Sample records for cameroon volcanic line

  1. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.


    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  2. Geohazards (floods and landslides in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Wotchoko Pierre


    Full Text Available The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually and landslides (occasionally occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered.

  3. A comparative review of petrogenetic processes beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line:Geochemical constraints

    Asobo N.E. Asaah; Tetsuya Yokoyama; Festus T. Aka; Tomohiro Usui; Mengnjo J. Wirmvem; Boris Chako Tchamabe; Takeshi Ohba; Gregory Tanyileke; J.V. Hell


    The origin and petrogenesis of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), composed of volcanoes that form on both the ocean floor and the continental crust, are difficult to understand because of the diversity, het-erogeneity, and nature of available data. Major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks of the CVL spanning four decades have been compiled to reinterpret their origin and petrogenesis. Volcanic rocks range from nephelinite, basanite and alkali basalts to phonolite, trachyte and rhyolite with the presence of a compositional gap between SiO2 58e64 wt.%. Similarities in geochemical characteristics, modeled results for two component mixing, and the existence of mantle xenoliths in most mafic rocks argue against significant crustal contamination. Major and trace element evidences indicate that the melting of mantle rocks to generate the CVL magma occurred dominantly in the garnet lherzolite stability field. Melting models suggest small degree (<3%) partial melting of mantle bearing (6e10%) garnet for Mt. Etinde, the Ngaoundere Plateau and the Biu Plateau, and<5%of garnet for the oceanic sector of the CVL, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Bambouto, Mt. Manengouba and the Oku Volcanic Group. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotope sys-tematics suggest that mixing in various proportions of Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM) with enriched mantle 1 and 2 (EM1 and EM2) could account for the complex isotopic characteristics of the CVL lavas. Low Mg number (Mg# ¼ 100 ? MgO/(MgO þ FeO)) and Ni, Cr and Co contents of the CVL mafic lavas reveal their crystallization from fractionated melts. The absence of systematic variation in Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios, and Sr-Nd isotope compositions between the mafic and felsic lavas indicates progressive evolution of magmas by fractional crystallization. Trace element ratios and their plots corroborate mantle het-erogeneity and reveal distinct geochemical signatures for individual the CVL volcanoes.

  4. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre


    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  5. Ambient noise tomography of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Northern Congo craton: new constraints on the structure of the lithosphere

    Guidarelli, M.; Aoudia, A.


    We investigate the lithospheric structure of Cameroon inverting Rayleigh waves obtained from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. We correlate seismic records between 32 broad-band stations and we obtain good quality Rayleigh waves for 310 interstation paths. We measure group velocity dispersion curves from the reconstructed Rayleigh waves in the period range 10-35 s and we invert the group velocities for tomographic images. After the tomography the group velocities are then inverted, together with longer period group velocity measurements from existing literature, to compute a 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Cameroon lithosphere down to 100 km depth. Our results provide an unprecedented mapping of the physical properties of the different crustal units and their correlations with surface geology, as well as with mantle lithospheric variations. The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) appears as a segmented feature exhibiting different physical properties along strike. The active Mt Cameroon volcano is underlain by very low velocities, unlike the other segments of the CVL. The along-strike variations in crustal structure suggest that lateral heterogeneities in lithospheric thickness and physical properties have influenced the location and distribution of magmatism. The crust beneath the Central African Shear Zone exhibits a sizeable low velocity anomaly. The lithosphere beneath Cameroon is characterised by a heterogeneous crust with a relatively constant thickness and a low velocity uppermost mantle at the edge of the Congo Craton. Our results favour processes combining small-scale upwelling at the edge of a thick lithosphere and reactivation of Precambrian basement structures to explain the distribution of Holocene-Recent magmatism and plateau uplift. Our results also indicate that Mt Cameroon and surroundings areas are the most at risk zones for magmatic activity during this stage of CVL development.

  6. Chemistry and origin of the Mayo Kila sapphires, NW region Cameroon (Central Africa): Their possible relationship with the Cameroon volcanic line

    Paul Mbih, Kemeng; Meffre, Sebastien; Yongue, Rose Fouateu; Kanouo, Nguo Sylvestre; Jay, Thomson


    Mineralogical, chemical and geochronological studies constrained the origin of sapphires from Mayo Kila, Northwest Cameroon. The sapphires are mostly blue, with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. The pale blue grains are transparent, whereas, other corundums are transparent to translucent and/or opaque. The sapphires are dominantly euhedral to sub-hedral with few polished lustrous grains, acquired features during moderate to short distance transport from a proximal source rock. Solid inclusions are limited to rutile and zircon. Trace element analysis of sapphires shows significant concentration (in ppm) in some elements: Fe (2208-14,473), Ti (82-1783), Ga (77-512), Mg (0.9-264.9), Cr (b.d.l -168) and V (1.3-82). The other elements (e.g. Sn, Nb, Ta, Th, Zr, Ni, Ce) are generally below 10 ppm. The calculated ratios for some of the selected elements show an extreme variation: Fe/Mg (43-3043), Fe/Ti (2-76), Ti/Mg (1-328), and Ga/Mg (0.4-363). They are dominantly corundum crystallized in alkaline magma (s) with few from metamorphic source (s). Trace elemental features with Hf (13,354-26,238 ppm), Th (4018-45,584 ppm) and U (7825-17,175 ppm), and Th/U (0.39-2.65) found in zircon inclusions are compatible with quantified values in magmatic crystallized zircons. The Cenozoic age (mean of 30.78 ± 0.28 Ma) obtained for zircon inclusions is close to the age of some igneous rocks found within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (e.g. rocks of the Mount Oku: 31-22 Ma), showing the same period of formation. The most probable source of the zircon host sapphires is the Oku Mountain located SW of Mayo Kila.

  7. Petrology and geochemistry of mantle xenoliths from the Kapsiki Plateau (Cameroon Volcanic Line): Implications for lithospheric upwelling

    Tamen, Jules; Nkoumbou, Charles; Reusser, Eric; Tchoua, Felix


    Mantle xenoliths hosted by Oligocene alkaline basalts of the Kapsiki Plateau, northern end of the Cameroon Volcanic Line consist of group I spinel and plagioclase peridotites, mainly protogranular and accessorily porphyroclastic. The sub-continental lithospheric mantle here is heterogeneous and encloses both depleted and fertile components. Minerals exhibit wide range major element compositions compared to Nyos and Kumba grabens equivalent rocks. Spinel occurs as homogeneous brown crystals or as composite (brown-core-dark-rim) crystals when in contact with diopside or swatted in melt pools. Clinopyroxene crystals are either spinel exsolution-bearing or exsolution-free, the latter being often skeletal or frameworked and riddled with intracrystalline melt pools. Intraxenolith melt pockets and veinlets are always associated to plagioclase-bearing samples. Feldspars depict two distinctive compositions (An37-66Ab57-32Or6-2 and An3-7Ab52-62Or31-48) partly attributed to host xenolith type and to the involvement in the spinel and/or diopside melting reaction of an infiltrating alkali and carbonate-rich liquid. Petrographic and geochemical data discriminate melt pockets from their host basalts, excluding thus infiltration of basaltic melt as prospective origin. Thermo-barometric estimates reveal that prior to their entrainment the Kapsiki mantle xenoliths experienced two P-T equilibrium stages resulting in subsolidus re-equilibration from spinel- to plagioclase-facies conditions. Furthermore mineral textural relations show that the occurrence of plagioclase and melts inclusions is linked to spinel and/or diopside breakdown, likely subsequent to decompression and/or metasomatic induced melting events predating Oligo-Miocene volcanism.

  8. Gas emission from diffuse degassing structures (DDS) of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL): Implications for the prevention of CO2-related hazards

    Issa; Ohba, T.; Chako Tchamabé, B.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P.; Eneke Takem, E. G.; Barrancos, J.; Sighomnoun, D.; Ooki, S.; Nkamdjou, Sigha; Kusakabe, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Dionis, S.


    In the mid-1980s, lakes Nyos and Monoun violently released massive gas, mainly magmatic CO2 killing about 1800 people. Subsequent geochemical surveys and social studies indicate that lakes Nyos and Monoun event is cyclic in nature and may occur anywhere in the about 37 other volcanic lakes located in the corridor of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). This potential threat motivated us to check if, alike Nyos and Monoun, the internal dynamic of the other lakes is also controlled by inputs of deep-seated-derived CO2 and attempt to measure and provide comprehensive insights on the passive gas emission along the CVL. This knowledge shall contribute to the prevention of volcanic lake-related hazards in Cameroon and the refinement of the Global Carbon Cycle. We used in situ fixation and dry gas phase sampling methods to determine CO2 origin and the concentration, and the accumulation chamber technique to measure diffuse CO2 emission from nine lakes and on soil at Nyos Valley and Mount Manenguba Caldera. The results suggest that, although in minor concentrations (compared to Nyos and Monoun), ranging from 0.56 mmol kg- 1 to 8.75 mmol kg- 1, the bottom waters of some lakes also contain measurable magmatic CO2 with δ13C varies from - 4.42‰ to - 9.16‰ vs. PDB. That finding implies that, under certain circumstances, e.g. increase to volcanic and/or tectonic activities along the CVL, the concerned lakes could develop a Nyos-type behavioural scheme. The diffuse gas emission results indicate that the nine surveyed lakes release approximately 3.69 ± 0.37 kt km- 2 yr- 1 of CO2 to the atmosphere; extrapolation to the approximately 39 volcanic lakes located on the CVL yields an approximate CO2 output of 27.37 ± 0.5 kt km- 2 yr- 1, representing 0.023% of the global CO2 output from volcanic lakes. In addition to the precedent value, the gas removal operation in lakes Nyos and Monoun released approximately 2.52 ± 0.46 × 108 mol km- 2 yr- 1 CO2 to the atmosphere from January

  9. Characterization of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Cameroon volcanic line inferred from alkaline basalt hosted peridotite xenoliths from Barombi Mbo and Nyos Lakes

    Pintér, Zsanett; Patkó, Levente; Tene Djoukam, Joëlle Flore; Kovács, István; Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Falus, György; Konc, Zoltán; Tommasi, Andréa; Barou, Fabrice; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Jeffries, Teresa


    We carried out detailed petrographic, major and trace element geochemical, microstructural and FTIR analyses on eight characteristic ultramafic xenoliths from Nyos and Barombi Mbo Lakes in the continental sector of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). The studied xenoliths are spinel lherzolites showing lithologies similar to the other xenoliths reported previously along the CVL. They have protogranular and porphyroclastic textures. One of the Barombi xenolith contains amphibole, which had not been previously reported in this locality. Amphibole is common in the Nyos xenoliths suite. Peridotite xenoliths from both localities show some chemical heterogeneity, but Barombi xenoliths generally are less depleted in basaltic elements with respect to Nyos xenoliths. Trace element compositions of Nyos spinel lherzolites show a moderately depleted initial (premetasomatic) composition and variable enrichment in REE. Evidence for both modal and cryptic metasomatism is present in Nyos xenoliths. Rare earth element patterns of clinopyroxene suggest that interaction between mafic melts and the upper mantle occurred beneath the Nyos locality. Barombi Mbo xenoliths, on the other hand, record a small degree of partial melting. The Barombi Mbo xenoliths have weak, dominantly orthorhombic olivine crystal preferred orientations, whereas Nyos ones have strong axial-[010] patterns, which may have formed in response to transpression. Nominally anhydrous mantle minerals (NAMs) of the Barombi Mbo xenoliths show generally higher bulk concentrations of 'water' (70-127 ppm) than Nyos xenoliths (32-81 ppm). The Barombi Mbo xenoliths could originate from a juvenile segment of the lithospheric mantle, which had been originally part of the asthenosphere. It became a part of the lithosphere in response to thermal relaxation following the extension, forming a weakly deformed lower lithospheric mantle region along the CVL. The Nyos xenoliths, however, represent a shallow lithospheric mantle bearing

  10. Typology of Natural Hazards and Assessment of Associated Risks in the Mount Bambouto Caldera (Cameroon Line, West Cameroon)

    Ghislain T. ZANGMO; Armand D. KAGOU; David G. NKOUATHIO; Pierre WANDJI


    Mount Bambouto is a polygenic stratovoicano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, built between 21 Ma and 4.5 Ma. It is situated approximately 200 km NE of Mount Cameroon, between 09°55' and 10°15' longitude east and, 05°25' and 05°50' latitude north. The volcano covers an area of (13×8 km). Mount Bambouto is characterized by several natural hazards of different origins: meteorological, such as landslides and rock falls; anthropogenic, such as bushfires, tribal wars and deforestation; and volcanological, such as volcanic eruption. The thematic map shows that 55-60% of the caldera has high probability of occurrence of mass movement. The caldera has a high population density (3000 inhabitants), which increases the level of risk, evaluated at approximately $US3.8 million for patrimony, 3000 civilian deaths and destruction of biodiversity.

  11. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg-1, 22 - 36 Bq kg-1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radioisotope 137Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m-3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m-3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  12. Cameroon.


    The US profile of Cameroon indicates brief statistics on the population, geography, government, and economy and brief descriptions of the population, the history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations with the US. Principal government and US officials are furnished. The 1991 estimated population of Cameroon was 11.7 million of which 60% is rural. There are 200 different tribes who speak many African languages and dialects. The French and English languages both have official status. Muslims live in the north and Christians in the south. 80% live in the formerly French east. The growth rate is 3%. There is 65% literacy. Infant mortality is 20%. 70% are agricultural workers, 13% industrial and commercial, and 17% other. The government is an independent republic with an executive and legislative branch. Independence was achieved in 1960. There is 1 ruling party. Traditional courts administer the laws. Traditional rulers are treated as administrative adjuncts. Suffrage is universal adult. The central government budget is 1.4 billion of which 8.7% is for defense. There are 10 provinces and 4 major cities. The seaport city Douala is the largest at 1.5 million. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $12.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.3% and an inflation rate of 2%. Growth has been variable since 1988 and reached a low of 2.4% in 1988-89. Oil, natural gas, bauxite, iron core, and timber are natural resources. 27% of the GDP is in agricultural products (cocoa, coffee, cotton, fishing, and forestry). 13% of the GDP is manufacturing and 24% is industry. Exports are valued at $2.9 billion and imports at $2.2 billion. Major markets are France, Netherlands, and the US. Imports include intermediate goods, capital goods, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco. Early inhabitants were the Pygmies, followed later by Bantu speakers, and Muslim Fulani. Political consolidation was achieved in 1970 after a period of

  13. The Cameroon line, West Africa, and its bearing on the origin of oceanic and continental alkali basalt

    The Cameroon line is a unique within-plate volcanic province which straddles a continental margin. It consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. It provides, therefore, an ideal area in which to compare the sub-oceanic and sub-continental mantle sources for alkali basalt. Basaltic rocks in the oceanic and continental sectors are geochemically and isotopically indistinguishable which suggests that they have identical mantle sources. This conclusion rules out substantial lithosphere involvement in the generation of alkali basalts and therefore weakens the case for mantle metasomatism as a necessary precursor to alkaline magmatism. The convecting upper mantle is a much more likely source as it will be well-stirred and unlikely to show any ocean-continent differences. The long history of Cameroon line magmatism (65 Ma) and lack of evidence for migration of volcanism with time makes a deeper mantle source unlikely. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) also originate within the convecting upper mantle and so must share a common source with the Cameroon line alkali basalts (and, by implication, ocean island and continental rift basalts). A grossly homogeneous mantle with a bulk composition depleted in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), but containing streaks of old, LILE-enriched material, provides a plausible common source. Large degree, near-surface melting of such a source would produce MORB. Smaller degree melts produced at deeper levels would percolate upwards along grain boundaries and become enriched in LILE by leaching LILE-rich grain boundary films. The mixing of these liquids with melts from the LILE-rich streaks will produce magmas with the geochemical and isotopic features of ocean island basalts. (orig.)

