Sample records for candu medium size

  1. CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor

    The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

  2. The enhanced CANDU 6 reactor - Generation III CANDU medium size global reactor

    Full text: The Enhanced CANDU 6TM (EC6TM) is a Generation III 700 class, heavy water moderated pressure tube reactor, designed to provide safe, reliable, nuclear power. The EC6TM has evolved from the proven CANDU 6 plants licensed and operating in five countries (four continents) with over 150 reactor years of safe operation around the world. In recent years. this global CANDU 6 fleet, with over 92% average gross capacity factor has ranked in the world's top performing reactors. The EC6 reactor builds on this success of the CANDU 6 fleet by using the operation, experience and project feedback to upgrade the design and construction techniques. A key objective of the EC6 has been to review and incorporate design improvements in the CANDU 6 to meet current safety standards. The key characteristics of the highly successful CANDU 6 reactor design include: - Powered by natural Uranium; - Ease of installation with modular, horizontal fuel channel core; - Separate low-temperature, low-pressure moderator providing inherently passive heat sinks; Reactor vault filled with light water surrounding the core; - Two independent safety shutdown systems; - On-power fuelling; - The CANDU 6 plant has a highly automated control system, with plant control computers that adjust and maintain the reactor power for plant stability (which is particularly beneficial in less developed power grids-where fluctuations occur regularly and capacities are limited). The major improvements incorporated in the EC6 design include, - More robust containment and increased passive features e.g., thicker walls, steel liner; - Enhanced severe accident management with additional emergency heat removal systems; - Improved shutdown performance for improved Large LOCA margins; - Upgraded fire protection systems to meet current Canadian and International standards; - Additional design features to improve environmental protection for workers and public- ALARA principle; - Automated and unitized back-up standby

  3. The Enhanced CANDU 6TM Reactor - Generation III CANDU Medium Size Global Reactor

    The Enhanced CANDU 6TM (EC6TM) is a 740 MWe class heavy water moderated pressure tube reactor, designed to provide safe, reliable, nuclear power. The EC6TM has evolved from the proven eleven (11) CANDU 6 plants licensed and operating in five countries (four continents) with over 150 reactor years of safe operation around the world. In recent years, this global CANDU 6 fleet has ranked in the world's top performing reactors. The EC6 reactor builds on this success of the CANDU 6 fleet by using the operation, experience and project feedback to upgrade the design and incorporate design improvements to meet current safety standards.The key characteristics of the highly successful CANDU 6 reactor design include: Powered by natural Uranium; Ease of installation with modular, horizontal fuel channel core; Separate low-temperature, low-pressure moderator providing inherently passive heat sinks; Reactor vault filled with light water surrounding the core; Two independent safety shutdown systems; On-power fuelling; The CANDU 6 plant has a highly automated control system, with plant control computers that adjust and maintain the reactor power for plant stability (which is particularly beneficial in less developed power grids-where fluctuations occur regularly and capacities are limited). The major improvements incorporated in the EC6 design include: More robust containment and increased passive features e.g., thicker walls, steel liner; Enhanced severe accident management with additional emergency heat removal systems; Improved shutdown performance for improved Large LOCA margins; Upgraded fire protection systems to meet current Canadian and International standards; Additional design features to improve environmental protection for workers and public-ALARA principle; Automated and unitized back-up standby power and water systems; Other improvements to meet higher safety goals consistent with Canadian and International standards based on PSA studies; Additional reactor trip

  4. Next generation CANDU plants

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors systems featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator will continue to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety operation based on design feedback. Therefore, CANDU reactor products will continue to evolve by incorporating further improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. Progressive CANDU development will continue in AECL to enhance the medium size product - CANDU 6, and to evolve the larger size product - CANDU 9. The development of features for CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 is carried out in parallel. Developments completed for one reactor size can then be applied to the other design with minimum costs and risk. (author)

  5. A CANDU-type small/medium power reactor

    This presentation reviews some of the main factors that will govern the design and operation of reactors in remote Northern Canadian communities, as applied to a small CANDU-type power plant. The central advantage of the CANDU is the fact that it is modular at the level of a single fuel channel. Examining each of the main features of this SMR plant on a hypothetical site in the Canadian Arctic reveals some of the unique characteristics that will be either desirable or mandatory for any such power plant applied to service in this remote region. (author)

  6. A CANDU-type small/medium power reactor

    The assembly known as a CANDU power reactor consists of a number of standardized fuel channels or 'power modules'. Each of these channels produces about 5 thermal megawatts on average. Within practical limitations on fuel enrichment and ultimately on economics, the number of these channels is variable between about 50 and approximately 700. Small reactors suffer from inevitable disadvantages in terms of specific cost of design/construction as well as operating cost. Their natural 'niche' for application is in remote off-grid locations. At the same time this niche application imposes new and strict requirements for staff complement, power system reliability, and so on. The distinct advantage of small reactors arises if the market requires installation of several units in a coordinated installation program - a feature well suited to power requirements in Canada's far North. This paper examines several of the performance requirements and constraints for installation of these plants and presents means for designers to overcome the consequent negative feasibility factors.

  7. Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6): a proven mid-sized reactor with fuel cycle capability

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) is finalizing development of the Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6), which incorporates the CANDU 6's well-proven features, and enhancements that make the reactor even more safe and easier to operate. The EC6 is the only mid-sized reactor (700 MWe class) with a proven pedigree that meets modern reactor expectations and regulatory standards. It is sized for smaller grids and also has outstanding fuel-cycle capability. Changes are incremental and consistent with the CANDU 6 project approach. The EC6 utilizes modern computers and a distributed control system housed in an advanced control room which, along with automated testing and on-line diagnostics, make the plant easier and safer to operate, with minimal operator intervention. Containment and seismic capability are upgraded to meet modern standards. The first deployment of the EC6 is anticipated in Canada; international markets are also being pursued. AECL is performing a comprehensive review of the EC6 design in the wake of the Fukushima accident, will review lessons learned, and incorporate any necessary improvements into new build design. (author)

  8. CANDU advanced fuel cycles

    This report is based on informal lectures and presentations made on CANDU Advanced Fuel Cycles over the past year or so, and discusses the future role of CANDU in the changing environment for the Canadian and international nuclear power industry. The changing perspectives of the past decade lead to the conclusion that a significant future market for a CANDU advanced thermal reactor will exist for many decades. Such a reactor could operate in a stand-alone strategy or integrate with a mixed CANDU-LWR or CANDU-FBR strategy. The consistent design focus of CANDU on enhanced efficiency of resource utilization combined with a simple technology to achieve economic targets, will provide sufficient flexibility to maintain CANDU as a viable power producer for both the medium- and long-term future

  9. HIRENASD Chimera medium-size grid

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chimera medium-size grid for HIRENASD. Two files, fort.501 for grid for wing, fuselage, and 'world' zones, fort.503 for collar zone. File format is plot3d,...

  10. Economics of CANDU

    The cost of producing electricity from CANDU reactors is discussed. The total unit energy cost of base-load electricity from CANDU reactors is compared with that of coal-fired plants in Ontario. In 1980 nuclear power was 8.41 m$/kW.h less costly for plants of similar size and vintage. Comparison of CANDU with pressurized water reactors indicated that the latter would be about 26 percent more costly in Ontario

  11. Integrated evolution of the medium power CANDU{sup MD} reactors; Evolution integree des reacteurs CANDU{sup MD} de moyenne puissance

    Nuzzo, F. [AECL Accelerators, Kanata, ON (Canada)


    The aim of this document is the main improvements of the CANDU reactors in the economic, safety and performance domains. The presentation proposes also other applications as the hydrogen production, the freshening of water sea and the bituminous sands exploitation. (A.L.B.)

  12. CANDU development

    Evolution of the 950 MW(e) CANDU reactor is summarized. The design was specifically aimed at the export market. Factors considered in the design were that 900-1000 MW is the maximum practical size for most countries; many countries have warmer condenser cooling water than Canada; the plant may be located on coastal sites; seismic requirements may be more stringent; and the requirements of international, as well as Canadian, standards must be satisfied. These considerations resulted in a 600-channel reactor capable of accepting condenser cooling water at 320C. To satisfy the requirement for a proven design, the 950 MW CANDU draws upon the basic features of the Bruce and Pickering plants which have demonstrated high capacity factors

  13. CANDU improvement

    The evolution of the CANDU family of nuclear power plants is based on a continuous product development approach. Proven equipment and system concepts from operating stations are standardized and used in new products. Due to the modular nature of the CANDU reactor concept, product features developed for CANDU 9 can easily be incorporated in other CANDU products such as CANDU 6. Design concepts are being developed for advanced CANDU 6 or larger advanced CANDU, depending on the number of fuel channels and the fuel cycle selected. This paper provides a description of the design improvements being incorporated in CANDU 9 and further design enhancements being studied for future incorporation in CANDU 6 or larger advanced CANDU meeting the requirements of future CANDU owners. The design enhancement objectives are: To improve operational simplicity by applying modern information technology; to improve safety in a cost effective way; to improve system and component reliability and to increase plant life; to improve economics and to reduce owners' risks during all phases of a project using up-front licensing, an improved engineering process and project tools during design, construction and operation; to continue to exploit the neutron economy of CANDU with the development of advanced fuels and fuel cycles. (author)

  14. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  15. Perspective on small and medium size reactors

    There has been renewed interests in the United States in small and medium size nuclear power plants (600 MWe or less). The reasons for this include: (1) there is a large uncertainty in load growth projections. Small to medium size nuclear power plants may be better suited to meet uncertain load growth projections. (2) It has been argued that a large economy of scale exists because of the nature of nuclear power installations. A recent examination of the French program shows that no economy of scale exists between the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants. Others have suggested that it is possible to reduce the economy of scale so it is not a prohibitive factor. (3) In the past in the United States, it has been customary for several smaller utilities to share the output of a large nuclear plant to take advantage of the perceived economy of scale. Difficulties have been encountered by some of these enterprises. (4) An examination of capacity factors for the United States shows that plants of smaller output appear to operate more reliably and economically than larger plants

  16. CANDU 300

    The CANDU nuclear power system is under continuous review by AECL in order to advance the CANDU concept in a manner that will assure competitiveness in both current and future markets. Over the past three years development effort has featured the CANDU 300, a CANDU nuclear generating station with a net output in the range of 320 MW9e) to 380 MW(e). At the outset AECL recognized that coal-fired power plants would be the primary competition for the CANDU advantages such as the use of natural uranium fuel and on-power refuelling, while enhancing capacity factor, reducing man-rem exposure, reducing capital cost, and minimizing construction schedules. AECL believes that the resulting CANDU 300 nuclear generating station will have substantial appeal to many utilities, in both developed and developing countries. The key features of the CANDU 300 are presented here, with particular attention to the station layout, construction methods, and construction schedules

  17. Development of ANC-type empirical two-phase pump model for full size CANDU primary heat transport pump

    The development of an ANC-type empirical two-phase pump model for CANDU (Canadian Deuterium) reactor primary heat transport pumps is described in the present paper. The model was developed based on Ontario Hydro Technologies' full scale Darlington pump first quadrant test data. The functional form of the ANC model which is widely used was chosen to facilitate the implementation of the model into existing computer codes. The work is part of a bigger test program with the aims: (1) to produce high quality pump performance data under off-normal operating conditions using both full-size and model scale pumps; (2) to advance our basic understanding of the dominant mechanisms affecting pump performance based on more detailed local measurements; and (3) to develop a 'best-estimate' or improved pump model for use in reactor licensing and safety analyses. (author)

  18. Sizing cracks in thin-walled CANDU reactor pressure tubes using crack-tip diffraction

    The most practical nondestructive means of measuring the depth of cracks approximately 0.4 mm deep in CANDU reactor pressure tubes is the ultrasonic crack-tip diffraction method. Initially, optimum ultrasonic parameters for wave mode, transducer frequency, main-bang pulse characteristics, incident and diffracted angles were obtained on three fatigue cracks, based on the criteria of maximum signal amplitude and accuracy in determination of crack depth. In addition, three signal processing techniques, auto and cross-correlation, rectification and smoothing and the magnitude of the analytic signal, were used to obtain time measurements. The results of these measurements are presented. Except for the first fatigue crack, the depth calculations were accurate to within the specified range of ± 0.1 mm

  19. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)


    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  20. The evolution of the CANDU energy system - ready for Europe's energy future

    margins and performance. The CANDU 6 design has evolved in both design and project delivery, so that the current CANDU 6 construction project at Qinshan Phase 3, in China, represents the nuclear project state-of-the-art. Experience with current plants, such as Cernavoda, is an important input to the development of improved designs for the future. Building on the strong CANDU knowledge base, AECL is continuing to adapt the CANDU design to develop the Next Generation CANDU medium-sized fuel channel reactor. This paper discusses the next generation of CANDU designs featuring major improvements in economics, inherent safety characteristics and performance, while retaining the proven benefits of the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. This leads to a seamless evolution which ensures that innovation is introduced in a way which minimizes project or operations uncertainties. (authors)

  1. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Concern


    @@ A common concern The outer environment At present,small and medium-sized enterprises are faced with many serious challenges.Since most of the large-sized enterprises ln China are state-owned ones,small and medium-sized enterprises in this article are referred mainly to those in the private sector.

  2. A theoretical model of the mean grain size evolution during the liquid phase sintering in CANDU advanced fuels

    In order to enhance the fuel burnup in CANDU reactors, the microstructure of the fuel pellet must by modified, in order to accommodate the fission gas released during irradiation. A large grain size structure is able to retain a large fraction of the released gases. The addition of some oxides to the UO2 powder leads to the liquid phase ocarina during sintering. Starting from the basic theory of the grain growth in solid and liquid phase sintering and from the experimental microstructure characterization, a model of the mean size evolution in the presence of very small liquid fraction is proposed. As a function of dopant concentration, solubility limits and liquid phase composition, this model explicitly takes account of the continuous distribution of the additive into the matrix during grain growth process of the wetting properties of the liquid phase and of all transfer processes governing the microstructure evolution: grain boundary diffusion, surface reaction and diffusion through the liquid phase. The model validation was done for UO2-Nb2O3 and UO2-TiO2 systems, in isothermal treatment at 1700 deg. C. The model predictions are confirmed by the qualitative and quantitative experimental results, given by SEM, X-ray diffraction investigations. (authors)

  3. Quality Assurance - a Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Ion IONITA; Cosmin DOBRIN; Mihai MIEILA


    In this mateial some of the most important aspects related to the quality assurance for their bussiness plan, sma;; and medium sized enterprises are pointed out the functional processual approach, the modely of the implementation of the quality management system for the small and medium sized enterprises.


