. Route of administration and formulation dependent pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in rats

    Shaik, Imam H.; Bastian, Jaime R.; Zhao, Yang; Caritis, Steve N.; VENKATARAMANAN, Raman


    Weekly intramuscular injections of (250 mg/week) of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) are the only treatment option for prevention of preterm birth in women with a prior history of preterm delivery.The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of an alternate formulation and the feasibility of an alternate route of administration of this agent. 17-OHPC was administered to adult female SD rats, as marketed oily formulation intramuscularly, or as a solution IV, IM, or PO.Pl...

  5. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang


    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  6. Route of administration and formulation dependent pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in rats.

    Shaik, Imam H; Bastian, Jaime R; Zhao, Yang; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataramanan, Raman


    1. Weekly intramuscular injections of (250 mg/week) of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) are the only treatment option for prevention of preterm birth in women with a prior history of preterm delivery. 2. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of an alternate formulation and the feasibility of an alternate route of administration of this agent. 17-OHPC was administered to adult female SD rats, as marketed oily formulation intramuscularly, or as a solution IV, IM, or PO. 3. Plasma concentrations of 17-OHPC were measured by LC-MS-MS and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis, using WinNonLin (Certara, St. Louis, MO). 4. After IV or IM administration as a solution, the mean half-life of 17-OHPC was around 11 h. The bioavailability was nearly 100% after IM administration, but was very low (administration of a solution dosage form. 5. Intramuscular injection of the oily formulation resulted in low levels of 17-OHPC that were sustained for a prolonged time period with a projected bioavailability close to 100%. 6. The pharmacokinetics of 17-OHPC is dependent on the formulation and the route of administration. 7. The low bioavailability after oral administration indicates that oral administration of 17-OHPC may not be feasible with simple formulations of this drug. PMID:26153441


    Manisha M


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a prospective randomized case control study to evaluate the role of 17 α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC in the prevention of preterm labor in high risk asymptomatic patients with a history of preterm delivery. METHODS: The study included 100 patients with a singleton pregnancy and having a prior preterm birth. They were divided in 2 groups, group I (treatment group included 50 asymptomatic patients who were given 17OHPC injections starting from 18-24 weeks till 36 weeks and group II (control group included 50 patients who did not receive any treatment. RESULTS: The incidence of preterm delivery was found to be 6.6%. The median gestational age at delivery was 36 weeks in group I and 34W5D in controls. 50% cases in group I and 80% of controls delivered prematurely in the group with a prior preterm birth between 20-28 weeks. Conclusion In patients who had a prior history of a preterm delivery the recurrence of a preterm birth was less in the treated group as compared to controls. The median gestational age at delivery was significantly higher in 17OHPC treated patients with history of earliest prior preterm delivery at 20-28 weeks.

  8. Studies on the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) valerate and lanthanum(III) caproate in argon

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Suarez Guevara, Maria Josefina; Watenphul, A.


    The decomposition of La-valerate (La(C4H9CO2)3·xH2O (x ≈ 0.45)) and La-caproate (La(C5H11CO2)3·xH2O (x ≈ 0.30)) was studied upon heating at 5 C/min in a flow of argon. Using a variety of techniques including simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, X-ray diffraction with both laboratory Cu Kα and synchrotron...

  9. Functional effects of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P on human myometrial contractility in vitro

    Morrison John J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P administration reportedly improves outcome for women with a previous spontaneous preterm delivery. This study, using in vitro strips of human uterine smooth muscle, aimed to investigate the direct non-genomic effects of 17P on spontaneous and induced contractions in tissues obtained during pregnancy, and in the non-pregnant state. Methods Biopsies of human myometrium were obtained at elective cesarean section, and from hysterectomy specimens, and dissected strips suspended for isometric recordings. The effects of 17P (1 nmol/L -10 micro mol/L on spontaneous and agonist-induced (oxytocin 0.5 nmol/L for pregnant, phenylephrine 10 μmol/L for non-pregnant contractions were measured. Integrals of contractile activity, including the mean maximal inhibition values (MMI observed at the maximal concentration, were compared with those from simultaneously run control strips. Results There was no significant direct effect exerted by 17P on pregnant or non-pregnant human myometrial contractility. The MMI ± SEM for spontaneous contractions in pregnant myometrium was 4.9% ± 7.2 (n = 6; P = 0.309 and for oxytocin-induced contractions was 2.2% ± 1.3 (n = 6; P = 0.128. For non-pregnant myometrium, the MMI ± SEM for spontaneous contractions was 8.8% ± 11.0 (n = 6; P = 0.121 and for phenylephrine induced contractions was -7.9% ± 6.5 (n = 6; P = 0.966. Conclusions The putative benefits of 17P for preterm labor prevention are not achieved, even partially, by a direct utero-relaxant effect. These findings outline the possibility that genomic effects of 17P, achieved over long periods of administration, are required for its reported therapeutic benefits.

  10. Studies on the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) valerate and lanthanum(III) caproate in argon

    Highlights: • The thermal decomposition of Lathanum valerate and caproate has been studied in Ar. • The compounds melt prior to decomposition. • Gas release in the molten state results in irregular mass loss. • CO2 and symmetrical ketones are the main evolving gas species. - Abstract: The decomposition of La-valerate (La(C4H9CO2)3·xH2O (x ≈ 0.45)) and La-caproate (La(C5H11CO2)3·xH2O (x ≈ 0.30)) was studied upon heating at 5 °C/min in a flow of argon. Using a variety of techniques including simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, X-ray diffraction with both laboratory Cu Kα and synchrotron sources as well as hot-stage microscopy, it was found that both compounds melt prior to decomposition and that the main decomposition stage from the molten, anhydrous state leads to the formation of La-dioxycarbonate (La2O2CO3) via an unstable intermediate product and release of symmetrical ketones. Final decomposition to La2O3 takes place with release of CO2

  11. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prolong pregnancy after preterm rupture of the membranes: early termination of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    Combs, C Andrew; Thomas J. GARITE; Maurel, Kimberly; Mallory, Kimberly; Edwards, Rodney K.; Lu, George; Porreco, Richard; Das, Anita; ,


    Abstract Background Progestational agents may reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with various risk factors. We sought to test the hypothesis that a weekly dose of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) given to women with preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) will prolong pregnancy and thereby reduce neonatal morbidity. Methods Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Women with PROM at 23.0 to 31.9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive a...

  12. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prolong pregnancy after preterm rupture of the membranes: early termination of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    Combs C Andrew; Garite Thomas J; Maurel Kimberly; Mallory Kimberly; Edwards Rodney K; Lu George; Porreco Richard; Das Anita


    Abstract Background Progestational agents may reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with various risk factors. We sought to test the hypothesis that a weekly dose of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) given to women with preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) will prolong pregnancy and thereby reduce neonatal morbidity. Methods Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Women with PROM at 23.0 to 31.9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive a weekly intra...

  13. Comparison of Risk of Preterm Labor between Vaginal Progesterone and17-Alpha-Hydroxy-Progesterone Caproate in Women with Threatened Abortion: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Beigi Abootaleb


    Full Text Available Objective Threatened miscarriage is a common complication in pregnancy that leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor. This study aimed to compare the vaginal progesterone (Cyclogest versus 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton on preventing preterm labor in pregnant women with threatened abortion at less than 34 weeks’ gestational age. Materials and methods This balanced randomized, double-blind, single-center controlled clinical trial included 190 women with threatened abortion. They were then randomly allocated into Cyclogest (n=95 and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton, n=95 groups. Interested outcome was preterm labor less than 34 weeks. The Pearson chi-square and Student’s t test were used to compare two groups. The data were analyzed by Stata software version 13. Results The risks of preterm labor less than 34 weeks in Proluton and Cyclogest groups were 8.6 and 6.52%, respectively. There was no significant difference for risk of preterm labor less than 34 weeks [relative ratio (RR: 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47- 3.66, P=0.59] between two groups. Conclusion Risk of preterm labor in the vaginal progesterone group and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate group in pregnant women with threatened abortion is the same (Registration Number: IRCT2014123120504N1.