  14. Potential and limitations of risk scenario tools in volcanic areas through an example at Mount Cameroon

    P. Gehl


    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to conduct a scenario-based volcanic risk assessment on a variety of exposed assets, such as residential buildings, cultivated areas, network infrastructures or individual strategic buildings. The focus is put on the simulation of scenarios, based on deterministic adverse event input, which are applied to the case study of an effusive eruption on the Mount Cameroon volcano, resulting in the damage estimation of the assets located in the area. The work is based on the recent advances in the field of seismic risk. A software for systemic risk scenario analysis developed within the FP7 project SYNER-G has been adapted to address the issue of volcanic risk. Most significant improvements include the addition of vulnerability models adapted to each kind of exposed element and the possibility to quantify the successive potential damages inflicted by a sequence of adverse events (e.g. lava flows, tephra fall, etc.. The use of an object-oriented architecture gives the opportunity to model and compute the physical damage of very disparate types of infrastructures under the same framework. Finally, while the risk scenario approach is limited to the assessment of the physical impact of adverse events, a specific focus on strategic infrastructures and a dialogue with stakeholders helps in evaluating the potential wider indirect consequences of an eruption.

  15. Potential and limitations of risk scenario tools in volcanic areas through an example at Mount Cameroon

    Gehl, P.; Quinet, C.; Le Cozannet, G.; Kouokam, E.; Thierry, P.


    This paper presents an integrated approach to conduct a scenario-based volcanic risk assessment on a variety of exposed assets, such as residential buildings, cultivated areas, network infrastructures or individual strategic buildings. The focus is put on the simulation of scenarios, based on deterministic adverse event input, which are applied to the case study of an effusive eruption on the Mount Cameroon volcano, resulting in the damage estimation of the assets located in the area. The work is based on the recent advances in the field of seismic risk. A software for systemic risk scenario analysis developed within the FP7 project SYNER-G has been adapted to address the issue of volcanic risk. Most significant improvements include the addition of vulnerability models adapted to each kind of exposed element and the possibility to quantify the successive potential damages inflicted by a sequence of adverse events (e.g. lava flows, tephra fall, etc.). The use of an object-oriented architecture gives the opportunity to model and compute the physical damage of very disparate types of infrastructures under the same framework. Finally, while the risk scenario approach is limited to the assessment of the physical impact of adverse events, a specific focus on strategic infrastructures and a dialogue with stakeholders helps in evaluating the potential wider indirect consequences of an eruption.

  16. Proposing a Theoretical GIS Model for Landslides Analysis : The Case of Mount Cameroon

    Tambe-Ebot, Mathias Ashu Tako


    This study presents a theoretical GIS model to investigate the relative impacts of geomorphic and environmental factors that govern the occurrence of landslides on the slopes of Mount Cameroon and its surrounding areas. The study area is located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), a major structural feature that originates from the south Atlantic and continues into the continental landmass. The quite frequent seismic activity, geologic character, humid tropical climate and high human pres...

  17. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria


    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  18. Tectonic evolution of the Tombel graben basement, southwestern Cameroon

    M.S.Njome; C.E.Suh


    Planar structures (foliations and fractures) around the Tombel graben (southwestern end of the Central African Shear zone system) have been investigated and analyzed with the aim of unraveling the tectonic evolution of the basement. The foliations show two major trends, an older N-S-trending gneissose layering of uncertain agereworked by a later Pan-African (600 + 50 Ma) NE-SW ductile trend that is contemporaneous with sinistral shearing and mylonitization. The brittle phase characterized by NW-SE-trending open and partially filled fractures is younger than the mylonitization event and although it has not been dated, it is suggested that the origin of these fractures is linked to the onset of volcanism along the Cameroon volcanic line-31 m.y. ago.The mylonitic foliation is recognized for the first time and supports a tectonic evolution model for the Tombel graben in which ductile non-coaxial deformation was succeeded by brittle failure.

  19. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E


    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  20. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  1. Comparison of avian assemblage structures in two upper montane forests of the Cameroon volcanic line: lessons for bird conservation

    Djomo Nana, E.; Sedláček, O.; Bayly, N.; Ferenc, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Reif, J.; Motombi, F. N.; Hořák, D.


    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2014), s. 1469-1484. ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Abundance-range size relationship * Assemblage structure * Range-restricted species * Species richness * West-Central Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  2. First-line antiretroviral therapy and dyslipidemia in people living with HIV-1 in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    Kengne André


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on lipid profile derangements induced by antiretroviral treatment in Africa are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of lipid profile derangements associated with first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART among Cameroonians living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and January 2010, and involved 138 HIV patients who had never received ART (ART-naive group and 138 others treated for at least 12 months with first line triple ART regimens that included nevirapine or efavirenz (ART group. Lipid profile was determined after overnight fast and dyslipidemia diagnosed according to the US National Cholesterol Education Program III criteria. Data comparison used chi-square test, Student t-test and logistic regressions. Results The prevalence of total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl was 37.6% and 24.6% respectively in ART group and ART-naive groups (p = 0.019. The equivalents for LDL-cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl were 46.4% and 21% (p ≤ 0.001. Proportions of patients with total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio ≥ 5 was 35.5% in ART group and 18.6% in ART-naive group (p ≤ 0.001. The distribution of HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides was similar between the two groups. In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, CD4 count and co-infection with tuberculosis, being on ART was significantly and positively associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TC/HDL cholesterol. The adjusted odd ratios (95% confidence interval, p-value ART-treated vs. ART-naïve was 1.82 (1.06-1.12, p = 0.02 for TC ≥ 200 mg/dl; 2.99 (1.74-5.15, p Conclusions First-line antiretroviral therapy that includes nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with pro-atherogenic adverse lipid profile in people with HIV-1 infection compared to untreated HIV-infected subjects in

  3. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Echu, George


    In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages) and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca). While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon reveali...

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Cameroon

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Cameroon. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Cameroon estimates the Speculative Resources of that country to be in the order of 10 000 tonnes uranium for syenite-associated U-deposits in southern Cameroon, and in the order of 5 000 tonnes uranium for uranium deposits associated with albitized and desilicified late tectonic Panafrican granites (episyenite) and Paleozoic volcanics in northern Cameroon. No specific tonnage is given for Francevillian equivalents (DJA-Series) and for Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, which are thought to hold limited potential for sandstone hosted uranium. However the Douala basin, consisting of mixed marine and continental sequences merits some attention. No specific budget and programme for uranium exploration are proposed for Cameroon. Instead specific recommendations concerning specific potential environments and general recommendation concerning the methodology of exploration are made. (author)

  5. Small ads as first steps to Internet business: A preliminary survey of Cameroon's commercial Internet usage

    Zeitlyn, David; Barone, Francine


    We have surveyed current commercial use of the Internet in Cameroon. This paper provides some data on Cameroon's presence on the Internet as an initial means of assessing the impact information technologies and the Internet have had on local business practices in Cameroon. We have found some NGOs promoting entrepreneurs and artisan producers to sell their wares. Alongside tourism and import/export listings, the use of small ads is predominant. Connectivity via fixed lines remains a bottleneck...

  6. Chikungunya virus, Cameroon, 2006

    Peyrefitte, Christophe N.; Rousset, Dominique; Pastorino, Boris A.M.; Pouillot, Regis; Bessaud, Maël; Tock, Fabienne; Mansaray, Helene; Merle, Olivier L.; Pascual, Aurelie M.; Paupy, Christophe; Vessiere, Aurelia; Imbert, Patrice; Tchendjou, Patrice; Durand, Jean-Paul; Tolou, Hugues J.


    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a patient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cameroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  7. Republic of Cameroon

    World Bank


    The overarching goal of this study is to facilitate Cameroon’s strategic objective of ensuring a well-educated human resources base in support of its quest to emerge as a strong middle-income economy by 2035. This study is intended to support Cameroon in preparing a national strategy for skills development, related policies, and institutions to boost competitiveness and productivity, and j...

  8. Mineral and geochemical characterization of a leptic aluandic soil and a thapto aluandic-ferralsol developed on trachytes in Mount Bambouto (Cameroon volcanic line)

    Tematio, P.; Fritsch, Emmanuel; Hodson, M E; LUCAS, Y.; Bitom, D.; Bilong, P.


    Mineral and geochemical investigations were carried out on soil samples and fresh rock (trachytes) from two selected soil profiles (TM profile on leptic aluandic soils and TL profile on thapto aluandic-ferralsols) from Mount Bambouto to better understand geochemical processes and mineral paragenesis involved in the development of soils in this environment. In TM profile, the hydrated halloysites and goethite occur in the weathered saprolite boulders of BC horizon while dehydrated halloysite, ...

  9. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François


    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  10. A new Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from Cameroon

    Læssøe, Thomas; Cheek, M.


    A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters.......A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters....

  11. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando


    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  12. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    Kouega, Jean-Paul


    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  13. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Echu, George


    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  14. Promotion and Development of Tourism in Cameroon

    Frida-Tolonen, Frida


    This Bachelor’s thesis is aimed to achieve a main goal which is at Promoting and developing tourism in Cameroon. This work will give a broad overview of issues in tourism in Africa and Cameroon, suggesting guidelines to assist countries such as Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria, to develop a more coherent structure for tourism. Tourism can only develop sustainably if it is united into the country’s overall economic, social and physical planning policies and enhancing regional promotion and effective...

  15. Decentralized Rural Electrification Project in Cameroon

    World Bank


    Cameroon is a rural country. More than 70 percent of its people live in rural areas. In 1995, of 13,000 villages in Cameroon, only about 1,500 were connected to the national electricity grid. Most of Cameroon's 12.2 million inhabitants lack access to electricity. Only about 5 percent of all households have electricity. About 35 percent of urban households have electricity, but in rural are...

  16. Variation in stable isotope ratios of monthly rainfall in the Douala and Yaounde cities, Cameroon: local meteoric lines and relationship to regional precipitation cycle

    Wirmvem, Mengnjo Jude; Ohba, Takeshi; Kamtchueng, Brice Tchakam; Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Ako, Ako Andrew


    Hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) stable isotopes in precipitation are useful tools in groundwater recharge and climatological investigations. This study investigated the isotopes in rainfall during the 2013 and 2014 hydrological years in the Douala and Yaounde urban cities. The objectives were to generate local meteoric water lines (LMWLs), define the spatial-temporal variations of the isotopes in rainwater and their relationship to the regional precipitation cycle, and determine the factors controlling the isotopic variation. The LWMLs in Douala and Yaounde were δD = 7.92δ18O + 12.99 and δD = 8.35δ18O + 15.29, respectively. The slopes indicate isotopic equilibrium conditions during rain formation and negligible evaporation effect during rainfall. Precipitation showed similar wide ranges in δ18O values from -5.26 to -0.75 ‰ in Douala and -5.8 to +1.81 ‰ in Yaounde suggesting a common moisture source from the Atlantic Ocean. Enriched weighted mean δ18O (wδ18O) values during the low pre- and post-monsoon showers coincided with low convective activity across the entire region. Enriched isotopic signatures also marked the West African monsoon transition phase during each hydrological year. Abrupt wδ18O depletion after the transition coincided with the monsoon onset in the region. Peak periods of monsoonal rainfall, associated with high convective activities, were characterised by the most depleted wδ18O values. Controls on isotopic variations are the amount effect and moisture recycling. The stable isotope data provide a tool for groundwater recharge studies while the isotopic correlation with regional rainfall cycle demonstrate their use as markers of moisture circulation and detecting climatic changes in precipitation.

  17. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba


    Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.

  18. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba


    This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational lea...

  19. Trace metals in water and fish (Unga species, Pungu maclareni, catfish Clarias maclareni) from Lake Barombi Mbo, Cameroon

    Sone, Brice Nkwelle


    Lake Barombi Mbo is an isolated oligotrophic lake situated in the volcanic range of West Cameroon and home to several endangered endemic cichlids. A fieldwork was carried out at the lake where water and fish samples were collected as part of an investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) whether studied trace metals were present at levels exceeding ambient water criteria, (ii) link uptake of trace metals in gills and liver of fish to water chemistry, (iii) ac...

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Cameroon. Draft

    Geology Branch with mapping and exploration services. Most of CAMEROON is underlain by Precambrian granites , anatexites, migmatites, gneisses, and schists. The NTEM complex in the south is Archean age. Most other areas are probably Lower Proterozoic, with some Middle Proterozoic inliers of the LOM, POLI, and MBALMAYO-BENGBIS, and the DJA series in the southeast. The DJA tillite is probably Upper Proterozoic. There are small remnant basins of Paleozoic volcanics, and larger basins and grabens of Middle-Upper Cretaceous. Tertiary rocks are present in the Coastal basins and the southeast. The Lake Chad depression is covered with Quaternary sands. All of the older rocks except the NTEM complex and the DJA series are within the Panafrican Mobile Belt. The border faults of the Cretaceous BENOUE graben are throughgoing crustal features. Tertiary intrusives and plateau basalts are found along the 'LINE OF CAMEROON', and volcanism has continued to present. Uranium exploration from 1950 to present has produced mostly negative results. Only one important prospect has been found at GOBLE-KITONGO, and has been the subject of repeated exploration from 195 8 to present. An enriched zone in syenite at LOLODORF is also under investigation. Anomalies on an airborne survey of the DJA series are being checked for mineralization similar to the FRANCEVILLIAN of GABON. Total expenditures that may be assigned to uranium are on the order of $10 million (U.S.). There are no uranium ore reserves or reasonably assured resources in CAMEROON. Speculative resources of 10,000 tonnes have been assigned to the LOLODORT syenite, and 5000 tonnes to the GOBLE-KITONGO prospect and Paleozoic volcanics at $130/kg. (U.S.). Favorable areas are the DJA series, syenites of the Panafrican granite and 'granites ultimes', Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins (especially DOUALA), LOM and MBALMAYO-BENGBIS series, POLI-MAROUA, and Lower Proterozoic/Archean gneiss and granite. Recommendations have been made for topical studies of

  1. Gazing into the Mirror : Operational Internal Control in Cameroon Customs

    Libom, Minette Li Likeng; Cantens, Thomas; Bilangna, Samson


    Cameroon is a model example of a developing country facing the challenges of trade facilitation, in light of its geographic location within Central Africa. Close to 20 percent of its customs revenues are used to finance the national budget. Cameroon's customs administration therefore plays a critical role in its economy. This paper presents the modernization process launched in Cameroon cu...

  2. Catastrophic volcanism

    Lipman, Peter W.


    Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.

  3. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Fontem, DA.


    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  4. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  5. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert


    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  6. From Chicken Breath to the Killer Lakes of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning.

    DeLorenzo, Ron


    Recommends integrating different applications to serve the need for students to know the relevancy of the course of their future. Uses different and unrelated phenomena to teach equilibria. Introduces six phenomena; (1) Killer Lakes of Cameroon, (2) Chicken Breath, (3) The Permian Ocean, (4) Snow Line, (5) Hard-Water Boiler Scale, and (6)…

  7. The Reception of American Literature in Cameroon

    Djockoua, Manyaka Toko


    In Cameroon, popular belief associates American literature with its country's economic and political greatness. Yet, if millions of Cameroonians show a growing enthusiasm for a visit to the US, just a few are interested in learning its literature. Using theories on the reading and teaching of literature, statistical data based on a questionnaire,…

  8. Marketing of Accommodation services : Case-Hotel Azam Cameroon

    Youkam, Germaine


    Cameroon is Africa in miniature with a lot of tourist attractions owing to its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. Accommodation services have been a grand phenomenon within the tourism industry in Cameroon. The accommodation sector has developed tremendously within the past decades. The objective of this research work was to find about out the marketing of accommodation services in Cameroon with Hotel Azam as...

  9. Origin and age of the Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.


    Lake Nyos occupies a young maar crater in the Precambrian granitic terrane of northwest Cameroon. The lake is partly surrounded by poorly consolidated, ultramafic nodule-bearing pyroclastic surge deposits that were explosively ejected from the Nyos crater at the time of its formation. Radiocarbon dates show that the maar probably formed about 400 years ago. Field evidence suggests that carbon dioxide could have been the principal volatile involved in the formation of the Nyos maar, and that the role of water may have been minor. The formation of the Nyos maar was preceded by a brief period of effusive basaltic volcanism, but the maar itself may have largely formed by cold, 'dry' explosive processes. Carbon dioxide may still be trapped interstitially in a diatreme inferred to underlie Lake Nyos; its gradual release into the waters of Lake Nyos may have set the stage for the tragic gas-release event of August 21, 1986. Only young maar lakes such as Nyos may pose a danger of future lethal gas releases. ?? 1989.