    Schilirò, Daniele


    The work addresses the issue of Italian medium-sized enterprises of the fourth capitalism. The question is whether this business model is going to last and actually represent a new model for global competition. This contribution examines the features of the model of the medium industrial enterprise. It also investigates the performance of the Italian medium-sized enterprises, comparing with large companies. The analysis of the data, albeit at a descriptive level using data published by Mediob...

  5. An integrated CANDU system

    Twenty years of experience have shown that the early choices of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium as fuel imposed a discipline on CANDU design that has led to outstanding performance. The integrated structure of the industry in Canada, incorporating development, design, supply, manufacturing, and operation functions, has reinforced this performance and has provided a basis on which to continue development in the future. These same fundamental characteristics of the CANDU program open up propsects for further improvements in economy and resource utilization through increased reactor size and the development of the thorium fuel cycle

  6. Advancing the CANDU reactor: From generation to generation

    Emphasizing safety, reliability and economics, the CANDU reactor development strategy is one of continuous improvement, offering value and assured support to customers worldwide. The Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000) generation, designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), meets the new economic expectation for low-cost power generation with high capacity factors. The ACR is designed to meet customer needs for reduced capital cost, shorter construction schedule, high plant capacity factor, low operating cost, increased operating life, simple component replacement, enhanced safety features, and low environmental impact. The ACR-1000 design evolved from the internationally successful medium-sized pressure tube reactor (PTR) CANDU 6 and incorporates operational feedback from eight utilities that operate 31 CANDU units. This technical paper provides a brief description of the main features of the ACR-1000, and its major role in the development path of the generations of the pressure tube reactor concept. The motivation, philosophy and design approach being taken for future generation of CANDU pressure tube reactors are described

  7. Business process modelling in small- to medium-sized enterprises

    Tam, ASM; Chu, LK; D. Sculli


    Data flow analysis is used in a novel context for business process modelling. A framework is presented together with its enterprise modelling concepts and the associated modelling tools. The framework was specifically developed for small- to medium-sized industries. The strengths and weaknesses of the general data flow analysis approach are discussed in terms of its suitability for Hong Kong's small- to medium-sized industries. A case example is also presented to illustrate the methodology.


    Mariya Yesseleva


    Small- and medium-sized enterprises constitute a significant sector in any economy. Academic research studies, which analyze various dimensions of small- and medium-sized sector in Australia, reiterate the importance of availability and reliability of data sources regarding these firms. Any research study has to be supported with reliable data sources that provide comprehensive, consistent and timely information, enhancing the significance of research results. This article provides informatio...


    Leeuwen, Eveline S. van; Rietveld, Piet


    Abstract Small and medium-sized towns are often recognized as important components of the rural economy. In this article, we focus on the current function of small and medium-sized towns in providing retail services to local households in five European countries. Furthermore, we analyse the spatial shopping behaviour of these households. It appears that towns are still important places for shopping: more than half of the purchases of households living in town or the direct hinterla...

  10. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    David Kral


    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  11. Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

  12. Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)


    Daniele Schilirò


    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  14. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Nur Budi Mulyono


    Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.Key words: Business process, holonic modeling, operations management, small to medium sized enterprise

  15. The CANDU experience in Romania

    The CANDU program in Romania is now well established. The Cernavoda Nuclear Station presently under construction will consist of 5-CANDU 600 MWE Units and another similar size station is planned to be in operation in the next decade. Progress on the multi-unit station at Cernavoda was stalled for 18 months in 1982/83 as the Canadian Export Development Corporation had suspended their loan disbursements while the Romanian National debt was being rescheduled. Since resumption of the financing in August 1983 contracts worth almost 200M dollars have been placed with Canadian Companies for the supply of major equipment for the first two units. The Canadian design is that which was used in the latest 600 MWE CANDU station at Wolsong, Korea. The vast construction site is now well developed with the cooling water systems/channels and service buildings at an advanced stage of completion. The perimeter walls of the first two reactor buildings are already complete and slip-forming for the 3rd Unit is imminent. Many Romanian organizations are involved in the infrastructure which has been established to handle the design, manufacture, construction and operation of the CANDU stations. The Romanian manufacturing industry has made extensive preparations for the supply of CANDU equipment and components, and although a major portion of the first two units will come from Canada their intentions are to become largely self-supporting for the ensuing CANDU program. Quality assurance programs have been prepared already for many of the facilities

  16. The economics of medium-sized reactors in deregulated markets

    The prospects for the deployment of small and medium reactors in deregulated markets is crucially dependent on demonstrating that such reactors are economically competitive with alternative power sources. Other factors, such as safety, reliability, waste arisings, environmental impact etc are also important to get right, but unless the economics are competitive, private investment is unlikely to be available for any reactor system. This paper examines the economics of the Westinghouse AP-600, which is the only medium-sized evolutionary PWR in the world today which has achieved regulatory approval. The paper presents an economic analysis of an AP-600 which shows that medium-sized systems can be economic in a competitive market and identifies the economic barriers that need to be overcome for their deployment to become a reality. The paper shows how sensitive the overall generating cost can be to the perceived financial risk, which helps to highlight where attention most needs to be focused. (author)

  17. Small- and Medium-Size Enterprise Financing in Eastern Europe

    Leora F. Klapper; Sarria-Allende, Virginia; Sulla, Victor


    There is currently a large interest in understanding firms' access to finance, particularly in the financing of small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). But the financing patterns of SMEs across countries is not well understood. For example, little is known about the relative importance of equity, debt, and inter-firm financing for SMEs across countries. The authors use the Amadeus datab...

  18. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim;


    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr...... robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results.......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be...... disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except that the...

  19. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber


    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their...

  20. Decay heat removal system in a medium size HTGR

    The present study investigates the operation of the decay heat removal system (DHR) during loss of flow (LOF) accident in which the primary flow is reduced to zero at full power operation of medium size high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (author)

  1. Supporting CANDU operators-CANDU owners group

    The CANDU Owners Group (COG) was formed in 1984 by the Canadian CANDU owning utilities and Atomic Energy of Canada limited (AECL). Participation was subsequently extended to all CANDU owners world-wide. The mandate of the COG organization is to provide a framework for co-operation, mutual assistance and exchange of information for the successful support, development, operation, maintenance and economics of CANDU nuclear electric generating stations. To meet these objectives COG established co-operative programs in two areas: 1. Station Support. 2. Research and Development. In addition, joint projects are administered by COG on a case by case basis where CANDU owners can benefit from sharing of costs

  2. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper


    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...... correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having...

  3. ERP system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Zach, Ondrey


    This thesis presents a study of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Compared to large enterprises, SMEs represent fundamentally different environments, with a number of characteristics typifying the SME context. Because of these distinguishing differences, the findings from studies of ERP implementation in large enterprises cannot be fully applied to SMEs. The purpose of this research project is to explore the i...

  4. Internal Control in Swedish Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Gebramicheal, Zelalem Berhanu; Habtegiorgis, Tsegahiwot Teketel


    Small and medium size enterprises are currently the major part of economic activities through out the world. Nowadays, they represent about 99% of all types of enterprises in Sweden, with providing high job opportunities to its labour force as these enterprises need focus in their development; the internal control mechanism is a means and a way of directing, monitoring and measuring the SMEs resources. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the physical an...

  5. Entrepreneurial Orientation vs. Innovativeness of Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Joanna Ejdys


    This study aims to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation (entrepreneurship orientation) in innovation level among Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). A questionnaire survey was conducted among 137 firms in the Podlaskie Region. Three hypotheses related to entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness level were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The relation between two constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, that is proactiveness and risk t...

  6. Medium Size Pharmaceutical Firms in Italy: Strategies, Performance and Prospects

    Spandonaro Federico


    In the pharmaceutical industry, large-scale research and innovation have been broadly recognized as the major drivers of performance. While this paradigm is still valid, owing to the need to increase firms dimension in order to cope with the high risks related with innovation processes, it would seem that is no longer the only feasible strategy. Empirical research point to a poor corporate performance after mergers and acquisitions. Even in Italy small and medium- size firms prove to be more ...

  7. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    Parviainen, Ville


    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  8. Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Lillbacka, Marjo


    Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their empl...

  9. Social responsible activities of small and medium sized enterprises

    Pavlína Dalíková; Darja Holátová


    The article deals with corporate social responsibility in specific area of small and medium sized enterprises. Corporate social responsibility as a way of global advocated sustainable development can be characterised as an integration of not only economical aspects but also social and environmental ones to the corporate decision making. The aim of the article is to analytically describe motivate factors related with engagement to the corporate social responsibility and especially to analyse t...

  10. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin


    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  11. Corporate philanthropy in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Skřičková, Eva


    The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the current situation of corporate philanthropy in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Theoretical background of the bachelor thesis is done by using relevant literature. The evaluation of the current situation is accomplished by creation of PESTEL analysis, quantitative and qualitative research and EFE matrix. Based on the results, several recommendations will be suggested in terms of corporate philanthropy.

  12. Evaluating Strategic Alliances in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Cem Canel; Stacy Mitchell


    The ability of firms to carry out operational strategies such as differentiation, cost leadership or focused strategies can depend on their ability to integrate technological advances relevant to their industry. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME), in particular, have many reasons to use strategic alliances as a way to counteract the market power and financial resources possessed by many large firms. This research intends to offer guidance to SMEs through the development of a hybrid mode...

  13. Sales Forecasting in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Haataja, Timo


    This thesis examined the use of sales forecasting in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), which provide software services and applications to their business customers. Sales forecasting is important, because it directs planning and decision making in the companies. However, SMEs may not have proper tools and resources assigned to sales forecasting. The theoretical framework of the thesis focused on two essential components; sales forecasting processes in SMEs and forecasting tool...

  14. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  15. A medium sized telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is a proposed next generation instrument to observe very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays at ground level. The array will consist of 3 sizes of telescope covering a wide photon energy range: small (4m diameter) telescopes sensitive to the highest energy photons, medium sized telescopes (12 m) operating in the mid energy range, and a small number of large telescopes (24 m) with high sensitivity to low energy photons. Current Cherenkov Telescope experiments consist of up to 5 telescopes; CTA will be made up of an order of magnitude more, which will greatly enhance the number of photons that can be detected as well as increasing the number of views of each cascade, bringing significantly improved angular resolution and background suppression. The observatory is currently in the planning and development phase. A prototype CTA medium sized telescope (MST) is being built in Adlershof (Berlin). This talk focuses on plans for CTA and the design and construction of the MST prototype, as well as its operation, instrumentation and early measurement results.

  16. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  17. Micadur: Compact insulation system for medium-sized turbo generators

    Aare, V.; Schuler, R. H.


    A high voltage, Class F, vacuum pressure impregnated insulation system for wound stator cores of the medium size turbogenerators is described. With this total impregnation technique the insulation process has been revolutionized. The excellent characteristics of this synthetic resin insulation system have made it possible to redesign the end winding support system for decisive improvement in reliability. This has been confirmed by operating experience in recent years. Test procedures were modified to suit the new insulation process and new repair procedures have been developed.

  18. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  19. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  20. Transient analysis in medium size HTGR power plant

    In this work we use then DSNP software, to study the reactivity transient in HTGR medium size power plant, initiated by a sudden rise in core reactivity followed by a scram action as a result of temperature growth. The decay heat in the core is removed from the primary loop in the steam generator. The simulation shows that during the transient the peak core gas temperature is 857 degrees C and the peak fuel temperature is 1026 degrees C, which indicate that the fuel coating integrity is not in danger. (authors) 7 refs, 12 figs

  1. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.


    Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was...

  2. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Zoran Paunović


    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  3. CANDU operating experience

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on the operating performance and costs, reliability of system components and nuclear safety considerations both to the workers and the public

  4. CANDU nuclear power system

    This report provides a summary of the components that make up a CANDU reactor. Major emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. The reasons for CANDU's performance and the inherent safety of the system are also discussed

  5. Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?

    Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

  6. Variability management challenges in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs

    Tuomas Ihme


    Full Text Available Variability has become important means to provide customer specific products fast to the market. This paper presents findings from a literature study and questionnaire designed to find out the current variability management practices, challenges and needs in small and medium sized companies (SMEs. The literature study was carried out first, and based on its findings questionnaire study was designed and carried out. Transparency of variability and design decisions between R and D and business and customer interfaces and transparency of variability and design decisions within R and D were the most important and challenging variability areas in the studied organisations. The most frequently used architecture design issue was the use of known architectural styles and patterns to handle variability. The findings of the most challenging and important variability management topics, as well as the important improvement goals can be used to direct future research, and efforts to support companies in variability management.

  7. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    Charles DeVoe


    Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

  8. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  9. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 7600C (14000F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

  10. Entrepreneurial Orientation vs. Innovativeness of Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Joanna Ejdys


    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation (entrepreneurship orientation in innovation level among Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 137 firms in the Podlaskie Region. Three hypotheses related to entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness level were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The relation between two constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, that is proactiveness and risk taking were analyzed. The research results show that proactiveness has a significant positive total effect on improving innovativeness. The findings suggest, in contrast to the strategic orientation literature, that risk taking deters enterprises from organizational innovation. The results confirmed the significantly higher impact of the risk taking as an intermediate variable on the innovation through the mediator of proactivity. This work examines the relations between entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, thus contributes to the strategic orientation literature.