  14. Production of butyrate and caproate from a coculture of Sporomusa ovata and Clostridium kluyveri during MES

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Faraghi Parapari, Neda;


    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is the process in which microorganisms use electrons derivedfrom an electrode to reduce carbon dioxide via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to form organiccompounds. S. ovata, a Gram-negative acetogenic bacterium is the best electrotroph organismreported to date. The lack...... bypass the lack of genetic tools. S. ovata is able to produceethanol and acetate while C. kluyveri uses these two compounds as carbon source and producesbutyrate and caproate.The first step was to optimize the growth medium for S. ovata to increase ethanol production. Theeffect of trace metal ions such...

  15. Identification of a mutation causing a defective spindle assembly checkpoint in high ethyl caproate-producing sake yeast strain K1801.

    Goshima, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Ryo; Kume, Kazunori; Okada, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Eri; Tamura, Hiroyasu; Hasuda, Hirokazu; Inahashi, Masaaki; Okazaki, Naoto; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Mizunuma, Masaki; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Dai


    In high-quality sake brewing, the cerulenin-resistant sake yeast K1801 with high ethyl caproate-producing ability has been used widely; however, K1801 has a defective spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). To identify the mutation causing this defect, we first searched for sake yeasts with a SAC-defect like K1801 and found that K13 had such a defect. Then, we searched for a common SNP in only K1801 and K13 by examining 15 checkpoint-related genes in 23 sake yeasts, and found 1 mutation, R48P of Cdc55, the PP2A regulatory B subunit that is important for the SAC. Furthermore, we confirmed that the Cdc55-R48P mutation was responsible for the SAC-defect in K1801 by molecular genetic analyses. Morphological analysis indicated that this mutation caused a high cell morphological variation. But this mutation did not affect the excellent brewing properties of K1801. Thus, this mutation is a target for breeding of a new risk-free K1801 with normal checkpoint integrity. PMID:27191586

  16. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prolong pregnancy after preterm rupture of the membranes: early termination of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    Combs C Andrew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progestational agents may reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with various risk factors. We sought to test the hypothesis that a weekly dose of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P given to women with preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM will prolong pregnancy and thereby reduce neonatal morbidity. Methods Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Women with PROM at 23.0 to 31.9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive a weekly intramuscular injection of 17P (250 mg in 1 mL castor oil or placebo (1 mL castor oil. The primary outcome was the rate of continuing the pregnancy until 34.0 weeks of gestation or until documentation of fetal lung maturity at 32.0 to 33.9 weeks of gestation. Planned secondary outcomes were duration of latency period and rate of composite neonatal morbidity. Enrollment of 111 participants per group, 222 total, was planned to yield 80% power to detect an increase in the primary outcome from 30% with placebo to 50% with 17P. Results Twelve women were enrolled of whom 4 were randomly assigned to receive 17P and 8 to receive placebo. The trial was terminated prematurely because of two separate issues related to the supply of 17P. No adverse events attributable to 17P were identified. Conclusion Because of premature termination, the trial does not have adequate statistical power to evaluate efficacy or safety of 17P in women with PROM. Nonetheless, ethical principles dictate that we report the results, which may contribute to possible future metaanalyses and systematic reviews. Trial Registration NCT01119963 Supported by a research grant from the Center for Research, Education, and Quality, Pediatrix Medical Group, Sunrise, FL

  17. 17α-羟基孕酮己酸酯和醋酸甲羟孕酮预防孕鼠感染性早产的机制%Effect of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on inflammation-induced preterm birth of mouse model

    张潇潇; 时春艳; 廖秦平


    目的 通过研究17α-羟基孕酮己酸酯(17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate,17P)和醋酸甲羟孕酮(medroxyprogesterone acetate,MPA)对早产小鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织环氧合酶-2(cyclooxygenase-2,COX-2)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)表达的影响,探讨孕激素预防感染性早产的作用机制.方法 选择清洁级雌性CD-1小鼠30只,于妊娠第15天,随机分为对照组、内毒素脂多糖( lipopolysaccharides,LPS)组、17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组、MPA 1 mg+ LPS组、二甲基亚砜(dimethyl sulfoxide,DMSO)+ LPS组,每组5只.治疗组均于皮下注射相应剂量的孕激素1h后腹腔注射LPS,6h后取小鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织,用实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应技术和免疫组织化学方法检测子宫肌层及胎盘组织COX-2和TNF-α mRNA及蛋白的表达.采用ANOVA进行统计学分析,两两比较用LSD法.结果 1.各组小鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织中COX-2 mRNA和TNF-α mRNA的相对表达量的比较:(1)各给药组孕鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织COX-2mRNA和TNF-α mRNA表达均显著高于对照组(P<0.05).(2)17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组和MPA 1 mg+LPS组小鼠子宫肌层COX-2 mRNA表达分别为11.410±3.931、8.352±3.209和11.920±2.905,均显著低于LPS组(20.540±4.147)和DMSO组+LPS组(18.620±4.156) (P<0.05),而TNF-α mRNA也低于LPS组和DMSO组+LPS组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(3)17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组、MPA 1 mg+LPS组胎盘组织COX-2 mRNA表达分别为10.864±3.777、7.084±1.667和11.830±3.652,均显著低于LPS组(18.920±4.106)和DMSO组+LPS组(23.820±7.554) (P<0.05).(4)17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组、MPA1 mg+ LPS组胎盘组织TNF-α mRNA表达分别为14.340±1.618、11.488±2.910和13.040±2.982,均显著低于LPS组(24.240±7.059)和DMSO组+LPS组(23.040±5.896)(P<0.05).2.各组小鼠胎盘组织COX-2和TNF-α蛋白表达的比较:(1)各给药组胎盘组织中COX-2蛋白的表达和TNF-α蛋白的

  18. Drug: D09796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available AA01 Hydrocortisone D09796 Hydrocortisone caproate (JAN) D DERMATOLOGICALS D07 CORTICOSTEROIDS, DERMATOLOGIC...AL PREPARATIONS D07A CORTICOSTEROIDS, PLAIN D07AA Corticosteroids, weak (group I) D07AA02 Hydrocortisone D09...796 Hydrocortisone caproate (JAN) D07X CORTICOSTEROIDS, OTHER COMBINATIONS D07XA Corticosteroids, weak, othe...EMIC HORMONAL PREPARATIONS, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AND INSULINS H02 CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR SYSTEMIC USE H02A CORTICOSTEROIDS...3 Hydrocortisone D09796 Hydrocortisone caproate (JAN) S02 OTOLOGICALS S02B CORTICOSTEROIDS

  19. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol-1, respectively. (Authors)

  20. Drug: D04219 [KEGG MEDICUS


  1. Drug: D01159 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available tic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 24 Hormones 247 Estrogen an...G03DA01] D01159 Gestonorone caproate (JAN/USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Hormones and hormone antagonist

  2. Development of a mixed culture chain elongation process based on municipal solid waste and ethanol

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.


    Keywords: mixed culture fermentation; Carboxylates; Caproate; Heptanoate; ethanol; OFMSW To reduce dependence on oil, alternative fuel and chemical production processes are investigates. In this thesis, we investigated the production of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) using an anaerobic chain elongation process from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and (diluted) ethanol.By using OFMSW for the production of MCFAs, OFMSW can be valorised. Moreover, the food-fuel discussion...