  10. Sub-continental lithospheric mantle structure beneath the Adamawa plateau inferred from the petrology of ultramafic xenoliths from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa plateau, Cameroon, Central Africa)

    Nkouandou, Oumarou F.; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Fagny, Aminatou M.


    Ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolite, harzburgite and olivine websterite) have been discovered in basanites close to Ngaoundéré in Adamawa plateau. Xenoliths exhibit protogranular texture (lherzolite and olivine websterite) or porphyroclastic texture (harzburgite). They are composed of olivine Fo89-90, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel. According to geothermometers, lherzolites have been equilibrated at 880-1060 °C; equilibrium temperatures of harzburgite are rather higher (880-1160 °C), while those of olivine websterite are bracketed between 820 and 1010 °C. The corresponding pressures are 1.8-1.9 GPa, 0.8-1.0 GPa and 1.9-2.5 GPa, respectively, which suggests that xenoliths have been sampled respectively at depths of 59-63 km, 26-33 km and 63-83 km. Texture and chemical compositional variations of xenoliths with temperature, pressure and depth on regional scale may be ascribed to the complex history undergone by the sub-continental mantle beneath the Adamawa plateau during its evolution. This may involve a limited asthenosphere uprise, concomitantly with plastic deformation and partial melting due to adiabatic decompression processes. Chemical compositional heterogeneities are also proposed in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle under the Adamawa plateau, as previously suggested for the whole Cameroon Volcanic Line.

  11. The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Cameroon

    Molua, Ernest L.; Lambi, Cornelius M.


    This study examines the impact of climate change on crop farming in Cameroon. The country's economy is predominantly agrarian and agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources remain the driving force for the country's economic development. Fluctuations in national income are due not merely to the decline in world demand for Cameroon's traditional agricultural exports or to mistake...

  12. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden


    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  13. An approach for the evaluation of rural governance in Cameroon: are community forests really forests for the communities?

    Hilaire NKENGFACK


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.

  14. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius


    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  15. Structural adjustment, women, and agriculture in Cameroon.

    Fonchingong, C


    This article assesses the impact of economic structural programs on the agricultural activities of women's groups in Cameroon, and explores women's ways of coping with the reduction in individual and family income and the loss of public services. It examines the role of 25 women's groups in both rural and urban areas of Cameroon's northwest and southwest provinces in a study conducted from April to June 1999. Economic structural adjustment caused a tremendous increase in the workload of women that are farming usually in lots distant from their homes that yield poor returns. Land for food-crop cultivation has become increasingly scarce, and inputs have become substantially unaffordable. Income generated from the sale of crops is inadequate to supply the economic and social needs of the family. Moreover, the burden of their work has increased as they cope with housework, child-care, and food production, in addition to an expanded participation in paid employment. Moreover, women spend longer working hours than men, meeting both household responsibilities and their outside work. Women have devised strategies to cope with this economic crisis, but they need organizations that will support them with the important resources to be able to operate. Rural women seem to be coping better than urban women cope. In extreme cases, some women in urban areas resort to prostitution to cope with life in this crisis setting. PMID:12349481

  16. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B.; Bopda, Jean; Mbickmen-Tchana, Steve; Elong-Kana, Nathalie; Nnomzo’o, Etienne; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Njiokou, Flobert; Kamgno, Joseph


    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administr...

  17. Marketing communication plan for the Cameroon Ministry of Tourism (MINTOUR)

    Nwankou Doublex, Moumbeh


    Cameroon has much potential as a tourist destination, but lack of prioritization of the industry by the government has hampered growth and development of the sector. The government has decided to invest in the sector, and ordered the Ministry of Tourism (MINTOUR) to create a Cameroon Tourism Board in 2010. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the present situation to identify problems facing the industry and the current market situation. The proposed solutions focus on branding and cre...

  18. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten


    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.......Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  19. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    Gaston, Buh-Wung; Tongwa, Aka F; Burnley, Clementine


    At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework f...

  20. Bars to Jars: Bamboo Value Chains in Cameroon

    Ingram, V; Tieguhong, J.C.


    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and sav...

  1. Economic Impact of Ecotourism in Mount Cameroon Region

    Njumba, Oscar


    Ecotourism activities are growing in popularity around the world and generating considerable financial effects to the local population. The definitions of this phenomenon are still evolving, but generally include references to travel to natural areas and local conservation benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of this business to the youths and the local communities in the Mount Cameroon region under a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) called Mount Cameroon...

  2. 76 FR 1660 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Art in Cameroon...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural... ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural Dialogues,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  3. Biodiversity conservation, ecotourism and rural liverlihoods in protected areas. Case study : the Mount Cameroon National Park

    Nkengfack, Susan Nkendem


    This study was carried out in the South West Province of Cameroon, specifically in the Mount Cameroon Region which encompasses the Mount Cameroon National park and its surrounding villages. The aim of the study was to assess how ecotourism is used as a tool to conserve the rich biodiversity of this area while improving the livelihoods of the local people and fostering development in the local communities. Focus was on the activities of the Mount Cameroon Inter-communal Ecotourism Board (Mt...

  4. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  5. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  6. Cameroon: A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    Saidi, Jasmin

    This report on the educational system of Cameroon contains information for university admissions officers and registrars in the United States on the credentials and other documentation that would be minimally required for student entry from Cameroon to specified levels of study in the United States. In Cameroon French and English languages share…

  7. Language Practices and Religious Rites in the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon

    Kouega, Jean-Paul


    This paper deals with language practices in one Pentecostal church in Cameroon, i.e. the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon (FGMC). The data are produced by some 80 pastors, church officials, choir leaders and congregants, and the settings are some 20 churches located in two anglophone regions and two francophone regions of Cameroon. The instruments…

  8. Synopsis of volcanic stratigraphy

    Hammond, P. E.


    Volcanic stratigraphic units are mappable layered units composed of volcanic rocks that are formed on land (subaerially) or under water (subaqueously) by volcanic processes. At least ten different types of volcanic stratigraphic units are recognized. The characteristics for each are discussed briefly and some typical examples are illustrated by diagrams to show their salient features.

  9. Deficiencies in pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon

    Abraham K. Akih


    Full Text Available Cameroon celebrated fifty years of independence from colonial rule on 20 May 2010. Major problems facing the nation are economic, social and political crises and the appalling condition of its prisons. This article focuses on pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon. Most churches in Cameroon have no pastoral care programme for prisoners. The churches in general are not yet committed to this kind of work. The article argues that changes and reform of the penitential system will be difficult if not impossible without collaboration with other institutions and resources, which include the different faith communities and faith based organisations. The focus should be on the care and well-being of those within its walls if successful rehabilitation is to take place. Spiritual care will contribute to the general well-being of prisoners. The article gives a broad overview of the situation of prisons and prisoners in Cameroon and presents a pastoral care approach that could contribute to the overall improvement of the lives of people in Cameroon prisons.

  10. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev


    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  11. Best practice guidelines for stroke in Cameroon: An innovative and participatory knowledge translation project

    Lynn Cockburn


    Full Text Available Background: Although the adherence to stroke guidelines in high-income countries has been shown to be associated with improved patient outcomes, the research, development and implementation of rehabilitation related guidelines in African countries is lacking.Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe how a group of front-line practitioners collaborated with academics and students to develop best practice guidelines (BPG for the management and rehabilitation of stroke in adult patients in Cameroon.Method: A working group was established and adapted internationally recognised processes for the development of best practice guidelines. The group determined the scope of the guidelines, documented current practices, and critically appraised evidence to develop guidelines relevant to the Cameroon context.Results: The primary result of this project is best practice guidelines which provided an overview of the provision of stroke rehabilitation services in the region, and made 83 practice recommendations to improve these services. We also report on the successes and challenges encountered during the process, and the working group’s recommendations aimed at encouraging others to consider similar projects.Conclusion: This project demonstrated that there is interest and capacity for improving stroke rehabilitation practices and for stroke guideline development in Africa.

  12. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Lezin Seba MINSILI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  13. Internet adoption and usage patterns in Africa: Evidence from Cameroon

    Penard, Thierry; Poussing, Nicolas; MUKOKO Blaise; TAMOKWE Georges Bertrand


    The objective of this paper is to understand what factors stimulate or hinder the adoption and usage of the Internet in Africa. We adopt a micro-econometric approach and use household survey data from Cameroon. Our results show that Internet users in Cameroon tend to be young, educated and in employment. The probability of using the Internet is also higher for male, as well as for English-speaking and computer savvy individuals. Moreover, Internet users are more likely to have family abroad. ...

  14. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry


    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  15. State-space approach to evaluate spatial variability of field measured soil water status along a line transect in a volcanic-vesuvian soil

    A. Comegna


    Full Text Available Unsaturated hydraulic properties and their spatial variability today are analyzed in order to use properly mathematical models developed to simulate flow of the water and solute movement at the field-scale soils. Many studies have shown that observations of soil hydraulic properties should not be considered purely random, given that they possess a structure which may be described by means of stochastic processes. The techniques used for analyzing such a structure have essentially been based either on the theory of regionalized variables or to a lesser extent, on the analysis of time series. This work attempts to use the time-series approach mentioned above by means of a study of pressure head h and water content θ which characterize soil water status, in the space-time domain. The data of the analyses were recorded in the open field during a controlled drainage process, evaporation being prevented, along a 50 m transect in a volcanic Vesuvian soil. The isotropic hypothesis is empirical proved and then the autocorrelation ACF and the partial autocorrelation functions PACF were used to identify and estimate the ARMA(1,1 statistical model for the analyzed series and the AR(1 for the extracted signal. Relations with a state-space model are investigated, and a bivariate AR(1 model fitted. The simultaneous relations between θ and h are considered and estimated. The results are of value for sampling strategies and they should incite to a larger use of time and space series analysis.

  16. Assessing the detection, reporting and investigation of adverse events in clinical trial protocols implemented in Cameroon: a documentary review of clinical trial protocols

    Ebile, Akoh Walter; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Djuidje, Marceline Ngounoue; Watcho, Pierre


    Background International guidelines recommend ethical and scientific quality standards for managing and reporting adverse events occurring during clinical trials to competent research ethics committees and regulatory authorities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical trial protocols in Cameroon are developed in line with national requirements and international guidelines as far as detecting, reporting and investigating of adverse events is concerned. Methods It was a doc...

  17. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.


    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  18. Local vegetables in Cameroon: Corchorus species used as a vegetable.

    Westphal-Stevels, J.M.C.


    An agro-botanical study of local vegetables in Cameroon is in preparation, including the taxonomy, identity, morphology, agronomy and nutritional value of about 70 species. Corchorus olitorius L. and other edible species of the genus Corchorus L. (Tiliaceae) are part of this study. The wide variatio

  19. Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)

    Allison, Sean David


    Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

  20. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].


    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  1. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as `Africa in miniature'?

    Huguette Gaelle Ngassa Mbenda; Gauri Awasthi; Poonam K Singh; Inocent Gouado; Aparup Das


    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ∼20 million population, is commonly regarded as ‘Africa in miniature’ due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and diverse topography. Over 90% Cameroonians are at risk of malaria infection, and ∼41% have at least one episode of malaria each year. Historically, the rate of malaria infection in Cameroon has fluctuated over the years; the number of cases was about 2 million in 2010 and 2011. The Cameroonian malaria control programme faces an uphill task due to high prevalence of multidrug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Above all, continued human migration from the rural to urban areas as well as population exchange with adjoining countries, high rate of ecological instabilities caused by deforestation, poor housing, lack of proper sanitation and drainage system might have resulted in the recent increase in incidences of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in Cameroon. The available data on eco-environmental variability and intricate malaria epidemiology in Cameroon reflect the situation in the whole of Africa, and warrant the need for in-depth study by using modern surveillance tools for meaningful basic understanding of the malaria triangle (host-parasite-vector-environment).

  2. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice


    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478

  3. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M


    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushrooms were used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals. PMID:22135882

  4. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  5. Entrepreneurship Development in a Local Context: Evidence from Entrepreneurs in the Eastern Region of Cameroon


    In Cameroon, entrepreneurial activities are developed from two main cities namely; Douala and Yaound¨¦. Therefore researches on entrepreneurship development in Cameroon are based on entrepreneurs from these main cities, while other regions entrepreneurial activities are not considered as a target for entrepreneurship analysis. This paper analyses entrepreneurial activities in Eastern Cameroon that has a lowest level of enterprise creation that is in contrast to the abundant natural resources ...

  6. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians

    Doherty-Bone, T.M.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T.; C. Weldon


    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n...

  7. Cassava Processing and Marketing by Rural Women in the Central Region of Cameroon

    SHIOYA, Akiyo


    This study examines the development of rural women's commercial activities in Central Cameroon, particularly the Department of Lekié, which is adjacent to Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon. I focused on cassava processing technologies and the sale of cassavabased processed foods undertaken by women in a suburban farming village. Cassava is one of the main staple foods in central Cameroon, including in urban areas. One of its characteristics is that it keeps for a long period in the ground but ...

  8. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Stefano Mandelli; Emanuela Colombo; Jerome Mungwe


    Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper ...

  9. Amodiaquine-Artesunate versus Artemether-Lumefantrine against Uncomplicated Malaria in Children Less Than 14 Years in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon: Efficacy, Safety, and Baseline Drug Resistant Mutations in pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfdhfr Genes

    Ali, Innocent M.; Netongo, Palmer M; Barbara Atogho-Tiedeu; Eric-Olivier Ngongang; Anthony Ajua; Achidi, Eric A.; Mbacham, Wilfred F.


    Background. In Cameroon, both Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are used as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in line with the WHO recommendations. We compared the efficacy and safety of both therapeutic combinations and determined the prevalence of drug resistance conferring mutations in three parasite genes. Methods. One hundred and fifty acute malaria patients between six months and 14 years of age were randomized to receive standard doses of ...

  10. Teachers’ approaches to language classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools

    Achu Charles Tante


    Full Text Available Assessment has a huge impact on ESL primary pupils, in part, because on the curriculum English is both a subject and also a language of learning all the other subjects. For children still acquiring L1 it is daunting sometimes to be expected to understand concepts in L2. It may be difficult then to gather information to make an impartial judgement with regards to a pupil’s language level. This study is a preliminary inquiry that attempts to find out teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools. Using a qualitative open-ended question the researcher finds out three main categories of assessment approaches used by teachers. From the categories extrapolations on possible assumptions that guide teachers’ choices of assessment procedures are described and suggested for future study. Keywords Classroom assessment approach, Cameroon, scheme of work, ESL/EFL, Young Learners 

  11. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon.

    Ingram, Verina; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi


    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and savannah Oxytenanthera abyssinica) and exotic (Bambusa vulgaris spp.) bamboos were identified as most utilized. They were tracked from major production zones to final consumers. The ecological, socio-economic, institutional, and governance contexts and impacts are described and analyzed. Issues for research, conservation, and development are highlighted. These include the ambiguous regulatory status, the relationship between tenure and management, threats and conservation of African species and options to increase the sustainable livelihoods for stakeholders dependent upon bamboo. PMID:23015325

  12. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Lake Nyos (Cameroon, Central Africa)

    Tiodjio, Rosine E.; Sakatoku, Akihiro; Nakamura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Daisuke; Fantong, Wilson Y.; Tchakam, Kamtchueng B.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Victor J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nakamura, Shogo; Ueda, Akira


    The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial s...

  13. Evaluation of health policies : an economic analysis applied to Cameroon

    Nkwenkeu, Sylvain F.


    In Cameroon, the sequence of reforms in the health sector has reinforced an ideological wavering between two opposing currents: a socio-universal that promotes equity, and a neoliberal, which militates for greater economic efficiency of existing systems. Articulating two concerns which are, the worsening of health inequalities as consequence of policy choices made on the efficacy of services without taking into account factors that support the demand, and the form of organization of the healt...

  14. Anglophone university students and anglophone nationalist struggles in Cameroon

    Konings, P.J.J.