  11. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  12. Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor

    Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size (SRTm) was applied for lung tumor, we investigated to effectiveness and CT image change by treatment. Thirteen patients with lung tumor were treated with SRTm between September, 2003 and June, 2004. Nine cases were consisted as primary lung cancer, and 4 as metastatic lung cancers. Total 13 lesions were treated in 13 cases. Tumor diameter ranged from 1 cm to 4 cm, and the median was 2 cm. Body Fix was applied for patient's immobilization. The treatment planning was performed with CT simulator, X-ray simulator, and ECLIPSE. Fraction dose was escalated from 4 Gy to 7 Gy, of which contents were as follows 4 Gy/f x 10 f (one) 4 Gy/fx 12 f (one), 4 Gy/fx 15 f (one), 5 Gy/fx 10 f (3) 5 Gy/f x 12 f (3), 6 Gy x 10 f (3), and 7 Gy/f x 10 f (one). Total dose by LQ model were estimated as 56-119 in BEDacute (α/β=10), and 120-315 in BEDlate (α/β=3). V20 ranged from 2.52-10.24% (average 5.84). In the initial response, 8 lesions were achieved as CR, 2 as PR and 3 as SD. Among 13 lesions, no lesion had re-growth. Radiation-induced pulmonary complications greater than National Cancer Institute (NCI)-CTC criteria Grade 2 was noted one only. In change of CT image, slight increase in opacity was noted 3 cases within 3 month after treatment. Pachy consolidation was noted 10 cases between 3 month and 12 month after treatment. Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor was considered as effective and safety. (author)

  13. BTX measurements in a medium-sized European city

    Pilidis, Georgios A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.

    The BTX levels are significantly high compared to the EU directive for benzene in European cities with population around or higher one million. Since there are hundreds of towns in Europe with smaller population, it is important to know the levels of aromatics in these areas. This work presents the results of a benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) measurement campaign that took place in Ioannina, a medium-sized Greek city. As a result of traffic situation and the local meteorological conditions, pollution levels in Ioannina are unusually high, at least for a city of that size. BTX levels were measured using passive samplers placed at several points around the city, as well as across a selected street canyon using both passive and active samplers, combined with simultaneous measurements of traffic flow and wind speed. The measurement procedure was repeated in an exact manner for all four seasons and the results suggest that benzene levels, at all sampling points, exceed the limit set by EU Directive 2000/69. Benzene levels appear correlated to traffic density, while benzene/toluene/xylene ratios present a seasonal variation linked to meteorological conditions.

  14. Design, Testing, and Realisation of a Medium Size Aerostat Envelope

    A. Kumar


    Full Text Available The design, testing and realisation aspects during the development of a medium size aerostat envelope in the present work. The payload capacity of this aerostat is 300 kg at 1 km above mean sea level. The aerostat envelope is the aerodynamically shaped fabric enclosure part of the aerostat which generally uses helium for lifting useful payloads to a specified height. The envelope volume estimation technique is discussed which provides the basis for sizing. The design, material selection, testing and realisation aspects of this aerostat envelope are also discussed. The empirical formulas and finite element analysis are used to estimate the aerodynamic, structural and other design related parameters of the aerostat. Equilibrium studies are then explained for balancing forces and moments in static conditions. The tether profile estimation technique is discussed to estimate blow by distance and tether length. A comparison of estimated and measured performance parameters during trials has also been discussed.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp.93-99, DOI:

  15. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit

  16. CANDU 9 - Overview

    The CANDU 9 plants are single unit versions of the very successful four unit Bruce B design, incorporating relevant technical advances made in the CANDU 6 and the newer Dalington and CANDU 3 designs. The CANDU 9 plant described in this paper is the CANDU 9 480/SEU with a net electrical output in the range of 1050 MW. In this designation 480 refers to the number of fuel channels, and SEU refers to slightly enriched uranium. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary design and the use of well-proven design features to ensure minimum financial risk to utilities choosing a CANDU 9 plant by assuring regulatory licensability and reliable operation. In addition, the CANDU 9 power plants reflect the important lessons learned by utilities in the construction and operation of CANDU units and, indeed, relevant experience gained by the world nuclear community in its operation of over 400 reactors of a variety of types. As a results, the CANDU 9 plants offer a high level of investment security to the owner, together with relatively low energy costs. The latter results from reduced specific capital cost, reduced operation and maintenance cost, and reduced radiation exposure to plant staff. A high level of standardization has always been a feature of CANDU reactors. This theme is emphasized in the CANDU 9 plants; all key components (steam generators, heat transport pumps, pressure tubes, fuelling machines, etc.) are of the same design as those proven in-service on operating CANDU power stations. The CANDU 9 power plants are readily adaptable to the individual requirements of different utilities and are suitable for a range of site conditions. (author). 12 figs

  17. Phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT) contribution to detection and sizing of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of service water systems and shutdown coolers heat exchangers in OPG CANDU stations

    Three PAUT techniques [linear scan - longitudinal waves, sector scan -longitudinal waves and sector scan-transverse waves] were developed and validated to assess the MIC attack in service water systems (SWS) and shutdown coolers heat-exchangers (SDC-HX) of Darlington and Pickering CANDU stations. PAUT employs linear array probes with a frequency between 4-12 MHz, depending on surface conditions, component geometry and MIC size/category to be detected. Examples from lab validation and field trials are presented. Based on field trials results, the techniques were optimized and new cal blocks were manufactured. It was demonstrated for mid-length pipes and for SDC-HX, the PAUT is the best technique compared with D-meter conventional UT and with guided waves. The expected field accuracy is about 0.5 mm (0.020) for large MIC attack. The ligament evaluation is technically achievable for colonies / pin holes located 2 mm under the outer surface. Improvements were identified and implemented for the next outages. (author)

  18. Phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT) contribution to detection and sizing of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of service water systems and shutdown coolers heat exchangers in OPG CANDU stations

    Ciorau, P.; Pullia, L.; Hazelton, T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Daks, W. [CAD WIRE, Markham, Ontario (Canada)


    Three PAUT techniques [linear scan - longitudinal waves, sector scan -longitudinal waves and sector scan-transverse waves] were developed and validated to assess the MIC attack in service water systems (SWS) and shutdown coolers heat-exchangers (SDC-HX) of Darlington and Pickering CANDU stations. PAUT employs linear array probes with a frequency between 4-12 MHz, depending on surface conditions, component geometry and MIC size/category to be detected. Examples from lab validation and field trials are presented. Based on field trials results, the techniques were optimized and new cal blocks were manufactured. It was demonstrated for mid-length pipes and for SDC-HX, the PAUT is the best technique compared with D-meter conventional UT and with guided waves. The expected field accuracy is about 0.5 mm (0.020{sup )} for large MIC attack. The ligament evaluation is technically achievable for colonies / pin holes located 2 mm under the outer surface. Improvements were identified and implemented for the next outages. (author)

  19. Economics of CANDU-PHW

    The CANDU-Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper discusses the cost of producing electricity from CANDU, presents actual cost experience of CANDU and coal in Ontario, presents projected CANDU and coal costs in Ontario and compares CANDU and Light Water Reactor cost estimates in Ontario

  20. CANDU-3: Features of next generation CANDU

    CANDU 3, with a net electrical output of 450 MW, is the latest and smallest version of the CANDU power system. Significant innovation built on proven CANDU reactor technology is the basis of the CANDU 3 design. This, coupled with the commitment to reduce plant cost, increase performance capacity factor, enhance safety features and incorporate technological improvements, makes CANDU 3 an advanced, world class product. This paper describes the following CANDU 3 features: A station layout to provide a flexible construction sequence, good system separation and ease of maintenance and operation. An up-front engineering and licensing process prior to beginning construction. Enhancement and simplification of safety features with extended time scales for response, thus limiting reliance on operator action for accident mitigation. Enhanced design capabilities through the use of the latest Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) technology. A 38 month construction schedule achieved by using modularization and open-top construction and installation techniques. A more passive containment system incorporating a steel liner and eliminating the need for active spray. A grouping and separation philosophy for maximum protection of redundant safety systems. Ease of equipment qualification and maximum protection of critical components. Replacement of centralized control and monitoring computers with a redundant distributed control system and modern plant display system. A consistent, logical approach to control room design founded on human factors, automation and event management. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  1. CANDU 9 safety improvements

    The CANDU 9 is a family of single-unit Nuclear Power Plant designs based on proven CANDU concepts and equipment from operating CANDU plants capable of generating 900 MWe to 1300 MWe depending on the number of fuel channel used and the type of fuel, either natural uranium fuel or slightly enriched uranium fuel. The basic design, the CANDU 9 480/NU, uses the 480 fuel channel Darlington reactor and employs Natural Uranium (NU) fuel Darlington, the latest of the 900 MWe Class CANDU plants, consists of four integrated units with a total output of approximately 3740 MWe located in Ontario, Canada. AECL has completed the concept definition engineering for this design, and will be completing the design integration engineering by the end of 1996. AECL's design philosophy is to build-in product improvements in evolutionary from the initial prototype plants, NPD and Douglas Point, to today's operating CANDU's construction projects and advanced designs. CANDU 9 safety design follows the evolutionary path, including simple improvements based on existing well-proven CANDU safety concepts. The CANDU 9 builds on the experience base for the Darlington reference plant, and on AECL's extensive safety design experience with single unit CANDU 6 power plants. The latest CANDU 6 plants are being built in Korea by KEPCO at Wolsong 2,3 and 4. The Safety improvements for the CANDU 9 power plant are intended to provide the owner-operator with increased assurance of reliable, trouble-free operation, with greater safety margin, with improved public acceptance, and with ease of licensibility

  2. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak program

    Martin, Piero; Beurskens, Marc; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Meyer, Hendrik; the EUROfusion MST1 Team


    As a result of the new organization of the European fusion programme, now under the umbrella of the EUROfusion Consortium, the MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of executing the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2014 campaign-where only ASDEX upgrade was operating-and the preliminary achievements of the recently started 2015/16 campaign, where also TCV will contribute. The main subjects of the experimental campaigns are (i) the development of scenarios relevant for the ITER Q=10 goal, in an all metal wall device (ii) the understanding of ELM mitigation/suppression with pellets and resonant magnetic perturbations, and in particular the effect of density versus collisionality, (iii) the understanding and optimization of methods for disruption mitigation or avoidance and runaway electrons control and (iv) the exploration of ITER and DEMO relevant scenarios with high normalized separatrix power flux, Psep / R , (Psep is the power through the separatrix, R the major radius) and tolerable target heat loads. The overview of the future programs in MST will be given.

  3. An analytic study on LBLOCA for CANDU type reactor using MARS-KS/CANDU

    This study provides the simulation results using MARS-KS/CANDU code for the Large Break LOCA of CANDU type reactor. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the capability of MARS-KS/CANDU for simulating the actual plants (Wolsong 2/3/4). The steady state and the transient analysis results were provided. After the sensitivity study depend on break size, the case that 35% of the inlet header known as the accident that has the most limiting effect on the temperature of the fuel sheath was calculated. In order to evaluate the results, the results were compared with those of CATHENA simulation. (author)

  4. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  5. Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.


    The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50μ in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono

  6. CANDU fuel performance

    The paper presents a review of CANDU fuel performance including a 28-element bundle for Pickering reactors, a 37-element bundle for the Bruce and Darlington reactors, and a 37-element bundle for the CANDU-6 reactors. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of fuel defect formation and propagation and definition of fuel element operating thresholds for normal operation and accident conditions. (author)

  7. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    Annamaria Esposito


    The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

  8. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Valentinas Navickas


    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  9. Small and Medium-Sized City: The Main Battle Field of the New Urbanization Construction


    Small and medium-sized cities have played important roles in China¡¯s new urbanization strategies. Small and medium-sized cities can not only help large cities avert over-concentration of population, but also avoid excessively decentralizing rural industrialization in small towns. To develop small and medium-sized cities, characteristic industries and vocational education are required so that people can get employed in the cities and become residents easily. City infrastructure and public ser...

  10. Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  11. How the business strategies of small and medium sized enterprises are affected based on their size and business focus

    Pavlína Dalíková; Marie Duspivová


    The Current global environment requires that enterprises should have a clearly determined vision and direction, which they want to head for. This paper deals with the process management of small and medium sized enterprises according to the number of employees and business focus. The aim is to analytically describe the business strategies of surveyed small and medium sized enterprises and their differences based on company size and business focus. Furthermore, to statistically analyse and com...

  12. Next generation CANDU plants

    Future CANDU designs will continue to meet the emerging design and performance requirements expected by the operating utilities. The next generation CANDU products will integrate new technologies into both the product features as well as into the engineering and construction work processes associated with delivering the products. The timely incorporation of advanced design features is the approach adopted for the development of the next generation of CANDU. AECL's current products consist of 700MW Class CANDU 6 and 900 MW Class CANDU 9. Evolutionary improvements are continuing with our CANDU products to enhance their adaptability to meet customers ever increasing need for higher output. Our key product drivers are for improved safety, environmental protection and improved cost effectiveness. Towards these goals we have made excellent progress in Research and Development and our investments are continuing in areas such as fuel channels and passive safety. Our long term focus is utilizing the fuel cycle flexibility of CANDU reactors as part of the long term energy mix

  13. CANDU 9 design

    AECL has made significant design improvements in the latest CANDU nuclear power plant (NPP) - the CANDU 9. The CANDU 9 operates with the energy efficient heavy water moderated reactor and natural uranium fuel and utilizes proven technology. The CANDU 9 NPP design is similar to the world leading CANDU 6 but is based upon the single unit adaptation of the 900 MWe class reactors currently operating in Canada as in integrated four-unit configurations. The evolution of the CANDU family of heavy water reactors (HAIR) is based on a continuous product improvement approach. Proven equipment and systems from operating stations are standardized and used in new products. As a result of the flexibility of the technology, evolution of the current design will ensure that any new requirements can be met, and there is no need to change the basic concept. This paper will provide an overview for some of the key features of the CANDU 9 NPP such as nuclear systems and equipment, advanced control and computer systems, safety design and protection features, and plant layout. The safety enhancements and operability improvements implemented in this design are described and some of the advantages that can be expected by the operating utility are highlighted. (author)

  14. The comparative analysis of safety and economic competitiveness of the advanced medium sized reactor projects of NPP

    In spite of the fact that medium sized reactors are less economic favourable in comparison to large sized reactors, they have a greater safety, low capital investments, shorter terms of construction, relative constructive simplicity, are well combined with rather small electrical distributive systems. For power of Kazakhstan these circumstances are important. The comparative analysis results of the safety and economic competitiveness of the seven advanced medium sized reactors projects (100-700 MW) are submitted in that report: WWER-640 (V-407), Atomenergoproject/Gidropress Russian Federation; Candu 6, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd; AC-600, China National Nuclear Corporation, China; AP600, Westinghouse, USA; HSBWR, Hitachi, Japan; MS-600, Mitsubishi, Japan; SBWR, General Electric, USA. According to the economic competitiveness of listed compared power reactors the 14 criteria of safety have been accepted. These criteria: 1. Features of the barrier system of 'defence-in-depth'. 2. The self-security of a reactor under increase of power and reactivity of a reactor, decrease of the expense and phase transformations of the reactor core coolant (presence of negative feedbacks). 3. Presence of the reactor shutdown systems responding principles of a variety, independence and reservation. Presence of the passive means of initiation and operation of the emergency protection. 4. The emergency cooling of the core of reactor. A presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the water reservation for the water supply of the different safety systems. 5. The emergency electrical supply, its reliability and degree of reservation. 6. The prevention measures of the heavy accident with the melt core. The decrease of the heavy accident probability. 7. The account of the heavy accident under development of the levels of protection. 8. The protection levels of NPP, the technological criteria of efficiency of the each safety barriers and the limiting radiation criteria for the each

  15. CANDU nuclear reactor technology

    AECL has over 40 years of experience in the nuclear field. Over the past 20 years, this unique Canadian nuclear technology has made a worldwide presence, In addition to 22 CANDU reactors in Canada, there are also two in India, one in Pakistan, one in Argentina, four in Korea and five in Romania. CANDU advancements are based on evolutionary plant improvements. They consist of system performance improvements, design technology improvements and research and development in support of advanced nuclear power. Given the good performance of CANOU plants, it is important that this CANDU operating experience be incorporated into new and repeat designs

  16. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    Charles DeVoe; SYED (SHAWON)M. RAHMAN


    Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response T...