  3. Efficacy of 17α- hydroxy progestrone on decreasing preterm labor in ART pregnancies: A randomized clinical trial

    Abbas Aflatoonian; Hoora Amouzegar; Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi


    Background: Preterm labor (PTL) is one of the most important causes in neonatal mortality and morbidity. Late preterm labor (34-36w) includes 75% of such birth. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnant women are at increased risk of PTL. Objective: The study has been undertaken to determine whether beginning and continuing 17-α hydroxy progesterone caproate can reduce risk of PTL or change neonatal mortality. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical randomized control trial, 1...

  4. Effect of Increased Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Activity on Flavor Profiles of Wine and Distillates

    Lilly, M.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Pretorius, I S


    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to in...

  5. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions -- FY 1995 progress report

    At the Hanford Site organic compounds were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY 1995. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, and caproate salts; iron and aluminum and butylphosphate salts; and aluminum oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 degree C, 30 degree C, 40 degree C, and 50 degree C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, and butylphosphate in HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (YOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is so even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank and supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). Metal ion complexes of and butylphosphate and oxalate in supernate solutions were not stable in the presence of the hydroxide concentrations expected in most tanks. Iron and aluminum dibutylphosphate compounds reacted with hydroxide to form soluble sodium dibutylphosphate and precipitated iron and aluminum hydroxides. Aluminum oxalate complexes were also not stable in the basic simulated supernate solutions. Solubilities of all the organic salts decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Increasing temperatures raised the solubilities of the organic

  6. Long-Term n-Caproic Acid Production from Yeast-Fermentation Beer in an Anaerobic Bioreactor with Continuous Product Extraction.

    Ge, Shijian; Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T


    Multifunctional reactor microbiomes can elongate short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs) to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), such as n-caproic acid. However, it is unclear whether this microbiome biotechnology platform is stable enough during long operating periods to consistently produce MCCAs. During a period of 550 days, we improved the operating conditions of an anaerobic bioreactor for the conversion of complex yeast-fermentation beer from the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry into primarily n-caproic acid. We incorporated and improved in-line, membrane liquid-liquid extraction to prevent inhibition due to undissociated MCCAs at a pH of 5.5 and circumvented the addition of methanogenic inhibitors. The microbiome accomplished several functions, including hydrolysis and acidogenesis of complex organic compounds and sugars into SCCAs, subsequent chain elongation with undistilled ethanol in beer, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The methane yield was 2.40 ± 0.52% based on COD and was limited by the availability of carbon dioxide. We achieved an average n-caproate production rate of 3.38 ± 0.42 g L(-1) d(-1) (7.52 ± 0.94 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) with an n-caproate yield of 70.3 ± 8.81% and an n-caproate/ethanol ratio of 1.19 ± 0.15 based on COD for a period of ∼55 days. The maximum production rate was achieved by increasing the organic loading rates in tandem with elevating the capacity of the extraction system and a change in the complex feedstock batch. PMID:25941741

  7. Prevention of Preterm Labour: 2011 Update on Tocolysis

    C. Hubinont


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review available data about drugs for preventing preterm labour. Tocolytic therapy includes β adrenergic receptor agonists, NO donors, magnesium sulphate, prostaglandin-synthase inhibitors, oxytocin receptor antagonists, calcium-channel blockers, progesterone, 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and antibiotics. Their specific effects on myometrial contractility, their safety, their efficiency, and side effects profile for the mother and the fetus are presented. The main question of why and for what reasons tocolysis should be administrated is discussed.

  8. Treatment efficiency and VFA composition of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating food industry wastewater

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time on volatile fatty acid composition and treatment efficiency of high rate thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor (TACR) treating potato-chips wastewaters. The operational performance of TACR was monitored from start-up by assessing chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and biogas composition. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.6 to 8 kg COD/m3 d. The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 86-97% and the methane percentage of the biogas produced was 68-89% during the OLRs studied. The approximate methane yield was found to be 0.42 m3 CH4/kg CODremoved. The major intermediate products of anaerobic digestion were acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate, valerate, iso-caproate and caproate. The use of thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor offers a sustainable technology for the treatment of potato-chips wastewaters since high COD removal efficiencies and high methane percentage in the biogas produced can be attained even at high OLRs.

  9. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Helen Y How


    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  10. Treatment efficiency and VFA composition of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating food industry wastewater

    Sentuerk, E.; Ince, M. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Onkal Engin, G., E-mail: [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey)


    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time on volatile fatty acid composition and treatment efficiency of high rate thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor (TACR) treating potato-chips wastewaters. The operational performance of TACR was monitored from start-up by assessing chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and biogas composition. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.6 to 8 kg COD/m{sup 3} d. The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 86-97% and the methane percentage of the biogas produced was 68-89% during the OLRs studied. The approximate methane yield was found to be 0.42 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD{sub removed}. The major intermediate products of anaerobic digestion were acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate, valerate, iso-caproate and caproate. The use of thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor offers a sustainable technology for the treatment of potato-chips wastewaters since high COD removal efficiencies and high methane percentage in the biogas produced can be attained even at high OLRs.

  11. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;


    Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P < 0.001) was lower in hemolyzed...... samples but plasma propionate, caproate, isovalerate (P < 0.001), and isobutyrate (P < 0.05) were higher in hemolyzed samples. Plasma glucose and lactate were the only metabolites that were not affected by hemolysis. Interactions with hemolysis and other fixed effects were not found (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2...

  12. Clinical Application of Progesterone for the Prevention of Preterm Birth, 2016.

    Goodnight, William


    While the preterm neonate continues to benefit from improved perinatal care, the rate of preterm birth in the United States remains significant. An increasing body of scientific literature has demonstrated the benefits of maternal progesterone administration in reducing primary and recurrent preterm birth. Intramuscular hydroxyprogesterone caproate is indicated in singleton pregnancies in women with a prior spontaneous preterm birth, while vaginal progesterone demonstrates similar efficacy in prolonging pregnancy in women with asymptomatic cervical shortening in the midtrimester. Given these favorable benefits, the use of progesterone has been expanded to other clinical situations at risk for preterm birth with less rigorous scientific evidence. This review highlights the current evidence-based clinical applications of progesterone for prevention of preterm birth. PMID:26788788

  13. 超高压射流技术对白酒四大酯影响研究%Effects of the four esters in liquor disposed by ultra-high pressure jet

    黄义娜; 王盛民; 樊迪; 王懿萍; 张小荣; 陈波


    Object:To study the effects of the four esters in liquor disposed by ultra-high pressure jet.Methods:Using the ultra-high pressure jet equipment to dispose new liquor when pressures are from 0.1 MPa to 350 MPa,then detect the four esters’content by gas chromatography,test again after three months,and invite professional wine tasters to taste and identify.Results:The content of ethyl caproate,ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate in Luzhou-flavor liquor has decreased,the content of ethyl lactate has increased.The content of ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate in Maotai-flavor liquor has decreased while ethyl lactate and ethyl caproate has increased.Experts judged that after treatment by ultra-high pressure jet,the liquor taste better,and good to impurity.Conclusion:Changes of esters in liquor after treatment by ultra-high pressure jet was nearly the same with natural aging tendency.%目的:研究超高压射流技术对白酒中四大酯的影响。方法:利用超高压射流技术加压至350MPa处理白酒,采用气相色谱法检测酯类含量,自然存放3个月后再次检测,并请专业品酒师进行鉴品。结果:超高压射流处理后,浓香型白酒中己酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯含量呈下降趋势,乳酸乙酯含量呈上升趋势;酱香型白酒中乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯含量呈下降趋势,乳酸乙酯、己酸乙酯含量呈上升趋势。专家品评认为经超高压射流处理后,酒体醇和,有良好去杂效果。结论:超高压射流技术处理后白酒酯类变化与自然陈化趋势基本一致。