    The importance of student politics in Africa during economic and political liberalization cannot be underestimated. However, this study of anglophone students in Cameroon cautions against treating students as a homogeneous group. It shows that although anglophone students today feel even more marginalized than their francophone counterparts, they have actually displayed a rather ambivalent attitude towards the francophone-dominated State. The author first describes the development of anglopho...

  15. Marketing Cameroon as a Cultural Tourism Destination to Finnish Tourists

    Akuri, Lucien; Landa Celestin, Ndingi


    Cultural tourism is already a global phenomenon and has been increasingly promoted in the forms such as heritage, arts, creative, rural and urban cultural tourism, amongst others, and their sub-sections. The marketing of these cultural tourism forms and their attractions by various tourism destinations to target markets is still complex and thus, a major challenge. The study investigates the ways in which Cameroon with very rich and diverse cultural products and attractions can be markete...

  16. Impact of agribusiness labour on the child education in Cameroon

    Tiwang N Gildas


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the involvement of child labour in agribusinesses as well as the schooling pattern of children involved in these agribusinesses in Cameroon. For this study, some descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were computed using SPSS.20 and stata 13 software packages. The population of this study was made up of 51,190 individuals of both sexes that were concerned by the third Cameroon National Household Survey. The sample drawn from this population was constituted of individuals of age 5-17 years old, making a total of 17,550 children. The main results of this study revealed that agribusiness child labour was present everywhere in Cameroon and by both boys and girls. Children of all ages of the sample were concerned by the phenomenon and their level of education was essentially the primary. The impact of agribusiness child labour on education was positive because it helped the working and schooling children to provide means to finance their education and other needs. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on education because some children went for these jobs and finally stayed there and did not return back to school.

  17. Dentofacial injuries in contact sports in Yaounde, Cameroon

    M A Agbor


    Full Text Available Background: Dentofacial injuries constitute serious problems among competitive and recreational athletes, worldwide. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentofacial injuries and related factors among individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study among individuals participating in karate, judo, basketball, handball, football and wrestling in Yaoundé, Cameroon was conducted between January and April, 2012. Results: Of the 240 athletes interviewed, 115 and 89 of them reported bodily and dentofacial injuries giving 47.9% and 37.1% prevalence, respectively. The bodily injuries were limbs-(60.0%, chest-(23.5%, abdomen-(11.3% and neck- (5.2%. Mouth and face accounted for 52.8% and 37.1% of the dentofacial injuries, respectively. Other dentofacial injuries were teeth-(6.7% and mandible-(3.4%. Older athletes and years of participation were more likely to experience dentofacial injuries. Karate was the most common cause of dentofacial injuries followed by wrestling. The prevalence of the dentofacial injuries was similar among both genders and was equally prevalent during training and competition. The personal protective equipment use reduced the likelihood of dentofacial injuries among the athletes. Conclusion: The prevalence of dentofacial injuries were high while the personal protective equipment use was low among the individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.


    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests,…

  19. Economic management in neo-colonial states : a case study of Cameroon

    Jua, N.


    This study examines the economic management strategies adopted by the Government of Cameroon. Economic planning in Cameroon has been anchored to the principles of planned liberalism, self-reliant development, balanced development and social justice. These concepts are elaborated and it is shown that

  20. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  1. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    Che, Celestine Akuma


    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  2. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon and I hereby waive such restriction....

  3. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard


    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon. PMID:21209162

  4. Volcanic signals in oceans

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  5. Volcanic evolution of the South Sandwich volcanic arc, South Atlantic, from multibeam bathymetry

    Leat, Philip T.; Day, Simon J.; Tate, Alex J.; Martin, Tara J.; Owen, Matthew J.; Tappin, David R.


    New multibeam bathymetry data are presented for the South Sandwich intra-oceanic arc which occupies the small Sandwich plate in the South Atlantic, and is widely considered to be a simple end-member in the range of intra-oceanic arc types. The images show for the first time the distribution of submarine volcanic, tectonic and erosional-depositional features along the whole length of the 540 km long volcanic arc, allowing systematic investigation of along-arc variations. The data confirm that the volcanic arc has a simple structure composed of large volcanoes which form a well-defined volcanic front, but with three parallel cross-cutting seamount chains extending 38-60 km from near the volcanic front into the rear-arc. There is no evidence for intra-arc rifting or extinct volcanic lines. Topographic evidence for faulting is generally absent, except near the northern and southern plate boundaries. Most of the volcanic arc appears to be built on ocean crust formed at the associated back-arc spreading centre, as previously proposed from magnetic data, but the southern part of the arc appears to be underlain by older arc or continental crust whose west-facing rifted margin facing the back-arc basin is defined by the new bathymetry. The new survey shows nine main volcanic edifices along the volcanic front and ca. 20 main seamounts. The main volcanoes form largely glaciated islands with summits 3.0-3.5 km above base levels which are 2500-3000 m deep in the north and shallower at 2000-2500 m deep in the south. Some of the component seamounts are interpreted to have been active since the last glacial maximum, and so are approximately contemporaneous with the volcanic front volcanism. Seven calderas, all either submarine or ice-filled, have been identified: Adventure volcano, a newly discovered submarine volcanic front caldera volcano is described for the first time. All but one of the calderas are situated on summits of large volcanoes in the southern part of the arc, and

  6. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.


    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  7. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  8. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Jan kornaś


    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  9. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal

    Southgate, V. R.; Tchuem Tchuenté, L. A.; Théron, A.; JOURDANE, J; Ly, A.; Moncrieff, C. B.; B. Gryseels


    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maxim...

  10. Informal chain-saw timber from Cameroon : the northern trail

    Yeboah Alexis Koffi


    This document presents a synthesis of the unformal trade of timber in Cameroon. It focuses on the informal trade which occurs from tropical forests towards various countries of Africa. This trade, largely ignored by the litterature so far, is surprisingly important, and its geographical extension is very large. The data and figures are extracted from the master thesis of the author : Sciage artisanal, Transformation et commerce du bois d'oeuvre du Cameroun à destination de l'arc Soudano-Sahél...

  11. Application of energy conservation policies and strategies: their effects on environment protection. Cameroon example

    The geographical situation of Cameroon, at the intersection of the semi-desert sahelian and tropical forest ecosystems, an energy consumption balance dominated by wood fuel utilization (68.5 pc.), a transportation sector responsible for 71.5 pc. of the oil consumption and of the CO/CO2 emissions, all confer to the Cameroon a particularity that put the country at the heart of the energy-environment debate: ecological threats from oil extraction and hydroelectricity production activities, desertification and global warming in Cameroon; several limited programs are taken: reforestation, enhanced wood cookers, substitution of liquid propane to wood fuel. A global strategy is under way

  12. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.


    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  13. Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Cameroon

    The aim of this paper is to study the nature of the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Cameroon through a three-step approach: (i) Study the stationarity of the chronic, (ii) test of causality between variables and (iii) estimate the appropriate model. The study concludes in a non-stationarity of the series. Using the data in first difference, the Granger causality test yields a strong evidence for unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. Cointegration tests also show that these two series are co-integrated and the Error Correction Model (ECM) reveals that every percentage increase in Oil products consumption increases economic growth by around 1.1%. This result confirms the intuition that an economic policy aimed at improving energy supply will necessarily have a positive impact on economic growth. On the other side, a lack of energy is a major bottleneck for further economic development in Cameroon. - Highlights: • The series of GDP, ELECTRICITY, OIL and BIOFUELS are integrated of order 1. • The Granger causality test yields a unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. • No causal link between GDP and ELECTRICITY, and no more between GDP and BIOFUELS. • Cointegration tests also show that only OIL and GDP are co-integrated. • Every percentage increase in OIL increases GDP by around 1.1%

  14. The Weight of Health Expenditures on Household Income in Cameroon

    Joseph Parfait OWOUNDI


    Full Text Available  African leaders pledged at the Abuja conference in 2001, to mobilize more financial resources to allocate at least 15% of their national budgets to the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, seem to have difficulty meeting this commitment because of weakness and fragmentation of health systems. These commitments were renewed in Gaborone, Botswana in 2005 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2006. Indeed, donor funding is still a large part of public health spending on the continent. In some countries, 50% or more of their budgets come from foreign or private assistance. In about half the countries, the private health financing is equal to or exceeds largely public funding, up to 70% in some states like Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia and Uganda. Only five countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso, and Togo have so far respected the promise made to the Abuja conference. In Cameroon, where 51% of the population lives on less than two dollars per day, the average propensity of the total medical consumption is very high. Indeed, 32% of households spend less than half of income on health, while 16% of households spend more than half of the income and 52% spend more than the total income. This corresponds to a weight of 68% in health care spending.  

  15. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Nana Philip N


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  16. Poverty and Share Revenue in the Cameroon Cocoa Zone

    Folefack, DP.


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the revenue level and unequal poverty revenue in the Cameroonian cocoa zone. The results show a great variability on the revenues generating activities to producers of cocoa in Cameroon. These activities generate an average revenue of 1 215 622 FCFA per year, with an annual average revenue of 145 933 FCFA per person. We realize through the indice of Gini 0.61 that the concentration of these revenues is most strong in Cameroon and the poverty rate is still affecting 69% of the population. We observe as well that the average revenue of 228 263 FCFA per year and per person for the producers of South West. They are thus the richest, inspite of the high degree of concentration. In the Centre, the population have a high average annual revenue of 87 257 FCFA per person and the concentration seems to be in a lower degree. Finally, in the South we find the poorest with a revenue of 53 504 FCFA per year and per person and the concentration is more important. An analysis based on unequal indicators shows in general that the revenue per person is relatively low and the degree of concentration of revenue is stronger in the Cameroonian cocoa zone.

  17. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    Buh-Wung Gaston


    Full Text Available At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework from the civil society perspective, particularly the role of local governance in disaster risk reduction (DRR. Seven regions of the country were identified for evaluation, where people have suffered losses from disasters during the last three decades. Three approaches were used: administration of questionnaires; consultations with local communities; and four case studies. It was found that there was significant scope for improvement on individual local governance indicators, and that effective progress depends on:1. level of achievement in the decentralisation process currently under way.2. adoption of a participatory approach to DRR.3. clear distribution of roles in the DRR process.4. adequate allocation of necessary financial and human resources.5. enhancement of capacity of local communities to prepare for and respond to all types of disasters.Creation of an independent body to carry out fundamental research, forecast new and emerging hazards and manage all disasters in the country will contribute greatly to moving things forward.

  18. Food habits of two sciaenid fish species (Pseudotolithus typus and Pseudotolithus senegalensis) off Cameroon

    Tientcheu, J.Y.; Djama, T.


    Pseudotolithus typus and P. senegalensis (Sciaenidae) sampled off Cameroon Coast, West Africa, have been found to feed mainly on shrimps (Nematoplaemon hastatus and Parapenaeopsis atlantica) and juvenile fish (mostly clupeids). The diet composition is presented and discussed.

  19. Virological outcome and patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance in patients with 36 months’ antiretroviral therapy experience in Cameroon

    Avelin F Aghokeng


    Full Text Available Introduction: The current expansion of antiretroviral treatment (ART in the developing world without routine virological monitoring still raises concerns on the outcome of the strategy in terms of virological success and drug resistance burden. We assessed the virological outcome and drug resistance mutations in patients with 36 months’ ART experience, and monitored according to the WHO public health approach in Cameroon. Methods: We consecutively recruited between 2008 and 2009 patients attending a national reference clinic in Yaoundé – Cameroon, for their routine medical visits at month 36±2. Observance data and treatment histories were extracted from medical records. Blood samples were collected for viral load (VL testing and genotyping of drug resistance when HIV-1 RNA≥1000 copies/ml. Results: Overall, 376 HIV-1 infected adults were recruited during the study period. All, but four who received PMTCT, were ART-naïve at treatment initiation, and 371/376 (98.7% started on a first-line regimen that included 3TC +d4T/AZT+NVP/EFV. Sixty-six (17.6% patients experienced virological failure (VL≥1000 copies/ml and 53 carried a resistant virus, thus representing 81.5% (53/65 of the patients who failed. Forty-two out of 53 were resistant to nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs+NNRTIs, one to protease inhibitors (PI and NNRTIs, two to NRTIs only and eight to NNRTIs only. Among patients with NRTI resistance, 18/44 (40.9% carried Thymidine Analog Mutations (TAMs, and 13/44 (29.5% accumulated at least three NRTI resistance mutations. Observed NNRTI resistance mutations affected drugs of the regimen, essentially nevirapine and efavirenz, but several patients (10/51, 19.6% accumulated mutations that may have compromised etravirine use. Conclusions: We observed a moderate level of virological failure after 36 months of treatment, but a high proportion of patients who failed developed drug resistance. Although we

  20. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    Sodjinou, Roger; Lezama, Ines; Asse, Marie-Louise; Okala, Georges; William K. Bosu; Fanou, Nadia; Mbala, Ludvine; Zagre, Noel Marie; Tchibindat, Félicité; Delisle, Helene


    Background: There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon.Design: Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administe...

  1. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    Roger Sodjinou; Ines Lezama; Marie-Louise Asse; Georges Okala; William K. Bosu; Nadia Fanou; Ludvine Mbala; Noel Marie Zagre; Félicité Tchibindat


    Background: There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. Design: Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administ...

  2. A crispy dedicacy : Augosoma beetle as alternative source of protein in East Cameroon

    F. J. Muafor; Levang, Patrice; Le Gall, Philippe


    Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae) is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65%...

  3. A Crispy Delicacy: Augosoma Beetle as Alternative Source of Protein in East Cameroon

    F. J. Muafor; Levang, P.; Le Gall, P


    Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae) is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65% of consu...

  4. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac


    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were alr...


    Ngoye, Charles


    Cameroon is often referred to as Africa in miniature. Endowed with abundant touristic potential but not a popular tourist’s destination. In this nation can be found almost every touristic attraction that can be seen in all parts of Africa and others that can be found here and not elsewhere. It has three climate zones to feed the tourist tastes which is scarcely to be anywhere in Africa This splendid destination Cameroon has attractions like waterfalls, lakes, mountains, natural beaches, game ...

  6. Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon

    Nicola Napoli; Enrico Zardi; Rocky Strollo; Michele Arigliani; Andrea Daverio; Flaminia Olearo; Daniele Tosi; Giordano Dicuonzo; Filomena Scarpa; Claudio Pedone; Hervé Hilaire Tegue Simo; Giovanni Mottini; Paolo Pozzilli


    BACKGROUND: We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study, carotid i...

  7. Gingival health and oral hygiene practices of schoolchildren in the North West Region of Cameroon

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Agbor, Ashu Michael


    Background Optimal oral hygiene practices are instrumental to achieving good dental and gingival health. The purpose of this study was to determine the gingival health and oral hygiene practices of schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon. Methods This cross-sectional survey among 12–13 years old rural and urban schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon was conducted between March and November, 2010. Results A total of 2295 schoolchildren were interviewed but only 2287 of...

  8. Strengthening human resources for health through multisectoral approaches and leadership: the case of Cameroon

    Kingue, S.; E Rosskam; AC Bela; A Adjidja; Codjia, L.


    Problem Cameroon has a severe shortage of human resources for health (HRH) and those that are available are concentrated in urban areas. Approach As the result of a national emergency plan for the years 2006–2008, innovative strategies and a multisectoral partnership – led by the Ministry of Public Health and supported by diverse national and international organizations – were developed to address the shortages and maldistribution of HRH in Cameroon. Local setting At the time that the eme...

  9. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Bang, Henry N.


    The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon w...

  10. Human Resource Management Issues at a Rising Entrepreneurial Company in Cameroon: Employees' Perspective

    DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh


    This case study examines the human resources practices in Universal-Cameroon Link, a promising small business in Cameroon. In-depth interviews were conducted with current and past employees to gain insight into their perspectives on management implementation of human resource management strategies and their (non-)effectiveness. Management treatment of employees not as significant contributors to the growth and success of the business, but mere as "tools" has resulted in distrust from both par...