  17. Organizational Culture Assessment of Small & Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Arshad Zaheer; Kashif ur Rehman; Abrar Ahmad


    This paper is an ethnographic study defining and assessing the organizational culture exhibited by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). It primarily focuses on four cultural categories: clan, adhocracy, hierarchy and market-driven. These conceptual domains have been examined by the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. Results from a sample of 162 SMEs in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area indicate that SME culture lacks creativity, innovation, freedom and risk taking. SMEs are not looking...

  18. Online Marketing in Small and Medium sized companies

    Mehra, Vikram


    Online marketing plays a significant role in business and the World Wide Web has proven to become a platform for success for many enterprises and industries. The advantages that comes with the use of the internet platform for the marketing goods and services makes it imperative for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to adopt, in order to stay competitive in the fast changing global market. The main objective of this study is to explore the dynamics of the Internet in connection with (SMEs). ...

  19. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    Yan, Liu


    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  20. Predictors of organisational performance in small and medium-sized professional service firms

    Glunk, Ursula; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.


    The paper sets out our theoretical and empirical approach to delineating predictors of stakeholder performance in medium-sized computer service firms. It combines a resource-based approach with recent insights from the literature on small and medium-sized firms, professional service, and computer-se

  1. CANDU fuel cycle flexibility

    High neutron economy, on-power refuelling, and a simple bundle design provide a high degree of flexibility that enables CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium; registered trademark) reactors to be fuelled with a wide variety of fuel types. Near-term applications include the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), and recovered uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Plutonium and other actinides arising from various sources, including spent LWR fuel, can be accommodated, and weapons-origin plutonium could be destroyed by burning in CANDU. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources. (author). 21 refs

  2. CANDU operating experience

    The CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station was developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper summarizes Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on the operating performance and costs, reliability of system components, and nuclear safety considerations to both the workers and the public

  3. Marketing CANDU internationally

    The market for CANDU reactor sales, both international and domestic, is reviewed. It is reasonable to expect that between five and ten reactors can be sold outside Canada before the end of the centry, and new domestic orders should be forthcoming as well. AECL International has been created to market CANDU, and is working together with the Canadian nuclear industry to promote the reactor and to assemble an attractive package that can be offered abroad. (L.L.)

  4. The CANDU contribution to environmentally friendly energy production

    National prosperity is based on the availability of affordable, energy supply. However, this need is tempered by a complementary desire that the energy production and utilization will not have a major impact on the environment. The CANDU energy system, including a next generation of CANDU designs, is a major primary energy supply option that can be an important part of an energy mix to meet Canadian needs. CANDU nuclear power plants produce energy in the form of medium pressure steam. The advanced version of the CANDU design can be delivered in unit modules ranging from 400 to 1200 MWe. This Next Generation of CANDU designs features lower cost, coupled with robust safety margins. Normally this steam is used to drive a turbine and produce electricity. However, a fraction of this steam (large or small) may alternatively be used as process steam for industrial consumption. Options for such steam utilization include seawater desalination, oil sands extraction and heating. The electricity may be delivered to an electrical grid or alternatively used to produce quantities of hydrogen. Hydrogen is an ideal clean transportation fuel because its use only produces water. Thus, a combination of CANDU generated electricity and hydrogen distribution for vehicles is an available, cost-effective route to dramatically reduce emissions from the transportation sector. The CANDU energy system contributes to environmental protection and the prevention of climate change because of its very low emission. The CANDU energy system does not produce any NOx, SOx or greenhouse gas (notably CO2) emissions during operation. In addition, the CANDU system operates on a fully closed cycle with all wastes and emissions fully monitored, controlled and managed throughout the entire life cycle of the plant. The CANDU energy system is an environmentally friendly and flexible energy source. It can be an effective component of a total energy supply package, consistent with Canadian and global climate

  5. Enhanced CANDU 6 Reactor

    Full text: The CANDU 6 power reactor is visionary in its approach, remarkable for its on-power refuelling capability and proven over years of safe, economical and reliable power production. Developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, the CANDU 6 design offers excellent performance utilizing state-of-the-art technology. The first CANDU 6 plants went into service in the early 1980's as leading edge technology and the design has been continuously advanced to maintain superior performance with an outstanding safety record. The first CANDU 6 plants- Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau in Canada, Embalse in Argentina and Wolsong- Unit 1 in Korea have been in service for more than 21 years and are still producing electricity at peak performance and to the end of 2004, their average lifetime Capacity Factor was 83.2%. The newer CANDU 6 units in Romania (Cernavoda 1), Korea (Wolsong-Units 2, 3 and 4) and Qinshan (Phase III- Units 1 and 2) have also been performing at outstanding levels. The average lifetime Capacity Factor of the 10 CANDU 6 operating units around the world has been 87% to the end of 2004. Building on these successes, AECL is committed to the further development of this highly successful design, now focussing on meeting customer's needs for reduced costs, further improvements to plant operation and performance, enhanced safety and incorporating up-to-date technology as warranted. This has resulted in AECL embarking on improving the CANDU 6 design through an upgraded product termed as the 'Enhanced CANDU 6' (EC6)- which incorporates several attractive but proven features that will make the CANDU 6 reactor even more economical, safer and easier to operate. Some of the key features that will be incorporated in the EC6 include increasing the plant's power output, shortening the overall project schedule, decreasing the capital cost, dealing with obsolescence issues, optimizing maintenance outages and incorporating lessons learnt through feedback obtained from the

  6. Layout design studies for medium-sized telescopes within the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Hassan, T; Nieto, D; Wood, M


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. In this study we explore how the medium-sized telescopes layout design and composition impacts the overall CTA performance by analyzing Monte Carlo simulations including Davies-Cotton and Schwarzschild-Couder medium-sized telescopes.

  7. Ontario Hydro CANDU operating experience

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on the operating performance and costs, reliability of system components and nuclear safety considerations for the workers and the public

  8. Ontario Hydro CANDU operating experience

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on worker and public safety, operating performance and costs, and reliability of system components


    Kotane, Inta


    The total number of small and medium-sized enterprises signifies an essential share of the national economy; SMEs’ importance is evaluated by the value added and the new jobs created. Despite the growing research interest in the small and medium business performance measurement, there is no consistent opinion among researchers regarding small and medium business performance indicators, their measurement, and methods of assessment. The research study is based on an analysis of literature and s...

  10. Trends in CANDU licensing

    Modern utilities view nuclear power more and more as a commodity - it must compete 'today' with current alternatives to attract their investment. With its long construction times and large capital investment, nuclear plants are vulnerable to delays once they have been committed. There are two related issues. Where the purchaser and the regulator are experienced in CANDU, the thrust is a very practical one: to identify and resolve major licensing risks at a very early stage in the project. Thus for a Canadian project, the designer (AECL) and the prospective purchaser would deal directly with the AECB. However CANDU has also been successfully licensed in other countries, including Korea, Romania, Argentina, India and Pakistan. Each of these countries has its own regulatory agency responsible for licensing the plant. In addition, however, the foreign customer and regulator may seek input from the AECB, up to and including a statement of licensability in Canada; this is not normally needed for a ''repeat'' plant and/or if the customer is experienced in CANDU, but can be requested if the plant configuration has been modified significantly from an already-operating CANDU. It is thus the responsibility of the designer to initiate early discussions with the AECB so the foreign CANDU meets the expectations of its customers

  11. [Migration toward medium-sized cities. Profound regional transformations].

    Corona, R; Tuiran, R


    Significant changes have occurred over the past two decades in the volume, intensity, direction, and modalities of internal migration in Mexico. Interstate migration, for example, has increased greatly. The number of persons living in a state different from that of their birth grew from 7.5 million in 1970 to 15.4 million in 1990, equivalent to 14.5% and 18.1% of the population, respectively. The growing volume and intensity of interstate migration have been accompanied by a declining rate of migration to Mexico City and to a lesser extent Guadalajara and Monterrey. Cities of intermediate size, defined as 100,000 to one million inhabitants, have multiplied since 1970 and a few have achieved great economic and demographic dynamism. In 1970, 16.6% of the population or 33.6% of the urban population lived in 37 intermediate cities, while by 1990 nearly 23.7% of the population and 39.0% of the urban population lived in 56 intermediate sized cities. Census and survey data confirm the power of attraction of a group of intermediate cities, but also reveal a complex array of situations. 24 of the 56 intermediate cities had populations of 100,000-250,000, and 21 had populations of 250,000-500,000. Most intermediate cities are located in the Northwest, Center-North, or Gulf regions. Some states have a number of intermediate cities and some have only one that concentrates most of the urban population. 26 of the 56 had growth rates over the two decades of over 4% annually and 20 had rates varying from 3% to 4%. 1990 census data show that 35% or more of the population were in-migrants in five cities: Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensenada in the Northwest, Cuernavaca in the Center-North, and Cancun in the Yucatan peninsula. Between 20% and 34% of the population were in-migrants in 14 intermediate cities. Cancun and Tijuana had the highest proportions of recent migrants. The volume of net migration of most states generally reflected that of their intermediate cities. The economic crisis

  12. Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic

    Popović Blaženka


    Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

  13. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises


    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators(infrastructure,transaction process,operation management,and transaction safety),which are divided into 11 second-level indicators(hardware equipment,computer network,e-procurement,logistics distribution,supply chain management,customer relationship management,and payment security).We use analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to determine the weight of indicator at all levels,and establish fuzzy comprehensive evaluation mathematical model of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.Finally,through examples,we verify the rationality and reliability of evaluation method of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises combining analytic hierarchy process(AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

  14. The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing

    Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Roșca


    In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...


    Lyudmila Bogachkova; Andrey Usachev


    The article deals with the current state of small and medium-sized business (SMB) in the Russian Federation. The authors carry out the analysis of the main problems and factors which impede the development of SMB, describe the system of state regulation of small and medium-sized enterprises in Russia. The solutions to the problems are based on the improvement of the mechanisms of resource provision and financial support to entrepreneurs, the reduction of their tax burden and facilitation of t...


    Tang Hongtao; Tang Renzhong


    Based on the analysis of the common limitations of business process management (BPM) methodologies and the requirements of small and medium sized-enterprises (SMEs), the importance of a "performance construct" of BPM methodologies is identified, a six-phase performance-driven BPM methodology for the production and operation processes of Chinese SMEs is developed. A case study on the process management of a medium-sized enterprise shows a successful example of running the methodology.

  17. Using Information Systems to Enable Managerial Accounting at Small and Medium Sized Manufacturing Firms in Germany

    Lohr, Matthias


    Small and medium sized companies can utillise information systems (IS) to overcome restrictions imposed by their often limited resources. This dissertation investigates which factors contribute to an IS’s success in enabling managerial accounting at small and medium sized manufacturing firms in Germany. An adaptation of the IS Success Model is used as the research model for a quantitative empirical survey among 5,831 companies. Structural equation modelling confirms the model and reveals ...

  18. The Evolution Of Financial Standards For Small And Medium- Sized Entities "

    Gordana IVANKOVIČ; Jerman, Mateja


    According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs) can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and th...

  19. European Private Company : A solution for minority shareholders within small- and medium sized enterprises in Sweden?

    Aziz, Diden


    The Swedish companies act of 2005 regulates public and private limited companies. With these two classification shortages of rights prosper to different kinds of company structures that exist in today’s business environment. The Swedish companies act focuses on larger companies and therefore smaller companies are often neglected. Specific problems that may occur in a small- and medium sized enterprise are not solved. The problems that occur in small- and medium sized companies have rather a r...

  20. The business environment and phases of development of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Wach, Krzysztof


    The subject literature distinguishes several factors that determine the establishment, survival , operations and development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in particular regions. In this article, the author presents a classification of these factors in terms of whether they are barriers or stimulators. On this basis, the author explains the influence of regional environment (meso-environment) factors on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in various phases of ...

  1. The current situation of human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Radim Dušek


    This paper deals with the process of human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises of the South Bohemian region. The most valuable asset holdings of these enterprises are undoubtedly human resources, whose development is increasingly considered as the key competitive advantage that ensures long-term survival of business in the new global environment. The aim of this research is to find out the actual status of human resource management in the analyzed small and medium-sized ...

  2. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    Mesu, J.K.


    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends from large to small and medium-sized companies. Secondly, by studying potential mediating and moderating effects to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which transformational and tr...

  3. Auditor Independence: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Knowledge of Auditor Independence Regulations

    Petersson, Camilla; Dagman, Andréa


    The large accounting scandals in the early 21st century had large impact on the future discussion regarding the importance of auditor independence. This led to stricter auditor independence rules in Sweden as well as internationally. Small and medium-sized enterprises frequently hire their auditor for consulting services. A long and close audit-client relationship is common for small and medium sized enterprises. This is considered to be a threat towards the auditor independence. The purpose ...