  14. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Delcio Sandi


    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  15. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D


    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate

  16. Effects of Fatty Acid Salts against Trichophyton Violaceum

    Era Mariko


    Full Text Available Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic fungus. Dermatophytosis (Tinea is fungal infection that can infect the scalp, glabrous skin, and nails. In general, Tinea can be spread by skin-to-skin contact or bathroom or floor materials. The treatments of Tinea need antifungal medication and good hygiene environment. The effective antifungal medication and infection prevention, and the creation of antifungal medication with high safety are required. In this study was focused on the antifungal effect of fatty acids potassium salts. The antifungal activity of nine fatty acid salts (butyrate, caproate, caprylate, caprate, laurate, myristate, oleate, linoleate, and linolenate was tested on the spores of Trichophyton violaceum NBRC 31064. The results show that C6K, C8K, C10K, C12K, C18:2K, C18:3K was the most inhibit 4-log unit (99.99 % of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min. It was observed that C12K and C18:3K was most high antifungal activity MIC. Commercially soap was lowest antifungal activity. This is because of the oleic acid is a major component of soap. Although further investigation is necessary to make clear antifungal mechanisms, our results suggest that fatty acid potassium will use to the development of a coating agent such as furniture.

  17. Molecular phylogenetical studies of the thermophilic spore-forming desulfotomaculum isolated from oil-field

    Chen Wu; Li Chunyan; Xiang Fu; Yu Longjiang


    A novel thermophilic and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, strain CW-03, was isolated from crude oil well whose depth was 3.2 kilometer. The bacterium was strictly anaerobic; it does not endure acid and itsmaximum surviving temperature was 70℃. Many short chain organic compounds can be utilized as electron donors, which were acetate, formate, lactate, propionate, pyruvate, butyrate, succinate, malate, fumarate,valerate, caproate, heptanoate, octanoate, decanoate, tridecanoate, pentadecanoate, palmitate, heptadecanoate or ethanol, while sulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors. The following substrates were not utilized: benzoate undecanoate, dodecanoate, tetradecane, propanol, butanol, H2+CO2 (80/20%; v/v) and acetate (1mM)+ H2. When lactate was used as electron donors, sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfer and nitrate, can be used as electron acceptors. Strain CW-03 was motile, curved rod, Gram-positive, pole flagellum and spore-forming. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence alignment (accession numbers: AY703032), CW-03 should be included in the genus Desulfotomaculum with BIAST analysis on line. However, some of its physiology and multiple sequence alignments were different from other members of this genus. Therefore, CW-03 should be recognized as a new species, for which we propose the name Desulfotomaculum chinamiddle (Bacteria, Firmicutes, Clostridia, Clostridiales, Peptococcaceae).

  18. Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Jujube Brandy by GC-MS and GC-O Combined with SPME

    Ya-Nan Xia


    Full Text Available To identify the unique flavor compounds in jujube brandy and changes in flavor compounds in the process of aging, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-Olfactometry (GC-O combined with solid-phase micro-extraction were used for the analysis of the volatile flavor compounds of fresh and aged jujube brandy. The equilibrium of the flavor compounds required divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber for 40 min at 40°C. A total of 72 compounds were positively or tentatively identified by GC-MS, including 34 esters, 12 alcohols, 2 acids, 7 hydrocarbons, 3 aldehydes, 3 ketones and 8 terpenes in jujube brandy. Among them, ethyl laurate, ethyl caproate, ethylbenzoate and ethyl hexanoate were the main components. The flavor components of jujube brandy were identified by GC-O and 47 flavors were detected. Among them, orange-like (ethyl acetate, apple-like (butanoic acid, ethyl ester, fermented (hexanoic acid, ethyl ester, chocolate-like (nonanoic acid, ethyl ester and red date-like (dodecanoic acid, ethyl ester were strongly sensed. Changes in the flavor compounds in the process of aging were detected. During the period of aging, the contents of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones generally decreased, whereas those of esters and acids increased.

  19. Control of periplasmic nitrate reductase gene expression (napEDABC) from Paracoccus pantotrophus in response to oxygen and carbon substrates.

    Sears, H J; Sawers, G; Berks, B C; Ferguson, S J; Richardson, D J


    The napEDABC operon of Paracoccus pantotrophus encodes a periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP), together with electron-transfer components and proteins required for the synthesis of a fully functional enzyme. Previously, it had been shown that high NAP activity was observed when P. pantotrophus was grown aerobically on highly reduced carbon sources such as butyrate or caproate, but not when cultured on more oxidized substrates such as succinate or malate. The enzyme is not present to any extent when the organism is grown anaerobically under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the carbon source. Transcriptional analyses of the nap operon have now identified two initiation sites which were differentially regulated in response to the carbon source, with expression being maximal when cells were grown aerobically with butyrate. Analysis of a P. pantotrophus mutant (M6) deregulated for NAP activity identified a single C-->A transversion in a heptameric inverted-repeat sequence that partially overlapped the proximal promoter. Transcription analysis of this mutant revealed that expression of nap was completely derepressed under all growth conditions examined. Taken together, these findings indicate that nap transcription is negatively regulated during anaerobiosis, such that expression is restricted to aerobic growth, but only when the carbon source is highly reduced. PMID:11065376

  20. Nonionic Microemulsions as Solubilizers of Hydrophobic Drugs: Solubilization of Paclitaxel

    Jen-Ting Lo


    Full Text Available The strategy using nonionic microemulsion as a solubilizer for hydrophobic drugs was studied and is demonstrated in this work. The aqueous phase behaviors of mixed nonionic surfactants with various oils at 37 °C are firstly constructed to give the optimal formulations of nonionic microemulsions with applications in the enhanced solubilization of the model hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, at 37 °C. Briefly, the suitable oil phase with paclitaxel significantly dissolved is microemulsified with appropriate surfactants. Surfactants utilized include Tween 80, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (4.3 cocoyl ether, while various kinds of edible oils and fatty esters are used as the oil phase. On average, the apparent solubility of paclitaxel is increased to ca. 70–100 ppm in the prepared microemulsions at 37 °C using tributyrin or ethyl caproate as the oil phases. The sizes of the microemulsions attained are mostly from ca. 60 nm to ca. 200 nm. The cytotoxicity of the microemulsion formulations is assessed with the cellular viability of 3T3 cells. In general, the cell viability is above 55% after 24 h of cultivation in media containing these microemulsion formulations diluted to a concentration of total surfactants equal to 50 ppm and 200 ppm.