  11. Program on immunization and cold chain monitoring: the status in eight health districts in Cameroon

    Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Kenfack, Bruno; Nkontchou, Blaise Wakam; Demanou, Maurice


    Background Cold chain monitoring is a precondition to ensure immunization quality, efficacy and safety. In Cameroon, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has National Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) that describes the vaccines, the cold chain system and equipment, its use and recommended procedures to control and monitor the temperatures and the cold chain. This study was conducted to assess the status of cold chain in eight health districts in Cameroon. Findings The study was carrie...

  12. Hospital Workers' Awareness of Health and Environmental Impacts of Poor Clinical Waste Disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    Mochungong, Peter I. K.; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten


    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection...... management. Methods of collecting, segregating, transporting and disposing clinical waste at the three hospitals was poor. The development of a comprehensive policy on efficient clinicalwaste management in Cameroon is imperative....

  13. Hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten


    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection...... management. Methods of collecting, segregating, transporting and disposing clinical waste at the three hospitals was poor. The development of a comprehensive policy on efficient clinical waste management in Cameroon is imperative....

  14. Volcanism and Oil & Gas In Northeast China

    Shan Xuanlong


    Based on study on the relation with volcanic rock and oil & gas in Songliao Basin and Liaohe Basin in northeast China, author proposes that material from deep by volcanism enrichs the resources in basins, that heat by volcanism promotes organic matter transforming to oil and gas, that volcanic reservoir is fracture, vesicular, solution pore, intercrystal pore.Lava facies and pyroclastic facies are favourable reservoir. Mesozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of intermediate, acid rock,but Cenozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of basalt. Types of oil and gas pool relating to volcanic rock include volcanic fracture pool, volcanic unconformity pool, volcanic rock - screened pool, volcanic darpe structural pool.

  15. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN. Geneva


    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  16. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination.

    Hugues C Nana-Djeunga

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administration (MDA was required.The endemicity status and distribution of LF was assessed in eight of the ten Regions of Cameroon by a rapid-format card test for detection of W. bancrofti antigen (immunochromatographic test, ICT. The baseline data required to monitor the effectiveness of MDA was collected by assessing microfilariaemia in nocturnal calibrated thick blood smears in sentinel sites selected in the health districts where ICT positivity rate was ≥ 1%.Among the 120 health districts visited in the eight Regions during ICT survey, 106 (88.3% were found to be endemic for LF (i.e. had ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%, with infection rate from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2-5.5 to 20.0% (95% CI: 10-30. The overall infection rate during the night blood survey was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.08-0.16 in 11 health districts out of the 106 surveyed; the arithmetic mean for microfilaria density was 1.19 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.13-2.26 for the total population examined.ICT card test results showed that LF was endemic in all the Regions and in about 90% of the health districts surveyed. All of these health districts qualified for MDA (i.e. ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%. Microfilariaemia data collected as part of this study provided the national program with baseline data (sentinel sites necessary to measure the impact of MDA on the endemicity level and transmission of LF important for the 2020 deadline for global elimination.

  17. Tungiasis: A Neglected Health Problem in Rural Cameroon

    George Collins


    Full Text Available Background: The jigger flea (Tunga penetrans is a parasitic insect that causes debility in resource-poor communities of the developing world. The flea originates from South America, but it has spread across the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia. Virulence, known as tungiasis, results from infestation by the fertilised female flea, which embeds into the epidermis (usually of the feet, feeds on lymph and swells as the eggs grow. The mature eggs are extruded onto the ground, where the larvae feed, pupate and metamorphose into the adult flea. Aim & Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and impact of Tunga penetrans in a rural population of North-west Cameroon, in relation to a series of associated risk factors. Method/Study Design: In July and August 2008, a survey was carried out across a representative sample of compounds within nine villages in the Ndu sub-division of North-west Cameroon. The residents were questioned in relation to suggested risk factors, as well as local treatments and folklore. Their hands and feet were examined for the presence of tungiasis, and the number and locality of lesions were recorded. Results/Findings: 1,151 individuals were examined, including 567 males (49% and 584 females (51%. Of these, 53% were children (0-14 years, and 10% were elderly (60+ years. In total, 610 individuals (53% were infested with Tunga penetrans. Prevalence was higher in males (59% than in females (47% (p=0.004. Prevalence was highest in children, decreased in adults and increased again in the elderly. Illiterate people were more likely to suffer (59% than those who were literate (50% (p=0.05. The mean parasite intensity was 5.1, and the median parasite intensity was 2 (interquartile range, 2-5. Of those surveyed, 769 (67% had experienced the flea within the previous month, and 21% of the study sample did not consider jigger flea infestation to be a disease. Conclusion: The prevalence and impact of tungiasis in rural

  18. Conceptual model of volcanism and volcanic hazards of the region of Ararat valley, Armenia

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime


    Armenia and the adjacent volcanically active regions in Iran, Turkey and Georgia are located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. The majority of studies of regional collision related volcanism use the model proposed by Keskin, (2003) where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off. In Armenia, >500 Quaternary-Holocene volcanoes from the Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic fields are hosted within pull-apart structures formed by active faults and their segments (Karakhanyan et al., 2002), while tectonic position of the large in volume basalt-dacite Aragats volcano and periphery volcanic plateaus is different and its position away from major fault lines necessitates more complex volcano-tectonic setup. Our detailed volcanological, petrological and geochemical studies provide insight into the nature of such volcanic activity in the region of Ararat Valley. Most magmas, such as those erupted in Armenia are volatile-poor and erupt fairly hot. Here we report newly discovered tephra sequences in Ararat valley, that were erupted from historically active Ararat stratovolcano and provide evidence for explosive eruption of young, mid K2O calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O; amph-bearing) magmas. Such young eruptions, in addition to the ignimbrite and lava flow hazards from Gegham and Aragats, present a threat to the >1.4 million people (~ ½ of the population of Armenia). We will report numerical simulations of potential volcanic hazards for the region of Ararat valley near Yerevan that will include including tephra fallout, lava flows and opening of new vents. Connor et al. (2012) J. Applied Volcanology 1:3, 1-19; Karakhanian et al. (2002), JVGR, 113, 319-344; Keskin, M. (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 24, 8046.

  19. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    Gadsby Elizabeth L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more

  20. Paths to Attaining Food Security: The Case of Cameroon

    Genesis T. Yengoh


    Full Text Available This paper sets out to develop a framework for characterizing agricultural growth orientations. We identify four main components in the global food system (technology, institutions, people, and natural resources. Based on the extent to which any two of these components are important in driving the growth of agriculture, we distinguish four main orientations of agricultural growth: local food, high resource-technology driven, guided technology driven, and right-to-food growth orientations. Given the social and environmental challenges that agricultural growth has to meet in Cameroon, we argue that the local food orientation and guided technology-driven orientation offer better opportunities for meeting the problem of food security in this country.

  1. Mechanisms for Quality Assurance of Universities in Cameroon



    Full Text Available This paper takes a perspective look at the evolution of universities in Cameroon and the recent orientation of deregulation as it affects quality assurance in Cameroonian universities. The paper having identified these flaws attempted to elucidate the meaning of mechanism for Quality assurance in the face of deregulation. The regulatory mechanisms identified by this paper include inter- alia, appropriate scrutiny of new programmes, relying on impartial advise of examiners. Using the state law NO.98/004 of 1998 to compliment the efforts of internal school administration and above all opening linkages between universities and relating universities education in the World of science and technology. This paper does not only enhance quality assurance but also builds the idea of economic growth and development.

  2. Alcohol use and extramarital sex among men in Cameroon

    Wiysonge Charles


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be driven by unsafe sex, and identification of modifiable risk factors of the latter is needed for comprehensive HIV prevention programming in the region. Some previous studies suggest an association between alcohol abuse and unsafe sexual behaviour, such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in sex with non-spousal non-cohabiting partners. However, most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and the few studies in Africa were conducted among well-defined social groups such as men attending beer halls or sexually transmitted infection clinics. We therefore examined the association between alcohol and extramarital sex (a sign of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among men in a population-based survey in Cameroon; a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with a high rate of alcohol abuse and a generalised HIV epidemic. Methods We analyzed data from 2678 formally married or cohabiting men aged 15 to 59 years, who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey, using a multivariate regression model. Results A quarter of the men (25.8% declared having taken alcohol before their last sexual intercourse and 21% indicated that the last sex was with a woman other than their wife or cohabiting partner. After controlling for possible confounding by other socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use was significantly associated with having extramarital sex: adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.40 to 2.05. Older age (30–44 years: OR 3.06, 95%CI 2.16–4.27 and 45–59 years: OR 4.10, 95%CI 2.16–4.27, higher education (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.45, and wealth (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50–1.98 were also significantly associated with higher odds of having extramarital sex. The men were more likely to have used a condom in their last sex if it was extramarital (OR 10.50, 95%CI 8.10–13

  3. Wealth and sexual behaviour among men in Cameroon

    Nana Philip


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. Methods We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15–59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR with confidence intervals (CI. Results When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.56 and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.43. However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16–0.38 and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10–3.56 and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02–3.31. There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services

  4. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph


    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  5. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A


    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

  6. Geomagnetic imprint of the Persani volcanism

    Besutiu, Lucian; Seghedi, Ioan; Zlagnean, Luminita; Atanasiu, Ligia; Popa, Razvan-Gabriel; Pomeran, Mihai; Visan, Madalina


    employing various filtering techniques. Thus, the reduction-to-the-pole or pseudo-gravity operators have allowed for an improved source positioning, distorted by the inclination of the geomagnetic vector, while high-order derivatives (e.g. horizontal and vertical gradients) have better outlined the contour of the hidden magnetic bodies. Overall, the geomagnetic survey has confirmed the assumptions previously inferred by geological field work. Besides, it helped identify several unrevealed buried volcanic forms and their relation to structural elements (e.g. fault aligned vents, and larger circular structures). In-depth development of the volcanic structures has been studied along several interpretative lines by using inversion and 2D forward modelling of geomagnetic data under rock magnetic properties constraints provided by lab analyses. Acknowledgements. The research was funded through CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0137.

  7. Reducing volcanic risk

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.


    The last two decades have brought major advances in research on how volcanoes work and how to monitor their changing habits. Geologic mapping as well as studies of earthquake patterns and surface deformation associated with underground movement of magma have given scientists a better view of the inner structure and dynamics of active volcanoes. With the next decade, the time has come to focuses more on applying this knowledge toward reducing the risk from volcanic activity on a worldwide basis. 

  8. Subdiffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    Abe, Sumiyoshi


    A comparative study is performed on volcanic seismicities at Mt.Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Mt. Etna in Sicily, Italy, from the viewpoint of science of complex systems, and the discovery of remarkable similarities between them regarding their exotic spatio-temporal properties is reported. In both of the volcanic seismicities as point processes, the jump probability distributions of earthquakes are found to obey the exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distributions follow the power law. In particular, a careful analysis is made about the finite size effects on the waiting-time distributions, and accordingly, the previously reported results for Mt. Etna [S. Abe and N. Suzuki, EPL 110, 59001 (2015)] are reinterpreted. It is shown that spreads of the volcanic earthquakes are subdiffusive at both of the volcanoes. The aging phenomenon is observed in the "event-time-averaged" mean-squared displacements of the hypocenters. A comment is also made on presence/absence of long term memories in the context of t...

  9. Development of the Oil Industry in Cameroon and Its Implications for Education and Training. IIEP Research Report No. 79.

    Sanyal, Bikas C.; And Others

    A study analyzed how the oil industry in Cameroon developed and influenced the expansion, structure, and content of Cameroon's formal and nonformal education and training system. A survey of 213 employees and 8 enterprises was supplemented by a review of government reports and official published and unpublished documents. The economy of Cameroon…

  10. On the visibility of airborne volcanic ash and mineral dust

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D. N.; Minikin, A.; Reitebuch, O.; Dahlkötter, F.; Mayer, B. C.; Emde, C.; Tegen, I.; Gasteiger, J.; Petzold, A.; Veira, A.; Kueppers, U.; Schumann, U.


    After the eruption of the Eyjafjalla volcano (Iceland) in April 2010 which caused the most extensive restrictions of the airspace over Europe since the end of World War II, the aviation safety concept of avoiding "visible ash", i.e. volcanic ash that can be seen by the human eye, was recommended. However so far, no clear definition of "visible ash" and no relation between the visibility of an aerosol layer and related aerosol mass concentrations are available. The goal of our study is to assess whether it is possible from the pilot's perspective in flight to detect the presence of volcanic ash and to distinguish between volcanic ash and other aerosol layers just by sight. In our presentation, we focus the comparison with other aerosols on aerosol types impacting aviation: Besides volcanic ash, dust storms are known to be avoided by aircraft. We use in-situ and lidar data as well photographs taken onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiments (SAMUM) in 2006 and 2008 and during the Eyjafjalla volcanic eruption in April/May 2010. We complement this analysis with numerical modelling, using idealized radiative transfer simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MYSTIC for a variety of selected viewing geometries. Both aerosol types, Saharan mineral dust and volcanic ash, show an enhanced coarse mode (> 1 μm) aerosol concentration, but volcanic ash aerosol additionally contains a significant number of Aitken mode particles (perception, etc. In addition, the optical depth along the line of sight through an aerosol layer is more important than just the (vertical) optical depth, which is measured, for example, by sun photometers or satellites. The results of our study are in particular interesting for the question on the visibility of volcanic ash. Our analyses of "visible ash" demonstrate that under clear sky conditions volcanic ash is visible already at concentrations far below what is currently considered as the

  11. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Stefano Mandelli


    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  12. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

    Oyewole Simon Oginni


    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  13. Liquid carbon dioxide of magmatic origin and its role in volcanic eruptions

    Chivas, A.R.; Barnes, I.; Evans, William C.; Lupton, J.E.; Stone, J.O.


    Natural liquid carbon dioxide is produced commercially from a 2.5-km-deep well near the 4,500-yr-old maar volcano, Mount Gambier, South Australia. The carbon dioxide has accumulated in a dome that is located on the extension of a linear chain of volcanic activity. A magmatic origin for the fluid is suggested by the geological setting, ??13CPDB of -4.0???, for the CO2 (where PDB represents the carbon-isotope standard), and a relatively high 3He component of the contained helium and high 3He/C ratio (6.4 x 10-10). The 3He/ 4He and He/Ne ratios are 3.0 and > 1,370 times those of air, respectively. The CO2, as collected at the Earth's surface at 29.5 ??C and 75 bar, expands more than 300-fold to form a gas at 1 atm and 22 ??C. We suggest that liquid CO2 or high-density CO2 fluid (the critical point is 31.1 ??C, 73.9 bar) of volcanic origin that expands explosively from shallow levels in the Earth's crust may be a major contributor to 'phreatic' volcanic eruptions and maar formation. Less violent release of magmatic CO2 into crater lakes may cause gas bursts with equally disastrous consequences such as occurred at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, in August 1986. ?? 1987 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. ETINDE. Improving the role of a methodological approach and ancillary ethnoarchaeological data application for place vulnerability and resilience to a multi-hazard environment: Mt. Cameroon volcano case study [MIA-VITA project -FP7-ENV-2007-1

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Mbe Akoko, Robert; Peppoloni, Silvia; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Thierry, Pierre


    The FP7 MIA-VITA [Mitigate and assess risk from volcanic impact on terrain and human activities] project has been designed to address multidisciplinary aspects of volcanic threat assessment and management from prevention to crisis management recovery. In the socio-economic analysis carried out at Mt. Cameroon Bakweri and Bakossi ethnic groups, ancillary ethnoarchaeological information has been included to point out the cultural interaction between the volcano and its residents. In 2009-2011, ethnoanthropological surveys and interviews for data collection were carried out at Buea, Limbe, West Coast, Tiko and Muyuka sub-divisions adjacent to Mt. Cameroon. One of the outstanding, results from the Bakweri and Bakossi cultural tradition study: natural hazards are managed and produced by supernatural forces, as: Epasa Moto, God of the Mountain (Mt. Cameroon volcano) and Nyango Na Nwana , Goddess of the sea (Gulf of Guinea). In the case of Mount Cameroon, people may seek the spirit or gods of the mountain before farming, hunting and most recently the undertaking of the Mount Cameroon annual race are done. The spirit of this mountain must be seek to avert or stop a volcanic eruption because the eruption is attributed to the anger of the spirit. Among the Northern Bakweri, the association of spirits with the mountain could also be explained in terms of the importance of the mountain to the people. Most of their farming and hunting is done on the Mountain. Some forest products, for instance, wood for building and furniture is obtained from the forest of the mountain; this implies that the people rely on the Mountain for food, game and architecture/furniture etc. In addition, the eruption of the mountain is something which affects the people. It does not only destroy property, it frustrates people and takes away human lives when it occurs. Because of this economic importance of the Mountain and its unexpected and unwanted eruption, the tendency is to believe that it has some

  15. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.