  4. Fuel for advanced CANDU reactors

    The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. In 1985 for example, four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. This excellent operating record requires an equivalent performance record of the low-cost, natural uranium fuel. Future CANDU reactors will be an evolution of the present design. Engineering work is under way to refine the existing CANDU 600 and to incorporate state-of-the-art technology, reducing the capital cost and construction schedule. In addition, a smaller CANDU 300 plant has been designed using proven CANDU 600 technology and components but with an innovative new plant layout that makes it cost competitive with coal fired plants. For the long term, work on advanced fuel cycles and major system improvements is underway ensuring that CANDU plants will stay competitive well into the next century

  5. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  6. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  7. Advanced CANDU control centre

    The CANDU 9 design is based upon the 900 MWe class Darlington station in Canada, which is among the world leading nuclear power stations for capacity factor with low operation, maintenance and administration costs. The CANDU 9 design provides an advanced control centre with enhanced operations features. The advanced AECL control centre design includes the proven functionality of existing CANDU control centres, those implementable characteristics identified by systematic design combined with a human factors analysis of operations requirements and features needed to improve station operability which are made possible by the application of current technology. The design strategy is to preserve the general main control room operations staff work area as unchanged as possible to facilitate the inclusion of past features and operational experience while incorporating operability improvements. The author will present those features of the advanced CANDU control centre which facilitates improved operability capabilities. As well, aspects of the design process utilized, application of simulation technology and conclusions regarding this design approach will be reviewed

  8. CANDU, building the future

    The CEO of Stern Laboratories delivered a speech on the problems and challenges facing the nuclear industry. The CANDU system is looked at as the practical choice for the future of our energy source. The people of the industry must be utilized and respected to deliver to the best of their ability

  9. CANDU market prospects

    This 1994 survey of prospective markets for CANDU reactors discusses prospects in Turkey, Thailand, the Philippines, Korea, Indonesia, China and Egypt, and other opportunities, such as in fuel cycles and nuclear safety. It was concluded that foreign partners would be needed to help with financing

  10. CANDU, building the future

    Stern, F. [Stern Laboratories (Canada)


    The CEO of Stern Laboratories delivered a speech on the problems and challenges facing the nuclear industry. The CANDU system is looked at as the practical choice for the future of our energy source. The people of the industry must be utilized and respected to deliver to the best of their ability.

  11. Replacement of CANDU reactivity Control Devices

    Ontario Hydro operates 20 AECL designed CANDU nuclear power reactors, some of which have been in service for 20 years. These pressurized heavy water, natural uranium fuelled reactors, ranging in size from 540 to 900 MWe, have continuously provided high capacity factors and low total electricity production costs, among the world's leaders in performance. CANDU's inherently have large cores and utilize a large number of diverse types of Reactivity Control Devices (RCDs) for fully automatic, continuous measurement and regulation of bulk power level as well as spatial uniformity of fission power in the core. The devices also control start-up and power manoeuvering. Other RCDs provide two independent systems of measurement and neutron absorber insertion for fast reactor shutdown. The continuous proper operation of RCDs obviously has significant influence on plant performance and availability, yet Ontario Hydro (OH) experience is that no significant loss of capacity factor has been attributed to the RCDs. This paper focuses on these Ontario Hydro replacement practices as they apply to RCD equipment in CANDU plants. The particular practices described relate to some extent to the unique aspects of CANDU plants, but the concepts of thorough planning, operational quality and teamwork are universally valid. Practicing safe, efficient component replacements contributes to reliable, cost effective plant operation. (author)

  12. CANDU passive shutdown systems

    CANDU incorporates two diverse, passive shutdown systems (Shutdown System No. 1 and Shutdown System No. 2) which are independent of each other and from the reactor regulating system. Both shutdown systems function in the low pressure, low temperature, moderator which surrounds the fuel channels; the shutdown systems do not penetrate the heat transport system pressure boundary. The shutdown systems are functionally different, physically separate, and passive since the driving force for SDS1 is gravity and the driving force for SDS2 is stored energy. The physics of the reactor core itself ensures a degree of passive safety in that the relatively long prompt neutron generation time inherent in the design of CANDU reactors tend to retard power excursions and reduces the speed required for shutdown action, even for large postulated reactivity increases. All passive systems include a number of active components or initiators. Hence, an important aspect of passive systems is the inclusion of fail safe (activated by active component failure) operation. The mechanisms that achieve the fail safe action should be passive. Consequently the passive performance of the CANDU shutdown systems extends beyond their basic modes of operation to include fail safe operation based on natural phenomenon or stored energy. For example, loss of power to the SDS1 clutches results in the drop of the shutdown rods by gravity, loss of power or instrument air to the injection valves of SDS2 results in valve opening via spring action, and rigorous self checking of logic, data and timing by the shutdown systems computers assures a fail safe reactor trip through the collapse of a fluctuating magnetic field or the discharge of a capacitor. Event statistics from operating CANDU stations indicate a significant decrease in protection system faults that could lead to loss of production and elimination of protection system faults that could lead to loss of protection. This paper provides a comprehensive

  13. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    Pei, Yi-lei; Xue, Wan-xin; Yang, Chun-Yu; Su, Yong


    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sired agricultural enterprises. This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators (infrastructure, transaction process, operation management, and transaction safety), which are divided into 11 second-level indicators (hardware equipment, computer network, e-procurement, logistics dis...

  14. Accounting standards for small and medium-sized entities. Evidence from Spain

    Patricia Milanés Montero; Irene Albarrán Lozano; Joaquín Texeira Quirós; Esteban Pérez Calderón


    By approving Regulation 1606/2002, the European Commission entrusts the local European Union regulators with the difficult decision as to whether making the International Accounting Standards (IAS/IFRS) extensive for their Small and Medium sized Entities or not. International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sizzed Entities (hereinafter IFRS for SMEs) was published in 2009, and the European Commission had also decided to seek the opinion of EU stakeholders on this Standard. W...

  15. Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania


    Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs) from the manufa...

  16. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahnić


    Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

  17. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A


    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

  18. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  19. CANDU development: the next 25 years

    CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors have three main characteristics that ensure viability for the very long term. First, great care has been taken in designing the CANDU reactor core so that relatively few neutrons produced in the fission process are absorbed by structural or moderator materials. The result is a reactor with high neutron economy that can burn natural uranium and a core that operates with 2-3 times less fissile content than other, similarly-sized reactors. In addition to neutron economy, the use of a simple bundle design and on-power fuelling augment the ability of CANDU reactors to burn a variety of fuels with relatively low fissile content with high efficiency. This ensures that fuel supply will not limit the applicability of the technology over the long term. Second, the presence of large water reservoirs ensures that even the severest postulated accidents are mitigated by passive means. For example, the presence of the heavy water moderator, which operates at low pressure and temperature, acts as a passive heat sink for many postulated accidents. Third, the modular nature of the core (e.g., fuel channels) means that components can be relatively easily replaced for plant life extension and upgrading. Since these factors all influence the long-term sustainability of CANDU nuclear technology, it is logical to build on this base and to add improvements to CANDU reactors using an evolutionary approach. This paper reviews AECL's product development directions and shows how the above characteristics are being exploited to improve economics, enhance safety, and ensure fuel cycle flexibility for sustainable development. (author). 21 refs., 9 figs

  20. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

  1. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi


    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and...... participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian...

  2. Technological Development And Internationalization Among Small And Medium-Sized Engineering Firms In The United States

    Tesar, G; Velu, R


    Taking place among large U.S. processing and/or manufacturing firms and relates those changes to technological development of small and medium-sized engineering firms that service the large firms. Based on a series of interviews with the large firms and the engineering firms, the paper concludes that if the small and medium-sized engineering firms are to compete successfully with large foreign engineering firms that have replaced them in their own traditional markets, they will have to up-gra...

  3. Advancing the technologies of CANDU

    CANDU standard product design will continue to evolve, building upon the success of current operating units. Progressive improvements and enhancements will continue to be made to the CANDU system with heavy water moderated, pressure tube reactor technology of high neutron efficiency, based on the results of advanced technology R and D and operational experience from operating CANDU stations. The directions of development will respond to customer's requirements for economical, reliable and safe generating stations

  4. Bank Lending to Small and Medium Sized Business: Evidence from Russia

    Oleg Gennadievich Korolev


    Full Text Available Access of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to external financing sources is defined in many respects by the tendencies of bank system development in different countries as well as by the possibilities and interest of commercial banks to make loans to creditworthy small- and medium-sized borrowers. In the present paper, we suggest that even in post-crisis conditions, this is small- and medium-sized Russian banks, rather than large banking institutions, that tend to issue loans to small and medium-sized enterprises. Analysis of the data available from the Russian banks gives evidence that with the growth of the bank size and with widening of the scope of the bank’s activity, bank’s lending to legal entities, in particular, to SMEs and to individual entrepreneurs, tends to become more intense. At the same time, the share of lending to SMEs and individual entrepreneurs in the legal entities loan portfolio tends to decrease.

  5. The CANDU 3 containment structure

    The design of the CANDU 3 nuclear power plant is being developed by AECL CANDU's Saskatchewan office. There are 24 CANDU nuclear power units operating in Canada and abroad and eight units are under construction is Romania and South Korea. The design of the CANDU 3 plant has evolved on the basis of the proven CANDU design. The experiences gained during construction, commissioning and operation of the existing CANDU plants are considered in the design. Many technological enhancements have been implemented in the design processes in all areas. The object has been to develop an improved reactor design that is suitable for the current and the future markets worldwide. Throughout the design phase of CANDU 3, emphasis has been placed in reducing the cost and construction schedule of the plant. This has been achieved by implementing design improvements and using new construction techniques. Appropriate changes and improvements to the design to suit new requirements are also adopted. In CANDU plants, the containment structure acts as an ultimate barrier against the leakage of radioactive substances during normal operations and postulated accident conditions. The concept of the structural design of the containment structure has been examined in considerable detail. This has resulted in development of a new conceptual design for the containment structure for CANDU 3. This paper deals with this new design of the containment structure

  6. Incentives for improvement of CANDU

    CANDU is a relatively young technology which has demonstrated many achievements as an electrical power generation system. These achievements include an unsurpassed safety record, high annual and lifetime capacity factors, low electricity cost and a broad range of other performance strengths which together indicate that the CANDU technology is fundamentally sound. Known capabilities not yet fully exploited, such as advanced fuel cycle options, indicate that CANDU technology will continue to pay strong dividends on research, development and design investment. This provides a strong incentive for the improvement of CANDU on a continuing basis

  7. CANDU at the crossroads



    ''Ready for the challenge of the 90s'' was the theme of this year's gathering of the Canadian Nuclear Association held in Toronto, 3-6 June. What that challenge really entails is whether the CANDU system will survive as the last remaining alternative to the light water reactor in the world reactor market, or whether it will decline into oblivion along with the Advanced Gas Cooled reactor and so many other technically excellent systems which have fallen along the way. The fate of the CANDU system will not be determined by its technical merits, nor by its impeccable safety record. It will be determined by public perceptions and by the deliberations of an Environmental Assessment Panel established by the Government of Ontario. The debate at the Association meeting is reported. (author).

  8. candu fuel bundle fabrication

    This paper describes works on CANDU fuel bundle fabrication in the Fuel Fabrication Development and Testing Section (FFDT) of AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. This work does not cover fuel design, pellet manufacturing, Zircaloy material manufacturing, but cover the joining of appendages to sheath tube, endcap preparation and welding, UO2 loading, end plate preparation and welding, and all inspections required in these steps. Materials used in the fabrication of CANDU fuel bundle are: 1)Ceramic UO2 Pellet 2)Zircaloy -4. Fuel Bundle Structural Material 3) Others (Zinc stearate, Colloidal graphite, Beryllium and Heium). Th fabrication of fuel element consist of three process: 1)pellet loading into the sheats, 2) endcap welding, and 3) the element profiling. Endcap welds is tested by metallography and He leak test. The endcaps of the elements are welded to the end plates to form the 37- element bundle assembly

  9. Sustainable manufacturing for Indonesian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): The case of remanufactured alternators

    Fatimah, Yun; Biswas, Wahidul; Mazhar, Ilyas; Islam, Mohammad


    Achieving sustainability is a great challenge for most of the Indonesian manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Remanufacturing has been considered to be a key strategy to attain sustainable manufacturing by maximising the use of old components and minimising landfill size and energy usage. However, SMEs, which are undoubtedly the engine of the Indonesian manufacturing industry, do not have adequate experience, skill, resource, technology and financial support in the remanu...

  10. Romanian Professional Accountants’ Perception on the Differential Financial Reporting for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Stefan BUNEA; Marian SACARIN; Mihaela MINU


    2009 was an important year, internationally, for the financial reporting of small and medium-sized enterprises. First of all, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published the International Financial Reporting Standard for the Small and Medium–Sized Entities (IFRS for SMEs). Secondly, the European Commission started the consultations over the amendment of the 4th and 7th Directives with a view to simplifying them for the small entities. Moreover, the European Commission launch...

  11. Status of advanced technologies for CANDU reactors

    The future development of the CANDU reactor is a continuation of a successful series of reactors, the most recent of which are nine CANDU 6 Mk 1* units and four Darlington units. There are three projects underway that continue the development of the CANDU reactor. These new design projects flow from the original reactor designs and are a natural progression of the CANDU 6 Mk 1, two units of which are operating successfully in Canada, one each in Argentina and Korea, with five more being built in Rumania. These new design projects are known as: CANDU 6 Mk 2, an improved version of CANDU 6 Mk 1; CANDU 3, a small, advanced version of the CANDU 6 Mk 1; CANDU 6 Mk 3, a series of advanced CANDU reactors. A short description of modified versions of CANDU reactors is given in this paper. 5 figs

  12. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    Shesh, Amit


    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  13. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Laidlaw, Gregory


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  14. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur


    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  15. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Paulsen, Morten Flate


    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  16. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.


    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  17. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Sager-Klauß, C.V.


    Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders la

  18. Financial Sector Policy Note : Financing Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Burkina Faso

    Soubeiga, Sidiki; Strauss, Jeremy


    As in other Sub-Saharan African countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent the vast majority of firms operating in the private sector in Burkina Faso. Private sector-led growth is a major element of Burkina Faso's poverty reduction strategy, la strategie de croissance accelere et le developpement durable. Unfortunately, many characteristics of Burkina Faso's business en...

  19. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir


    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  20. Hedging Behavior in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: The Role of Unobserved Heterogeneity

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.


    Abstract We investigate factors that drive derivative usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The influence of these factors on hedging behavior cannot a priori be assumed equal for all SMEs. To address this heterogeneity, a generalized mixture regression model is used which classifies f

  1. Personnel role by implementing anti-crisis programs in small and medium-size enterprises

    Pak Andrey Borisovitch


    Full Text Available To recover from crisis, small and medium-size enterprises have to develop anti-crisis plans and programs and to monitor the implementation process. The implementation efficiency is provided by the personnel which needs appraisal, motivation and development.

  2. HRM implications for network collaboration of small and medium sized companies

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances;

    Collaboration in innovation networks is particularly important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to remain competitive in a rapidly changing environment. Collaboration may however be particularly challenging for SMEs, due to their size and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper...

  3. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Brancatisano, Germano; Jurriëns, Jan; Verburg, Robert


    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial

  4. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea


    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  5. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    Mesu, J.K.


    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends


    Edyta Kulej-Dudek


    This paper presents the results of the study which analysed knowledge management in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czêstochowa powiat. A Model of Stages in Employee Knowledge Growth was developed as an evaluation tool. The activities and behaviours of employees concerning management of knowledge resources were also characterized in the context of current knowledge-based processes.

  7. Joint studies on large CANDU

    CANDU PHWRs have demonstrated generic benefits which will be continued in future designs. These include economic benefits due to low operating costs, business potential, strategic benefits due to fuel cycle flexibility and operational benefits. These benefits have been realized in Korea through the operation of Wolsong 1, resulting in further construction of PHWRs at the same site. The principal benefit, low electricity cost, is due to the high capacity factor and the low fuel cost for CANDU. The CANDU plant at Wolsong has proven to be a safe, reliable and economical electricity producer. The ability of PHWR to burn natural uranium ensures security of fuel supply. Following successful Technology Transfer via the Wolsong 2,3 and 4 project, future opportunity exists between Korea and Canada for continuing co-operation in research and development to improve the technology base, for product development partnerships, and business opportunities in marketing and building PHWR plants in third countries. High reliability, through excellent design, well-controlled operation, efficient maintenance and low operating costs is critical to the economic viability of nuclear plants. CANDU plants have an excellent performance record. The four operating CANDU 6 plants, operated by four utilities in three countries, are world performance leaders. The CANDU 9 design, with higher output capacity, will help to achieve better site utilization and lower electricity costs. Being an evolutionary design, CANDU 9 assures high performance by utilizing proven systems, and component designs adapted from operating CANDU plants (Bruce B, Darlington and CANDU 6). All system and operating parameters are within the operating proven range of current plants. KAERI and AECL have an agreement to perform joint studies on future PHWR development. The objective of the joint studies is to establish the requirements for the design of future advanced CANDU PHWR including the utility need for design improvements

  8. The next generation CANDU 6

    AECL's product line of CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 nuclear power plants are adapted to respond to changing market conditions, experience feedback and technological development by a continuous improvement process of design evolution. The CANDU 6 Nuclear Power Plant design is a successful family of nuclear units, with the first four units entering service in 1983, and the most recent entering service this year. A further four CANDU 6 units are under construction. Starting in 1996, a focused forward-looking development program is under way at AECL to incorporate a series of individual improvements and integrate them into the CANDU 6, leading to the evolutionary development of the next-generation enhanced CANDU 6. The CANDU 6 improvements program includes all aspects of an NPP project, including engineering tools improvements, design for improved constructability, scheduling for faster, more streamlined commissioning, and improved operating performance. This enhanced CANDU 6 product will combine the benefits of design provenness (drawing on the more than 70 reactor-years experience of the seven operating CANDU 6 units), with the advantages of an evolutionary next-generation design. Features of the enhanced CANDU 6 design include: Advanced Human Machine Interface - built around the Advanced CANDU Control Centre; Advanced fuel design - using the newly demonstrated CANFLEX fuel bundle; Improved Efficiency based on improved utilization of waste heat; Streamlined System Design - including simplifications to improve performance and safety system reliability; Advanced Engineering Tools, -- featuring linked electronic databases from 3D CADDS, equipment specification and material management; Advanced Construction Techniques - based on open top equipment installation and the use of small skid mounted modules; Options defined for Passive Heat Sink capability and low-enrichment core optimization. (author)

  9. Regulation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Development in Russia: Problems and Solutions

    Lyudmila Yuryevna Bogachkova


    Full Text Available The authors prove that despite the active state policy carried out since the second half of the 2000s and aimed at supporting small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation, the current level of development of this economic sector is insufficient. The present paper characterizes the modern structure of small and medium-sized business. The authors show that the main problems hindering its growth are conditioned by low market demand, large tax deductions, numerous administrative barriers, lack of funding and state support. On the basis of the official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service on theresults of annual surveys of entrepreneurs, the authors revealed the factors that prevented innovation situation in the country have stable negative impact on MSB, while the impact of such factors as imperfect legal and regulatory framework, investment risks, low profitability and inadequate state of technological infrastructure is relatively nonsignificant. The authors describe systemwide and resource measures of state regulation of small and medium-sized business. The system-wide measures include preferential access to production facilities and equipment, special tax regimes, administrative control. The measures of resource support to entrepreneurs consist in subsidizing the lease payments and interest rates on loans for the modernization of production; grant support, the establishment of microfinance organizations and guarantee funds, the development of business support infrastructure. The authors describe the forms of these measures implementation in 2013 and the main directions of improving the state regulation of small and medium-sized business, including the reduction of tax burden and facilitation of taxation procedures, the reduction of administrative barriers and ensuring access of small and medium-sized enterprises to government orders and technological infrastructure.

  10. The back end of the fuel cycle and CANDU

    CANDU reactor operators have benefited from several advantages of the CANDU system and from AECL's experience, with regard to spent fuel handling, storage and disposal. AECL has over 20 years experience in development and application of medium-term storage and research and development on the disposal of used fuel. As a result of AECL's experience, short-term and medium-term storage and the associated handling of spent CANDU fuel are well proven and economic, with an extremely high degree of public and environmental protection. In fact, both short-term (water-pool) and medium-term (dry canister) storage of CANDU fuel are comparable or lower in cost per unit of energy than for PWRs. Both pool storage and dry spent fuel storage are fully proven, with many years of successful, safe operating experience. AECL's extensive R and D on the permanent disposal of spent-fuel has resulted in a defined concept for Canadian fuel disposal in crystalline rock. This concept was recently confirmed as ''technically acceptable'' by an independent environmental review panel. Thus, the Canadian program represents an international demonstration of the feasibility and safety of geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. Much of the technology behind the Canadian concept can be adapted to permanent land-based disposal strategies chosen by other countries. In addition, the Canadian development has established a baseline for CANDU fuel permanent disposal costs. Canadian and international work has shown that the cost of permanent CANDU fuel disposal is similar to the cost of LWR fuel disposal per unit of electricity produced. (author)

  11. CANDU 9 fuelling machine carriage

    Continuous, on-power refuelling is a key feature of all CANDU reactor designs and is essential to maintaining high station capacity factors. The concept of a fuelling machine carriage can be traced to the early CANDU designs, such as the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station. In the CANDU 9 480NU unit, the combination of a mobile carriage and a proven fuelling machine head design comprises an effective means of transporting fuel between the reactor and the fuel transfer ports. It is a suitable alternative to the fuelling machine bridge system that has been utilized in the CANDU 6 reactor units. The CANDU 9 480NU fuel handling system successfully combines features that meet the project requirements with respect to fuelling performance, functionality, seismic qualification and the use of proven components. The design incorporates improvements based on experience and applicable current technologies. (author). 4 figs

  12. Next Generation CANDU Performance Assurance

    AECL is developing a next generation CANDU design to meet market requirements for low cost, reliable energy supplies. The primary product development objective is to achieve a capital cost substantially lower than the current nuclear plant costs, such that the next generation plant will be competitive with alternative options for large-scale base-load electricity supply. However, other customer requirements, including safety, low-operating costs and reliable performance, are being addressed as equally important design requirements. The main focus of this paper is to address the development directions that will provide performance assurance. The next generation CANDU is an evolutionary extension of the proven CANDU 6 design. There are eight CANDU 6 units in operation in four countries around the world and further three units are under construction. These units provide a sound basis for projecting highly reliable performance for the next generation CANDU. In addition, the next generation CANDU program includes development and qualification activities that will address the new features and design extensions in the advanced plant. To limit product development risk and to enhance performance assurance, the next generation CANDU design features and performance parameters have been carefully reviewed during the concept development phase and have been deliberately selected so as to be well founded on the existing CANDU knowledge base. Planned research and development activities are required only to provide confirmation of the projected performance within a modest extension of the established database. Necessary qualification tests will be carried out within the time frame of the development program, to establish a proven design prior to the start of a construction project. This development support work coupled with ongoing AECL programs to support and enhance the performance and reliability of the existing CANDU plants will provide sound assurance that the next generation

  13. Disposal costs for advanced CANDU fuel cycles

    The CANDU reactor can 'burn' a wide range of fuels without modification to the reactor system, including natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium, mixed oxide and spent LWR fuels. The economic feasibility of the advanced fuel cycles requires consideration of their disposal costs. Preliminary cost analyses for the disposal of spent CANDU-SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) and CANDU-DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU) fuels have been performed and compared to the internationally published costs for the direct disposal of spent CANDU and LWR fuels. The analyses show significant economic advantages in the disposal costs of CANDU-SEU and CANDU-DUPIC fuels. (author)

  14. Advanced CANDU reactor, evolution and innovation

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the ACRTM (Advanced CANDU(1) ReactorTM) to meet today's market challenges. It is a light water tube type pressurized water reactor and is the latest evolution of CANDU technology. The design was launched to be cost-competitive with other generating sources, while building on the unique safety and operational advantages of the CANDU design. The ACR is an evolutionary design that retains the proven CANDU features delivered at Qinshan Phase III, while incorporating a set of innovative features and proven state-of-the-art technologies that have emerged from AECL's ongoing Research, Development and Demonstration programs. This approach ensures that key design parameters are well supported by existing reactor experience and R and D. The result is a design that delivers a new threshold in safety, performance and economics while retaining ample design margin. AECL has developed the enabling technologies and components for the ACR design, and has applied them to two plant sizes, ACR-700 and ACR-1000. The ACR integrates hallmark characteristics of traditional CANDU plants (e.g. horizontal pressure tubes, on power fuelling, automated reactor control systems, and dual independent shutdown systems), new innovations (e.g. state-of-the- art control room, extensive use of modular construction techniques, smaller reactor core, enriched uranium fuel), and certain PWR features (e.g. light water coolant, negative void reactivity). The ACR is designed for a high capacity factor and low operation and maintenance costs. It fully exploits the construction techniques that contributed to the impressive schedule accomplishments at Qinshan Phase III and therefore features a very short construction schedule, 40 months construction schedule (First Concrete to Fuel Loading ) for the first unit with improvements to 36 months for later units. The ACR is a true Gen-III plus product with a broad application. It has been proven to be an ideal

  15. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.


    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  16. The CANDU 6

    The CANDU 6 is a modem nuclear power plant designed and developed under the aegis of Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) for domestic use and for export to other countries. This design has successfully met criteria for operation and redundant safety features required by Canada and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and has an estimable record of performance in all applications to date. Key to this success is a defined program of design enhancement in which changes are made while retaining fundamental features proven by operating experience. Basic design features and progress toward improvements are presented here. (author)

  17. CANDU operating experience

    The CANDU-PHW program is based upon 38 years of heavy water reactor experience with 35 years of operating experience. Canada has had 72 reactor years of nuclear-electric operations experience with 10 nuclear units in 4 generating stations during a period of 18 years. All objectives have been met with outstanding performance: worker safety, public safety, environmental emissions, reliable electricity production, and low electricity cost. The achievement has been realized through total teamwork involving all scientific disciplines and all project functions (research, design, manufacturing, construction, and operation). (auth)

  18. The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises

    Veland Ramadani


    Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups and networks. These syndicates (groups and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

  19. Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Muller, M.R. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Jones, T.W. [Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dowd, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

  20. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies

    Schøler, Finn


    annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily...... reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common......In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of...

  1. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Tennoey, Aud


    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  2. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    Okolie, Emeka


    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  3. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Kamran Rousta; Karin M. Ekström


    Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...


    Popescu Andrei; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Curmei Catalin Valeriu


    The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, ...

  5. Quality management for Small and Medium size enterprises. An application of SPC in a plastics industry.

    Bozatzis, Christos


    Enterprises need to develop an appropriate quality management approach in order to produce conforming products. This project deals with quality concepts and tools which are mainly adopted by small and medium size enterprises. It is widely accepted that Statistical Quality Control (SPC) involves several methods and tools that can be used in order to examine and solve a wide range of quality problems. SPC tools are implemented in a company operating in the Greek plastics industry. The chart...

  6. Management strategies for using business intelligence solution imbedded in ERP system in medium sized companies

    Bobek, Samo; Sternad, Simona


    Being mature and more sophisticated management reporting, analysis and decision support integrated in business intelligent require different strategies how it should be implemented as successful support for managers and to add value to the business and to the company. In the article strategies for business intelligence in medium size companies are discussed. Some findings connected to management reporting associated with ERP solutions use are presented. One research study was focused into ERP...

  7. Inter-firm networking propensity in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    Nkongolo-Bakenda, Jean-Marie


    In the past decade, market globalization has not only been a threat for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but also an opportunity to expand their activities in many countries (Murphy and al., 1991). In fact, some of SMEs are worldwide leaders in their sectors (Simon, 1990; Entreprise, 1995). Moreover, few of these worldwide SME leaders started businesses directly on an international level (Christensen, 1991; Brush, 1992; McDougall and al., 1994). This suggests that these SMEs use man...

  8. Human Capital Development and Innovation: The Case of Training in Small and Medium Sized Firms

    Johnson, Joanne; Baldwin, John R.