  1. Use of dried blood spots in doping control analysis of anabolic steroid esters.

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Gmeiner, Günter; Forsdahl, Guro; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario


    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, a technique for whole blood sampling on a piece of filter paper, has more than 50-years tradition, particularly in the diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in neonatal screening. Due to the minimal invasiveness, straightforwardness, robustness against manipulation and fastness DBS sampling recommends itself as an advantageous technique in doping control analysis. The present approach highlights the development of a screening assay for the analysis of eight anabolic steroid esters (nandrolone phenylpropionate, trenbolone enanthate, testosterone acetate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate) and nandrolone in DBS. The detection of the intact esters allows an unequivocal proof of the administration of conjugates of exogenous testosterone and its derivatives. Precise, specific and linear conditions were obtained by means of liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. Sensitivity in the low ppb range was accomplished by the preparation of the methyloxime derivatives of the target compounds. Labeled internal standards (d3-nandrolone, d3-nandrolone caproate and d3-nandrolone undecanoate) were applied to compensate for the broad range in chain length of the esters. The assay presented here outlines the application of DBS for the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in doping controls for the first time providing great potential to simplify the proof of exogenous administration of testosterone. PMID:24713476

  2. Promoting chain elongation in mixed culture acidification reactors by addition of ethanol

    In this research we investigate a microbial production process to produce medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) based on the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). In this microbial production process, called chain elongation, bacteria produce medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) from ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). MCFAs could be used as new biomass based building blocks for the chemical and fuel industry. The objective of this article is to investigate whether chain elongation can be promoted during acidification of OFMSW by addition of ethanol. The results show that chain elongation can be promoted during acidification of OFMSW by addition of ethanol. However, the hydrolysis rate and the carboxylic acid yield of the OFMSW in reactors with ethanol additions were lower than the hydrolysis rate and the carboxylic acid yield than in reactors without ethanol additions. Further research is required to determine whether a combined chain elongation and acidification reactor or a separated reactor system is more advantageous for MCFA production from OFMSW. -- Highlights: ► Production of medium chain fatty acids from municipal solid waste and ethanol. ► Insight in production of caproate and consumption of in-situ produced ethanol. ► Ethanol additions reduced propionate, butyrate and valerate concentrations. ► Ethanol additions hardly reduced acetate concentrations. ► Hydrolysis rate was lower in experiments with ethanol additions

  3. The effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile components of desiccated coconut during storage

    Flavor volatiles of desiccated and irradiated desiccated coconut stored for 24 weeks at room temperature were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Chromatograms of fresh coconut meat revealed sone esters, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols which were responsible for its fruity odor. The oily odor of fresh coconut meat was attributed to minimal amount of delta lactones. Freshly desiccated coconut contained the same volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor but the concentration of the delta lactones was considerably higher. The newly irradiated desiccated coconut had the highest concentration of the delta lactones with other volatiles such as ethyl caproate, 1-hexanol, and caprylic aldehyde being also present. With storage, development of oily odor to rancid odor was noted due to increasing amount of delta lactones. Corresponding decrease of volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor was noted as shown by the chromatographic profiles of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Odor deterioration was more pronounced in the irradiated sample. Significant changes in moisture content, peroxide and iodine values, and free acid were observed during storage. No significant changes, however were noted in percent oil, pH and water activity. Significant difference in color, taste and general acceptability were noted at the start of storage with odor changes becoming more evident only after 4 weeks of storage. (Auth.). 69 refs.; 15 figs.; 14 tabs.; Appendix p. 90-205




    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: APH complicates 3 - 5% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal mortality worldwide. Progesterone is essential in maintenance of pregnancy and helps in prolongation of pregnancy. Different trials have been done to show the efficacy and safety of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth but study related to use in expectant management of symptomatic placenta previa is very limited. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to determine the effectiveness of intramascular 17 alpha hydroxy progesterone Caproate therapies vs. placebo in conservative management of patient with symptomatic placenta previa before 34 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: It is a randomized control study with 100 pregnant women attending Obstetric deptt. a t Nilratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata with symptomatic placenta previa having episode of warning haemorrhage before 34 weeks of gestation and fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study in a two year period from January 2013 to December 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using student t - test and chai - square test where appropriate. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS: In our study prolongation of pregnancy in progesterone receiving group is statistically significant (p - value<0.001, significant difference were also found in gestational age at delivery ( p value of 0.0288, birth - weight (p - value of 0.0470. CON CLUSION: In this study use of 17 alpha hydroxy progesterone in expectant management of symptomatic placenta previa tends to be beneficial than placebo.

  5. Gelatin-Modified Polyurethanes for Soft Tissue Scaffold

    Justyna Kucińska-Lipka


    Full Text Available Recently, in the field of biomaterials for soft tissue scaffolds, the interest of their modification with natural polymersis growing. Synthetic polymers are often tough, and many of them do not possess fine biocompatibility. On the other hand, natural polymers are biocompatible but weak when used alone. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers gives the suitable properties for tissue engineering requirements. In our study, we modified gelatin synthetic polyurethanes prepared from polyester poly(ethylene-butylene adipate (PEBA, aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI, and two different chain extenders 1,4-butanediol (BDO or 1-ethoxy-2-(2-hydroxyethoxyethanol (EHEE. From a chemical point of view, we replaced expensive components for building PU, such as 2,6-diisocyanato methyl caproate (LDI and 1,4-diisocyanatobutane (BDI, with cost-effective HDI. The gelatin was added in situ (in the first step of synthesis to polyurethane to increase biocompatibility and biodegradability of the obtained material. It appeared that the obtained gelatin-modified PU foams, in which chain extender was BDO, had enhanced interactions with media and their hydrolytic degradation profile was also improved for tissue engineering application. Furthermore, the gelatin introduction had positive impact on gelatin-modified PU foams by increasing their hemocompatibility.

  6. Short-chain aliphatic ester synthesis using Thermobifida fusca cutinase.

    Su, Lingqia; Hong, Ruoyu; Guo, Xiaojie; Wu, Jing; Xia, Yongmei


    Short-chain aliphatic esters are commonly used as fruit flavorings in the food industry. In this study, Thermobifida fusca (T. fusca) cutinase was used for the synthesis of aliphatic esters, and the maximum yield of ethyl caproate reached 99.2% at a cutinase concentration of 50U/ml, 40°C, and water content of 0.5%, representing the highest ester yield to date. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification displayed strong tolerance for water content (up to 8%) and acid concentration (up to 0.8M). At substrate concentrations ⩽0.8M, the ester yield remained above 80%. Moreover, ester yields of more than 98% and 95% were achieved for acids of C3-C8 and alcohols of C1-C6, respectively, indicating extensive chain length selectivity of the cutinase. These results demonstrate the superior ability of T. fusca cutinase to catalyze the synthesis of short-chain esters. This study provides the basis for industrial production of short-chain esters using T. fusca cutinase. PMID:27041308

  7. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Schuit Ewoud


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death. Methods/design We propose an individual participant data meta-analysis of high quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of progestogen treatment in women with a twin pregnancy. The primary outcome will be adverse perinatal outcome (a composite measure of perinatal mortality and significant neonatal morbidity. Missing data will be imputed within each original study, before data of the individual studies are pooled. The effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or vaginal progesterone treatment in women with twin pregnancies will be estimated by means of a random effects log-binomial model. Analyses will be adjusted for variables used in stratified randomization as appropriate. Pre-specified subgroup analysis will be performed to explore the effect of progestogen treatment in high-risk groups. Discussion Combining individual patient data from different randomized trials has potential to provide valuable, clinically useful information regarding the benefits and potential harms of progestogens in women with twin pregnancy overall and in relevant subgroups.

  8. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    Hu, Xiao-long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan


    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  9. Systemic Progesterone Therapy – Parenteral, oral, vaginal and even transdermal?

    Ruan X


    Full Text Available The therapeutic use of progesterone, which is identical to the female corpus luteum hormone, is becoming increasingly popular both for doctors and women. Several medicinal products containing progesterone are in widespread use orally (protection of the endometrium during concurrent estrogen treatment, parenterally or vaginally (support of luteal function in the course of assisted reproduction. These indications for progesterone have been established in extensive clinical testing programmes. In addition, the results of recent studies and meta-analyses suggest that vaginal progesterone is an effective and practical method for preventing premature births in singleton pregnancies in women with a shortened cervix. In the United States, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate is licenzed to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with a singleton pregnancy who have a history of singleton spontaneous preterm The administration of progesterone through the skin is also being promoted, although there is insufficient evidence from scientific studies to substantiate the transdermal application of progesterone. In particular, transdermal progesterone preparations should not be used to oppose the effects of estrogen on the endometrium, because even with comparatively low doses of estradiol (1 mg daily as a transdermal gel a reliable progestogenic effect to protect the endometrium has not been proved. On the other hand, the application of transdermal progesterone preparations alone is not known to pose any risks to health.