    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  16. Volcanic Ash Nephelometer Probe Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced dropsondes that could effectively be guided through atmospheric regions of interest such as volcanic plumes may enable unprecedented observations of...

  17. The disease burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Cameroon.

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the present study was undertaken to calculate the impact of this neglected zoonosis. METHODS: Both the cost and Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY estimations were applied. All necessary parameters were collected and imported in R software. Different distributions were used according to the type of information available for each of the parameters. FINDINGS: Based on a prevalence of epilepsy of 3.6%, the number of people with neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy was estimated at 50,326 (95% CR 37,299-65,924, representing 1.0% of the local population, whereas the number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis was estimated at 15,961 (95% CR 12,320-20,044, which corresponds to 5.6% of the local pig population. The total annual costs due to T. solium cysticercosis in West Cameroon were estimated at 10,255,202 Euro (95% CR 6,889,048-14,754,044, of which 4.7% were due to losses in pig husbandry and 95.3% to direct and indirect losses caused by human cysticercosis. The monetary burden per case of cysticercosis amounts to 194 Euro (95% CR 147-253. The average number of DALYs lost was 9.0 per thousand persons per year (95% CR 2.8-20.4. INTERPRETATION: This study provides an estimation of the costs due to T. solium cysticercosis using country-specific parameters and including the human as well as the animal burden of the zoonotic disease. A comparison with a study in South Africa indicates that the cost of inactivity, influenced by salaries, plays a predominant role in the monetary burden of T. solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowing the salary levels and the

  18. System of Volcanic activity



    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  19. Analysis of the energy system of cameroon in a sustainable growth perspective

    After a decade of recession, Cameroon's economy returned to positive growth after 1995. Six years later, the country ran into an energy crisis featuring frequent power load shedding, liquefied gas shortages, declining oil production and fuel price increases. This crisis contributed to stagnation of the economy and to social disruption. Though the causes are primarily economic, in the case of power load shedding and gas shortages there are also structural and organisational problems. Who has control over the power operating systems is as a result a major issue for all players in the power area. This article analyses Cameroon's power system by reviewing the interacting socio-economic, environmental, technological and political actors and distinguishes structural from other influences. We show that Cameroon's current energy system is neither compatible with equitable economic and social growth objectives in time and space, nor with long term environmental objectives. The imbalance between energy supply and demand, currently in deficit, is critically assessed. (authors)

  20. HIV type 1 group M subtype G in Cameroon: five genome sequences.

    Yamaguchi, Julie; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ngansop, Charlotte; Mbanya, Dora; Kaptué, Lazare; Gürtler, Lutz G; Devare, Sushil G; Brennan, Catherine A


    Near full-length viral genome sequences were obtained for five putative subtype G candidates identified in HIV-infected Cameroonian blood donors, based on partial genome sequences for the gag, pol, and env regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequences shows that all five strains are pure subtype G with no indication of intersubtype recombination. The Cameroon subtype G sequences did not form a geographically based subcluster and were intermixed within the subtype G branch with isolates from several different countries. HIV-1 group M subtype G accounts for only 4.5% of HIV infections in Cameroon. However, genome segments of subtype G are present in 67% of all infections and 80% of infections due to intersubtype recombinant strains in Cameroon. The addition of five subtype G genome sequences to the HIV database may contribute to a better understanding of the origins and classification of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs. PMID:19361281

  1. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    Søager, Nina

    The extensive Quaternary volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Mendoza, Argentina, is investigated in this study by major and trace element analyses, Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb-isotopic analyses and Zr-Hf isotope dilution data on samples from almost the entire province. The samples are mainly...... basalts from all the studied volcanic fields in Payenia is signs of lower crustal contamination indicating assimilation of, in some cases, large amounts of trace element depleted, mafic, plagioclase-bearing rocks. The northern Payenia is dominated by backarc basalts erupted between late Pliocene to late...... Pleistocene times. These basalts mark the end of a period of shallow subduction of the Nazca slab beneath the Payenia province and volcanism in the Nevado volcanic field apparently followed the downwarping slab in a north-northwest direction ending in the Northern Segment. The northern Payenia basalts are...

  2. Survey of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Southwestern Cameroon.

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas


    A study on the distribution and population density of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and the central chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) was undertaken between December 1997 and August 2000 in the Campo and Ma'an Forests in southwestern Cameroon. The aim of this survey was to estimate the densities of the apes in different parts of the area, to assess the importance of the region for the conservation of these endangered species and to determine the influence of human activities such as logging and hunting. The survey was based on night nest counts on a total of 665.5 km of line transects. The overall density in the Campo Forest was estimated at 0.2 gorillas/km(2) and at 0.63-0.78 chimpanzees/km(2). The overall density of chimpanzees in the Ma'an Forest was estimated at 0.8-1 individuals/km(2). Gorilla density in this area was too low to allow an estimation. The highest gorilla nest density was found in secondary forest. The gorilla density in unlogged forest was significantly lower. Chimpanzees showed a clear preference for less disturbed areas. In unlogged forest, old secondary forests (logging more than 23 years ago) and areas of recent logging with large remaining patches of primary forest, significantly higher densities were calculated than inside the more heavily exploited logging concession. In areas with both logging and high hunting pressure both species were rare or even absent. The Campo Ma'an area is considered a very important area for the conservation of gorillas and chimpanzees. Conservation measures are urgently required to reduce the impact of logging and hunting. The creation of the Campo Ma'an National Park in January 2000 is an important measure to preserve the unique biodiversity in this so far hardly protected area. PMID:14586801

  3. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.


    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  4. Review and combination of recent remote sensing based products for forest cover change assessments in Cameroon



    Two recent remote sensing derived products providing assessment of forest cover change in the Congo Basin for the last two decades were compared and combined to obtain estimates of forest cover change in Cameroon for the period 1990-2012. The intensity of deforestation in the whole region decreased from the 1990s to the 2000s. Forest loss is observed everywhere in Cameroon but present higher intensity nearby the Atlantic coast. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the forest loss in Ca...

  5. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    Michael Ashu Agbor; Sudeshni Naidoo


    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or...

  6. Natural Radioactivity in Some Commercial Bottled Waters in Cameroon

    The aim of this work was to check and determine the activity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in some commercial bottled water used as drinking water in Cameroon by means of using High-Purity Germanium based gamma spectrometry techniques. The water samples were firstly chemically treated by adding nitric acid and then pre-concentrated further by evaporating them up to a certain level. The water residues were transferred to small cylindrical containers and were kept sealed in order to ensure secular equilibrium between U-238, Th-232 and their daughter products. The calculated activity concentration for 226Ra (U-series) and 228Ra (Th-series) were used to estimate the annual effective doses for different age groups infants (age 1-2 years), children (age 7-12 years) and adults (age ≥17years) by taking into account the ingested dose conversion factors obtained from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as their yearly average bottled water consumption. The evaluated annual effective dose due to life-long consumption of water for different group ages where below the recommended values by WHO, IAEA and UNSCEAR. The paper presents the overview of the technique used and the summary of findings from this survey. (author)

  7. Access to Arable Land by Rural Women in Cameroon

    Fon, DE.


    Full Text Available This study examines rural women access to and control of agricultural production resources in arable small-scale sustainable agricultural production in a developing country setting. Specifically, the study addresses the women's level of accessibility and control of arable land in agricultural production in the North West Region of Cameroon. The objectives of the study were: (a to determine the extent to which rural women in the study area gain access to and control small-scale arable land; and (b to assess the degree of association between access to small-scale arable land by rural women and their level of control of the arable land. The study relied on a one-shot case study design. The method of data collection consisted surveying a randomly selected sample of 1,120 rural women involved in small-scale agricultural production in the study area. The data obtained from the survey were analyzed using the following statistical procedures: (1 frequency distribution, (2 correlation analysis, and (3 one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results revealed that rural women farmers do have access to arable land through their families, but do not control arable land, and there is no association between access to and control of arable land. The study recommends that developing countries involved in arable small-scale agricultural production, should consider adopting agricultural policies that include rural women in decision-making, implementation, and evaluation of agricultural production inputs and outcomes.

  8. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    Mbassa Menick, D


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Anna L. Njunda


    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  10. Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon

    Zac Tchoundjeu


    Full Text Available Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest], in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%. Eighty nine and 85% did so in periods of scarcity for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Seventeen and twenty-nine kernel preservation practices were recorded for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Most were based on continuous heating of the kernels or kernel by-products (cakes. The most commonly involved keeping the sun-dried kernels in a plastic bag on a bamboo rack hung above the fireplace in the kitchen. A 78% of interviews households reported preserving I. wombolu kernels for less than one year while 22% preserved it for more than one year with 1.9% for two years, the normal length of the off-season period for trees in the wild. Cakes wrapped with leaves and kept on a bamboo rack hung over the fireplace were reported by households in the East and South provinces to store Irvingia gabonensis longer (more than one year. Further studies on the utilization of heat for preserving and canning bush mango kernels are recommended.

  11. [Descriptive study of cerebrovascular accidents in Douala, Cameroon].

    Chiasseu, Mbeumi M T; Mbahe, S


    A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is a sudden-onset cerebral deficit of vascular origin lasting more than 24 hours. These events represent the second leading cause of death in the world and take a particularly heavy toll in third world countries. The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular lesions (type, location, size) as well as patient age and gender in Cameroon. Brain CT-scan and MRI findings from 50 stroke patients admitted to two health centers in Douala were reviewed. Data showed that 74% of patients were over 50 years of age, the 51-60 year group being the most affected. Patients were male in 64% of cases. Ischemic stroke accounted for 60% of cases versus 40% for hemorrhagic stroke. The most affected sites were the sylvian territory site in ischemic stroke and the temporal lobe in hemorrhagic stroke, acconting for 43.3% and 35% of cases respectively. The median size of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions were 2.81 cm3, and 26.98 cm3 respectively. Hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarcts were more common in this sample. Discrepancies between results at the two hospitals may be due to the use of different imaging techniques. Indeed, MRI is known to be more sensitive than CT-scan for acute detection of stroke lesions. PMID:22235625

  12. WebGIS as boundary tools between scientific geoinformation and disaster risk reduction action in volcanic areas

    Le Cozannet, G.; Bagni, M.; Thierry, P.; Aragno, C.; Kouokam, E.


    As the amount of spatial data is growing, there is increased interest in developing tools to explore, visualize and interpret them, with the final aim of informing decision making efficiently. Within the European MIAVITA project, we examined this issue in the case of volcanic areas, where existing geospatial databases are particularly complex due to the number of threats to be considered, including volcanic (e.g. lava flows, ash fall) and non-volcanic hazards, such as landslides or tsunamis. We involved a group of hazard and risk analysts and managers, civil security officers, GIS analysts and system developers to design a Web-based geographical information system (WebGIS). We tested the system at the Mount Cameroon volcano, taking advantage of a complex hazard and risk geographical database. This study enabled identifying key requirements for such tools in volcanic areas, such as the need to manage user privileges differently according to their profile and the status of the volcano. This work also highlights that, in addition to the development of large geoinformation clearinghouses, there is a need for site-specific information systems focused on working procedures of users, in order to fill the last gap between data producers and users.

  13. Recurrence models of volcanic events

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project have progressed to a sufficient degree that it is now prudent to work toward concluding aspects of the work. An advantage of a probabilistic approach to volcanic risk is that it assigns a structured formalism to the problem. This formalism subdivides a complex issue into logical sections. The significance of uncertainty or differences in scientific opinion concerning volcanism issues can be tested for each section of a probabilistic problem. The perspective for making judgement of significance for volcanism studied are the regulatory requirements for assessing the suitability of the potential Yucca Mountain site. This paper attempts to begin the process of helping establish the probabilistic framework for making those judgement. There are three objectives. First, the authors describe the tripartite probability used to define the risk of volcanism and the geologic assumptions required for the probability model. Second, the authors examine and define the first part of this probability, the recurrence of volcanic events. Studies are reviewed from the volcanological literature where time-volume behavior of volcanic centers and fields have been evaluated. These evaluations include both conventional statistical analysis of time-series of volcanic events and applications using newly developing concepts of fractal analysis and deterministic chaos. Third, the authors tabulate past calculations and derive new values for the recurrence of volcanic events using a simple Poison model

  14. "A Child has Many Mothers": Views of Child Fostering in Northwestern Cameroon

    Verhoef, Heidi


    This article examines 20 fostering arrangements in a growing urban community in northwestern Cameroon from the perspectives of those involved. Analysis of interviews with caregivers and birth mothers suggests that the nature of adult relationships is central to children's living arrangements. Three caregiver-mother relationship profiles are…

  15. Vulnerability, forest-related sectors and climate change adaptation : the case of Cameroon

    Sonwa, D.J.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Bele, M.Y.; Nkem, J.N.


    In Cameroon and elsewhere in the Congo Basin, the majority of rural households and a large proportion of urban households depend on plant and animal products from the forests to meet their nutritional, energy, cultural and medicinal needs. This paper explores the likely impacts of climate-induced ch

  16. The emotional world of kinship: Children's experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon

    Notermans, C.D.


    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through shar

  17. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah


    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  18. Neuropeltis eladii (Convolvulaceae), a new species from the South Province of Cameroon

    Breteler, F.J.


    Background and aims - The paleotropical genus Neuropeltis of the Convolvulaceae was recently treated in a synopsis for the African continent (Breteler 2010), counting nine species. This number is now enlarged by a new, overlooked, species from the South Province of Cameroon. Methods - Normal practic

  19. The post-colonial State and economic and political reforms in Cameroon

    Konings, P.J.J.; Fernández Jilberto, A.E.; Mommen, A.


    This study shows that the neoliberal project propagated in the 1990s by the Western donors and the international financial institutions has not yet made much progress in Cameroon. It argues that this is not surprising, given the class character of the Cameroonian postcolonial State. The limited poli

  20. Fungi from the Dja Biosphere Reserve (Cameroon). Notes on some Gasteromycetes.

    Calonge, F.D.; Daniëls, P.P


    [EN] Four species of Gasteromycetes collected in the Biosphere Reserve of Dja (Cameroon), are briefly described and commented. Two of them: Cyathus striatus and Sphaerobolus stellatus are well-known in Europe, being cosmopolitan, and the other two: Geastrum schweinitzii var. stipitatum and Phallus indusiatus show a typical pantropical distribution.

  1. Bridging the gap: how traditional healers interact with their patients. A comparative study in Cameroon.

    Labhardt, N.D.; Aboa, S.M.; Manga, E.; Bensing, J.M.; Langewitz, W.


    Objective: To compare traditional healers (TH) and Cameroonian representatives of Western medicine (Western providers (WP)) in terms of patient characteristics and communication patterns during the consultation in rural Cameroon. Methods: A facility-based comparative study was conducted. Seven TH we

  2. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef


    Roč. 3889, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-57. ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Cameroon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  3. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.


    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  4. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    Mngo, Zachary Y.


    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  5. Meckel's diverticulum: a case report from the University Hospital Center Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Arthur Essomba


    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge there is no reported case of Meckel's diverticulum (MD in Cameroon. The prevalence of MD in the general population is 2-3 %. The aim of this paper is to recapitulate the role of this pathology in acute abdomens and abdominal pain of uncertain aetiology in young patients and to review the medical literature.