    This study examines the characteristics of small and medium-sized firms that perform training. It uses data taken from a recent Statistics Canada survey that permit firms' training decisions to be analyzed within the broader context of their many activities and strategies. The study finds strong evidence for the hypothesis that human capital development facilitated by training is complementary to innovation and technological change. Training incidence is found to be closely related to the imp...

  9. Bank Financing to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia

    Stephanou, Constantinos; Rodriguez, Camila


    The objective of this paper is to shed light on current trends and policy challenges in the financing of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by banks in Colombia. The paper is motivated by the well-documented financing gap for SMEs, whose causes are complex and multi-dimensional. Based on data collection and interviews with the authorities, a representative sample of banks, and othe...

  10. Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis

    Dejan ERIC; Isidora BERAHA; Sonja DJURICIN


    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is ev...

  11. Working Capital Financing Preferences: The Case of Mauritian Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    Kesseven Padachi; Carole Howorth; Narasimhan, M.S.


    This paper investigates the approach of small- to medium-sized Mauritian manufacturing firms to working capital finance using a survey-based approach and case studies. Financing has been cited as one of the most common problems faced by SMEs and is often viewed as one of their main barriers to growth. Using parametric and non-parametric techniques, the important variables that affect the demand for financing are examined. Interestingly, it is observed that the sample firms adopted more inform...

  12. Small and medium sized enterprise marketing to foreign consumers in Seoul, South Korea

    David A. English


    A qualitative case study was used to examine the experiences and perceptions of foreigners during interactions with small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. Two constructs, intercultural communications and consumer language, were used to identify difficulties that foreigners experienced during service encounters. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 participants based on a purposive sampling frame of 62 foreign professors. The transcripts were entered into MAX...

  13. Performance Measurements for Social Enterprises : With focus on Small and Medium sized Social Enterprises

    van Rijn, Micha; Jansen, David


    As the field of Social Enterprises has strongly grown over two decades, the importance of Social Enterprises for the society has also grown and still developing, more and more to a third economic segment between the private and public economy. Within this study we explain how “Small and Medium sized Social Enterprises” (SMSEs) can face the increasing pressure to measure and demonstrate their impact to society and their stakeholders. We especially address the limitations in skill and resource ...

  14. Implementation considerations of IPsec VPN for small and medium-sized companies

    Hossain, A.S.M. MIR


    Security threats threaten online networks. The threats are targeting enterprise networks, personal networks or other networks by accessing or altering important data. Secure-less networks give authorization of access to data in a network. Network administrators need strong network security for preventing unauthorized access, misuse or modification, of the network’s accessible resources. Mostly small or medium-sized enterprises use a firewall, antivirus and anti-spam software for network ...

  15. A Study of People Management in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in China

    Cunningham, L.X.


    China's rapid economic development and the emergence of its large firms have had much attention and commentary, but the important role of small businesses has received less focus. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to explore small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in China, with specific attention to people management. It examines the nature of people management in SMEs in China by assessing the extent to which human resource management (HRM) practices are appIfed in the organ...


    Qian, Xiaochen


    With the development of the Chinese economy, insurance industry is becoming one of the most important commercial industries in China. Currently small- and medium-sized (SME) insurance companies gain more and more important status in the insurance market, but the main problem is to find a suitable strategy to develop in a balanced way. It is very important for the SME insurance organizations to identify their core resources and competencies and cultivate their competitiveness and competitive a...

  17. Involvement of small and medium sized enterprises in the private realisation of public buildings

    Heinecke, Bastian


    This paper explores the procurement of public buildings in local authorities in the UK under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and its consequences for small and medium sized enterprises. Following an outline of the development of PFI in the UK, the paper explains the peculiarities of local authorities' involvement. Opportunities and problems of smaller constructors in such PFI projects are then analysed. Three case studies of smaller PFI schemes are reviewed including procurement process,...

  18. Motivational Factors for Growth in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) : Information Technology Perspective

    Kfutwa, Fukah


    Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) constitute the backbone of many economies in the world today. This is because they are creating new jobs and contributing positively to their respective economies in which Sweden is not an exception and par-ticularly the municipality of Jonkoping. SMEs invest in IT to gain access to integration of transactions oriented data and business processes. This thesis, motivational factors for growth in SMEs – (IT perspective) give an overview of how SMEs grow ...


    Viktorija Skvarciany


    Full Text Available Purpose – the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of quality, variety, accessibility and price of banking services on small and medium-sized companies’ satisfaction with banks’ business-oriented services. This paper presents a regression equation of SMEs satisfaction with banks’ services, indicating the weight of each statistically significant factor in the overall SMEs satisfaction with the commercial banks’ services for business. Design/methodology/approach – an empirical study, investigating the influence of quality, variety, accessibility and price of banking services on SMEs’ satisfaction with business-oriented services, was conducted. A sample of 405 small and medium-sized companies’ employees was used for the survey. Findings – the results of the research show that price, accessibility and quality of banking services have a direct positive influence on the satisfaction of SMEs with commercial banks’ business-oriented services. However, the variety of banking services is not a statistically significant element and did not have an impact on the SMEs’ satisfaction with banks’ services for business. Moreover, it was found that the price and accessibility of banking services have a positive relationship with the quality of banking services. Research limitations/implications – this research was conducted in small and medium-sized companies’ sector and the results of the survey cannot be used to interpret the satisfaction of other business sectors with banking services. Practical implications – the findings suggest that banks can create SMEs’ satisfaction with business-oriented services through improving accessibility, quality and price of banking services in the way that best meets customers’ needs. Originality/Value – satisfaction with the banking services concerning SMEs is an important factor influencing the success of commercial banking activities. The present study provides useful

  20. Overview of RRC KI proposals for nuclear energy systems with small and medium sized reactors

    The paper gives an overview of the proposals from Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (RRC KI) for the development of nuclear energy systems that would couple nuclear power plants with small and medium sized reactors to service enterprises. The problems and R and D needs associated with such systems are analyzed. A conclusion is made that institutional changes in the organization of nuclear power production are needed to make such systems viable. (author)

  1. The ownership-performance puzzle: agency issues in small and medium-sized family firms

    STEIJVERS, Tensie; Voordeckers, Wim; VANDEMAELE, Sigrid


    1. The purpose / topic of the research During the last decade, the discussion about the relationship between ownership structure and performance has seen important evolutions on a theoretical as well as empirical level. Especially family ownership in public firms drew the attention of researchers. In this paper, we explore the relationship between family ownership and financial performance for small and medium-sized private family firms and extend the results by recent studies of Anderson...

  2. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Xianwu Hu


    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  3. Beyond the Product – Enabling design services in small and medium sized enterprises

    Eneberg, Magnus


    While the design industry is moving into new domains, it seems that potential customers do not always understand how the designer can contribute beyond the aesthetically appealing product. The overall purpose of this thesis is to expand our understanding of design as an enabling service in the context of small and medium sized enterprises. Enabling design services have the potential to result in organizational learning and change. The co-creation of new knowledge and competencies can in turn ...

  4. Small and Medium Sized Firms’ Competitiveness and Territorial Characteristics by using a MLR approach

    Metaxas, Theodore; Duquenne, Marie Noelle


    This paper investigates the importance of territorial characteristics on small and medium-sized firms’ (SMEs) competitiveness. The analysis is based on primary data collected through questionnaires from 374 firms located in Bari (Italy), Varna (Bulgaria) and Thessaloniki (Greece). These firms operate in the sectors of industry, commerce and services. Through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), the contribution of a large set of territorial characteristics has been assessed allowing us to extra...

  5. CHOOSE: Towards a Metamodel for Enterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Bernaert, Maxime; Poels, Geert; Snoeck, Monique; De Backer, Manu


    Enterprise architecture (EA) is a coherent whole of principles, methods, and models that are used in the design and realization of an enterprise’s organizational structure, business processes, information systems, and IT infrastructure. Recent research indicates the need for EA in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), important drivers of the economy, as they struggle with problems related to a lack of structure and overview of their business. However, existing EA frameworks are perceive...


    De Jong, Jeroen P. J.


    This paper explores the complex relationship between competition and innovation by analyzing survey data of 2,281 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. We develop and test hypotheses on the relationships between three dimensions of perceived competition (internal rivalry, supplier power and buyer power) and firms' intentions to engage in product and process innovation. Moreover, we analyze if firms' strategic attention for innovation is a moderating variable. We find t...

  7. The relationship between culture, leadership, strategic planning and performance in small and medium sized enterprises.

    O'Regan, Nicholas


    The importance of manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to the economy is well documented. Most research on SMEs focuses on efficiency-related measures. The literature suggests that a significant amount of efficiency based initiatives have been directed at SMEs and that the time is now opportune to consider a more strategic approach. The literature survey indicates a dearth of empirical research on strategic planning in SMEs. In addition, the literature implies that strategi...

  8. Small and medium-size enterprises in economic development : possiblities for research and policy

    Winter, Sidney G.


    The World Bank's most important long-term advantage in promoting development, says the author, may lie in opportunities to address related obstacles simultaneously. It could mount concurrent efforts to address the problems of small and medium-size enterprises in a particular sector, region, or economy, for example. It could address the conditions of founding new firms, providing finance or technical assistance, developing mutual support institutions, resolving disputes, and perhaps reducing c...

  9. Knowledge management practices at small and medium sized Oulu region enterprises

    Seppälä, Elina


    ABSTRACT Oulu University of Applied Sciences Degree Programme in Business Information Technology Author: Elina Seppälä Title of thesis: Knowledge management practices at small and medium sized Oulu region enterprises Supervisor: Ilkka Mikkonen Term and year when the thesis was submitted: Autumn 2010 Number of pages: 88 + 21 The commissioners for this research were Oulu University of Applied Sciences and the project Kilpailukykyä ICT-yrityksille, shortly...

  10. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in international business: A survey of recent literature

    Schmidt, Klaus-Dieter


    It is often argued that the process of globalization has mainly favoured large-scale multinational companies which are able to organize their business efficiently within internal hierarchies. However, globalization has not only pushed cross-border intra-finn transactions but also other arrangements among firms such as licensing or subcontracting that fall short of ownership involvements. This opens up new opportunities for small and medium sized enterprises, too. The paper provides a general ...

  11. Sustainable business – a success story for small and medium sized enterprises?

    Drenk, Dirk


    In the last years not only large companies orientated themselves towards the goal of sustainable development - which is called sustainable business in the economic field. More and more small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) discovered the field of sustainable business hoping to achieve economic advantages compared to their competitors. In order to become a company according to the principles of sustainable business, many businesses in Germany applied for an "ÖKOPROFIT”-certification. The ...

  12. A software process improvement solution for small and medium-size enterprises

    Calvo-Manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas; Serrano Rico, Ariel Edgar; García Pacheco, Iván


    The focus of this paper is to outline the main structure of an alternative software process improvement method for small- and medium-size enterprises. This method is based on the action package concept, which helps to institutionalize the effective practices with affordable implementation costs. This paper also presents the results and lessons learned when this method was applied to three enterprises in the requirements engineering domain.

  13. How small and medium sized enterprises learn to compete effectively on international markets

    Doole, Isobel


    This thesis seeks to develop insights into the nature of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that are effective in competing internationally, over the longer term. It therefore aims to provide a better understanding of the behaviour that engenders this capability. Its contributory value lies in the development of the new perspectives which emerged from inductive theory development grounded in longitudinal data collected between1996-1999. Traditionally explanations for the success of...

  14. Succession planning for small and medium-sized family advertising agencies in Cyprus

    Flourentzou, Evangelia


    Leadership succession is not a single measure, but rather a complex process (Sharma et al., 2001) that is necessary to ensure continuity of effective managerial control and engagement in a business entity (Charan et al., 2001). Thus, the aim of this work-based project involves addressing and examining the question of succession planning in family-owned and managed small and medium-size Cypriot advertising agencies, as well as developing a feasible model of leadership succession for such agenc...


    Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan


    The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting...

  16. Impact of Female Leadership on Employee engagement in German small and medium-sized Family Companies

    Rittinger, Katharina


    Due to the demographic change, German small and medium-sized family companies lack skilled employees. As a high level of employee engagement (EE) can help retaining skilled employees, engaging leaders are needed. The aim of this thesis was to analyse, if women are able to have a positive impact on employee engagement due to their leadership style. Qualitative theoretic information was gathered from academic literature. Latest professional journals and studies were used to give an insight ...

  17. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezavani; Narges Khoramshahi


    The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the texti...

  18. An assessment of selected family business values in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Van der Merwe, S.P.; Venter, E.; Farrington, S. M.


    This study highlights the influence of selected business family values on the success of small and medium-sized family businesses. Success, for the purpose of this study, is measured using two variables, namely Harmonious family relationships and Perceived future continuity. The primary objective of this study is twofold: firstly, to identify the potential influence of selected business family values on the success of family businesses and secondly, to make practical recommendations on action...

  19. Foreign Markets Entry Mode Decision for Italian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Fabio Musso; Barbara Francioni


    Using a resource-based view model, this paper examines the main factors influencing Small and Medium-SizedEnterprise (SME) international entry mode selection. In addition, a possible relationship between firmsbelonging to industrial districts and the entry mode choice has been verified. Data for the analysis of this studywere collected interviewing 221 owners/managers of SMEs in Italy. Results showed that entry mode decisionsare mainly influenced by firm specific factors. Furthermore, the stu...

  20. From competitive advantage to dynamic capabilities: small and medium-sized multinationals in Asia

    Tattara, Giuseppe


    Italian firms have recently engaged in direct investment abroad through the establishment of production facilities in China and India. Using data gathered from interviews conducted in those countries in 2009 with 16 Italian predominantly small and medium-sized firms, this article explores: the motivations behind Italian parent companies’ decisions to create subsidiaries in Asia; relations between the newly established production facilities and their local suppliers and markets; any subsequent...

  1. The Effective Use of Facebook by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

    František Pollák; Peter Dorčák


    Purpose – The aim of this study was to identify and then interpret the basic preconditions for effective use of the social networking site Facebook as a marketing communication platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in a selected Central European market. Design/Methodology/Approach – In order to achieve the objective, as well as partial targets, this contribution can be seen as a summary of two autonomous and extensive analyses. The context necessary for the fulf...