  10. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül


    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. PMID:26259923

  11. Correlações entre características físico-químicas e sensoriais em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa durante o armazenamento Correlation between physico-chemical and sensory characteristcs of yellow passin fruit juice over storaging time

    Delcio Sandi


    correlations were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa submitted to thermal processing treatment, during 120 days of storage under two different temperatures. The color characteristics, Hunter 'L', 'a'and 'b'values, reducing sugars and non reducing sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose, volatile compounds (ethyl butyrate, hexyl butyrate, ethyl caproate and hexyl caproate and furfural were correlated with sensory characteristics (juice homogeneity of color, orange color, characteristic aroma, floral aroma, sweet aroma, characteristic flavor, off flavor, oxidized flavor, cooked flavor, sweet taste and bitter taste by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The color parameters and sensory characteristic correlations such as juice homogeneity of color and orange color, and a-value was proportional, instead ofL and b-values. Important correlations were observed between volatile compounds and characteristics flavor and aroma, sweet and floral aroma; furfural and oxidized, cooked and off flavor. The sucrose levels were statistically correlationated with sweet and floral aroma, characteristic flavor and sweet taste, while the reducing sugars were correlated with off flavor and bitter taste. From the results it can be concluded that the instrumental methods can be indicated, such as the browning color where colorimetric parameters like a-value is the best one.

  12. Gateways to clinical trials.

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A


    Gateways to clinical trials is a guide to the most recent trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (+)-Dapoxetine hydrochloride, (S)-Tenatoprazole sodium salt monohydrate 19-28z, Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate, ADV-TK, AE-37, Aflibercept, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Asenapine maleate, Axitinib; Bavituximab, Becatecarin, beta-1,3/1,6-Glucan, Bevacizumab, Bremelanotide; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Casopitant mesylate, Catumaxomab, CDX-110, Cediranib, CMD-193, Cositecan; Darinaparsin, Denosumab, DP-b99, Duloxetine hydrochloride; E75, Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, EMD-273063, EndoTAG-1, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eplerenone, Eribulin mesilate, Esomeprazole magnesium, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Faropenem daloxate, Febuxostat, Fenretinide; Ghrelin (human); I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, I-131-3F8, Iclaprim, Iguratimod, Iloperidone, Imatinib mesylate, Inalimarev/Falimarev, Indacaterol, Ipilimumab, Iratumumab, Ispinesib mesylate, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Laquinimod sodium, Larotaxel dehydrate, Linezolid, LOR-2040; Mapatumumab, MKC-1, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; NK-012; Olanzapine pamoate, Oncolytic HSV, Ortataxel; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Paliperidone palmitate, Panitumumab, Patupilone, PCV-9, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimavanserin tartrate, Pimecrolimus, Plerixafor hydrochloride, PM-02734, Poly I:CLC, PR1, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Progesterone caproate, Prucalopride, Pumosetrag hydrochloride; RAV-12, RB-006, RB-007, Recombinant human erythropoietin alfa, Rimonabant, Romidepsin; SAR-109659, Satraplatin, Sodium butyrate; Tadalafil, Talampanel, Tanespimycin, Tarenflurbil, Tariquidar

  13. Prokaryotic communities in pit mud from different-aged cellars used for the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    Tao, Yong; Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Xu, Zhancheng; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Menghua; Li, Daping; Li, Xiangzhen


    Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) accounts for more than 70% of all Chinese liquor production. Microbes in pit mud play key roles in the fermentation cellar for the CSFL production. However, microbial diversity, community structure, and cellar-age-related changes in pit mud are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the prokaryotic community structure and diversity in pit-mud samples with different cellar ages (1, 10, 25, and 50 years) using the pyrosequencing technique. Results indicated that prokaryotic diversity increased with cellar age until the age reached 25 years and that prokaryotic community structure changed significantly between three cellar ages (1, 10, and 25 years). Significant correlations between prokaryotic communities and environmental variables (pH, NH4(+), lactic acid, butyric acid, and caproic acid) were observed. Overall, our study results suggested that the long-term brewing operation shapes unique prokaryotic community structure and diversity as well as pit-mud chemistry. We have proposed a three-phase model to characterize the changes of pit-mud prokaryotic communities. (i) Phase I is an initial domestication period. Pit mud is characterized by abundant Lactobacillus and high lactic acid and low pH levels. (ii) Phase II is a transition period. While Lactobacillus abundance decreases dramatically, that of Bacteroidetes and methanogens increases. (iii) Phase III is a relative mature period. The prokaryotic community shows the highest diversity and capability to produce more caproic acid as a precursor for synthesis of ethyl caproate, the main flavor component in CSFL. This research provides scientific evidence to support the practical experience that old fermentation cellars produce high-quality liquor. PMID:24487528

  14. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on human colon cancer cell phenotype are associated with histone hyperacetylation.

    Hinnebusch, Brian F; Meng, Shufen; Wu, James T; Archer, Sonia Y; Hodin, Richard A


    The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is produced via anaerobic bacterial fermentation within the colon and is thought to be protective in regard to colon carcinogenesis. Although butyrate (C4) is considered the most potent of the SCFA, a variety of other SCFA also exist in the colonic lumen. Butyrate is thought to exert its cellular effects through the induction of histone hyperacetylation. We sought to determine the effects of a variety of the SCFA on colon carcinoma cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. HT-29 or HCT-116 (wild-type and p21-deleted) cells were treated with physiologically relevant concentrations of various SCFA, and histone acetylation state was assayed by acid-urea-triton-X gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Growth and apoptotic effects were studied by flow cytometry, and differentiation effects were assessed using transient transfections and Northern blotting. Propionate (C3) and valerate (C5) caused growth arrest and differentiation in human colon carcinoma cells. The magnitude of their effects was associated with a lesser degree of histone hyperacetylation compared with butyrate. Acetate (C2) and caproate (C6), in contrast, did not cause histone hyperacetylation and also had no appreciable effects on cell growth or differentiation. SCFA-induced transactivation of the differentiation marker gene, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), was blocked by histone deacetylase (HDAC), further supporting the critical link between SCFA and histones. Butyrate also significantly increased apoptosis, whereas the other SCFA studied did not. The growth arrest induced by the SCFA was characterized by an increase in the expression of the p21 cell-cycle inhibitor and down-regulation of cyclin B1 (CB1). In p21-deleted HCT-116 colon cancer cells, the SCFA did not alter the rate of proliferation. These data suggest that the antiproliferative, apoptotic and differentiating properties of the various SCFA are linked to the degree of induced histone

  15. Mesophilic and thermophilic conditions select for unique but highly parallel microbial communities to perform carboxylate platform biomass conversion.

    Emily B Hollister

    Full Text Available The carboxylate platform is a flexible, cost-effective means of converting lignocellulosic materials into chemicals and liquid fuels. Although the platform's chemistry and engineering are well studied, relatively little is known about the mixed microbial communities underlying its conversion processes. In this study, we examined the metagenomes of two actively fermenting platform communities incubated under contrasting temperature conditions (mesophilic 40°C; thermophilic 55 °C, but utilizing the same inoculum and lignocellulosic feedstock. Community composition segregated by temperature. The thermophilic community harbored genes affiliated with Clostridia, Bacilli, and a Thermoanaerobacterium sp, whereas the mesophilic community metagenome was composed of genes affiliated with other Clostridia and Bacilli, Bacteriodia, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Although both communities were able to metabolize cellulosic materials and shared many core functions, significant differences were detected with respect to the abundances of multiple Pfams, COGs, and enzyme families. The mesophilic metagenome was enriched in genes related to the degradation of arabinose and other hemicellulose-derived oligosaccharides, and the production of valerate and caproate. In contrast, the thermophilic community was enriched in genes related to the uptake of cellobiose and the transfer of genetic material. Functions assigned to taxonomic bins indicated that multiple community members at either temperature had the potential to degrade cellulose, cellobiose, or xylose and produce acetate, ethanol, and propionate. The results of this study suggest that both metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy contribute to the platform's ability to process lignocellulosic substrates and are likely to provide a degree of stability to the platform's fermentation processes.