  6. Language Ideology and the Colonial Legacy in Cameroon Schools: A Historical Perspective

    Nana, Genevoix


    Cameroon prior to colonization had many languages, with none having precedence over the other. With the development of trade and the installation of missionaries along its coast, a number of local and European languages gained prominence. English became the most widely used western language. It established itself as the language of trade and of…

  7. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    Lange, Sarah


    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  8. Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual Community in Northern Cameroon

    Cheffy, Ian


    Research in a rural area of northern Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…

  9. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova


    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  10. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  11. The Emotional World of Kinship: Children's Experiences of Fosterage in East Cameroon

    Notermans, Catrien


    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through sharing food and intimacy, children directly…

  12. Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.

    Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

  13. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme.

    Earnest Njih Tabah


    Full Text Available Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme.We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005-2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate.In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon.Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with.

  14. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  15. Strengthening human resources for health through multisectoral approaches and leadership: the case of Cameroon

    S Kingue


    Full Text Available Problem Cameroon has a severe shortage of human resources for health (HRH and those that are available are concentrated in urban areas. Approach As the result of a national emergency plan for the years 2006–2008, innovative strategies and a multisectoral partnership – led by the Ministry of Public Health and supported by diverse national and international organizations – were developed to address the shortages and maldistribution of HRH in Cameroon. Local setting At the time that the emergency plan was developed, Cameroon had health services of poor quality, an imbalance between HRH training and employment, a maldistribution of HRH between urban and rural areas and a poor allocation of financial resources for HRH. It also lacked an accreditation system for use in the training of health workers. Relevant changes Between 2007 and 2009, the number of active health workers in Cameroon increased by 36%, several new institutions for higher education in health care and training schools for paramedical staff and midwives were opened, and a national strategy for universal health coverage was developed. Lessons learnt In the improvement of HRH, strong leadership is needed to ensure effective coordination and communication between the many different stakeholders. A national process of coordination and facilitation can produce a consensus-based view of the main HRH challenges. Once these challenges have been identified, the stakeholders can plan appropriate interventions that are coordinated, evidence-based and coherent.

  16. The Position of English Globally and Nationally: A Comparison of Cameroon and Vanuatu

    Abongdia, Jane-Francis A.; Willans, Fiona


    This paper investigates language ideologies relevant to medium of instruction policy within two postcolonial countries: Cameroon and Vanuatu. Each country experienced British and French rule, and has retained both English and French as official languages and media of instruction. However, since Independence, there has been a difference in the way…

  17. How to win a football match in Cameroon : an anthropological study of Africa's most popular sport

    Pannenborg, A.


    Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players an

  18. Gender and plantation labour in Africa : the story of tea pluckers' struggles in Cameroon

    Konings, P.J.J.


    This book explores the relationship between plantation labour and gender in Africa, particularly Cameroon. It demonstrates that the introduction of plantation labour during colonial rule has had significant consequences for gender roles and relations within and beyond the capitalist labour process.

  19. Forest eternal? Endemic butterflies of the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon, avoid close-canopy forest

    Tropek, Robert


    I studied habitat preferences of three common endemic butterflies in the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon. Assuming that the life history traits of taxa with limited geographic distribution reflect past habitat conditions within their ranges, the history and conservation of West African mountain landscape is discussed.

  20. Adelonema camerunense gen. et sp. n. (Araeolaimida: Diplopeltidae) from rain forest in Cameroon

    Holovachov, O.V.; Sturhan, D.


    Adelonema camerunense gen. et sp. n. (Araeolaimida: Diplopeltidae) from rain forest in Cameroon is described on the basis of light microscopy. The new genus is tentatively placed in the Diptopeltidae and distinguished from all other genera in the family by the following characters: cuticle with ten

  1. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    Gadsby Elizabeth L; Fotso Roger; de Vries Simone; Akih Akih E; Kiyang John A; Lankester Felix; Ghobrial Lora; Jenkins Peter D; Gonder Mary K


    Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this countr...

  2. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.


    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  3. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B


    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  4. Metallurgical Characterisation of Recovered Aluminium Alloys in Cameroon

    T. Tchotang


    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of metallurgical characteristics of the different aluminium alloys gotten through recycling of recovered aluminium in Cameroon. A simple experimental device for the foundry of secondary aluminium blend, of very good quality built around a movable charcoal furnace is presented. It enables better energy efficiency, a better distribution of the heat around the crucible and indirectly assures good quality of the products obtained, while respecting the economic constraints and users' safety. Six refining methods are proposed by the addition of polyvinyl chloride (method A, coke rich in carbon CHS (method C, ammonium chloride NH4Cl (method E, manganese dioxide MnO (method T, acrylic nitrite (C2H3Cln (method P and sodium chloride NaCl (method S. A critical analysis of the different recycling techniques is presented as well as a proposed process of melting and refining that enables the obtaining products with high degrees of purity. The results are then compared to the results obtained from the industrial methods of aluminium refining such as fractional crystallization (FC, granular filtration (GF and dissolution in a metal solvent (DS. The later (DS gives the rate of 6.540% of accumulated alloy elements and enables the best purification (93.460%, while the NaCl gives the lowest global rate of additive elements (9.478%, with the best purity index (90.522% amount the proposed methods. Results obtained show that this method of refining improves the metallurgical properties of secondary aluminium alloy blends and guarantees better safety, as well as reducing the risks of environmental pollution.

  5. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  6. Hawaii Volcanism: Lava Forms

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the last several million years the Hawaiian Islands have been built of successive lava flows. They are the most recent additions in a long line of volcanoes...

  7. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    S Tabe


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  8. The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (GSIM) Approach: Technical Annex

    Leudjou, Roland R.


    This document is the technical annex to the full paper “The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (GSIM) Approach†which is available separately.

  9. Detecting Volcanism on Extrasolar Planets

    Kaltenegger, L; Sasselov, D D


    The search for extrasolar rocky planets has already found the first transiting rocky super-Earth, Corot 7b, with a surface temperature that allows for magma oceans. Here we ask if we could distinguish rocky planets with recent major volcanism by remote observation. We develop a model for volcanic eruptions on an Earth-like exoplanet based on the present day Earth, derive the observable features in emergent and transmission spectra for multiple scenarios of gas distribution and cloudcover. We calculate the observation time needed to detect explosive volcanism on exoplanets in primary as well as secondary eclipse and discuss the likelihood of observing volcanism on transiting Earth to super-Earth sized exoplanets. We find that sulfur dioxide from large explosive eruptions does present a spectral signal that is remotely detectable especially for secondary eclipse measurements around the closest stars using ground based telescopes, and report the frequency and magnitude of the expected signatures. Transit probabi...

  10. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained

    Jellinek, Mark


    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  11. Monogenetic volcanic hazards and assessment

    Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Richardson, J. A.


    Many of the Earth's major cities are build on the products of monogenetic volcanic eruptions and within geologically active basaltic volcanic fields. These cities include Mexico City (Mexico), Auckland (New Zealand), Melbourne (Australia), and Portland (USA) to name a few. Volcanic hazards in these areas are complex, and involve the potential formation of new volcanic vents and associated hazards, such as lava flows, tephra fallout, and ballistic hazards. Hazard assessment is complicated by the low recurrence rate of volcanism in most volcanic fields. We have developed a two-stage process for probabilistic modeling monogenetic volcanic hazards. The first step is an estimation of the possible locations of future eruptive vents based on kernel density estimation and recurrence rate of volcanism using Monte Carlo simulation and accounting for uncertainties in age determinations. The second step is convolution of this spatial density / recurrence rate model with hazard codes for modeling lava inundation, tephra fallout, and ballistic impacts. A methodology is presented using this two-stage approach to estimate lava flow hazard in several monogenetic volcanic fields, including at a nuclear power plant site near the Shamiram Plateau, a Quaternary volcanic field in Armenia. The location of possible future vents is determined by estimating spatial density from a distribution of 18 mapped vents using a 2-D elliptical Gaussian kernel function. The SAMSE method, a modified asymptotic mean squared error approach, uses the distribution of known eruptive vents to optimally determine a smoothing bandwidth for the Gaussian kernel function. The result is a probability map of vent density. A large random sample (N=10000) of vent locations is drawn from this probability map. For each randomly sampled vent location, a lava flow inundation model is executed. Lava flow input parameters (volume and average thickness) are determined from distributions fit to field observations of the low

  12. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  13. Farmers knowledge and perception on maize stem borers and their indigenous control methods in south western region of Cameroon

    Oben, Esther Obi; Ntonifor, Nelson Neba; Kekeunou, Sevilor; Abbeytakor, Martin Nkwa


    Background Agriculture is a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Cameroon, The South West region of Cameroon is known for its potential in the production of major agricultural commodities, but farmers’ yields from various speculations are low, dwindling over time due to some major constraints. Maize production is hampered by adverse socio-economic factors, several pests and diseases as well as high rainfall with low solar radiation. Lepidopterous maize stem borers are a ma...

  14. Spatial and Inter-temporal Sources of Poverty, Inequality and Gender Disparities in Cameroon: a Regression-Based Decomposition Analysis

    Boniface Ngah Epo; Francis Menjo Baye; Nadine Teme Angele Manga


    This study applies the regression-based inequality decomposition technique to explain poverty and inequality trends in Cameroon. We also identify gender related factors which explain income disparities and discrimination based on the 2001 and 2007 Cameroon household consumption surveys. The results show that education, health, employment in the formal sector, age cohorts, household size, gender, ownership of farmland and urban versus rural residence explain household economic wellbeing; dispa...


    Nkengeh, Emesong


    Cameroon is blessed with many touristic features and is called 'Africa in miniature' with lots of tourist attractions, such as, natural features like deserts, beaches, mountains, savannas, green vegetation and rainforests. Accommodation and touristic attractions are the measure phenomenaa within the tourism industry in the Republic of Cameroon. The accommodation sector has developed and kept improving tremendously within the past decades and up till present. The objective of this research ...

  16. Curriculum development at the Regional African Wildlife Colleges, with special reference to the Ecole de Faune (Cameroon)

    Scholte, P.


    Regional colleges in Tanzania, Cameroon and, recently, South Africa have trained some 4000 wildlife managers. Training need assessments called for major curriculum reforms, which were developed and implemented in the late 1990s. This is an analysis of the factors that influenced this curriculum reform in the colleges' endeavour to respond to new developments in African wildlife management. Since 1979, the curriculum of Garoua Wildlife College, Cameroon, has changed only gradually, whereas wor...

  17. Pattern of non-obstetric infectious recto-vaginal fistula: a case series and literature review in Cameroon, Central Africa

    Pierre Marie Tebeu; Roger Guy Michel Ekono; Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue; Gregory Ekane Halle; Joel Domgue Fokom; Charles Henry Rochat


    Background: Perineal infection is an uncommon cause of non-obstetrical recto-vaginal fistula (RVF) which is associated with HIV infection. Cameroon (Central Africa) is in the fistula belt but infectious RVFs have not yet been deeply studied in the country. We therefore sought to determine the pattern of non-obstetric infectious RVF in Cameroon. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional and descriptive review of non-obstetric infectious RVFs managed at the Yaound and eacute; University Teac...

  18. Soil and plant composition in the Noun river catchment basin, Western Cameroon: a contribution to the development of a biogeochemical baseline

    Njofang, Clémentine; Matschullat, Jörg; Amougou, Akoa; Tchouankoué, Jean Pierre; Heilmeier, Hermann


    Soils and selected edible plants of the Noun river catchment basin of western Cameroon were sampled to investigate the distribution of trace elements, based on the preliminary idea of unusual anomalies. Analytical techniques for trace elements included ICP-AES, GF-AAS, and ICP-MS. Further soil analyses comprised the mineralogy and contents of the biogenic elements carbon, nitrogen and sulphur (CNS). The trace element concentrations in the soils reflect those of the lithogeochemical background of the pluto-volcanic rocks of the region. This is consistent with the results from the mineralogical analyses and physicochemical parameters such as pH, taken in the field, which also do not suggest any geochemical anomaly. Most trace elements analyzed in the plants showed concentrations that reflect those of the soils (Al, Fe, Ti, and Rb). However, some trace elements were enriched in the plants as compared to the soils, such as Zn, Cu, Cd, Mo (excluding yam), Ni (peanut), Ba (peanut), Sr (peanut, bean), and B. Trace elements such as As, Cr, V, and Se were not bioavailable for all the analyzed plants. Besides, trace elements such as Cu, Zn, Mo, Fe, Al, Ni, B, Ti, Rb, Cs, and Ba were in the range of phytotoxicity and reached or exceeded human food tolerance level (Cu). The plants with seeds showed a higher absorption of trace elements compared to plants with tubercles.

  19. Effects of human presence on chimpanzee nest location in the Lebialem-Mone forest landscape, Southwest Region, Cameroon.

    Last, Cadell; Muh, Bernice


    In several areas of Africa, great apes experience increasing predation pressure as a result of human activities. In this study, terrestrial and arboreal nest construction among chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) populations was investigated in the Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape (LMFL), Southwest Region, Cameroon, to examine the anthropogenic effects on nest location. Data on the height, distribution and approximate age of chimpanzee night nests were collected during two 4-week primate field surveys (July to August 2010; July 2011) at two field sites (Bechati and Andu) within the LMFL. Data were collected using the line transect method. Chimpanzee night nests were categorized by their location: arboreal versus terrestrial. During the two field surveys, arboreal night nests were the most frequently constructed nest type at both sites, and the only type of night nest constructed at Bechati. Terrestrial night nests were also constructed at Andu. The main difference between these two sites is the level of human predation and agricultural development. At Bechati chimpanzees inhabit forest regions around dense, expanding villages and are regularly hunted by humans. However, at Andu the chimpanzee populations are not under the same threat. Therefore, terrestrial night nest construction in the LMFL appears to be a behavior exhibited where there is less human presence. PMID:23406888

  20. The simultaneous loop flow correction analysis in the water feed network of Minkok Edjombo (SOUTH –CAMEROON.



    Full Text Available With increasing population growth and industrial development, water flow rates and other hydraulic requirements associated with water distribution systems have been estimated to increase both national and local scale. Water shortage will cause inconvenience to people’s life and it will impact city function and industrial production. Hence to overcome this problem design and analysis of water distribution system is necessary to get optimal discharge. In this paper a water pipeline network analysis with a case study of a small city (MinkokEdjombo in the southern Cameroon system has been undertaken. What prompted this study is that the case study has a lot of fluctuations in its head loss. Also, the discharge is not proportional to the pipe diameter. The study therefore adopted simultaneous loop flow correction method because it computes simultaneous flows corrections for all loops, hence, the best since computational procedures takes into account the iterative influence of flow corrections between loops which have common pipes. After applying the simultaneous loop flow correction analyze in a twenty-four sampled pipeline network, a drastic reduction in head loss and regular line along the axis was observed. Besides, the rate at which the water flows was observed to be proportional to the pipe diameter. Hence, the method is a useful aid in planning, designing and operating of reticulated pipeline network for higher efficiency and improved economy.

  1. Stress and Time Management Settings in University of Maroua, Cameroon



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine stress and time in educational management in Maroua University. These two phenomena are profound in educational issues in Cameroon due to the complex administration or management. Education comprised of diversity of activities ranging from administration, discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning. Each of these activities requires time schedule to avoid stress in the face of pressure. Administration requires planning, organizing, controlling, commanding, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Each of these managing variables requires time, just as discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning should need. The situation may be affected by higher authority interference and cause a rush thus affecting every schedule in the system on this note, it is necessary that every administrator on management cadre should develop a list of activities such as admissions, examinations, sports, vacations and other ceremonies which requires his attention on daily, weekly, or monthly bases and there after allocate in a tentative fashion the most appropriate times for dealing with such activities. Some profile recommendations are: strict adhering to schedules to avoid overlapping or prolongation to other programs; the schedules should be pasted or placed at a convenient point in the office for reference to avoid forgetfulness: as an administrator, time should be allocated for meeting or consulting with visitors and subordinates; he should delegate functions to his accredited subordinates to crave chance or time for essential duty; he should review the school or organization programs on daily, weekly or monthly bases the degree to which his administration goals have been attained and he (i.e. administrator should crave time for rest i.e. holidays, relaxation and various forms of physical exercises to revitalizes the body for subsequent activities. The paper recommends planning which is vital in management to avoid time waste

  2. [Primary health care in a prison environment, the Cameroon experience].

    Demoures, B; Nkodo-Nkodo, E; Mbam-Mbam, L


    People isolated from their families, such as prisoners, are the most vulnerable to the consequences of the economic crisis in Africa. Some non-governmental organizations are taking action to improve health care conditions in prisons. We describe herein such a project, conducted in the town of Ngaoundéré, Adamaoua Province, Cameroon. The prison houses 400 prisoners, mostly men. Catholic missionaries have been involved in improving conditions since 1988, at the request of a magistrate from the local tribunal. They have introduced a community store, handicrafts and the teaching of reading and writing, carried out by the prisoners themselves. The Catholic Health Service was asked to join the project in October 1992. Its participation was part of the provincial policy of collaboration between private and public organizations for the improvement of health institutions. Meetings between health workers and prisoners first created an opportunity for the prisoners to talk about their concerns and what they wanted. A health committee, consisting of about 10 prisoners took several initiatives related to hygiene. Access to curative care was then improved by increasing the stock of medicines to include 37 drugs, standardizing the therapeutic recommendations (including those of the national program against tuberculosis) and increasing the prisoners' access to health care by making the pharmacy self-sufficient. The pharmacy's prices are low and the wardens and their families are encouraged to use it. Any profit made goes towards a "solidarity fund" managed by the prisoners, which enables them to buy their own drugs (3 to 5 patients are seen each day by the nurse). The link between money entering the system and the supply of drugs was studied. Most of the diseases reported between July 1994 and July 1995 were infectious, including scabies infections and acute respiratory infections (mean of 5 cases per month). Fifteen cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated. AIDS was not

  3. Petrology of peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites from the SE Lake Chad (northernmost Cameroon Line)

    Mbowou, Gbambié Isaac Bertrand; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Lagmet, Claudial Amane; Ngounouno, Ismaïla


    Peraluminous (P.I. 1) rhyolites from SE Lake Chad consisted of quartz, alkali feldspar and oxides-hydroxides phenocrysts, display negative Eu anomaly. F-arfvedsonite, augite-hedenbergite, aegirine and aegirine-augite are present in peralkaline rhyolites. The peralkaline and peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of the SE Lake Chad derive likely from the same source, according to their coexistence on the same volcano (Hadjer Bigli); their similar Zr/Nb, Zr/Hf ratios and their linear trends established in Zr vs Nb, Zr vs Ta and Zr vs Y diagrams, which linked to removal of successive batches of magma from a mantle source or to different degrees of partial melting. These magmas generated from the partial melting model of the underplated mantle, which would have induced the intrusion of crustal materials, triggering the hydrothermal reactions. Although, the high Zr amounts are not related to bulk assimilation of partially melted crustal materials.

  4. Delineation of a volcanic ash body using electrical resistivity profiling

    Four lines of electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) were performed to define the extent of a shallow Quaternary volcanic ash deposit being mined in the United States. Inversion results of ERP proved suitable for defining the thickness and lateral extent of the volcanic ash deposit at this testing site. These interpretations were confirmed by shallow borehole drilling. The model sensitivity information indicates that inverted models possess sufficient resolving power down to a depth of 7 m and are fairly consistent in terms of horizontal resolution along the four ERP lines. The bottom of most of the volcanic ash deposit in the study area is less than 7 m in depth. Based on synthesis of the ERP and drill information, the limits of the mineable ash bed resources were clearly defined. Moreover, by integrating the ERP results with a minimal number of optimally placed borings, the volume of the volcanic ash deposit was established at a lesser cost, and with greater accuracy than would be possible with a traditionally designed grid drilling programme

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Danfeng Meta-Volcanic Rocks in Shangzhou Area,Shaanxi Province


    The Danfeng meta-volcanics in the Shangzhou area, Shaanxi Province are characterized by oceanic island arc volcanic geochemistry. They are a suite of low-K tholeiitic series and calc-alkaline series meta-volcanic rocks derived from different sources respectively.These meta-volcanics have high Th/Ta ratios and low contents of Ni,Ta,Ti,Y and Yb, suggesting that they were influenced by the subduction zone components.Many lines of evidence show that the Danfeng meta-volcanics were produced in an oceanic island are setting of the supra-subduction zone at the southern margin of the North China Block during the Early Paleozoic.

  6. Communicating Uncertainty in Volcanic Ash Forecasts: Decision-Making and Information Preferences

    Mulder, Kelsey; Black, Alison; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; McCloy, Rachel; Lickiss, Matthew


    The Robust Assessment and Communication of Environmental Risk (RACER) consortium, an interdisciplinary research team focusing on communication of uncertainty with respect to natural hazards, hosted a Volcanic Ash Workshop to discuss issues related to volcanic ash forecasting, especially forecast uncertainty. Part of the workshop was a decision game in which participants including forecasters, academics, and members of the Aviation Industry were given hypothetical volcanic ash concentration forecasts and asked whether they would approve a given flight path. The uncertainty information was presented in different formats including hazard maps, line graphs, and percent probabilities. Results from the decision game will be presented with a focus on information preferences, understanding of the forecasts, and whether different formats of the same volcanic ash forecast resulted in different flight decisions. Implications of this research will help the design and presentation of volcanic ash plume decision tools and can also help advise design of other natural hazard information.

  7. On water in volcanic clouds

    Durant, Adam J.


    Volcanic clouds and tephra fallout present a hazard to aviation, human and animal health (direct inhalation or ingestion, contamination of water supplies), and infrastructure (building collapse, burial of roads and railways, agriculture, abrasive and chemical effects on machinery). Understanding sedimentation processes is a fundamental component in the prediction of volcanic cloud lifetime and fallout at the ground, essential in the mitigation of these hazards. The majority of classical volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDM) are based solely on fluid dynamics. The non-agreement between VATDM and observed regional-scale tephra deposit characteristics is especially obvious at large distances from the source volcano. In meteorology, the processes of hydrometeor nucleation, growth and collection have been long-established as playing a central role in sedimentation and precipitation. Taking this as motivation, the hypothesis that hydrometeor formation drives sedimentation from volcanic clouds was tested. The research objectives of this dissertation are: (1) To determine the effectiveness of tephra particles in the catalysis of the liquid water to ice phase transformation, with application to ice hydrometeor formation in volcanic clouds. (2) To determine the sedimentological characteristics of distal (100s km) tephra fallout from recent volcanic clouds. (3) To assess particle fallout rates from recent volcanic clouds in the context of observed deposit characteristics. (4) To assess the implications of hydrometeor formation on the enhancement of volcanic sedimentation and the potential for cloud destabilization from volcanic hydrometeor sublimation. Dissertation Overview. The following chapters present the analysis, results and conclusions of heterogeneous ice nucleation experiments and sedimentological characterization of several recent tephra deposits. The dissertation is organized in three chapters, each prepared in journal article format. In Chapter 1

  8. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Rampino, Michael R.


    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  9. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    von Glasow, Roland


    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis. PMID:20368458

  10. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  11. Geopulsation, Volcanism and Astronomical Periods

    Yang Xuexiang; Chen Dianyou; Yang Xiaoying; Yang Shuchen


    Volcanism is mainly controlled by the intermittent release of energy in the earth. As far as the differential rotation of the earth's inner core is concerned, the Galactic Year may change the gravitational constant G, the solar radiative quantity and the moving speed of the solar system and affect the exchange of angular momentum between core and mantle as well as the energy exchange between crust and mantle. As a result, this leads to eruptions of superplumes and magma, and controls the energy flow from core - mantle boundary (CMB) to crust. When the earth' s speed decreases, it will release a huge amount of energy. They are the reason of the correspondence of the volcanic cycles one by one with the astronomical periods one by one. According to the astronomical periods, volcanic eruptions may possibly be predicted in the future.

  12. Volcanic eruption detection with TOMS

    Krueger, Arlin J.


    The Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is designed for mapping of the atmospheric ozone distribution. Absorption by sulfur dioxide at the same ultraviolet spectral wavelengths makes it possible to observe and resolve the size of volcanic clouds. The sulfur dioxide absorption is discriminated from ozone and water clouds in the data processing by their spectral signatures. Thus, the sulfur dioxide can serve as a tracer which appears in volcanic eruption clouds because it is not present in other clouds. The detection limit with TOMS is close to the theoretical limit due to telemetry signal quantization of 1000 metric tons (5-sigma threshold) within the instrument field of view (50 by 50 km near the nadir). Requirements concerning the use of TOMS in detection of eruptions, geochemical cycles, and volcanic climatic effects are discussed.

  13. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Stothers, Richard B.


    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  14. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. This paper discusses a detailed Study Plan which was prepared describing planned geochronology and field studies to assess the chronology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center and other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. A paper was published discussing the geomorphic and soil evidence for a late Pleistocene or Holoceno age for the main cone of the center. The purpose of this paper was to expose the ideas concerning the age of the Lathrop Wells center to scientific scrutiny. Additionally, field evidence was described suggesting the Lathrop Wells center may have formed from multiple eruptive events with significant intervals of no activity between events. This interpretation breaks with established convention in the volcanological literature that small volume basalt centers are monogenetic

  15. Biological Constraints in Tomato Production in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    Fontem, DA.


    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum production is handicapped by damage due to pests and pathogens. Farmers' fields in the western highlands of Cameroon were surveyed during 1993 to 1996 to identify biological constraints in production. Diseases and insect pests are the most important biological limitations in tomato production. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans and early blight caused by Alternaria solani are the most severe diseases, while the melon fruitfly (Dacus cucurbitae is the most prevalent insect pest. Yield losses due to pest damage are high and reach 100 % when the crop is not treated in the wet season. Pest-resistant varieties are not available to farmers. Consequently, growers practise intensive pesticidal spray programmes to limit losses caused by pests and diseases. Results indicate the necessity for the adoption of integrated pest management strategies in tomato production in Cameroon.

  16. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update.

    Ndjemaï, Hamadou N M; Patchoké, Salomon; Atangana, Jean; Etang, Josiane; Simard, Fréderic; Bilong, Charles F Bilong; Reimer, Lisa; Cornel, Anthony; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Fondjo, Etienne


    Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits. Results indicated a higher level of resistance (reduced mortality and knockdown effect) to DDT and pyrethroids in populations of A. gambiae s.s. than in A. arabiensis. The West and East African knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations were found in both species but at much higher frequencies in A. gambiae s.s. The West Africa kdr mutant was also more frequent in the A. gambiae S form than in the M form. No resistance to bendiocarb and malathion was found. Carbamate and organophosphorous compounds could thus be used as alternatives in locations in Cameroon where pyrethroid-resistant populations are found. PMID:19155034

  17. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P


    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  18. Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon

    Vivian E A Eta


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

  19. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon

    Bonaventure Sonké


    Full Text Available The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontana crassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable.

  20. Marine pollution in Cameroon (Gulf of Guinea): State and remedies for successful control and monitoring

    This paper analyses the various research results obtained over several years in Cameroon on coastal and marine pollution, especially pollution by solid wastes, industrial and domestic effluents, hydrocarbons (tar balls), heavy metals and pesticides. Values in the order of 175,531 and 194,685 tons have been estimated for annual pollution loads in terms of BOD and suspended matter respectively. With respect to BOD, the most polluting industries are petroleum refineries, food processing and chemical industries which respectively represent 38, 36 and 10% of the total annual BOD. Measurement of tar balls on various Cameroonian beaches shows values as high as 42.40 g/m2 of beach, while the concentration of heavy metals encountered in shrimps and fish consumed in Cameroon shows a very wide range of values. Most of these values are similar to those obtained within the region, and some are alarming in their magnitude

  1. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.;


    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data...... and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion.......76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon’s current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional...

  2. Manyu youths, belonging and the antinomies of patrimonial elite politics in contemporary Cameroon

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe


    This article explores the social and political connections between youths and political elites from Manyu Division in South-Western Cameroon. Unlike several recent studies on youths in Africa, it focuses on educated youths from Manyu, exploring their strategies to secure greater political inclusion...... and better chances for upward social mobility. With a critical attention to their discourses and practices, the article examines the disjuncture between the promise of Cameroon’s patrimonial state as an inclusive structure of political action and the sense of exclusion, anxiety, and uncertainty felt by many...... actors. It argues that this tension generates relations of mutuality and interdependence between elite and nonelite actors. Yet, the article finds that while the logics of political intimacy between Manyu students and their political elites in Cameroon are mediated by kinship, ethnicity, and patronage...

  3. Survey of Minerai Status of Cattle in the Adamaoua Region of Cameroon

    Njwe, RM.


    Full Text Available Serum and liver samples were collected from Zebu Gudali and Zebu Banyo cattle freshly slaughtered in abattoirs at eight different locations in each of the five administrative divisions of the Adamaoua region of Cameroon during the wet season (September to October, 1983 and the dry season (February to March, 1984. Liver samples were analysed for iron, copper and manganese while serum samples were analysed for calcium, magnesium and copper. Most of the animals were adequate in calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. Copper was deficient in liver and sera of most of the animals. There is a need to intensif/research on the mineral status of cattle in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. Copper sulphate is recommended in sait licks for cattle in this region.

  4. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  5. Volcanism in southern Guinevere Planitia, Venus: Regional volcanic history and morphology of volcanic domes

    Crown, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.


    Guinevere Planitia is a low-lying region located between the highlands of Beta Regio and Eistla Regio. Analyses of Pioneer Venus, Goldstone, and Arecibo radar data suggested that the surface of Guinevere Planitia is dominated by volcanism, primarily in the form of bright, dark, and mottled plains units. Also identified in this region was the Beta-Eistla Deformation Zone, composed of ovoids and discontinuous segments of lineament belts that have been embayed by the surrounding plains. The resolution of Magellan SAR images allows detailed investigations of the volcanic deposits found in the area in order to determine the types of eruptive activity which have occurred and to constrain the regional volcanic history. Analyses of an area of southern Guinevere Planitia between 0-25 deg N and 300-330 deg indicate the presence of a wide variety of volcanic land forms, including large shield volcanoes, widespread plains, lava flow fields, and small domes, cones, and shields as well as coronae and other circular structures that have associated volcanic deposits.

  6. Contribution of Augosoma centaurus beetle to rural livelihoods in the East region of Cameroon : study report

    F. J. Muafor; Le Gall, Philippe; Levang, Patrice


    This report describes the level to which forest dependent people in the East region of Cameroon rely on the consumption of Augosoma centaurus beetle (Dynastidae) for food security and rural livelihood. In total, 14 villages and 2 small towns, comprising of 9 ethnic groups in 10 sub-divisions were surveyed using quantitative and qualitative socioeconomic approaches. From the results of this study, both the larvae and adult individuals of the Augosoma beetle are traditional delic...

  7. Conditions for the sustainable development of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon

    Nkongho, Raymond


    The collapse of the FONADER sponsored partnership between oil palm smallholders and major agro-industries in Cameroon together with the structural adjustment program, the devaluation of the Franc CFA, the economic crises, as well as the fall in the international market price for cocoa and coffee, led to the emergence of independent oil palm producers in the country. These oil palm planters have been grappling with the management of their plantation and the processing of their FFB with the use...

  8. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update

    Ndjemai, H. N. M.; Patchoke, S.; Atangana, J.; Etang, J.; Simard, Frédéric; Bilong, C. F. B.; Reimer, L.; Cornel, A.; Lanzaro, G.C.; Fondjo, E


    Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits. Results indicated a higher level of resistance (reduced mortality and knockdown effect) to DDT and pyrethroids in popula...

  9. Forest eternal? Endemic butterflies of the Bamenda highlands, Cameroon, avoid close-canopy forest

    Tropek, Robert; Konvička, M.


    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2010), s. 428-437. ISSN 0141-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Republic of Cameroon(CM) 014125; AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : afromontane landscape * conservation * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2010

  10. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on fish community structure in Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape of Cameroon

    Ettagbor, Hans


    Two sites of the Cross River within the Lebialem-Mone forest landscape of Cameroon were chosen, one of the sites faced with human activities (test site) and the other with no human pressure (control site). The lengths and weights of fish obtained from both sites were analyzed in SPSS. Fish communities living within these 2 sites were compared after collecting fish from them using gill nets within 2 months of sampling (September-October 2009). Questionnaires were distributed to the fishers to ...