  2. Process improvement and organisational learning: evidence from engineering-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises

    Matthews, Rupert Lawrence


    Process improvement has been identified as a central topic of operations management, being relevant to the different functional areas and assisting in providing the benefits operations management aims to realise. While extensive research has been conducted on specific process improvement methodologies, high resource requirement of specific process improvement methodologies make them inappropriate for many Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Compared to specific improvement methodologie...

  3. Fashionable Strategies : Internationalization process of small and medium sized Nordicfashion companies

    Barwinski, Arne; Burvall, Caroline


    In our master thesis “Fashionable strategies” we analyze the internationalization processof small and medium sized Nordic Fashion companies. In our study we conducted aquantitative survey and qualitative in-depths interviews to shed light on the topic. We usehereby an iterative research strategy through the triangulation analysis method as researchapproach. The combination of methodologies and perspectives allowed us to analyze ourtheoretical framework and the research questions in a favorabl...

  4. Information support for the internationalization of small and medium-size enterprises in North Karelia region

    Vorobyeva, Maria


    The aim of the study is to analyze how small and medium-size enterprises receive support from service organizations in the North Karelia Region to expand their businesses abroad. The theoretical section of the thesis provides the main aspects of internationalization theory. It explains the relevant findings of the Uppsala model of internationalization and presents four stages in companies’ internationalization. It provides an overview of national and regional service organizations that p...

  5. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Morteza Ghobakhloo; Tang Sai Hong; Norzima Zulkifli; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri


    Information Technology (IT) adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewin...

  6. Adaptability of the internal business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovakia

    Misunova Hudakova, Ivana; Misun, Juraj


    Companies that are exposed to an uncertain changing business environment must be able to adapt and change in order to achieve some compliance with the subject of business carried out and the objectives with the ambient conditions. Also these conditions can be a source of threats for small and medium-sized enterprises. In this context, we emphasize the adaptability of the enterprise. It is the active joining of resolving the conflict between the business entity and its environment. Signs of th...

  7. Regional context of small and medium-sized enterprises' development. case study of southern Poland

    Wach, Krzysztof


    The paper verifies the existence of relations between development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the particular factors of regional environment as well as demographic parameters of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. SMEs localized in Southern Poland in accordance with NUTS -1 nomenclature, which is made of two voivodeships: Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Silesia (Śląsk), are research subjects. The main aim of the research is indication factors of regional environment which...

  8. The challenges of Iranian small and medium-sized enterprises through process of internationalization

    Amirkhani, Kianoosh


    The effect of globalization and attracting new market increase the attitude of firms toward foreign market incrementally .This thesis was conducted to introduce a comprehensive framework of internationalization process in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran as well as monitoring challenges that firms will face in foreign market operation. Take a glance at the literature of internationalization, Iran`s economic situation and entry modes. The aim of this research was encouraging other st...

  9. Determinants of capital structure in small and medium sized enterprises in Malaysia

    Mat Nawi, Hafizah


    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This study aims to investigate the determinants of capital structure in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia and their effect on firms’ performance. The study addresses the following primary question: What are the factors that influence the capital structure of SMEs in Malaysia? The sample of this research is SMEs in the east coast region of Malaysia. Adopting a posi...

  10. The Republic of Korea's small and medium size enterprises and their support systems

    Linsu Kim; Nugent, Jeffrey B.


    The authors evaluate the effectiveness of private and collective technical, marketing, and financial support systems for the Republic of Korea's small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurs. Their report draws on a survey of 122 SMEs that make woven textiles (42 firms), auto parts (20 firms), electronic parts (20 firms), and factory-automation products (40 firms). Although Korea has a dense network of public technology-support institutions, Korean SMEs tend to turn to private so...


    Carlos Fong Reynoso; Moisés Alejandro Alarcón Osuna; Luis Ernesto Ocampo Figueroa


    The business structure in Jalisco, Mexico is primarily composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, it is fundamentally necessary to understand the dynamics, evolution and above all, the strategic challenges of this sector in order to understand the state’s economic performance and the possibilities for future development in Jalisco. As a result, this study analyzes the evolution of the SMEs (known as PyME, in Spanish) in Mexico and Jalisco by using data from the Econom...

  12. Colombia's small and medium-size exporters and their support systems

    Berry, Albert; Escandon, Jose


    The authors evaluate the role of dynamic small and medium-size manufacturing enterprises and entrepreneurs (SMEs) in Colombia's development. They also evaluate SME policy in Colombia, especially as it affects the country's export potential. The SME sector has received little attention from Colombia's policymakers despite its substantial weight in manufacturing, its importance as a seedbed for important future companies, and its demonstrated capacity to grow rapidly under favorable circumstanc...

  13. Tracking the Credit Collection Period of Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Nasruddin Zainudin


    Profits of a company depend upon its frequency of reinvestment, or turnover, of its capital. Frequent turnover would notbe possible if collections are slow as they deny the company the use of its own capital. Credit collection period is, therefore,an important factor that may influence a company’s overall performance. Hence, this study explores the average collectionperiod profile of 279 small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in Malaysia using the companies’ financial statementsfrom 1...

  14. The application of TQM within small and medium sized construction related organisations

    Chileshe, Nicholas


    In order to probe the application of TQM within Small and Medium Sized UK Construction-Related Organisations, a study was conducted on 63 SMEs; 20 (31.7%) of these reported implementation of TQM on their management system. For this purpose, a monitoring and assessment tool was developed, incorporating within it the TQM implementation quality features or techniques, grouped in 10 sub principles. The rate of TQM commitment and advancement was then measured for each organisation. The study was d...

  15. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Brancatisano, Germano; Jurriëns, Jan; Verburg, Robert


    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial during the formulation of a market-entry strategy. This article aims to emphasize the relevance of international managerial competencies as fundamental resources for the internationalization of SME...

  16. Luncheon address: Development of the CANDU reactor

    The paper is a highlight of the some of the achievements in the development of the CANDU Reactor, taken from the book Canada Enters the Nuclear Age. The CANDU reactor is one of Canada's greatest scientific/engineering achievements, that started in the 1940's and bore fruit with the reactors of the 60's, 70's, and 80's. The Government decided in the 1950's to proceed with a demonstration nuclear power reactor (NPD), AECL invited 7 Canadian corporations to bid on a contract to design and construct the NPD plant. General Electric was selected. A utility was also essential for participation and Ontario Hydro was chosen. In May 1957 it was concluded that the minimum commercial size would be about 200MWe and it should use horizontal pressure tubes to contain the fuel and pressurized heavy water coolant. The book also talks of standard out-reactor components such as pumps, valves, steam generators and piping. A major in-reactor component of interest was the fuel, fuel channels and pressure tubes. A very high level of cooperation was required for the success of the CANDU program

  17. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B


    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. PMID:27154382

  18. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh


    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (α=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (α=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.


    Gordana IVANKOVIČ


    Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

  20. Paths to Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-Sized Hotels

    Mik Kim


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate what path options can facilitate small and medium-sized hotels’ knowledge management? And how the options are realised by them? In order to answer these questions, this study undertook an empirical investigation into the current status and practice of knowledge management in small and medium-sized hotels. The empirical investigation was performed through thirteen face-to-face in-depth interviews with owners and managers in small and medium-sized hotels. While the interview method is selected so as to answer the questions, secondary data are utilised to support this study such as in defining the research questions and informing the study findings. This study observed that there were four broad approaches to the way in which hotels put their paths to knowledge management. Each type of the paths is named as: Match, Combination, Divergence, and Specialisation. As arguably, knowledge management is both part of the cost of doing business and the most likely source of competitive advantage, it is as important to the sole operator as to the large corporation. By understanding the different options, hotels will be able to make better decisions in the choice of their suitable paths to knowledge management.

  1. A comparison of the void reactivity effect between the CANDU standard and CANDU-6 SEU-43 cells

    In a CANDU type reactor the void coefficient of the reactivity is positive. The experimental data are available only for fresh fuel in cold conditions. On the other hand, taking into account the reactivity effects induced by changes of the coolant properties is often difficult. The safety analyses require an estimation of the calculation error. A comparison between models is an usual approach to obtain detailed information. In our paper a heterogeneous multi-stratified coolant model is used both for the CANDU standard fuel assembly cell and CANDU SEU-43 cell concept. The coolant is treated as a two phase (liquid and vapors) medium gravitationally separated. The results are inter-compared for different burnups in the partial or total void cases. (authors)

  2. CANDU-BLW-250

    The plant 'La Centrale nucleaire de Gentilly' is located between Montreal and Quebec City on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and start-up is scheduled for 1971. A CANDU-BLW reactor is the nuclear steam generator. his reactor utilizes a heavy water moderator, natural uranium oxide fuel, and a boiling light water coolant. To be economic, this type of plant must have a minimum light water inventory in the reactor core. A minimum inventory is obtained (a) by reducing the cross-sectional area for coolant flow to a minimum, and (b) by operating at a low-coolant density. In CANDU-BLW-250, this is accomplished by operating a closed spaced fuel rod bundle at high steam quality. These features and others in the BLW concept lead to a number of areas of concern and they are summarized below: (1) Heat Transfer: It is intended that under normal operating conditions the fuel sheaths will always be wetted with coolant. (ii) Hydrodynamic Stability: Experiments and analysis indicate that the plant has a considerable over-power capacity before instability is predicted. (iii) Control: This plant does have a positive power coefficient and the transient performance with various disturbances are detailed. (iv) Safety: The positive power coefficient leads to concern over the loss of coolant accident. The results of some accident analysis are presented. (author)

  3. Thorium utilization in ACR (Advanced CANDU) and CANDU-6 reactors

    It is the main objective of this study to investigate fuel composition options for CANDU type of reactors that are capable of using a mixture of U-Th as fuel. A homogenous mixture of (U-Th)O2 was used in all elements of fuel bundles. The core of CANDU-6 and ACR (Advanced CANDU) were modeled using MCNP5. In equilibrium core, using MONTEBURNS2 code (coupled with MCNP5 and ORIGENS) for once-through uranium and once-through uranium-thorium fuel cycle of CANDU-6 and ACR, discharge burnups and spent fuel compositions were computed. For various enrichments of uranium and different fractions of thorium in a uranium-thorium fuel mixture, performing burnup calculations, relevant relations were derived; in addition, conversion ratio, fuel requirement, uranium resource utilization, and natural uranium savings were determined, and their changes with burnup were observed. Appropriate fuel compositions were discussed.

  4. Development of the management system for support of small and medium-sized entrepreneurship at the interregional level

    Dmitry Kolpakidi


    Currently, there are several regulatory documents defining the strategy of development of small and medium-sized entrepreneurship in the regions of Russia. In the Siberian Federal District (SFD) such document is the Strategy of the socio-economic development of Siberia until 2020. At the regional level all subjects of the SFD have programs of development of small and medium businesses. Thereby, existing management system for support of small and medium-sized entrepreneurship includes three le...

  5. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Viktorija Stasytytė


    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  6. CANDU 9 enhancements and licensing

    The CANDU 9 design has followed the evolutionary product development approach that has characterized the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. In addition to utilizing proven equipment and systems from operating stations, the CANDU 9 design has looked ahead to incorporate design and safety enhancements necessary to meet evolving utility and licensing requirements. With the requirement that the CANDU 9 design should be licensable for both domestic and foreign potential users, the pre-project Basic Design Engineering program included a two year formal extensive review by the Canadian Regulatory Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board . Documentation submitted for the licensing review included the licensing basis, safety requirements and safety analyses necessary to demonstrate compliance with regulations and to assess system design and performance

  7. Design features of Candu 9

    Thirty-two nuclear generating units with an aggregate installed capacity of 19,119 MWe worldwide are equipped with heavy water moderated and cooled pressure tube reactors of the Canadian Candu line. The list includes nine reactors of the 700 MWe category, and twelve reactors of the 900 MWe category in the Candu 6 series. On the basis of the 900 MWe units, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) developed the advanced Candu 9 series by evolution. This series has been designed for a service life of sixty years. The use of modular, simplified units and systems in the Candu 9 design is to shorten the planning and construction phase, increase safety, and improve plant operation. AECL will offer this reactor on the world market, first to its customers in (South) Korea, which is one of the reasons why the safety parameters have been chosen especially under the aspect of seismic characteristics. (orig.)

  8. Passive heat removal in CANDU

    CANDU has a tradition of incorporating passive systems and passive components whenever they are shown to offer performance that is equal to or better than that of active systems, and to be economic. Examples include the two independent shutdown systems that employ gravity and stored energy respectively, the dousing subsystem of the CANDU 6 containment system, and the ability of the moderator to cool the fuel in the event that all coolant is lost from the fuel channels. CANDU 9 continues this tradition, incorporating a reserve water system (RWS) that increases the inventory of water in the reactor building and profiles a passive source of makeup water and/or heat sinks to various key process systems. The key component of the CANDU 9 reserve water system is a large (2500 cubic metres) water tank located at a high elevation in the reactor building. The reserve water system, while incorporating the recovery system functions, and the non-dousing functions of the dousing tank in CANDU 6, embraces other key systems to significantly extend the passive makeup/heat sink capability. The capabilities of the reserve water system include makeup to the steam generators secondary side if all other sources of water are lost; makeup to the heat transport system in the event of a leak in excess of the D2O makeup system capability; makeup to the moderator in the event of a moderator leak when the moderator heat sink is required; makeup to the emergency core cooling (ECC) system to assure NPSH to the ECC pumps during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and provision of a passive heat sink for the shield cooling system. Other passive designs are now being developed by AECL. These will be incorporated in future CANDU plants when their performance has been fully proven. This paper reviews the passive heat removal systems and features of current CANDU plants and the CANDU 9, and briefly reviews some of the passive heat removal concepts now being developed. (author)

  9. Technology transfer in CANDU marketing

    The author discusses how the CANDU system lends itself to technology transfer, the scope of CANDU technology transfer, and the benefits and problems associated with technology transfer. The establishment of joint ventures between supplier and client nations offers benefits to both parties. Canada can offer varying technology transfer packages, each tailored to a client nation's needs and capabilities. Such a package could include all the hardware and software necessary to develop a self-sufficient nuclear infrastructure in the client nation

  10. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Wimple, C., LLNL


    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.