  16. A novel family VII esterase with industrial potential from compost metagenomic library

    Oh Tae-Kwang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the vast microbial genomic resources now available, most microbes are unculturable in the laboratory. A culture-independent metagenomic approach is a novel technique that circumvents this culture limitation. For the screening of novel lipolytic enzymes, a metagenomic library was constructed from compost, and the clone of estCS2 was selected for lipolytic properties on a tributyrin-containing medium. Results The estCS2 sequence encodes a protein of 570 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 63 kDa, and based on amino acid identity it most closely matches (45% the carboxylesterase from Haliangium ochraceum DSM 14365. EstCS2 belong to family VII, according to the lipolytic enzyme classification proposed by Arpigny and Jaeger, and it retains the catalytic triad Ser245-Glu363-His466 that is typical of an α/β hydrolase. The Ser245 residue in the catalytic triad of EstCS2 is located in the consensus active site motif GXSXG. The EstCS2 exhibits strong activity toward p-nitrophenyl caproate (C6, and it is stable up to 60°C with an optimal enzymatic activity at 55°C. The maximal activity is observed at pH 9, and it remains active between pH 6-10. EstCS2 shows remarkable stability in up to 50% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO or dimethylformamide (DMF. The enzyme has the ability to cleave sterically hindered esters of tertiary alcohol, as well as to degrade polyurethanes, which are widely used in various industries. Conclusions The high stability of EstCS2 in organic solvents and its activity towards esters of ketoprofen and tertiary alcohols, and in polyurethane suggests that it has potential uses for many applications in biotransformation and bioremediation.

  17. Determination of Odor Release in Hydrocolloid Model Systems Containing Original or Carboxylated Cellulose at Different pH Values Using Static Headspace Gas Chromatographic (SHS-GC Analysis

    Pahn-Shick Chang


    Full Text Available Static headspace gas chromatographic (SHS-GC analysis was performed to determine the release of 13 odorants in hydrocolloid model systems containing original or regio-selectively carboxylated cellulose at different pH values. The release of most odor compounds was decreased in the hydrocolloid solutions compared to control, with the amounts of 2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanedione released into the headspace being less than those of any other odor compound in the hydrocolloid model systems. However, there was no considerable difference between original cellulose-containing and carboxylated-cellulose containing systems in the release of most compounds, except for relatively long-chain esters such as ethyl caprylate and ethyl nonanoate. The release from the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions controlled to pH 10 was significantly higher than that from solutions adjusted to pH 4 and 7 in the case of some esters (ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, butyl propionate, ethyl caproate and alcohols (2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, in particular, ethyl butyrate and 3-methyl-1-butanol. In contrast, the release of 2,3-butanedione from both the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions was increased at pH 4 and 7 compared to that at pH 10 by about 70% and 130%, respectively. Our study demonstrated that the release of some odorants could be changed significantly by addition of both original and carboxylated cellulose in hydrocolloid model systems, but only minor effect was observed in pH of the solution.

  18. Prediciton of high-pressure vapor liquid equilibrium of six binary systems, carbon dioxide with six esters, using an artificial neural network model

    C. Si-Moussa


    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks are applied to high-pressure vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE related literature data to develop and validate a model capable of predicting VLE of six CO2-ester binaries (CO2-ethyl caprate, CO2-ethyl caproate, CO2-ethyl caprylate, CO2-diethyl carbonate, CO2-ethyl butyrate and CO2-isopropyl acetate. A feed forward, back propagation network is used with one hidden layer. The model has five inputs (two intensive state variables and three pure ester properties and two outputs (two intensive state variables.The network is systematically trained with 112 data points in the temperature and pressure ranges (308.2-328.2 K, (1.665-9.218 MPa respectively and is validated with 56 data points in the temperature range (308.2-328.2 K. Different combinations of network architecture and training algorithms are studied. The training and validation strategy is focused on the use of a validation agreement vector, determined from linear regression analysis of the plots of the predicted versus experimental outputs, as an indication of the predictive ability of the neural network model. Statistical analyses of the predictability of the optimised neural network model show excellent agreement with experimental data (a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.9995 and 0.9886, and a root mean square error equal to 0.0595 and 0.00032 for the predicted equilibrium pressure and CO2 vapor phase composition respectively. Furthermore, the comparison in terms of average absolute relative deviation between the predicted results for each binary for the whole temperature range and literature results predicted by some cubic equation of state with various mixing rules and excess Gibbs energy models shows that the artificial neural network model gives far better results.

  19. 白酒中酯类化合物的稳定性研究%Study on the Stability of Ester Compounds in Liquor

    何义国; 赵兴秀; 邓静; 吴华昌


    The hydrolysis of four main ester compounds in liquor in alcohol-water system including ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl lactate and ethyl caproate, the association between stabilizers and ester compounds, and the effects of dissolved oxygen, microwave and ultrasonic wave on the hydrolysis of ester compounds were studied. The results suggested that, the hydrolysis rate constant of ester compounds reduced with the in- crease of the concentration of ethanol, the addition of stabilizers could inhibit compound hydrolysis at a certain degree, and dissolved oxygen, microwave and ultrasonic wave had certain destructive effects on ester compounds in liquor.%研究了白酒中四大酯类化合物(乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯、己酸乙酯)在醇水体系中的水解,以及稳定剂与酯类化合物之间的缔合作用,还研究了外界条件溶解氧、微波和超声波对白酒中酯类化合物水解的影响。结果表明,酯类化合物随着乙醇浓度的增加,水解速率常数降低;加入稳定剂对酯类化合物水解具有一定的抑制作用;氧气、微波和超声波对白酒酯类物质具有一定的破坏作用。

  20. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in women with multiple pregnancies: the AMPHIA trial

    Scheepers Hubertina CJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15% of multiple pregnancies ends in a preterm delivery, which can lead to mortality and severe long term neonatal morbidity. At present, no generally accepted strategy for the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies exists. Prophylactic administration of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC has proven to be effective in the prevention of preterm birth in women with singleton pregnancies with a previous preterm delivery. At present, there are no data on the effectiveness of progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Methods/Design We aim to investigate the hypothesis that 17OHPC will reduce the incidence of the composite neonatal morbidity of neonates by reducing the early preterm birth rate in multiple pregnancies. Women with a multiple pregnancy at a gestational age between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation will be entered in a placebo-controlled, double blinded randomised study comparing weekly 250 mg 17OHPC intramuscular injections from 16–20 weeks up to 36 weeks of gestation versus placebo. At study entry, cervical length will be measured. The primary outcome is composite bad neonatal condition (perinatal death or severe morbidity. Secondary outcome measures are time to delivery, preterm birth rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal morbidity, maternal admission days for preterm labour and costs. We need to include 660 women to indicate a reduction in bad neonatal outcome from 15% to 8%. Analysis will be by intention to treat. We will also analyse whether the treatment effect is dependent on cervical length. Discussion This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not 17OHPC-treatment is an effective means of preventing bad neonatal outcome due to preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN40512715

  1. Progesterone, Inflammatory Cytokine (TNF-α), and Oxidative Stress (H2O2) Regulate Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Expression in Fetal Membrane Cells.

    Meng, Yan; Murtha, Amy P; Feng, Liping


    Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is an important novel mediator of progesterone (P4) function in fetal membrane cells. We demonstrated previously that PGRMC1 is differentially expressed in fetal membranes among pregnancy subjects and diminished in preterm premature rupture of membrane subjects. In the current study, we aim to elucidate whether PGRMC1 expression is regulated by P4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and H2O2 in fetal membrane cells. Primary cultured membrane cells were serum starved for 24 hours followed by treatments of P4, 17 hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and medroxyprogesterone 17 acetate (MPA) at 10(-7) mol/L with ethanol as vehicle control; TNF-α at 10, 20, and 50 ng/mL with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control; and H2O2 at 10 and 100 μmol/L with culture media as control for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of PGRMC1 was quantified using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. We found that PGRMC1 protein expression was regulated by MPA, TNF-α, and H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. This regulation is also specific to the type of cell (amnion, chorion, or decidua). The upregulation of PGRMC1 by MPA might be mediated through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) demonstrated using amnion and chorion cells model with GR knockdown by specific small interfering RNA transfection. The mRNA expression of PGRMC1 was decreased by H2O2 (100 μmol/L) treatment in amnion cells, which might ultimately result in downregulation of PGRMC1 protein as our data demonstrated. None of other treatments changed PGRMC1 mRNA level in these cells. We conclude that these stimuli act as regulatory factors of PGRMC1 in a cell-specific manner. PMID:26919974

  2. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S


    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  3. The Best Treatment Effects of Active Carbon on Low-alcohol Liquor of Different Alcoholicity%不同酒度低度白酒活性炭处理最佳效果

    代汉聪; 张宿义; 谢明; 李云辉


    对不同酒度低度白酒活性炭除浊、香味损失及化学性能等指标进行了研究。结果表明,同一酒度白酒进行活性炭处理,随着活性炭用量的增加,酒中己酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯等色谱骨架成分及棕榈酸乙酯、亚油酸乙酯、油酸乙酯等高级脂肪酸乙酯的含量均有一定程度的降低;总酸、总酯也随着活性炭添加量的增加有一定程度减小,且酒质香浓感减弱,酒体抗冻能力增强。用同量活性炭对不同酒度白酒进行处理,酒度越高,其处理降度后的低度白酒微量香味成分越丰富,酒质香浓感越好,但酒体抗冻能力越弱。新处理工艺能够增加酒体香浓感,且大幅度提升酒体口感质量。%Active carbon was used for turbidity-removal of low-alcohol liquor of different alcoholicity,and the loss of liquor aroma and the change in its chemical indexes were studied.The results indicated that,for liquor of the same alcoholicity,with the increase of active carbon use level,the content of ethyl caproate,ethyl lactate,ethyl acetate,ethyl butyrate,palmitic acid ethyl ester,ethyl linoleate,ethyl oleate and other higher fatty ethyl esters reduced to some extent in the liquor,the content of total acids and total esters also decreased and liquor aroma weakened,however,liquor antifreeze capacity enhanced;for liquor of different alcoholicity but treated by the same use level of active carbon,the higher of liquor alcoholicity,the richer of trace flavoring components in treated liquor and the better of liquor quality and liquor aroma,however,the weaker of liquor antifreeze capacity.The new processing techniques could enhance the aroma of liquor body and greatly improve liquor taste and liquor quality.

  4. Effect of freeze-drying temperature on volatile components of Capsella bursa-pastoris L.%冷冻干燥温度对荠菜挥发性成分的影响

    张丽; 刘腾飞; 薛妍君; 杨代凤; 董明辉; 汝骅; 郁志芳


    The wild Capsella bursa-pastoris L. was freeze-dried at 5 ℃, 10 ℃, 15 ℃ and 20 ℃, respectively, and the combination of head space-solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography ( HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to detect the volatile components. As many as 53 types of volatile components were detected at 10 ℃, among which, alcohols inclu-ding cis-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-pentene-3-alcohol, benzene ethanol and 1-hexanol, esters including amyl nitrate, acetic acid leaf alcohol ester, ethyl caproate, two hydrogen actinidia lactone and 3-hexenoic acid ethyl ester, ketones including methyl hep-tenone and 3-methyl-2-heptanone presented higher contents than those treated at other temperatures. Acids in 10 ℃ dried products were the most abundant, and 3-amino-2,3-two hydrogenation of benzoic acid and 2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid in fresh samples were maintained to the greatest contents. The losses of aldehydes and hydrocarbon were relatively small in 10℃ dried products. In conclusion, the flavor of C. bursa-pastoris L. was well maitained under the following conditions:sample loading 50 g, pre-freezing at -20 ℃ for 6 h, cold trap at -85 ℃,vacuum degree at 0. 5 MPa,freeze-drying at 10 ℃ for 14 h.%为研究不同冷冻干燥温度对荠菜挥发性物质的影响,采用不同温度(5℃、10℃、15℃和20℃)对荠菜进行冷冻干燥处理,利用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对荠菜中的挥发性物质进行检测。结果显示:与其他处理组相比,10℃冷冻干燥处理产品中挥发性成分种类最多,为53种,其中醇类物质如叶醇、1-戊烯-3-醇、苯乙醇和1-己醇含量较其他处理组高,酯类物质如亚硝酸异戊酯、乙酸叶醇酯、正己酸乙酯、二氢猕猴桃内酯和3-己烯酸乙酯等相对含量较高,酮类物质如甲基庚烯酮和3-甲基-2-庚酮含量较高。酸类物质种类在10℃冷冻干燥产品中最为丰富,新鲜荠菜中的3-氨基-2,3-二氢苯甲酸和2-甲基-4-

  5. 固相微萃取GC-MS法测定不同干燥方式下枣产品的芳香成分%Application of Solid Phase Microextraction with GC/MS Method for Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Dried Jujube Products

    毕金峰; 于静静; 丁媛媛; 赖必辉


    采用顶空固相微萃取与气相色谱-质谱联用技术对枣鲜样及不同干燥方式枣产品的芳香成分进行分析.结果表明,河北滩枣鲜样主要芳香成分为:酸类物质占24.31%,烯类物质占14.2%,烷烃类物质占11.73%.热风干燥处理后产生较多酯类和酮类物质,使产品呈现蒸煮味道,损失较多烷烃类物质;微波干燥处理后除酯类和酮类物质增多外,其余风味物质均损失较多;冷冻干燥处理后生成了其他干燥方式未有的己酸乙酯和庚酸乙酯;真空干燥处理后产生较多的酸类、酯类和酮类物质;相对于其余四种干燥方式,变温压差膨化干燥处理后,代表枣风味的酸类、酯类、酮类和醛类明显增多,且生成许多新的香气成分如庚酸、己醛和2-呋喃基甲基酮等.%The paper studied the difference of volatile compounds in fresh jujube and drying products with different drying methods by combining solid phase micro-extraction with GC-MS method. The results showed that the volatile compounds in fresh Hebei Beach jujube mainly include acid, vinyl and alkane, and the percent of acid was 24.3 1%, the percent of vinyl was 14.2% and the percent of alkane was 11.73%.The jujube treated by hot-air drying method showed a steam cooked taste, producing ketone compounds but losing more alkanes. The jujube by microwave drying method produced much esters and ketones and lost much volatile compounds which belong to fresh jujube. And the jujube by freeze drying method created ethyl caproate and ethyl enanthate which other drying methods did not have. And much acid, ester and ketone,comparing with the other products, were found in the jujube by vacuum drying method. The jujube by the explosion puffing with difference temperature and pressure method has created much acid, ester, ketone and aldehyde which can mostly stand for characteristic volatile compounds ofjujube, and created many new volatile compounds, for example enanthylic acid

  6. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.


    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and

  7. Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.

    Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony


    Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect