Systematic comparison of ISOLDE-SC yields with calculated in-target production rates
Recently, a series of dedicated inverse-kinematics experiments performed at GSI, Darmstadt, has brought an important progress in our understanding of proton and heavy-ion induced reactions at relativistic energies. The nuclear reaction code ABRABLA that has been developed and benchmarked against the results of these experiments has been used to calculate nuclide production cross sections at different energies and with different targets and beams. These calculations are used to estimate nuclide production rates by protons in thick targets, taking into account the energy loss and the attenuation of the proton beam in the target, as well as the low-energy fission induced by the secondary neutrons. The results are compared to the yields of isotopes of various elements obtained from different targets at CERN-ISOLDE with 600 MeV protons, and the overall extraction efficiencies are deduced. The dependence of these extraction efficiencies on the nuclide half-life is found to follow a simple pattern in many different cases. A simple function is proposed to parameterize this behavior in a way that quantifies the essential properties of the extraction efficiency for the element and the target - ion-source system in question. (orig.)
In-target yields for RIB production with EURISOL
EURISOL DS (European Isotope Separation On-Line - Design Study) project is the European common effort in planning a next generation RIB factory able to deliver secondary beams up to 1013 pps at energies up to 150 MeV u-1. The proposed schematic layout of the facility is based on four target stations, three direct targets of 100kW of beam power and one multi-MW (MMW) target two stages assembly. Being produced via spallation the RIBs produced in the direct targets are mainly proton rich. While in the multi-MW target high intensity RIBs of neutron rich isotopes are produced by fission in actinide targets placed in the fast neutron spectrum given by a liquid metal spallation source. The purpose of this paper is to summarize a work carried out within Task 11 'Beam Intensity Calculations': estimation of the in-target yield intensities produced in the various target configurations. Benchmark studies were performed initially in order to verify the accurate description of the spallation models used by the MCNPX2.5.0 code and to choose the best options to be used for the present work requirements. Numerous calculations using MCNPX2.5.0 combined with the evolution code CINDER'90 were carried out to assess the performance of the direct targets. The production rates in the case of the MMW-fission targets were obtained with a given and fixed geometry (optimized to reach 1015 fission s-1). Only fissile material, moderator and reflector were free. (author)
Calculation of Hilbert Borcherds Products
Mayer, Sebastian
2010-01-01
In Brunier and Bundschuh, “On Borcherds Products Associated with Lattices of Prime Discriminant.” Ramanujan Journal 7 (2003), 49–61, the authors use Borcherds lifts to obtain Hilbert modular forms. Another approach is to calculate Hilbert modular forms using the Jacquet--Langlands correspondence, which was implemented by Lassina Dembele in "Magma". In Mayer, "Rings of Hilbert Modular Forms for the Fields $\\Q(\\sqrt{13})$ and $\\Q(\\sqrt{17})$,'' To appear, 2009, we use Brunier and...
Optimization of in-target yields for RIB production: Part 1: direct targets
In the framework of the EURISOL-DS project and within Task-11, we have performed in-target yield calculations for different configurations of thick direct targets. The target materials tested are Al2O3, SiC, Pb(molten), Ta and UC3. The target was irradiated with protons of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 GeV. The production rates have been computed using the MCNPX transport/generation code, coupled with the CINDER-90 evolution program. The yield distributions as a function of charge number Z and mass number A have been evaluated. Their production rates have been optimized for 11 selected elements (Li, Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ni, Ga, Kr, Hg, Sn and Fr) and 23 of their isotopes of interest. Finally, the isotopic distributions for each of these 11 elements have been optimized in terms of the target material, its geometry, and incident proton energy
Calculation code of the fission products activity
The document describes the two codes for the calculation of the fission products activity. The ''Pepin le bref'' code gives the exact value of the beta and gamma activities of completely known fission products. The code ''Plus Pepin'' introduces the beta and gamma activities whose properties are partially known. (A.L.B.)
Product Analysis in Target Market : Potential of Chinese Electric Motorcycle in Southern Finland
Ye, Jing
2012-01-01
Ye, Jing 2012. Product Analysis in Target Market. Potential of Chinese Electric Motorcycle in Southern Finland. Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 61. The thesis investigates potential of Chinese electric motorcycles in Southern Finland market through a product analysis. The objective of the thesis is to understand market situation and search market potential of Chinese electric motorcycles through a product analysis. The target marke...
Model for fission-product calculations
Many fission-product cross sections remain unmeasurable thus considerable reliance must be placed upon calculational interpolation and extrapolation from the few available measured cross sections. The vehicle, particularly for the lighter fission products, is the conventional optical-statistical model. The applied goals generally are: capture cross sections to 7 to 10% accuracies and inelastic-scattering cross sections to 25 to 50%. Comparisons of recent evaluations and experimental results indicate that these goals too often are far from being met, particularly in the area of inelastic scattering, and some of the evaluated fission-product cross sections are simply physically unreasonable. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the models employed in many of the evaluations are inappropriate and/or inappropriately used. In order to alleviate the above unfortunate situations, a regional optical-statistical (OM) model was sought with the goal of quantitative prediction of the cross sections of the lighter-mass (Z = 30-51) fission products. The first step toward that goal was the establishment of a reliable experimental data base consisting of energy-averaged neutron total and differential-scattering cross sections. The second step was the deduction of a regional model from the experimental data. It was assumed that a spherical OM is appropriate: a reasonable and practical assumption. The resulting OM then was verified against the measured data base. Finally, the physical character of the regional model is examined
Recent PQCD calculations of heavy quark production
Vitev, I
2006-01-01
We summarize the results of a recent study of heavy quark production and attenuation in cold nuclear matter. In p+p collisions, we investigate the relative contribution of partonic sub-processes to $D$ meson production and $D$ meson-triggered inclusive di-hadrons to lowest order in perturbative QCD. While gluon fusion dominates the creation of large angle $D\\bar{D}$ pairs, charm on light parton scattering determines the yield of single inclusive $D$ mesons. The distinctly different non-perturbative fragmentation of $c$ quarks into $D$ mesons versus the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into light hadrons results in a strong transverse momentum dependence of anticharm content of the away-side charm-triggered jet. In p+A reactions, we calculate and resum the coherent nuclear-enhanced power corrections from the final-state partonic scattering in the medium. We find that single and double inclusive open charm production can be suppressed as much as the yield of neutral pions from dynamical high-twist shadowing. ...
10Be production calculations in the atmosphere
Cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the Earth's atmosphere produce a cascade of secondary particles and cosmogenic nuclides. Cosmogenic nuclides itself are stored in natural archives such as ice cores and can therefore be measured by e.g. accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Here we present our calculations of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be, which is produced by spallation reactions between secondary neutrons and protons and the atmospheric gases nitrogen and oxygen, using PLANETOCOSMICS, a GEANT4 based computer code (Desorgher[2006]).
Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm
Teodor HADA
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting, in...
Innovative Product Design Based on Customer Requirement Weight Calculation Model
Chen-Guang Guo; Yong-Xian Liu; Shou-Ming Hou; Wei Wang
2010-01-01
In the processes of product innovation and design, it is important for the designers to find and capture customer's focus through customer requirement weight calculation and ranking. Based on the fuzzy set theory and Euclidean space distance, this paper puts forward a method for customer requirement weight calculation called Euclidean space distances weighting ranking method. This method is used in the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process that satisfies the additive consistent fuzzy matrix. A model for the weight calculation steps is constructed;meanwhile, a product innovation design module on the basis of the customer requirement weight calculation model is developed. Finally, combined with the instance of titanium sponge production, the customer requirement weight calculation model is validated. By the innovation design module, the structure of the titanium sponge reactor has been improved and made innovative.
Analytical calculation of heavy quarkonia production processes in computer
Braguta, V. V.; Likhoded, A. K.; Luchinsky, A. V.; Poslavsky, S. V.
2013-01-01
This report is devoted to the analytical calculation of heavy quarkonia production processes in modern experiments such as LHC, B-factories and superB-factories in computer. Theoretical description of heavy quarkonia is based on the factorization theorem. This theorem leads to special structure of the production amplitudes which can be used to develop computer algorithm which calculates these amplitudes automatically. This report is devoted to the description of this algorithm. As an example ...
Calculational techniques (not only) for single top production
WEINZIERL, Stefan
2000-01-01
A next-to-leading order calculation for single top production including spin-dependent observables requires efficient techniques for the calculation of the relevant loop amplitudes. We discuss the adaption of dimensional regularization, the spinor helicity method and of tensor integral reduction algorithms to these needs.
Calorimetric measurement of afterheat in target materials for the accelerator production of tritium
The estimate of afterheat in a spallation target of lead (Pb) or tungsten (W), by calorimetry, is the purpose of this experiment in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT). Such measurements are needed to confirm code calculations, these being the only practical way of gaining this type of information in a form suitable to aid the design of the APT machine. Knowledge of the magnitude and duration of afterheat resulting from decay of activation products produced by proton bombardment of the target is necessary to quantify APT safety assumptions, to design target cooling and safety systems, and to reduce technical risk. Direct calorimetric measurement of the afterheat for the appropriate incident proton energies is more reliable than the available alternative, which is indirect, based on data from gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. The basic concept, a direct measurement of decay afterheat which bypasses the laborious classical way of determining this quantity, has been demonstrated to work. The gamma-ray energy given off by the decay products produced in the activation of lead or tungsten with high-energy protons apparently does represent a significant fraction of the total decay energy. A calorimeter designed for measurement of isotopes decaying by alpha emission must be modified to reduce energy lost with escaping gamma rays. Replacement of the aluminum liner with a tungsten liner in the SSC measurement chamber resulted in a 270% increase in measured heat, proving that the energy loss in the earlier (1992) measurements was significant. Gamma-ray measurements are needed to confirm the gamma-ray absorption calculations for the calorimeter to determine the correction for loss of heat due to transmission of high-energy gamma rays through the calorimeter walls. The experiments at BLIP have shown that calorimetry can be a useful tool in measuring the afterheat in APT target materials
Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm
Teodor HADA
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting, in the financial accounting and also the conclusions to be drawn in terms of management accounting utility in financial decision making.
Shielding calculations for a production target for secondary beams
Rehm, K.E.; Back, B.B.; Jiang, C.L. [and others
1995-08-01
In order to estimate the amount of shielding required for a radioactive beam facility dose rate were performed. The calculations for production targets with different geometries were performed. The calculations were performed with the MSU shielding code assuming a 500-p{mu}A 200-MeV deuteron beam stopped in a thick Al target. The target and the ion-optical elements for beam extraction are located in a 2 m{sup 3} large volume at the center of the production cell. These dose rate calculations show that with a combination of Fe and concrete it is possible to reduce the dose rate expected at the surface of a 7-m-wide cube housing the production target to less than 2 mrem/hr.
Pulsation Calculation of Cylindrical Underwater Gas Explosion Products in Well
A. M. Sheiko
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model of pulsation process of cylindrical underwater gas explosion products in the well at gas-impulse regeneration filters. A differential equation of the second-order with constant coefficients has been derived. A special calculation program has been developed to solve the equation. Expressions for calculation of maximum radius of cylindrical explosion chamber at the end of expansion process and pressure impulse in the first half-period pulsation.
Large fragment production calculations in relativistic heavy-ion reactions
The abrasion-ablation model is briefly described and then used to calculate cross sections for production of large fragments resulting from target or projectile fragmentation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The number of nucleons removed from the colliding nuclei in the abrasion stage and the excitation energy of the remaining fragments (primary products) are calculated with the geometrical picture of two different models: the fireball and the firestreak models. The charge-to-mass dispersion of the primary products is calculated using either a model which assumes no correlations between proton and neutron positions inside the nucleus (hypergeometric distribution) or a model based upon the zero-point oscillations of the giant dipole resonance (NUC-GDR). Standard Weisskopf--Ewing statistical evaporation calculations are used to calculate final product distributions. Results of the pure abrasion-ablation model are compared with a variety of experimental data. The comparisons show the insufficiency of the extra-surface energy term used in the abrasion calculations. A frictional spectator interaction (FSI) is introduced which increases the average excitation energy of the primary products, and improves the results considerably in most cases. Agreements and discrepancies of the results calculated with the different theoretical assumptions and the experimental data are studied. Of particular relevance is the possibility of observing nuclear ground-state correlations.Results of the recently completed experiment of fragmentation of 213 Mev/A 40Ar projectiles are studied and shown not to be capable of answering that question unambiguously. But predictions for the upcoming 48Ca fragmentation experiment clearly show the possibility of observing correlation effects. 78 references
Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions
S Biswas; I Chowdhury
2007-01-01
We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure of resonance band formation. We observe that though low-mass fermion production is not effective in pre-heating because of Pauli blocking, it is quite probable for high-mass fermion to take part in pre-heating.
Production rate calculations for a secondary beam facility
Jiang, C.L.; Back, B.B.; Rehm, K.E.
1995-08-01
In order to select the most cost-effective method for the production of secondary ion beams, yield calculations for a variety of primary beams were performed ranging in mass from protons to {sup 18}O with energies of 100-200 MeV/u. For comparison, production yields for 600-1000 MeV protons were also calculated. For light ion-(A < {sup 4}He) induced reactions at energies above 50 MeV/u the LAHET code was used while the low energy calculations were performed with LPACE. Heavy-ion-induced production rates were calculated with the ISAPACE program. The results of these codes were checked against each other and wherever possible a comparison with experimental data was performed. These comparisons extended to very exotic reaction channels, such as the production of {sup 100}Sn from {sup 112}Sn and {sup 124}Xe induced fragmentation reactions. These comparisons indicate that the codes are able to predict production rates to within one order of magnitude.
Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas
The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Calculation of vapor pressure of fission product fluorides and oxyfluorides
The equilibrium diagrams of the condensed phases - solid and liquid - and vapor phase are collected for the principal fluorides and oxyfluorides of fission product elements (atomic number from 30 to 66). These diagrams are used more particularly in fuel reprocessing by fluoride volatility process. Calculations and curves (vapor pressure in function of temperature) are processed using a computer program given in this report
To speed-up the absorbed dose (AD) computation while accounting for tissue heterogeneities, a Collapsed Cone (CC) superposition algorithm was developed and validated for 90Y. The superposition was implemented with an Energy Deposition Kernel scaled with the radiological distance, along with CC acceleration. The validation relative to Monte Carlo simulations was performed on 6 phantoms involving soft tissue, lung and bone, a radioembolisation treatment and a simulated bone metastasis treatment. As a figure of merit, the relative AD difference (ΔAD) in low gradient regions (LGR), distance to agreement (DTA) in high gradient regions and the γ(1%,1 mm) criterion were used for the phantoms. Mean organ doses and γ(3%,3 mm) were used for the patient data. For the semi-infinite sources, ΔAD in LGR was below 1%. DTA was below 0.6 mm. All profiles verified the γ(1%,1 mm) criterion. For both clinical cases, mean doses differed by less than 1% for the considered organs and all profiles verified the γ(3%,3 mm). The calculation time was below 4 min on a single processor for CC superposition and 40 h on a 40 nodes cluster for MCNP (108 histories). Our results show that the CC superposition is a very promising alternative to MC for 90Y dosimetry, while significantly reducing computation time. (paper)
Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Gardin, Isabelle; Lebtahi, Rachida; Dieudonné, Arnaud
2014-09-01
To speed-up the absorbed dose (AD) computation while accounting for tissue heterogeneities, a Collapsed Cone (CC) superposition algorithm was developed and validated for 90Y. The superposition was implemented with an Energy Deposition Kernel scaled with the radiological distance, along with CC acceleration. The validation relative to Monte Carlo simulations was performed on 6 phantoms involving soft tissue, lung and bone, a radioembolisation treatment and a simulated bone metastasis treatment. As a figure of merit, the relative AD difference (ΔAD) in low gradient regions (LGR), distance to agreement (DTA) in high gradient regions and the γ(1%,1 mm) criterion were used for the phantoms. Mean organ doses and γ(3%,3 mm) were used for the patient data. For the semi-infinite sources, ΔAD in LGR was below 1%. DTA was below 0.6 mm. All profiles verified the γ(1%,1 mm) criterion. For both clinical cases, mean doses differed by less than 1% for the considered organs and all profiles verified the γ(3%,3 mm). The calculation time was below 4 min on a single processor for CC superposition and 40 h on a 40 nodes cluster for MCNP (108 histories). Our results show that the CC superposition is a very promising alternative to MC for 90Y dosimetry, while significantly reducing computation time.
Nuclear model calculations on cyclotron production of 51Cr
51Cr (T1/2 = 27.7 d), which decays via electron capture (100 %) with 320 keV gamma emission (9.8 %), is a radionuclide with still a large application in biological studies. In this work, ALICE/ASH and TALYS nuclear model codes along with some adjustments are used to calculate the excitation functions for proton, deuteron, α-particle and neutron induced on various targets leading to the production of 51Cr radioisotope. The production yields of 51Cr from various reactions are determined using the excitation function calculations and stopping power data. The results are compared with corresponding experimental data and discussed from point of view of feasibility.
Nuclear model calculations on cyclotron production of {sup 51}Cr
Kakavand, Tayeb [Imam Khomeini International Univ., Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Aboudzadeh, Mohammadreza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute/AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School; Farahani, Zahra; Eslami, Mohammad [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics
2015-12-15
{sup 51}Cr (T{sub 1/2} = 27.7 d), which decays via electron capture (100 %) with 320 keV gamma emission (9.8 %), is a radionuclide with still a large application in biological studies. In this work, ALICE/ASH and TALYS nuclear model codes along with some adjustments are used to calculate the excitation functions for proton, deuteron, α-particle and neutron induced on various targets leading to the production of {sup 51}Cr radioisotope. The production yields of {sup 51}Cr from various reactions are determined using the excitation function calculations and stopping power data. The results are compared with corresponding experimental data and discussed from point of view of feasibility.
Calculations of pair production by Monte Carlo methods
We describe some of the technical design issues associated with the production of particle-antiparticle pairs in very large accelerators. To answer these questions requires extensive calculation of Feynman diagrams, in effect multi-dimensional integrals, which we evaluate by Monte Carlo methods on a variety of supercomputers. We present some portable algorithms for generating random numbers on vector and parallel architecture machines. 12 refs., 14 figs
Calculations of pair production by Monte Carlo methods
Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.
1991-01-01
We describe some of the technical design issues associated with the production of particle-antiparticle pairs in very large accelerators. To answer these questions requires extensive calculation of Feynman diagrams, in effect multi-dimensional integrals, which we evaluate by Monte Carlo methods on a variety of supercomputers. We present some portable algorithms for generating random numbers on vector and parallel architecture machines. 12 refs., 14 figs.
Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost
Saule B. Spatayeva
2015-01-01
In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not prov...
Neutron cross section calculations for fission-product nuclei
To satisfy nuclear data requirements for fission-product nuclei, Hauser-Feshbach statistical calculations with preequilibrium corrections for neutron-induced reactions on isotopes of Se, Kr, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sn, Xe, and Ba between 0.001 and 20 MeV. Spherical neutron optical parameters were determined by simultaneous fits to resonance data and total cross sections. Isospin coefficients appearing in the optical potentials were determined through analysis of the behavior of s- and p-wave strengths as a function of mass for a given Z. Gamma-ray strength functions, determined through fits to stable-isotope capture data, were used in the calculation of capture cross sections and gamma-ray competition to particle emission. The resulting (n,γ), (n,n'), (n,2n), and (n,3n) cross sections, the secondary neutron emission spectra, and angular distributions calculated for 19 fission products will be averaged to provide a resulting ENDF-type fission-product neutronics file. 11 references
Yrjaenaeinen, H.; Silvenius, F.; Kaukoranta, T.; Naekkilae, J.; Saerkkae, L.; Tuhkanen, E.-M.
2013-02-01
This report presents the results of climate impact calculations for five products produced in Finnish greenhouses: tomatoes, cucumbers, salad crops, tulips and Elatior begonias. The study employed 16 greenhouses for the investigation; two greenhouses each for the tulips and the begonias and four each for the tomatoes, cucumbers and salad crops. Based on these calculations a greenhouse gas calculator was developed for greenhouse cultivators. The calculator is available at internet in www.kauppapuutarhaliitto.fi {yields} hiilijalanjaelki. In terms of environmental impacts this study concentrated on the climate impacts of the investigated products, and the calculations were made for the most significant greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. The following processes were included in the system boundaries: plant growing, manufacturing of lime, fertilizers and pesticides, manufacturing and disposal of pots, carbon dioxide production, irrigation, lighting, thermal curtains and cooling systems, the production and use of electricity and heat energy, distribution of products by the growers, other transportation, end-of-life and recycling. Processes excluded from the study were: distribution by other actors, retail functions, the consumer stage, and maintenance and manufacturing of infrastructure. The study used MTT's calculation model for the climate impact of food products excluding distribution and retail processes. The greenhouses selected for the study had some variation in their energy profiles and growing seasons. In addition, scenarios were created for different energy sources by using the average figures from this study. Monthly energy consumption values were also obtained from a number of the greenhouses and these were used to assess the variations in climate impact for different seasons. According to the results of the study the use of energy is the most significant source of climate impact of greenhouse products. In the tomato farms the
Radioisotope production in target fragmentation with high-energy heavy ions at HIMAC
In order to improve utilisation of the multitracer method, two aspects of the method were pursued in this study. The production of radioisotopes from target fragmentation of 197Au nuclei was performed with high-energetic heavy ions of 12C (180, 290, 400 MeV/u) and 40Ar (290, 650 MeV/u) at HIMAC facilities. The yields of products were measured by using a thick-target-thick-catcher method and off-line gamma spectrometry with Ge semiconductor detectors. Besides, a special apparatus for practice of the radioisotope production was designed in application of the tracers for separation of the products from target material with high efficiency and the target material and shape for the design was investigated in a trial examination. (author)
Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost
Saule B. Spatayeva
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not provide the increase of economic effectiveness in agriculture.
Nuclear Structure Measurements of Fermium-254 and Advances in Target Production Methodologies
Gothe, Oliver Ralf
2014-01-01
The Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) has been upgraded with a new gas control system. It allows for accurate control of hydrogen and helium gas mixtures. This greatly increases the capabilities of the separator by reducing background signals in the focal plane detector for asymmetric nuclear reactions. It has also been shown that gas mixtures can be used to focus the desired reaction products into a smaller area, thereby increasing the experimental efficiency.A new electrodeposition cell h...
A model for fission-product calculations, 1
Many fission-product cross sections remain unmeasurable thus considerable reliance must be placed upon calculational interpolation and exstrapolation from the few available measured cross sections. The vehicle, particularly for the lighter fission products, is the conventional the optical-statistical model. The applied goals generally are: capture cross sections to 7 - 10 % accuracies and inelastic-scattering cross sections to 25 - 50 %. Comparisons of recent evaluations and experimental results indicate that these goals have too often are far from met, particularly in the area of inelastic scattering, and some of the evaluated fission-product cross sections are simply physically unreasonable. An example of these discrepancies is shown in a figure. The evaluated inelastic-scattering cross sections of palladium are nearly a 100 % discrepant with observation and the isotopes are prominent fission products with large inelastic-scattering cross sections at relatively low energies. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the models employed in many of the evaluations are inappropriate and/or inappropriately used. (author)
Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.
Calculation of the spallation product distribution in the evaporation process
Some investigations are performed for the calculational model of nuclear spallation reaction in the evaporation process. A new version of a spallation reaction simulation code NUCLEUS has been developed by incorporating the newly revised Uno ampersand Yamada's mass formula and extending the counting region of produced nuclei. The differences between the new and original mass formulas are shown in the comparisons of mass excess values. The distributions of spallation products of a uranium target nucleus bombarded by energy (0.38 - 2.9 GeV) protons have been calculated with the new and original versions of NUCLEUS. In the fission component Uno ampersand Yamada's mass formula reproduces the measured data obtained from thin foil experiments significantly better, especially in the neutron excess side, than the combination of the Cameron's mass formula and the mass table compiled by Wapstra, et al., in the original version of NUCLEUS. Discussions are also made on how the mass-yield distribution of products varies dependent on the level density parameter a characterizing the particle evaporation. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues.
Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A
2013-09-01
The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively
An environmental impact calculator for greenhouse production systems.
Torrellas, Marta; Antón, Assumpció; Montero, Juan Ignacio
2013-03-30
Multiple web-based calculators have come on the market as tools to support sustainable decision making, but few are available to agriculture. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has proved to be an objective, transparent tool for calculating environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products and services, but can often be too complex for non-specialists. The objective of this study was therefore to develop an environmental support tool to determine the environmental impacts of protected crops. An effort was made to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to reach a wide audience and help horticulture stakeholders choose efficient options to mitigate the environmental impacts of protected crops. Users can estimate the environmental performance of their crops by entering a limited amount of data and following a few easy steps. A questionnaire must be answered with data on the crop, greenhouse dimensions, substrate, waste management, and the consumption of water, energy, fertilisers and pesticides. The calculator was designed as a simplified LCA, based on two scenarios analysed in detail in previous tasks of the EUPHOROS project and used as reference systems in this study. Two spreadsheets were provided based on these reference scenarios: one for a tomato crop in a multi-tunnel greenhouse under Southern European climate conditions and the other for a tomato crop in a Venlo glass greenhouse under Central European climate conditions. The selected functional unit was one tonne of tomatoes. Default data were given for each reference system for users who did not have complete specific data and to provide results for comparison with users' own results. The results were presented for water use as an inventory indicator and for the impact categories abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, photochemical oxidation and cumulative energy demand. In the multi-tunnel greenhouse, the main contributors based on the default data were the structure, fertilisers
Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated
Urozayev, Dias
2015-06-01
In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down
Ozone production efficiency calculated for different cities in North China
Xue, Min; Ma, Jianzhong
2014-05-01
North China, or Huabei in Chinese, is one of the most severely polluted regions in China. There are many large, complex and strong emission sources in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan (together called Jing-Jin-Tang in Chinese) and other urban and industrial centers in Huabei. We applied a regional chemical transport model including the tracer-tagging technique to investigate the chemical characteristics of air masses from different pollution hotspots in Huabei during the IPAC-NC campaign in spring 2006. We calculated the ozone production efficiency of NOx (OPEx) using selected data points of Ox and NOz corresponding to a large number of model grids, which have a good representation of the chemical characteristics of air masses for an entire investigated region. The estimated OPEx for Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, and Shijiazhuang general plumes is 3.35, 2.75, 1.43 and 2.33 mole/mole, respectively. We also calculated the OPEx using selected data points of Ox and NOz corresponding to different air masses arriving at Xin'an (one model grid), a rural station located in the center part of Jing-Jin-Tang. The estimated OPEx in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan air masses arriving at Xin'an is 2.98, 2.52, and 1.42 mole/mole, respectively. The difference in estimated OPEx can be attributed to the difference in the emission source types and strength between these regions. The estimated OPEx in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan air masses arriving at Xin'an are comparable to those in their general pollution plumes. This indicates that air masses from different urban and industrial centers in Huabei can also maintain their different chemical characteristics while being transported to the rural areas.
Methodology for calculation of carbon balances for biofuel crops production
Gerlfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Snapp, S. S.; Robertson, G. P.
2012-04-01
Understanding the carbon balance implications for different biofuel crop production systems is important for the development of decision making tools and policies. We present here a detailed methodology for assessing carbon balances in agricultural and natural ecosystems. We use 20 years of data from Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) experiments at the Kellogg Biological Station (KBS), combined with models to produce farm level CO2 balances for different management practices. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically-based (organic) practices; and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In addition we use an abandoned agricultural field (successionnal ecosystem) as reference system. Measurements include fluxes of N2O and CH4, soil organic carbon change, agricultural yields, and agricultural inputs (e.g. fertilization and farm fuel use). In addition to measurements, we model carbon offsets associated with the use of bioenergy from agriculturally produced crops. Our analysis shows the importance of establishing appropriate system boundaries for carbon balance calculations. We explore how different assumptions regarding production methods and emission factors affect overall conclusions on carbon balances of different agricultural systems. Our results show management practices that have major the most important effects on carbon balances. Overall, agricultural management with conventional tillage was found to be a net CO2 source to the atmosphere, while agricultural management under reduced tillage, low input, or organic management sequestered carbon at rates of 93, -23, -51, and -14 g CO2e m-2 yr-1, respectively for conventionally tilled, no-till, low-input, and organically managed ecosystems. Perennial systems (alfalfa and the successionnal fields) showed net carbon
Analyzing the Accuracy of Calculations When Scoping Product Configuration Projects
Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars
2012-01-01
Product configurators have increasingly been applied in industrial environments. With their help, companies providing customized products have managed to redesign their specification processes and to better handle the growing product variety. But despite the promising benefits, conducting...
Mohammad Reza Abbasi; Ali Reza Zamanian
2012-01-01
The present paper describes the concept and process of product life cycle in target market of the present commercial organizations. The results of the present study shows that the organization be familiar in target market via knowledge management with the concept and product life cycle of the goods, requires a good planning about the relationship of these two factors. The research population includes electrical and electronically industries of Mazandaran province, Pishraneh Productive-commerc...
Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production cross-sections
The meeting proceedings were divided into three sessions devoted to the following topics: Experimental measurement and techniques (3 papers), calculation of photon cross-sections (9 papers), and evaluation (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs
Uncertainties in fission-product decay-heat calculations
Oyamatsu, K.; Ohta, H.; Miyazono, T.; Tasaka, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
1997-03-01
The present precision of the aggregate decay heat calculations is studied quantitatively for 50 fissioning systems. In this evaluation, nuclear data and their uncertainty data are taken from ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library and those which are not available in this library are supplemented by a theoretical consideration. An approximate method is proposed to simplify the evaluation of the uncertainties in the aggregate decay heat calculations so that we can point out easily nuclei which cause large uncertainties in the calculated decay heat values. In this paper, we attempt to clarify the justification of the approximation which was not very clear at the early stage of the study. We find that the aggregate decay heat uncertainties for minor actinides such as Am and Cm isotopes are 3-5 times as large as those for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. The recommended values by Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) were given for 3 major fissioning systems, {sup 235}U(t), {sup 239}Pu(t) and {sup 238}U(f). The present results are consistent with the AESJ values for these systems although the two evaluations used different nuclear data libraries and approximations. Therefore, the present results can also be considered to supplement the uncertainty values for the remaining 17 fissioning systems in JNDC2, which were not treated in the AESJ evaluation. Furthermore, we attempt to list nuclear data which cause large uncertainties in decay heat calculations for the future revision of decay and yield data libraries. (author)
AN ECONOMETRICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATING THE ROMANIAN GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
Ana Maria Mihaela Iordache; Ionela Catalina Tudorache; Mihai Tiberiu Iordache
2011-01-01
This article analyzes the possibility of determining the Romanian Gross Domestic Product on the basis of a linear model, based on macroeconomic indicators such as unemployment, inflation, exchange rate. The proposed solution allows forecasting the Gross Domestic Product for the following period of time based on equation determined from the model in order to develop scenarios for improving the macroeconomic situation of Romania. The article also can be a starting point in the field of strategi...
Two photon production of charm states - a charmonium calculation
The comparison of the nonrelativistic multichannel calculation with the double Rutherford process shows that duality is satisfied, in the sense that if one averages the actual cross sections for a wide enough range of W one gets the same result as for nonstrongly interacting point like quarks. It has been shown for the case of e+e- annihilation that duality in this sense follows from nonrelativistic potential models; and it has been verified that this proof can be extended to two-photon processes
Quark model calculation of charmed baryon production by neutrinos
We study the neutrino production of 25 low-lying charmed baryon resonances in the four flavour quark model. The mass difference of ordinary and charmed quarks is explicitly taken into account. The quark model is used to determine the spectrum of the charmed baryon resonances and the q2 = 0 values of the weak current transition matrix elements. These transition matrix elements are then continued to space-like q2-values by a generalized meson dominance ansatz for a set of suitably chosen invariant form factors. We find that the production of the L = 0 states C0, C1 and C1* is dominant, with the C0 produced most copiously. For L = 1, 2 the Jsup(P) = 3/2- 5/2+ charm states are dominant. We give differential cross sections, total cross sections and energy integrated total cross sections using experimental neutrino fluxes. (orig./BJ)
Model Calculation of Fission Product Yields Data using GEF Code
Fission yields data are classified with spontaneous fission data and neutron induced fission data. The fission product yields data at several energy points for the limited actinides are included in nuclear data libraries such as ENDF/B, JEFF and JENDL because production of those is based mainly on experimental results and it is very difficult to conduct experiments for all actinides and continuous energies. Therefore, in order to obtain fission yields data without experimental data, a theoretical fission model should be introduced to produce the yields data. GEneral Fission model (GEF) is developed to predict the properties for fissioning systems that have not been measured and that are not accessible to experiment. In this study, the fission yields data generated from GEF code are compared with the measured data and the recently available nuclear data libraries. The GEF code is very powerful tool to generate fission yields without measurements. Also, it can produce the distribution of fission product yields for continuous neutron energy while measured data are given only at several energies. The fission yields data of 235U have been tentatively generated with GEF code in this work. Comparing GEF results with measurements and recently released evaluated fission yields data, it is confirmed that GEF code can successfully predict the fission yields data. With its sophisticated model, GEF code is playing a significant role in nuclear industry
Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part I: thin targets
David, J.C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N
Report on benchmark calculations on residue production in thin targets. Calculations were performed using MCNPX 2.5.0 coupled to a selection of reaction models. The results were compared to nuclide production cross-sections measured in GSI in inverse kinematics
HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation
HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)
Improved calculation of total cross section for pair production by relativistic heavy ions
Eby, P. B.
1989-01-01
A calculation of the total cross section for direct electron-positron pair production by heavy ions is described. It combines the use of the Weizsaecker-Williams method for low-energy transfers and existing calculations for high-energy transfers. Higher-order corrections to the total cross section are calculated based on the Weizsaecher-Williams method and existing results for pair production by photons.
FISPRO: a simplified computer program for general fission product formation and decay calculations
This report describes a computer program that solves a general form of the fission product formation and decay equations over given time steps for arbitrary decay chains composed of up to three nuclides. All fission product data and operational history data are input through user-defined input files. The program is very useful in the calculation of fission product activities of specific nuclides for various reactor operational histories and accident consequence calculations
37 CFR 1.779 - Calculation of patent term extension for a veterinary biological product.
2010-07-01
... extension for a veterinary biological product. 1.779 Section 1.779 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a veterinary biological product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a veterinary biological product is eligible for extension, the...
Calculation of isotopic mass and energy production by a matrix operator method
The Volterra method of the multiplicative integral is used to determine the isotopic density, mass, and energy production in linear systems. The solution method, assumptions, and limitations are discussed. The method allows a rapid accurate calculation of the change in isotopic density, mass, and energy production independent of the magnitude of the time steps, production or decay rates, or flux levels
Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.
KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist
Bellido, Luis F.
1995-07-01
A computer code to calculate the projectile energy degradation along a target stack was developed for an IBM or compatible personal microcomputer. A comparison of protons and deuterons bombarding uranium and aluminium targets was made. The results showed that the data obtained with TRANGE were in agreement with other computers code such as TRIM, EDP and also using Williamsom and Janni range and stopping power tables. TRANGE can be used for any charged particle ion, for energies between 1 to 100 MeV, in metal foils and solid compounds targets. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs.
Methods of Cost Accounting and Production Costs Calculation: Merits and Demerits
Alla Pohosova; Olena Yarmolyuk
2012-01-01
The methods of cost accounting and calculation of production costs, including standard-cost, direct-costing, re-distribution and customized ones, their advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed. The proposals on the implementation of methods of cost accounting and production cost calculation in agricultural enterprises have been given. In addition, the application of the combined method of cost accounting of dairy cattle-breeding output has been accentuated
Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part II: thick targets
David, J.-C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N
Benchmark calculations on residue production using MCNPX 2.5.0. Calculations were compared to mass-distribution data for 5 different elements measured at ISOLDE, and to specific activities of 28 radionuclides in different places along the thick target measured in Dubna.
Shielding calculation of the radioisotope production channel at 'Tesla' cyclotron installation
During construction of the 'Tesla' Accelerator Installation in the Vinca Institute, one of the important problems was shielding calculation for the Radioisotope production Channel. Calculations were made in three different methods: empirical, semiempirical and Monte Carlo method. The results have been compared and show good agreement. (author)
235U fission product gamma spectra: a comparison between experiment and calculation
Recent measurements of 235U fission product gamma spectra (ORNL), after reduction to a broad group structure, were compared with results of corresponding summation calculations which were made with the UKFPDD-1 fission product data base. In order to facilitate convenient integration of the summation results, weighted sums of decaying exponentials were accurately fitted to them using an iterative least-squares method described. The comparisons between experiment and calculation reveal significant deficiencies in data for short-lived nuclides which prevent the accurate calculation of short-term ( 5 MeV are also examined briefly and possible causes for them are discussed. (author)
Augmentation of ENDF/B fission product gamma-ray spectra by calculated spectra
Gamma-ray spectral data of the ENDF/B-V fission product decay data file have been augmented by calculated spectra. The calculations were performed with a model using beta strength functions and cascade gamma-ray transitions. The calculated spectra were applied to individual fission product nuclides. Comparisons with several hundred measured aggregate gamma spectra after fission were performed to confirm the applicability of the calculated spectra. The augmentation was extended to a preliminary ENDF/B-VI file, and to beta spectra. Appendix C provides information on the total decay energies for individual products and some comparisons of measured and aggregate values based on the preliminary ENDF/B-VI files. 15 refs., 411 figs
Calculation of LUEC using HEEP Software for Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant
To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution by reducing the release of carbon dioxide. A Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is considered as an efficient reactor to couple with the thermo-chemical Sulfur Iodine (SI) cycle to achieve the hydrogen economy. HEEP(Hydrogen Economy Evaluation Program) is one of the software tools developed by IAEA to evaluate the economy of the nuclear hydrogen production system by estimating unit hydrogen production cost. In this paper, the LUHC (Levelized Unit Hydrogen Cost) is calculated by using HEEP for nuclear hydrogen production plant, which consists of 4 modules of 600 MWth VHTR coupled with SI process. The levelized unit hydrogen production cost(LUHC) was calculated by the HEEP software
Calculation of LUEC using HEEP Software for Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant
Kim, Jongho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution by reducing the release of carbon dioxide. A Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is considered as an efficient reactor to couple with the thermo-chemical Sulfur Iodine (SI) cycle to achieve the hydrogen economy. HEEP(Hydrogen Economy Evaluation Program) is one of the software tools developed by IAEA to evaluate the economy of the nuclear hydrogen production system by estimating unit hydrogen production cost. In this paper, the LUHC (Levelized Unit Hydrogen Cost) is calculated by using HEEP for nuclear hydrogen production plant, which consists of 4 modules of 600 MWth VHTR coupled with SI process. The levelized unit hydrogen production cost(LUHC) was calculated by the HEEP software.
Cross sections for the proton-induced production of radionuclides (40 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 60) from natural titanium, iron, and nickel were measured for proton energies from 80 to 200 MeV. The experimental data were compared with calculations according to Blann's hybrid model of nuclear reactions and to the semiempirical formulas of Rudstam and of Silberberg and Tsao. Based mainly on the new excitation functions, the production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides in meteorites by primary galactic protons were calculated. Since the interaction of primary solar and galactic particles with meteorites can be described with accuracy, the model calculations allow for a quantitative estimate of the action of secondary particles in meteorites. A method of completely describing the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites that takes into account all sources of production is proposed. 51 references
Higher Order QED Calculation of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Production of mu+ mu- Pairs
Baltz, A. J.
2009-01-01
A higher order QED calculation of the ultraperipheral heavy ion cross section for mu+ mu- pair production at RHIC and LHC is carried out. The so-called "Coulomb corrections" lead to an even greater percentage decrease of mu+ mu- production from perturbation theory than the corresponding decrease for e+ e- pair production. Unlike the e+ e- case, the finite charge distribution of the ions (form factor) and the necessary subtraction of impact parameters with matter overlap are significant effect...
Development of a cost calculation model and cost index for sheep production
Camila Raineri
2015-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to develop a model for calculation and analysis of production costs of lamb and, from that, to elaborate a production cost index. Panel meetings were held in five regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to define technical features of representative properties of lamb production, taken as a basis for the preparation of the cost calculation model. Then the model for production cost calculation was built. The third step consisted of monitoring prices of inputs used, calculating production costs along the studied period, and generating the cost index, by the Laspeyres model. Lastly, questionnaires were applied to sheep producers, to validate the cost index. The model for production cost calculation was planned to be of easy utilization by farmers, and simultaneously faithful to the theoretical principles. The adopted scheme of cost allocation followed the classification of "variable", "fixed operating", and "income of factors". We generated cost indexes for each of the five studied regions, which were then aggregated in a state index, by weighting regional indexes by flock size. More than 97% of the answers to the validation questionnaires were positive, so we considered that the index reached a high level of approval. The application of Economic Theory is essential for the development of cost calculation models. The developed model has potential to generate important information that can help producers to make decisions. It can work in many contexts, and it can even be adapted to other livestock species. The production cost index for lamb was approved and can collaborate with the organization of the sheep agroindustrial system.
Cristiana Bogdanoiu
2011-01-01
The development of food industry of manufacturing dairy products in our country imposes increased efforts to find the most judicious means for management accounting and cost calculation improvement, in order to thoroughly identify and mobilize the existing internal reserves to achieve economic growth. The management accounting and costs calculation improvement, as a basic element of the accounting system, without which an efficient leadership of internal management activities can not be achie...
Calculated leaching of certain fission products from a cylinder of French glass
The probable total leaching of the most important fission products and actinides have been tabulated for a cylinder of French HLW glass with approximately 9 percent fission products. The calculations cover the period between 30 and 10000 years after removal from the reactor. The cylinder is of the type planned for the introduction of the HLW into Swedish crystalline rocks. All the components are supposed to have the same leach rate. The calculations also include the probable thickness of eroded glass layer/year. (author)
Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program
Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars
2012-01-01
of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...
Fission Product Decay Heat Calculations for Neutron Fission of 232Th
Son, P. N.; Hai, N. X.
2016-06-01
Precise information on the decay heat from fission products following times after a fission reaction is necessary for safety designs and operations of nuclear-power reactors, fuel storage, transport flasks, and for spent fuel management and processing. In this study, the timing distributions of fission products' concentrations and their integrated decay heat as function of time following a fast neutron fission reaction of 232Th were exactly calculated by the numerical method with using the DHP code.
Preliminary Calculation of the EROI for the Production of Crude Oil and Light Oil Products in Russia
Alexander Safronov
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of energy resources. The production of energy resources in Russia is profitable both economically and in terms of energy production. Currently, Russian oil and gas companies have a policy of increasing energy efficiency, which will led to an increase in the energy return on investment (EROI of both oil and gas production as a whole, and of separate companies in particular. By our calculations, the EROI for oil production in Russia differs for the different companies, and in 2012 was in the range of 22–35:1. The EROI for light oil products in 2012 was in the range of 5–13:1.
The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs
Heat production in growing pigs calculated according to the RQ and CN methods
Christensen, K; Chwalibog, André; Henckel, S;
1988-01-01
1. Heat production, calculated according to the respiratory quotient methods, HE(RQ), and the carbon nitrogen balance method, HE(CN), was compared using the results from a total of 326 balance trials with 56 castrated male pigs fed different dietary composition and variable feed levels during the...
The report summarizes results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to photon preduction in neutron-induced reactions. The report presents 25 original contributions that reflect accomplishments achieved in measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production under the project in 1994-1997. Major results are highlighted and a list of the CRP publications is given. (author)
Baranovskaya T. P.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The article describes the fuzzy-multiple approach and the block of fuzzy (interval mathematical models developed by the authors for calculating the amounts of material and financial flows, prices for bread and economic efficiency in a technologically integrated bread production system
COMPLEX INNER PRODUCT AVERAGING METHOD FOR CALCULATING NORMAL FORM OF ODE
陈予恕; 孙洪军
2001-01-01
This paper puts forward a complex inner product averaging method for calculating normal form of ODE. Compared with conventional averaging method, the theoretic analytical process has such simple forms as to realize computer program easily.Results can be applied in both autonomous and non-autonomous systems. At last, an example is resolved to verify the method.
Calculation of fissile nuclides and fission products inventory applied to ETRR-1 research reactor
The study of the nuclear reactor fuel safety implies studying physical mechanical, thermal and chemical proportions of the fuel during normal operation and accident conditions. A model was developed to calculate the fissile nuclides and fission products inventory in an operating reactor. The model considers the production and removal of different radionuclides leaking into account the decay schemes of each. The mathematical formulas were treated without any approximations. A decay model was developed for the period after reactor shutdown. The amount of different nuclides was evaluated for a given cooling time. Egypt test and research reactor number 1, ETRR-1. Was chosen to apply the model. The amount of about 200 nuclides was calculated. A certain nuclides was chosen to be presented based on their poisoning ratios. Criticality calculations were carried out to investigate the criticality condition of the reactor at different operating times. 4 fig
FOOD: an interactive code to calculate internal radiation doses from contaminated food products
An interactive code, FOOD, has been written in BASIC for the UNIVAC 1108 to facilitate calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products. In the dose model, vegetation may be contaminated by either air or irrigation water containing radionuclides. The model considers two mechanisms for radionuclide contamination of vegetation: direct deposition on leaves and uptake from soil through the root system. The user may select up to 14 food categories with corresponding consumption rates, growing periods and either irrigation rates or atmospheric deposition rates. These foods include various kinds of produce, grains and animal products. At present, doses may be calculated for the skin, total body and five internal organs from 190 radionuclides. Dose summaries can be displayed at the local terminal. Further details on percent contribution to dose by nuclide and by food type are available from an auxiliary high-speed printer. This output also includes estimated radionuclide concentrations in soil, plants and animal products
Calculation Model of Safety Level of Production Logistics System in Coal Mine
Zhai Xue-Qi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Many factors affecting the safety of production logistics system of coal mine and the impact of these factors on the safety degree is not consistent, this study determines the safety indicators from five aspects, such as, the personal quality, mechanical equipment, environment, safety management and emergency rescue, etc. This study fitted the interaction of safety indicator and safety level by using the polynomial model and constructing security level calculation model through the analysis of regression model and its coefficient. This article proposes a method of calculating the safety production level of coal mine by using polynomial model, this method helps to indicate direction for analyzing safety production status and raising safety level of coal mining enterprise.
Odland, D; Davis, C
1982-08-01
Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076
Evaluation of fission product worth margins in PWR spent nuclear fuel burnup credit calculations
Current criticality safety calculations for the transportation of irradiated LWR fuel make the very conservative assumption that the fuel is fresh. This results in a very substantial overprediction of the actual keff of the transportation casks; in certain cases, this decreases the amount of spent fuel which can be loaded in a cask, and increases the cost of transporting the spent fuel to the repository. Accounting for the change of reactivity due to fuel depletion is usually referred to as ''burnup credit.'' The US DOE is currently funding a program aimed at establishing an actinide only burnup credit methodology (in this case, the calculated reactivity takes into account the buildup or depletion of a limited number of actinides). This work is undergoing NRC review. While this methodology is being validated on a significant experimental basis, it implicitly relies on additional margins: in particular, the absorption of neutrons by certain actinides and by all fission products is not taken into account. This provides an important additional margin and helps guarantee that the methodology is conservative provided these neglected absorption are known with reasonable accuracy. This report establishes the accuracy of fission product absorption rate calculations: (1) the analysis of European fission product worth experiments demonstrates that fission product cross-sections available in the US provide very good predictions of fission product worth; (2) this is confirmed by a direct comparison of European and US cross section evaluations; (3) accuracy of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) fission product content predictions is established in a recent ORNL report where several SNF isotopic assays are analyzed; and (4) these data are then combined to establish in a conservative manner the fraction of the predicted total fission product absorption which can be guaranteed based on available experimental data
Classification and calculation of primary failure modes in bread production line
In this study, we describe the classification methodology over a 2-year period of the primary failure modes in categories based on failure data of bread production line. We estimate the probabilities of these categories applying the chi-square goodness of fit test, and we calculate their joint probabilities of mass function at workstation and line level. Then, we present numerical examples in order to predict the causes and frequencies of breakdowns for workstations and for the entire bread production line that will occur in the future. The methodology is meant to guide bread and bakery product manufacturers, improving the operation of the production lines. It can also be a useful tool to maintenance engineers, who wish to analyze and improve the reliability and efficiency of the manufacturing systems
Methodology for fission product release calculations during an ACR-1000 end-fitting failure event
The ACR-1000® reactor enhances and retains the proven features of the CANDU® design such as the concept of the horizontal fuel channel core. At each end of a fuel channel, there is an end-fitting incorporating a feeder connection through which pressurized coolant enters and leaves the fuel channel, where 12 fuel bundles are inserted. The safety analysis cases include postulated end-fitting failure events to assess the fission product releases from all fuel bundles which would be ejected out of the channel and oxidized in the air-steam environment under decay power. This paper presents the methodology used in assessing the fuel behaviour and the fission product releases during a postulated end-fitting failure in an ACR-1000 reactor. After the end-fitting failure, the 12 fuel bundles are ejected out of the channel and drop onto the fuelling machine vault floor. The fuel bundles are likely heavily damaged by impact and would break into small clusters of elements or fragments. To calculate the fission product releases from an individual fragment, the transient fuel temperature is numerically solved by differential heat equations; the air oxidation model is chosen for the event accordingly; and the fission product inventory and releases are estimated by computer codes ORIGEN-S, CATHENA, ELESTRES and SOURCE-IST. Finally, the total fission product releases from all fragments into containment are calculated. This methodology has been developed for ACR-1000 safety analysis, which is also applicable to CANDU. With the new methodology, the transient releases from up to 150 fission products can be estimated as detail as in fragment. In this paper, a sample calculation is also provided to show the application of the methodology in ACR-1000 safety analysis for end-fitting failure. (author)
Development of calculation code of fission products specific activity in primary coolant
Based on an assumption of that there is a design basis fuel defect level from reactor startup, calculation method of fission products specific activities in primary coolant is studied. Time-dependent nuclide activities in defect fuel are calculated by ORIGEN code, and nuclide releases from the defect fuel are considered. After processed by interface codes, data are used by PCFPA code which is used to calculate nuclide activities in the coolant. PCFPA solves differential equations by unit of decay chain, and totally considers decay's contribution to nuclide activities, and considers different system design between secondary and third generation plants such as AP1000. The method could provide the maximum of specific activity during plant operation and their results are consistent with data in AP1000 DCD(Rev.16). The method could be applicable to shielding design in secondary and third generation plants such as AP1000. (authors)
Application of Origen2.1 in the decay photon spectrum calculation of spallation products
Hong, Shuang; Xu, Hu-Shan; Meng, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Yu-Cui; Chen, Kang
2016-01-01
Origen2.1 is a widely used computer code for calculating the burnup, decay, and processing of radioactive materials. However, the nuclide library of Origen2.1 is used for existing reactors like pressurized water reactor, to calculate the photon spectrum released by the decay of spallation products, we have made specific libraries for the ADS tungsten spallation target, based on the results given by a Monte Carlo code: FLUKA. All the data used to make the Origen2.1 libraries is obtained from Nuclear structure & decay Data (NuDat2.6). The accumulated activity of spallation products and the contribution of nuclides to photon emission are given in this paper.
Fission product inventory calculation by a CASMO/ORIGEN coupling program
A CASMO/ORIGEN coupling utility program was developed to predict the composition of all the fission products in spent PWR fuels. The coupling program reads the CASMO output file, modifies the ORIGEN cross section library and reconstructs the ORIGEN input file at each depletion step. In ORIGEN, the burnup equation is solved for actinides and fission products based on the fission reaction rates and depletion flux of CASMO. A sample calculation has been performed using a 14 x 14 PWR fuel assembly and the results are given in this paper
Fission product inventory calculation by a CASMO/ORIGEN coupling program
Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jung, In Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
A CASMO/ORIGEN coupling utility program was developed to predict the composition of all the fission products in spent PWR fuels. The coupling program reads the CASMO output file, modifies the ORIGEN cross section library and reconstructs the ORIGEN input file at each depletion step. In ORIGEN, the burnup equation is solved for actinides and fission products based on the fission reaction rates and depletion flux of CASMO. A sample calculation has been performed using a 14 x 14 PWR fuel assembly and the results are given in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (Author)
Method of calculation of tanks forced ventilation from the remnants of liquid products
С. О. Пузік
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The advantages of gasoline compared to other petroleum products in terms of feasibility of their research. Calculations of the duration of ventilation and changes in the concentration of vapors of gasoline remains in the gas space of the vertical tank with a capacity of 1000 m3 (RUS-1000. Nomogram constructed for the quantitative forecast available liquid balances petrol A-95 and the time duration ventylyaiyi RUS-1000 from the remnants of the petrol
Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue
Gueton O.; Régnier D.; Ravaux S.; Fourmentel D.; Amharrak H.; Colombier A-C.; Hudelot J-P.; Lemaire M.
2013-01-01
The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation ...
Calculation of heavy ion e+ e- pair production to all orders in Z alpha
Baltz, Anthony J.
2004-01-01
The heavy ion total cross section for continuum e+ e- pair production has been calculated to all orders in Z alpha. The formula resulting from an exact solution of the semiclassical Dirac equation in the ultrarelativistic limit is evaluated numerically. An energy dependent spatial cutoff of the heavy ion potential is utilized, leading to an exact formula agreeing with the known perturbative formula in the ultrarelativistic, perturbative limit. Cross sections and sample momentum distributions ...
Luef, Birgit; Luef, Franz; Peduzzi, Peter
2009-01-01
Assessing viral production (VP) requires robust methodological settings combined with precise mathematical calculations. This contribution improves and standardizes mathematical calculations of VP and the assessment of the proportion of lysogenic cells in a sample. We present an online tool ‘Viral Production Calculator’ (vipcal, http://www.univie.ac.at/nuhag-php/vipcal) that calculates lytic production and the percentage of lysogenic cells based on data obtained from a viral reduction approac...
Barber, Duncan Henry
During some postulated accidents at nuclear power stations, fuel cooling may be impaired. In such cases, the fuel heats up and the subsequent increased fission-gas release from the fuel to the gap may result in fuel sheath failure. After fuel sheath failure, the barrier between the coolant and the fuel pellets is lost or impaired, gases and vapours from the fuel-to-sheath gap and other open voids in the fuel pellets can be vented. Gases and steam from the coolant can enter the broken fuel sheath and interact with the fuel pellet surfaces and the fission-product inclusion on the fuel surface (including material at the surface of the fuel matrix). The chemistry of this interaction is an important mechanism to model in order to assess fission-product releases from fuel. Starting in 1995, the computer program SOURCE 2.0 was developed by the Canadian nuclear industry to model fission-product release from fuel during such accidents. SOURCE 2.0 has employed an early thermochemical model of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel developed at the Royal Military College of Canada. To overcome the limitations of computers of that time, the implementation of the RMC model employed lookup tables to pre-calculated equilibrium conditions. In the intervening years, the RMC model has been improved, the power of computers has increased significantly, and thermodynamic subroutine libraries have become available. This thesis is the result of extensive work based on these three factors. A prototype computer program (referred to as SC11) has been developed that uses a thermodynamic subroutine library to calculate thermodynamic equilibria using Gibbs energy minimization. The Gibbs energy minimization requires the system temperature (T) and pressure (P), and the inventory of chemical elements (n) in the system. In order to calculate the inventory of chemical elements in the fuel, the list of nuclides and nuclear isomers modelled in SC11 had to be expanded from the list used by SOURCE 2.0. A
Smith, P.D.
1978-02-01
A special purpose computer program, TRAFIC, is presented for calculating the release of metallic fission products from an HTGR core. The program is based upon Fick's law of diffusion for radioactive species. One-dimensional transient diffusion calculations are performed for the coated fuel particles and for the structural graphite web. A quasi steady-state calculation is performed for the fuel rod matrix material. The model accounts for nonlinear adsorption behavior in the fuel rod gap and on the coolant hole boundary. The TRAFIC program is designed to operate in a core survey mode; that is, it performs many repetitive calculations for a large number of spatial locations in the core. This is necessary in order to obtain an accurate volume integrated release. For this reason the program has been designed with calculational efficiency as one of its main objectives. A highly efficient numerical method is used in the solution. The method makes use of the Duhamel superposition principle to eliminate interior spatial solutions from consideration. Linear response functions relating the concentrations and mass fluxes on the boundaries of a homogeneous region are derived. Multiple regions are numerically coupled through interface conditions. Algebraic elimination is used to reduce the equations as far as possible. The problem reduces to two nonlinear equations in two unknowns, which are solved using a Newton Raphson technique.
New Calculation of Antiproton Production by Cosmic Ray Protons and Nuclei
Kachelriess, Michael; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Ostapchenko, Sergey S.
2015-04-01
A dramatic increase in the accuracy and statistics of space-borne cosmic ray (CR) measurements has yielded several breakthroughs over the last several years. The most puzzling is the rise in the positron fraction above ∼10 GeV over the predictions of the propagation models assuming pure secondary production. The accuracy of the antiproton production cross section is critical for astrophysical applications and searches for new physics since antiprotons in CRs seem to hold the keys to many puzzles including the origin of those excess positrons. However, model calculations of antiproton production in CR interactions with interstellar gas are often employing parameterizations that are out of date or are using outdated physical concepts. This may lead to an incorrect interpretation of antiproton data which could have broad consequences for other areas of astrophysics. In this work, we calculate antiproton production in pp-, pA-, and AA-interactions using EPOS-LHC and QGSJET-II-04, two of the most advanced Monte Carlo (MC) generators tuned to numerous accelerator data including those from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that the antiproton yields obtained with these MC generators differ by up to an order of magnitude from yields of parameterizations commonly used in astrophysics.
Preliminary Calculation of the EROI for the Production of Gas in Russia
Roman Nogovitsyn
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of energy resources. Production of energy resources in Russia is profitable, both economically and in terms of the energy produced (as measured by EROI. At the present time, Russian oil and gas companies have a policy of energy saving, and data on energy consumption is given in annual reports. Based on these data, we can make the EROI calculation. In 2013, the EROI for the production, transportation and processing of gas for Open joint stock company (OJSC “Gazprom” was 79:1; for OJSC “NOVATEK”, 76:1; for OJSC “Yakutsk Fuel and Energy Company (YATEC”, only for production, 116:1. Currently, the situation in the oil and gas industry has come to a point when there is a need for the introduction of an energy audit.
Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue
Colombier, A.-C.; Amharrak, H.; Fourmentel, D.; Ravaux, S.; Régnier, D.; Gueton, O.; Hudelot, J.-P.; Lemaire, M.
2013-03-01
The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.
In-core thermal hydraulic and fission product calculations for severe fuel damage analyses
Best-estimate calculations of realistic source terms are presented which reduce uncertainties in predicting fission product release from the UO2 fuel over the temperature range between 770 K and 3000 K. The proposed method of correlation includes such fuel morphology effects as equiaxed fuel grain growth and fuel-cladding interaction. The method correlates the product of fuel release rate and equiaxed grain size with the inverse fuel temperature to yield a bulk mass transfer correlation. It was found that less and slower releases are predicted utilizing the bulk mass transfer correlation than such conventional literature correlations as the steam oxidation model and the NUREG-0956 correlation. A Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) analysis code was developed to perform the thermal hydraulic and fission product calculations needed to analyze the Power Burst Facility SFD tests. The predictions utilizing the bulk mass transfer correlations overall followed the experimental time-release histories during the course of the heatup, power hold and cooldown phases of the transients. Good agreements were achieved for the integral releases both in timing and in magnitude. The proposed bulk mass transfer correlations can be applied to both current and advanced light water reactor fuels. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs
Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue
The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPR, GEN-IV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core and out-core experiments...). This paper deals with the works started in 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in order to answer to several issues which have been identified for nuclear data production and calculation and for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: -) The development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core; -) The production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core; -) The development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4; and -) The development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache in order to increase the experimental measurement accuracy. (authors)
Measured and calculated fission-product poisoning in neutron-irradiated uranium-233
Samples of 233U and of natural thorium have been irradiated in high neutron-flux facilities, in both soft and hard neutron spectra, and for both short and long exposure times. Included are exposures resulting in depletions of more than 90 percent of the 233U in the fissile material and burnups of more than 30,000 MWd/MT in the fertile material. Fission-product poison cross sections in two energy groups (thermal and epithermal) exhibit differences between measurement and calculation that are believed to be attributable to a lack of adequate information on important fission products in the literature. Experimental results for transient absorbers in irradiated 233U give at least 20,000 b for the neutron absorption resonance integral of 149Pm. This is a factor of 15 higher than that obtained by a 1/v extrapolation of the thermal cross sections. For transient 135Xe, the measured absorption is 7.5 percent higher than that calculated using ENDF/B-IV data. Information is also provided concerning such matters as fission yields and neutron absorption of neodymium isotopes, the existence of significant transient fission-product poisons other than 135Xe and 149Sm, and the shielding of 233U by 232Th. Such shielding suggests the need for a change in the energy dependence of the 232Th thermal-neutron cross section
Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue
Gueton O.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR, is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…. This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.
Mezbahul-Islam, Mohammad; Belanger, Frederic; Chartrand, Patrice; Jung, In-Ho; Coursol, Pascal
2016-04-01
The present work has been performed with the aim to optimize the existing process for the production of high purity bismuth (99.999 pct). A thermo-chemical database including most of the probable impurities of bismuth (Bi-X, X = Ag, Au, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Si, Te, Zn) has been constructed to perform different thermodynamic calculations required for the refining process. Thermodynamic description for eight of the selected binaries, Bi-Ca, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, and Sn, has been given in the current paper. Using the current database, different thermodynamic calculations have been performed to explain the steps involved in the bismuth refining process.
Contribution to decay heat calculation: fission product mean beta and gamma assessment
Following a reactor shutdown, after the fission chain process has completely faded out, a significant quantity of energy (around seven per cent of the total power of the reactor) continues to be generated in the core. This is known as residual power or decay heat. The principal source of this energy is due to the radioactive decay of fission products and is at any time equal to the sum of the powers released by these different nuclei (P = Σ = Pi). Each of the powers Pi is the product of three terms: the concentration of the relevant nuclide, its decay constant and its mean decay energy. The evaluation of the first two term is straightforward. On the other hand the evaluation of the mean energies presents some difficulties due to a lack of data in beta and gamma spectra of some fission products. This study intends, after a critical analysis of the current method of evaluation of the mean energies, to propose a new model for this calculation. The new model tested on several well known nuclides, has been proved correct and precise. It has then been applied to approximatively sixty nuclides among the lesser known ones. The results obtained have lead to a better prediction of both beta and gamma ray components of the residual power. Consequently, this new model, which allows to take into account the lack of beta branching ratio corresponding to the highest levels of the product nucleus in the beta decay reaction, can be adopted to replace the current method, for calculation of the mean energies of fission products, especially in the case of the lesser known nuclides
Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2014-09-01
The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.
Nuclear model calculation and targetry recipe for production of 110mIn.
Kakavand, T; Mirzaii, M; Eslami, M; Karimi, A
2015-10-01
(110m)In is potentially an important positron emitting that can be used in positron emission tomography. In this work, the excitation functions and production yields of (110)Cd(d, 2n), (111)Cd(d, 3n), (nat)Cd(d, xn), (110)Cd(p, n), (111)Cd(p, 2n), (112)Cd(p, 3n) and (nat)Cd(p, xn) reactions to produce the (110m)In were calculated using nuclear model code TALYS and compared with the experimental data. The yield of isomeric state production of (110)In was also compared with ground state production ones to reach the optimal energy range of projectile for the high yield production of metastable state. The results indicate that the (110)Cd(p, n)(110m)In is a high yield reaction with an isomeric ratio (σ(m)/σ(g)) of about 35 within the optimal incident energy range of 15-5 MeV. To make the target, cadmium was electroplated on a copper substrate in varying electroplating conditions such as PH, DC current density, temperature and time. A set of cold tests were also performed on the final sample under several thermal shocks to verify target resistance. The best electroplated cadmium target was irradiated with 15 MeV protons at current of 100 µA for one hour and the production yield of (110m)In and other byproducts were measured. PMID:26141297
Beam line shielding calculations for an Electron Accelerator Mo-99 production facility
Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-03
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the photon and neutron fields in and around the latest beam line design for the Mo-99 production facility. The radiation dose to the beam line components (quadrupoles, dipoles, beam stops and the linear accelerator) are calculated in the present report. The beam line design assumes placement of two cameras: infra red (IR) and optical transition radiation (OTR) for continuous monitoring of the beam spot on target during irradiation. The cameras will be placed off the beam axis offset in vertical direction. We explored typical shielding arrangements for the cameras and report the resulting neutron and photon dose fields.
Wouters, Sebastian; Limacher, Peter A; Van Neck, Dimitri; Ayers, Paul W
2012-04-01
We have implemented the sweep algorithm for the variational optimization of SU(2) U(1) (spin and particle number) invariant matrix product states (MPS) for general spin and particle number invariant fermionic Hamiltonians. This class includes non-relativistic quantum chemical systems within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. High-accuracy ab initio finite field results of the longitudinal static polarizabilities and second hyperpolarizabilities of one-dimensional hydrogen chains are presented. This allows to assess the performance of other quantum chemical methods. For small basis sets, MPS calculations in the saturation regime of the optical response properties can be performed. These results are extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit. PMID:22482543
The decay products of 232U produced in the thorium-uranium fuel cycle emit high energy γ-rays. This affects the fuel cycle greatly. In this paper, the 232U productions in thermal reactor using thorium fuel are analyzed by ORIGEN2, SCALE5 and the code based on the Bateman method. Under normal situation, 232U is mainly produced by 232Th (n, 2n) reaction chain, and more quantity of 230Th can be transformed into 232U while the neutron spectrum is softer. The burnup calculation of CANDU reactor and PWR assembly indicates that the 232U in uranium increase with the burnup, and 230Th in fresh thorium has linear correlation with 232U/Utotal or 232U/233U at discharge burnup. (authors)
Cross sections for fuel depletion and radioisotope production calculations in TRIGA reactors
For TRIGA Reactors, the fuel depletion and isotopic inventory calculations, depends on the computer code and in the cross sections of some important actinides used. Among these we have U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241. We choose ORIGEN2, a code with a good reputation in this kind of calculations, we observed the cross sections for these actinides in the libraries that we have (PWR's and BWR), the fission cross section for U-235 was about 50 barns. We used a PWR library and our results were not satisfactory, specially for standard elements. We decided to calculate cross sections more suitable for our reactor, for that purpose we simulate the standard and FLIP TRIGA cells with the transport code WIMS. We used the fuel average flux and COLAPS (a home made program), to generate suitable cross sections for ORIGEN2, by collapsing the WIMS library cross sections of these nuclides. For the radioisotope production studies using the Central Thimble, we simulate the A and B rings and used the A average flux to collapse cross sections. For these studies, the required nuclides sometimes are not present in WIMS library, for them we are planning to process the ENDF/B data, with NJOY system, and include the cross sections to WIMS library or to collapse them using the appropriate average-flux and the program COLAPS. (author)
Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project. Part 1: thin targets
We have begun this benchmark study using mass distribution data of reaction products obtained at GSI in inverse kinematics. This step has allowed us to make a first selection among 10 spallation models; in this way the first assessment of the quality of the models was obtained. Then, in a second part, experimental mass distributions for some elements, which either are interesting as radioactive ion beams or important due to the safety and radioprotection issues (alpha or gamma emitters), will be also compared to model calculations. These data have been obtained for an equivalent 0.8 or 1.0 GeV proton beam, which is approximately the proposed projectile energy. We note that in realistic thick targets the proton beam will be slowed down and some secondary particles will be produced. Therefore, the residual nuclei production at lower energies is also important. For this reason, we also performed in the third part of this work some excitation function calculations and the associated data obtained with gamma-spectroscopy to test the models in a wide projectile energy range. We conclude that INCL4/Abla and Isabel/Abla are the best model combinations which we recommend. We also note that the agreement between model and data are better with 1 GeV protons than with 100-200 MeV protons
Honea, R.B.; Petrich, C.H.; Wilson, D.L.; Dillard, C.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Faber, J.A.
1979-04-01
This report documents methodologic and computer software developed by Energy Division and Computer Sciences Division personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The software is designed to quantify and automatically map geologic and other cost-related parameters as required to estimate coal mining costs. The software complements the detailed coal production cost models for both underground and surface mines which have been developed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) by NUS, Corp. These models require input variables such as coal seam thickness, coal seam depth, surface slope, etc., to estimate mining costs. This report provides a general overview of the software and methodology developed by ORNL to calculate some of these parameters along with sample map output which indicates the geographical distribution of these geologic characteristics. A detailed user guide for implementing the software has been prepared and is included in the appendixes. (Sample input data which may be used to verify the operation of the software are available from ORNL.) Also included is a brief review of coal production, coal recovery, and coal resource calculation studies. This system will be useful to utilities and coal mine operators alike in estimating costs through comprehensive assessment before mining takes place.
This paper presents high accuracy tritium production rate measurement results compared with calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo particle transport code. The experimental results are regarded as reference values for a new passive technique based on the secondary charged particle activation method developed for measuring the tritium production rate in the test blanket modules of the ITER Tokamak. The 16O(t,n)18F reaction, which is one of the possible tritium monitor reactions, was also extensively investigated, and the experimentally determined reaction rates were compared with simulations. Li2CO3 solution was filled and sealed into quartz ampoules which were irradiated in the Training Reactor of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The amount of 18F was determined using γ-spectroscopy. Then the precise tritium measurements were carried out in the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies using the 3H–3He ingrowth method, where the 3He produced during the storage time is measured by a static noble gas mass spectrometer (VG-5400). The HT/HTO ratio in the irradiated aqueous solutions was found to be 0.1323±0.0034. Based on the comparison of the measurements and the simulations it was pointed out that the model calculations underestimate the reaction rate of both the 6Li(n,t)α and the 16O(t,n)18F reactions by 5–10% and 15%, respectively. -- Highlights: ► Tritium measurements for verifying the 6Li6(n, t)α reaction rate calculated by MCNPX. ► The HT/HTO ratio was determined in the neutron irradiated aqueous solution of Li2CO3. ► The reaction rate of 16O(t,n)18F was measured in thermal neutron spectrum
Nuclear model calculation and targetry recipe for production of 110mIn
110mIn is potentially an important positron emitting that can be used in positron emission tomography. In this work, the excitation functions and production yields of 110Cd(d, 2n), 111Cd(d, 3n), natCd(d, xn), 110Cd(p, n), 111Cd(p, 2n), 112Cd(p, 3n) and natCd(p, xn) reactions to produce the 110mIn were calculated using nuclear model code TALYS and compared with the experimental data. The yield of isomeric state production of 110In was also compared with ground state production ones to reach the optimal energy range of projectile for the high yield production of metastable state. The results indicate that the 110Cd(p, n)110mIn is a high yield reaction with an isomeric ratio (σm/σg) of about 35 within the optimal incident energy range of 15–5 MeV. To make the target, cadmium was electroplated on a copper substrate in varying electroplating conditions such as PH, DC current density, temperature and time. A set of cold tests were also performed on the final sample under several thermal shocks to verify target resistance. The best electroplated cadmium target was irradiated with 15 MeV protons at current of 100 µA for one hour and the production yield of 110mIn and other byproducts were measured. - Highlights: • Optimization of a cadmium electroplating bath to produce high yield 110mIn. • Influence of targetry on isomeric cross section ratio 110mIn/110gIn. • Activity measurement for natCd(p, xn)110m,110g,111g,114mIn reactions
Associated ZH production at hadron colliders: The fully differential NNLO QCD calculation
We consider Standard Model Higgs boson production in association with a Z boson in hadron collisions. We present a fully exclusive computation of QCD radiative corrections up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Our calculation includes the Higgs boson decay to bottom quarks (b) in next-to-leading order QCD and the leptonic decay of the Z boson with finite-width effects and spin correlations. The computation is implemented in a parton level Monte Carlo program that makes possible to consider arbitrary kinematical cuts on the final-state leptons, the b jets and the associated QCD radiation, and to compute the corresponding distributions in the form of bin histograms. We assess the impact of QCD radiative effects in the boosted kinematics at the LHC and show that the inclusion of the NNLO corrections is crucial to control the pT spectrum of the Higgs boson candidate
Comparison of optics and electronics for the calculation of matrix-vector products
Gary, C. K.
1992-01-01
Optical processors are attractive because of their ability to perform massively parallel operations such as matrix vector products. The inherently analog nature of optical calculations requires that optical processors be based on analog computations. While the speed at which such analog operations can be performed as well as the natural parallelism of optical systems are great advantages of optical processors, the analog representation of values severely limits the achievable accuracy. Furthermore, optical processors are limited by the need to convert information to and from the intensity of light. Digitization can be used to increase the accuracy of optical matrix-vector processors, but causes a severe reduction in speed. This paper compares the throughput and power requirements of optical and electronic processors, showing that optical matrix-vector processors can provide a greater number of operations/Watt than conventional electronics.
Cross section calculations for subthreshold pion production in peripheral heavy-ion collisions
Norbury, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Deutchman, P. A.; Townsend, L. W.
1986-01-01
Total cross sections angular distributions, and spectral distributions for the exclusive production of charged and neutral subthreshold pions produced in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated by using a particle-hole formalism. The pions result from the formation and decay of an isobar giant resonance state formed in a C-12 nucleus. From considerations of angular momentum conservation and for the sake of providing a unique experimental signature, the other nucleus, chosen for this work to be C-12 also, is assumed to be excited to one of its isovector (1+) giant resonance states. The effects of nucleon recoil by the pion emission are included, and Pauli blocking and pion absorption effects are studied by varying the isobar width. Detailed comparisons with experimental subthreshold pion data for incident energies between 35 and 86 MeV/nucleon are made.
Calculation of the decay power of fission products considering neutron capture transformation
The decay power of fission products has been calculated taking into consideration the neutron capture transformation of each nuclide and its beta decay. The nuclear data library contains 1114 nuclides of which 144 are stable. Neutron capture transformation is considered for 59 nuclides, 31 of which are stable. The atom number of each nuclide is calculated analytically with code DCHAIN. The effect of neutron capture transformation in the decay power of fission products was examined by varying the neutron spectrum, neutron flux, fissioning nuclide, and irradiation and cooling time. From the results obtained the following were revealed: The effect of neutron capture increases with neutron flux and irradiation time, and it becomes salient beyond 105 sec in cooling time. It is small for less than the 104 sec which is important in the design of ECCS (emergency core cooling system) of a light-water reactor. In this region the decay power changes are small, less than 0.2%, by the neutron capture for the thermal fission of 235U irradiated for one year to thermal neutron flux 3 x 1013 n/cm2/sec. The effect of neutron capture has peaks around cooling time 106 sec and 108 sec; it is negligible beyond 109 sec. The changes in decay power are 2.4%, 10.5% and 0.2% at cooling time 106 sec, 108 sec and 109 sec, respectively, in the above irradiation. Around 106 sec, the change in decay power is mainly from the contributions of 134Cs (17%), sup(148m)Pm(60%) and 148Pm(14%). Around 108 sec 134Cs(98%) alone contributes to the change in decay power. (author)
Status of theories for calculations of production cross sections of long-lived radionuclides
The theories discussed in this paper are confined to those currently being used or considered for the calculation of activation cross sections. The theories are the same regardless of whether the activation product is long lived or short lived. However, the cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides are more difficult or expensive to measure, hence there are fewer data available and the requirement on the predictive capability of the theories used is more stringent. It is clear from other papers presented in this meeting and the adjoining NEANDC specialists' meeting on activation cross sections that the nuclear theories of interest to this group are those used or needed in modern Hauser-Feshbach (H-F) codes with pre-equilibrium correction and gamma-ray cascades. The H-F formalism is indispensable due to the sensitivity of the calculated results, especially isomeric ratios, to the spins and parities of the discrete levels as well as to the spin distributions in the total and exciton level densities. Topics included in this paper are the optical model, gamma-ray strength function, total and exciton level-density theories, and the pre-compound model. In each subject, we describe the most commonly used theories first, followed by relatively new developments that are used in at least one model code or the promising theories that do not appear to require a large effort for incorporation into existing H-F codes. 14 refs
O Scholten; A Usov
2010-08-01
To describe photo- and meson-induced reactions on the nucleon, one is faced with a rather extensive coupled-channel problem. Ignoring the effects of channel coupling, as one would do in describing a certain reaction at the tree level, invariably creates a large inconsistency between the different reactions that are described. In addition, the imaginary parts of the amplitude, which are related through the optical theorem, to total cross-sections, are directly reflected in certain polarization observables. Performing a full coupled-channel calculation thus offers the possibility to implement the maximum number of constraints. The drawback one is faced with is to arrive at a simultaneous fit of a large number of reaction channels. While some of the parameters are common to many reactions, one is still faced with the challenge to optimize a large number of parameters in a highly non-linear calculation. Here we show that such an approach is possible and present some results for photoinduced strangeness production.
Intense neutron fluxes within fusion reactors that are currently being designed will lead to the activation of structural components, and to assess and minimize this radioactivity, nuclear cross sections are needed for neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. We describe research performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Programme on activation cross sections for fusion reactor technology, which has selected certain high-priority reactions for both experimental and theoretical study. Using statistical model codes, we have investigated excitation function cross sections for radionuclide production in the reactions 94Mo(n,p)94Nb, 109Ag(n,2n)108mAg, 151Eu(n,2n)150m Eu, 153Eu(n,2n)152g+m2Eu, 159Tb(n,2n)158Tb, 187Re(n,2n)186mRe, 179Hf(n,2n)178m2Hf, 193Ir(n,2n)192m2Ir. Using our calculated results for the excitation functions, along with calculations by other groups, the theoretical excitation functions have been normalized to experimental values at 14.5 MeV to produce evaluated excitation functions. These evaluations can be used within radiation transport and nuclide inventory codes to design, and assess the environmental impact of, fusion reactors. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Luong, Anh D; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo; De Laender, Frederik
2015-10-01
The environmental impacts of biomass harvesting can be quantified through the amount of net primary production required to produce one unit of harvested biomass (SPPR-specific primary production required). This paper presents a new calculation framework that explicitly takes into account full food web complexity and shows that the resulting SPPR for toothed whales in the Icelandic marine ecosystem is 2.8 times higher than the existing approach based on food web simplification. In addition, we show that our new framework can be coupled to food web modeling to examine how uncertainty on ecological data and processes can be accounted for while estimating SPPR. This approach reveals that an increase in the degree of heterotrophy by flagellates from 0% to 100% results in a two-fold increase in SPPR estimates in the Barents Sea. It also shows that the estimated SPPR is between 3.9 (herring) and 5.0 (capelin) times higher than that estimated when adopting food chain theory. SPPR resulting from our new approach is only valid for the given time period for which the food web is modeled and cannot be used to infer changes in SPPR when the food web is altered by changes in human exploitation or environmental changes. PMID:26348118
Harbers, Jasper V; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Posthuma, Leo; Van de Meent, Dik
2006-03-01
Although many chemicals are in use, the environmental impacts of only a few have been established, usually on per-chemical basis. Uncertainty remains about the overall impact of chemicals. This paper estimates combined toxic pressure on coastal North Sea ecosystems from 343 high-production-volume chemicals used within the catchment of rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. Multimedia fate modeling and species sensitivity distribution-based effects estimation are applied. Calculations start from production volumes and emission rates and use physicochemical substance properties and aquatic ecotoxicity data. Parameter uncertainty is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Results suggest that the procedure is technically feasible. Combined toxic pressure of all 343 chemicals in coastal North Seawater is 0.025 (2.5% of the species are exposed to concentration levels above EC50 values), with a wide confidence interval of nearly 0-1. This uncertainty appears to be largely due to uncertainties in interspecies variances of aquatic toxicities and, to a lesser extent, to uncertainties in emissions and degradation rates. Due to these uncertainties, the results support gross ranking of chemicals in categories: negligible and possibly relevant contributions only. With 95% confidence, 283 of the 343 chemicals (83%) contribute negligibly (less than 0.1%) to overall toxic pressure, and only 60 (17%) need further consideration. PMID:16568772
HyPEP-FY 07 Annual Report: A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program
Chang Oh
2007-09-01
The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of two reference integrated systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory for the production of hydrogen. In this concept the VHTR outlet temperature of 900 °C provides thermal energy and high efficiency electricity for the electrolysis of steam in the HTSE process. In the second reference system the Sulfur Iodine (SI) process is coupled to the VHTR to produce hydrogen thermochemically. In the HyPEP project we are investigating and characterizing these two reference systems with respect to production, operability, and safety performance criteria. Under production, plant configuration and working fluids are being studied for their effect on efficiency. Under operability, control strategies are being developed with the goal of maintaining equipment within operating limits while meeting changes in demand. Safety studies are to investigate plant response for equipment failures. Specific objectives in FY07 were (1) to develop HyPEP Beta and verification and validation (V&V) plan, (2) to perform steady state system integration, (3) to perform parametric studies with various working fluids and power conversion unit (PCU) configurations, (4) the study of design options such as pressure, temperature, etc. (5) to develop a control strategy and (6) to perform transient analyses for plant upsets, control strategy, etc for hydrogen plant with PCU. This report describes the progress made in FY07 in each of the above areas. (1) The HyPEP code numeric scheme and Graphic User Interface have been tested and refined since the release of the alpha version a year ago. (2) The optimal size and design condition for the intermediate heat exchanger, one of the most important components for integration of the VHTR and HTSE plants, was estimated. (3) Efficiency calculations were performed for a variety of working fluids for
Precision calculations for gauge-boson pair production with a hadronic jet at hadron colliders
Kallweit, Stefan
2008-11-21
Gauge-boson pair-production processes with an additional hadronic jet are of particular interest as background to Higgs and new-physics searches at hadron colliders. Moreover, they enable - besides genuine gauge-boson pair production - a direct analysis of the non-Abelian gauge-boson self-interactions in the electroweak sector. In this work we provide precision calculations for the processes pp/p anti p {yields} VV+jet+X. In detail, corrections to WW+jet, ZZ+jet, and WZ+jet production are evaluated at next-to-leading-order in the strong coupling (NLO QCD). Particular care has to be taken when treating the infrared singularities arising in the virtual and real corrections. The FormCalc/LoopTools package is applied for the virtual corrections, where dimensionally regularized infrared-divergent integrals are added to the FF library which is used for the regular ones. The real-emission matrix elements are evaluated in terms of helicity amplitudes in the Weyl--van-der-Waerden formalism. The Catani--Seymour dipole subtraction formalism mediates the cancellation of infrared divergences between the two contributions. To perform the numerical integration a multi-channel Monte Carlo integrator is written in C++, which is designed to meet the requirements of integrating cross sections in the dipole subtraction formalism. For all gauge-boson assignments, the NLO QCD corrections significantly stabilize the artificial dependence of the leading-order (LO) cross sections on renormalization and factorization scales for Tevatron. For LHC, however, only a modest reduction of the scale dependence results unless a veto on a second hard jet is applied. Beyond investigating the production processes, leptonic decays of the gauge bosons are considered. To this end, a full amplitude calculation including resonant and non-resonant contributions to the leptonic final states, a simple narrow-width approximation (NWA), and an improved version of the NWA that takes into account spin correlations
Precision calculations for gauge-boson pair production with a hadronic jet at hadron colliders
Gauge-boson pair-production processes with an additional hadronic jet are of particular interest as background to Higgs and new-physics searches at hadron colliders. Moreover, they enable - besides genuine gauge-boson pair production - a direct analysis of the non-Abelian gauge-boson self-interactions in the electroweak sector. In this work we provide precision calculations for the processes pp/p anti p → VV+jet+X. In detail, corrections to WW+jet, ZZ+jet, and WZ+jet production are evaluated at next-to-leading-order in the strong coupling (NLO QCD). Particular care has to be taken when treating the infrared singularities arising in the virtual and real corrections. The FormCalc/LoopTools package is applied for the virtual corrections, where dimensionally regularized infrared-divergent integrals are added to the FF library which is used for the regular ones. The real-emission matrix elements are evaluated in terms of helicity amplitudes in the Weyl--van-der-Waerden formalism. The Catani--Seymour dipole subtraction formalism mediates the cancellation of infrared divergences between the two contributions. To perform the numerical integration a multi-channel Monte Carlo integrator is written in C++, which is designed to meet the requirements of integrating cross sections in the dipole subtraction formalism. For all gauge-boson assignments, the NLO QCD corrections significantly stabilize the artificial dependence of the leading-order (LO) cross sections on renormalization and factorization scales for Tevatron. For LHC, however, only a modest reduction of the scale dependence results unless a veto on a second hard jet is applied. Beyond investigating the production processes, leptonic decays of the gauge bosons are considered. To this end, a full amplitude calculation including resonant and non-resonant contributions to the leptonic final states, a simple narrow-width approximation (NWA), and an improved version of the NWA that takes into account spin correlations are
In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness Ls increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation
EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 2: Calculation of optical products
Mattis, Ina; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Madonna, Fabio; Iarlori, Marco
2016-07-01
In this paper we present the automated software tool ELDA (EARLINET Lidar Data Analyzer) for the retrieval of profiles of optical particle properties from lidar signals. This tool is one of the calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC) which allows for the analysis of the data of many different lidar systems of EARLINET in an automated, unsupervised way. ELDA delivers profiles of particle extinction coefficients from Raman signals as well as profiles of particle backscatter coefficients from combinations of Raman and elastic signals or from elastic signals only. Those analyses start from pre-processed signals which have already been corrected for background, range dependency and hardware specific effects. An expert group reviewed all algorithms and solutions for critical calculus subsystems which are used within EARLINET with respect to their applicability for automated retrievals. Those methods have been implemented in ELDA. Since the software was designed in a modular way, it is possible to add new or alternative methods in future. Most of the implemented algorithms are well known and well documented, but some methods have especially been developed for ELDA, e.g., automated vertical smoothing and temporal averaging or the handling of effective vertical resolution in the case of lidar ratio retrievals, or the merging of near-range and far-range products. The accuracy of the retrieved profiles was tested following the procedure of the EARLINET-ASOS algorithm inter-comparison exercise which is based on the analysis of synthetic signals. Mean deviations, mean relative deviations, and normalized root-mean-square deviations were calculated for all possible products and three height layers. In all cases, the deviations were clearly below the maximum allowed values according to the EARLINET quality requirements.
Wu, Yanlin; Shi, Jin; Chen, Hongche; Zhao, Jianfu; Dong, Wenbo
2016-10-01
4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP), an endocrine disrupting chemical, is widely distributed in natural bodies of water but is difficult to biodegrade. In this study, we focused on the transformation of 4-t-BP in photo-initiated degradation processes. The steady-state photolysis and laser flash photolysis (LFP) experiments were conducted in order to elucidate its degradation mechanism. Identification of products was performed using the GC-MS, LC-MS and theoretical calculation techniques. The oxidation pathway of 4-t-BP by hydroxyl radical (HO) was also studied and H2O2 was added to produce HO. 4-tert-butylcatechol and 4-tert-butylphenol dimer were produced in 4-t-BP direct photolysis. 4-tert-butylcatechol and hydroquinone were produced by the oxidation of HO. But the formation mechanism of 4-tert-butylcatechol in the two processes was different. The benzene ring was fractured in 4-t-BP oxidation process and 29% of TOC was degraded after 16h irradiation. PMID:27213674
Calculation of excitation functions for the production of Cu and Co medical isotopes
Copper and cobalt radioisotopes have been used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the field of nuclear medicine. There is considerable interest in 60,61,64,67Cu and 55,57Co radioisotopes for some applications like PET, SPECT imaging and targeted radiotherapy of tumors. In present study, the production of 60,61,64,67Cu and 55,57Co via 64Zn(p,a)61Cu, 67Zn(p,a)64Cu, 70Zn(p,a)67Cu, 58Ni(p,a)55Co, 60Ni(p,a)57Co, 64Zn(p,na)60Cu and 68Zn(p,na)64Cu reactions have been investigated in the range of 5-40 MeV proton incident energy. The new version of the code ALICE-2011 is used to determine the excitation functions of these nuclear reactions. The calculated excitation functions were compared with experimental results and semi-empirical cross section values of a previously developed model. (orig.)
Radcalc for Windows' is a menu-driven Microsoft2 Windows-compatible computer code that calculates the radiolytic production of hydrogen gas in high- and low-level radioactive waste. In addition, the code also determines US Department of Transportation (DOT) transportation classifications, calculates the activities of parent and daughter isotopes for a specified period of time, calculates decay heat, and calculates pressure buildup from the production of hydrogen gas in a given package geometry. Radcalc for Windows was developed by Packaging Engineering, Transportation and Packaging, Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It is available from Packaging Engineering and is issued with a user's manual and a technical manual. The code has been verified and validated
Highlights: ► We calculated the effects of ENDF libraries on gas production rates in structural material. ► We used the MCNPX-2.5.0 Monte Carlo code for three-dimensional calculations. ► The most prominent contributions to gas production rates are from Fe-56 and Fe-54 isotopes. ► Proton production was found greatest for JENDL-4.0 library with 409.69 appm/30 FPY. ► The helium limit of 500 appm is reached at 50 cm for all selected libraries. - Abstract: Proton and He-4 gas production rates in the structural material of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor were calculated with the three-dimensional Monte Carlo method by the MCNPX-2.5.0 code. We examined these reaction rates with five nuclear data libraries: ENDF/B-VII.0 T = 300 K, JEFF-3.1 T = 300 K, JENDL-4.0 T = 300 K, ROSFOND T = 300 K and CENDL-3.1 T = 300 K. The production from each isotope of structural material made of ferritic steel was calculated. The neutron flux load is assumed to be 10 MW/m2
WEN Zhigang; ZHU Dan; TANG Youjun; LI Yuquan; ZHANG Guorong
2005-01-01
Gas chromatography fingerprint technique has the advantages of fast performance and low cost. It can be used to conduct analysis without interruption either in the field or at laboratory. This technique has been used successfully in such cases that conventional production logging techniques are powerless. Taking low-concentration anthracene as internal standard, we calculated the absolute concentrations of fingerprints, initially made some experiments directly on biodegradation of crude oils, and calculated production allocation in the Gudong Oil field. Compared with the production logging, this method has made up for the deficiencies of the former GC fingerprint technique. It will find wide applications in monitoring the trend of production in various oil-fields.
SaiToh, Akira
2011-01-01
A C++ library, named ZKCM, has been developed for the purpose of multiprecision matrix calculations, which is based on the GNU MP and MPFR libraries. It is especially convenient for writing programs involving tensor-product operations, tracing-out operations, and singular-value decompositions. Its extension library, ZKCM_QC, for simulating quantum computing has been developed using the time-dependent matrix-product-state simulation method. This report gives a brief introduction to the libraries with sample programs.
SOURCE 2.0 is a computer code being jointly developed within the Canadian nuclear industry. It will model the necessary mechanisms required to calculate the fission product release for a variety of accident scenarios, including large break loss of coolant accidents with or without emergency coolant injection. This paper presents the origin of SOURCE 2.0, describes the code structure, the fission product mechanisms modelled, and the quality assurance procedures that are being followed during the code's life cycle. (author)
Matrix product state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chains and quantum impurity models
This thesis contributes to the field of strongly correlated electron systems with studies in two distinct fields thereof: the specific nature of correlations between electrons in one dimension and quantum quenches in quantum impurity problems. In general, strongly correlated systems are characterized in that their physical behaviour needs to be described in terms of a many-body description, i.e. interactions correlate all particles in a complex way. The challenge is that the Hilbert space in a many-body theory is exponentially large in the number of particles. Thus, when no analytic solution is available - which is typically the case - it is necessary to find a way to somehow circumvent the problem of such huge Hilbert spaces. Therefore, the connection between the two studies comes from our numerical treatment: they are tackled by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG), respectively, both based on matrix product states. The first project presented in this thesis addresses the problem of numerically finding the dominant correlations in quantum lattice models in an unbiased way, i.e. without using prior knowledge of the model at hand. A useful concept for this task is the correlation density matrix (CDM) which contains all correlations between two clusters of lattice sites. We show how to extract from the CDM, a survey of the relative strengths of the system's correlations in different symmetry sectors as well as detailed information on the operators carrying long-range correlations and the spatial dependence of their correlation functions. We demonstrate this by a DMRG study of a one-dimensional spinless extended Hubbard model, while emphasizing that the proposed analysis of the CDM is not restricted to one dimension. The second project presented in this thesis is motivated by two phenomena under ongoing experimental and theoretical investigation in the context of quantum impurity models: optical absorption
Matrix product state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chains and quantum impurity models
Muender, Wolfgang
2011-09-28
This thesis contributes to the field of strongly correlated electron systems with studies in two distinct fields thereof: the specific nature of correlations between electrons in one dimension and quantum quenches in quantum impurity problems. In general, strongly correlated systems are characterized in that their physical behaviour needs to be described in terms of a many-body description, i.e. interactions correlate all particles in a complex way. The challenge is that the Hilbert space in a many-body theory is exponentially large in the number of particles. Thus, when no analytic solution is available - which is typically the case - it is necessary to find a way to somehow circumvent the problem of such huge Hilbert spaces. Therefore, the connection between the two studies comes from our numerical treatment: they are tackled by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG), respectively, both based on matrix product states. The first project presented in this thesis addresses the problem of numerically finding the dominant correlations in quantum lattice models in an unbiased way, i.e. without using prior knowledge of the model at hand. A useful concept for this task is the correlation density matrix (CDM) which contains all correlations between two clusters of lattice sites. We show how to extract from the CDM, a survey of the relative strengths of the system's correlations in different symmetry sectors as well as detailed information on the operators carrying long-range correlations and the spatial dependence of their correlation functions. We demonstrate this by a DMRG study of a one-dimensional spinless extended Hubbard model, while emphasizing that the proposed analysis of the CDM is not restricted to one dimension. The second project presented in this thesis is motivated by two phenomena under ongoing experimental and theoretical investigation in the context of quantum impurity models: optical absorption
A simple method for evaluation of uncertainties in fission product decay heat summation calculations
The present precision of nuclear data for the aggregate decay heat evaluation is analyzed quantitatively for 50 fissioning systems. In the practical calculation, a simple approximate method is proposed in order to avoid complication of the calculation and to point out easily the main causal nuclei of the uncertainties in decay heat calculations. As for the independent yield, the correlation among the values is taken into account. For this evaluation, nuclear data and their uncertainty data are taken from ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. (author)
2010-07-01
... Human Services that applicant did not act with due diligence; (iii) One-half the number of days... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... Review § 1.775 Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human...
A method for the approximate calculation of the composition of the detonation products of gas mixtures is reported in the paper. The method is based on the assumption of partial equilibrium in the subsystem of biomolecular reactions. The description of the equilibrium composition in the subsystem of biomolecular reactions is reduced to the solution of the system of linear equations
Bernnat, W.; Keinert, J.; Mattes, M. [Inst. for Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems, Univ. of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)
2004-03-01
For the calculation of neutron spectra in cold and super thermal sources scattering laws for a variety of liquid and solid cyrogenic materials were evaluated and prepared for use in deterministic and Monte Carlo transport calculations. For moderator materials like liquid and solid H{sub 2}O, liquid He, liquid D{sub 2}O, liquid and solid H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, solid CH{sub 4} and structure materials such as Al, Bi, Pb, ZrHx, and graphite scattering law data and cross sections are available. The evaluated data were validated by comparison with measured cross sections and comparison of measured and calculated neutron spectra as far as available. Further applications are the calculation of production and transport and storing of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) in different UCN sources. The data structures of the evaluated data are prepared for the common S{sub N}-transport codes and the Monte Carlo Code MCNP. (orig.)
For the calculation of neutron spectra in cold and super thermal sources scattering laws for a variety of liquid and solid cyrogenic materials were evaluated and prepared for use in deterministic and Monte Carlo transport calculations. For moderator materials like liquid and solid H2O, liquid He, liquid D2O, liquid and solid H2 and D2, solid CH4 and structure materials such as Al, Bi, Pb, ZrHx, and graphite scattering law data and cross sections are available. The evaluated data were validated by comparison with measured cross sections and comparison of measured and calculated neutron spectra as far as available. Further applications are the calculation of production and transport and storing of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) in different UCN sources. The data structures of the evaluated data are prepared for the common SN-transport codes and the Monte Carlo Code MCNP. (orig.)
Calculation of fission product behavior in a multiple reactor barriers in case of an accident
Radiation protection of the population in case of a reactor accident utilizes reference levels which are based on doses values. Therefore, adequate provisions for effective and timely dose assessment for population in case of accidents at nuclear power plant (NPP) are important. Developing the background for such provisions is the objective of this study. In particular, an exponential model has been developed and utilized to calculate the release rate of the most volatile gaseous materials from different reactor barriers. Calculation has been performed for noble gases (133Xe, 135Xe, 138Xe, 85Kr, 87Kr, 88Kr) and the halogens(1'31I, 132I, 133I, 1'34I, 135I). The effective dose rate equivalent is calculations in the nearly stage of a reactor accident. Calculations are performed using the MCNP-4C code. The results are comparable with the final analysis report which utilizes different codes. Results of our calculation shows no excessive dose in populated regions and it is recommended to use secondary containment barrier for highly reduction of the release rate to the environment. (Author)
Highlights: ► Production of 153Sm isotope by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor was studied. ► Optimal parameters for weight and irradiation time were found. ► This study led to an empirical correction factor (kf). ► Kf enhanced the production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. ► The results led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process. - Abstract: The feasibility of producing 2000–3000 mCi 153Sm by irradiation of 152Sm in 5 MW TRR was studied via TRR core simulation. In this study the cross-section of 152Sm (n,γ) 153Sm reaction from ENDF/B library was used. The effective activation cross section for production of 153Sm is obtained using the neutron spectra in different irradiation channel of the core. The activity of the simulated samples is calculated using the obtained fluxes and cross sections. Then samples were prepared and irradiated under different conditions and fluxes. The final production’s specific activity was measured by the standard dose calibrator ISOMED 1010. By comparison of the theoretical calculations and actual measurements, an empirical correction factor (Kf) was obtained, which is helpful in production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. The optimal weight of the samples and irradiation time was studied according to the flux calculations based on the location of the sample and saturated activity calculation. In order to test the proposed conditions, samples were prepared and were irradiated under the proposed conditions. According to the compared results with the initial irradiation condition, the new proposed sample which weighed 4 mg of Sm2O3 is acceptable for the labeling, therefore this study led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process
NIKOLA KILIBARDA
2000-11-01
Full Text Available An adequate method for calculating chemical equilibrium in a predominantly gaseous, multi-component reactive mixture was investigated and successfully applied. This method involves the stated equilibrium reaction scheme, including, first, the formation of chemical species, of which concentrations prevail in the mixture, then the formation of gaseous atomic species by dissociation of previous ones, and, finally, the formation of complex chemical species from the atomic species. A computer program, which permits calculations of equilibrium compositions by the iteration procedure, has been developed. The results of calculations have been compared with data obtained by the programs OPHELIE, MICROPEP, and the program SPP, as documented in the NASA-Lewis Code, which is presently the world-wide standard. All comparisons gave satisfactory agreement.
A novel method to calculate solar UV exposure relevant to vitamin D production in humans.
Seckmeyer, Gunther; Schrempf, Michael; Wieczorek, Anna; Riechelmann, Stefan; Graw, Kathrin; Seckmeyer, Stefan; Zankl, Maria
2013-01-01
We present a novel method to calculate vitamin D3 -weighted exposure by integrating the incident solar spectral radiance over all relevant parts of the human body. Earlier investigations are based on the irradiance on surfaces, whereas our calculated exposure of a voxel model of a human takes into account the complex geometry of the radiation field. Assuming that sufficient vitamin D3 (1000 international units) can be produced within the human body in one minute for a completely uncovered body in vertical posture in summer at midlatitudes (e.g. Rome, June 21, noon, UV index of 10), we calculate the exposure times needed in other situations or seasons to gain enough vitamin D3 . Our calculations show that the UV index is not a good indicator for the exposure which depends on the orientation of the body (e.g. vertical (standing) or horizontal (lying down) posture). Without clothing the exposure is dominated by diffuse sky radiation and it is nearly irrelevant how the body in vertical posture is oriented toward the sun. At the winter solstice (December 21, noon, cloudy) at least in central Europe sufficient vitamin D3 cannot be obtained with realistic clothing, even if the exposure were extended to all daylight hours. PMID:23517086
It is presented the absorption-production nodal method for steady and dynamical calculations in one-dimension and one group energy. It was elaborated the NOD1D computer code (in FORTRAN-IV language). Calculations of neutron flux and power distributions, burnup, effective multiplication factors and critical boron concentration were made with the NOD1D code and compared with results obtained through the CITATION code, which uses the finite difference method. The nuclear constants were produced by the LEOPARD code. (M.C.K.)
Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V
2015-09-01
HIGHLIGHTS • Production of Sc-44 m, Sc-44 g and contaminants. • Experimental values determined using the stacked-foil technique. • Thick-Target production Yield (TTY) calculations. • Comparison with the TALYS code version 1.6.Among the large number of radionuclides of medical interest, Sc-44 is promising for PET imaging. Either the ground-state Sc-44 g or the metastable-state Sc-44 m can be used for such applications, depending on the molecule used as vector. This study compares the production rates of both Sc-44 states, when protons or deuterons are used as projectiles on an enriched Calcium-44 target. This work presents the first set of data for the deuteron route. The results are compared with the TALYS code. The Thick-Target production Yields of Sc-44 m and Sc-44 g are calculated and compared with those for the proton route for three different scenarios: the production of Sc-44 g for conventional PET imaging, its production for the new 3 γ imaging technique developed at the SUBATECH laboratory and the production of a Sc-44 m/Sc-44 g in vivo generator for antibody labelling. PMID:26301533
Objective: The existing solid target production method of radiometals requires high capital and operational expenditures, which limit the production of radiometals to the small fraction of cyclotron facilities that are equipped with solid target systems. Our objective is to develop a robust solution target method, which can be applicable to a wide array of radiometals and would be simply and easily adopted by existing cyclotron facilities for the routine production of radiometals. Method: We have developed a simplified, solution target approach for production of 89Zr using a niobium target by 14 MeV energy proton bombardment of aqueous solutions of yttrium salts via the 89Y(p,n)89Zr nuclear reaction. The production conditions were optimized, following a detailed mechanistic study of the gas evolution. Results: Although the solution target approach avoided the expense and complication of solid target processing, rapid radiolytic formation of gases in the target represents a major impediment in the success of solution target. To address this challenge we performed a systematic mechanistic study of gas evolution. Gas evolution was found to be predominantly due to decomposition of water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The rate of gas evolutions varied > 40-fold depending on solution composition even under the same irradiation condition. With chloride salts, the rate of gas evolution increased in the order rank Na < Ca < Y. However, the trend was reversed with the corresponding nitrate salts, and further addition of nitric acid to the irradiating solution minimized gas evolution. At optimized condition, 89Zr was produced in moderate yield (4.36 ± 0.48 MBq/μA•h) and high effective specific activity (464 ± 215 MBq/μg) using the solution target approach (2.75 M yttrium nitrate, 1.5 N HNO3, 2 h irradiation at 20 μA). Conclusion: The novel findings on substrate dependent, radiation-induced water decomposition provide fundamental data for the development and
Shielding calculation of a hot cell for the processing of fission products
A dose rate estimation is made for an operator of a lead wall, fission products processing hot cell, in a distance of 50 cm from the emission source, at Brazilian Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN). (L.C.J.A.)
The Production Function Methodology for Calculating Potential Growth Rates & Output Gaps
Karel Havik; Kieran Mc Morrow; Fabrice Orlandi; Christophe Planas; Rafal Raciborski; Werner Roeger; Alessandro Rossi; Anna Thum-Thysen; Valerie Vandermeulen
2014-01-01
This paper provides a detailed description of the current version of the Ecofin Council approved production function (PF) methodology which is used for assessing both the productive capacity (i.e. potential output) and cyclical position (i.e. output gaps) of EU economies. Compared with the previous 2010 paper on the same topic, there have been two significant changes to the PF methodology, namely an overhaul of the NAWRU methodology & the introduction of a new T+10 methodology.
Delayed neutron spectra and their uncertainties in fission product summation calculations
Miyazono, T.; Sagisaka, M.; Ohta, H.; Oyamatsu, K.; Tamaki, M. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
1997-03-01
Uncertainties in delayed neutron summation calculations are evaluated with ENDF/B-VI for 50 fissioning systems. As the first step, uncertainty calculations are performed for the aggregate delayed neutron activity with the same approximate method as proposed previously for the decay heat uncertainty analyses. Typical uncertainty values are about 6-14% for {sup 238}U(F) and about 13-23% for {sup 243}Am(F) at cooling times 0.1-100 (s). These values are typically 2-3 times larger than those in decay heat at the same cooling times. For aggregate delayed neutron spectra, the uncertainties would be larger than those for the delayed neutron activity because much more information about the nuclear structure is still necessary. (author)
Hencken, Kai; Trautmann, Dirk; Baur, Gerhard
1998-01-01
We present a calculation of higher order effects for the impact parameter dependent probability for single and multiple electron-positron pairs in (peripheral) relativistic heavy ion collisions. Also total cross sections are given for SPS and RHIC energies. We make use of the expression derived recently by several groups where the summation of all higher orders can be done analytically in the high energy limit. An astonishing result is that the cross section, that is, integrating over all imp...
Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž
2004-12-01
In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.
The Nitinol stent was bombarded in a cyclotron at a flux rate of 4 μA/cm2 to produce 48V via 48Ti (p, n) 48V reaction. In this study dose distribution of 48V radioactive stent was investigated for renal arteries. Version X-2.6 of the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport system code was employed to calculate dose distribution around the stent. As 48V is a mixed gamma and beta particle emitter, two separate runs of MCNP for both beta and gamma particles were performed and the total deposited dose was acquired by adding the two mentioned values. In order to verify the simulation, the calculated results have been compared with previous published data for the source. Calculated results show high dose gradient near the stent and the maximum amount of dose deposits at the vessel wall. According to (AAPM) TG-60/149 protocol, the dosimetric parameters, including geometry function, G(ρ,z), radial dose function, g L (ρ), and anisotropy function, F(ρ,z), were also determined. (author)
Yield-weighted average cross sections of neutron radiative capture, (n,2n), and (n,3n) reactions over prompt fission products (FPs) from 235U and 239Pu are calculated. The prompt fission production yields are taken from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The FPs for each fissile material exist over a range of approximately 1000 neutron-rich nuclides. Several nuclear reaction codes are utilized for calculating the cross sections on each individual fission product - EMPIRE-2.19, TALYS-1.0, GNASH, and CoH. The influence of the FP isomers on the average cross sections is examined with TALYS. We investigate the dependence of the average cross sections on the number of FPs taken for averaging. It is shown that the average capture cross section is much more sensitive to the number of FPs included, compared with the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions. An intercomparison of the calculated cross sections with the different reaction codes is carried out. In the capture reaction, EMPIRE predicted lower cross section than TALYS and CoH owing to different default assumptions used in the γ-ray strength function modeling. Moreover, the pre-equilibrium models implemented in each code give different predictions for the neutron-emission reactions, although the differences are relatively small. We also discuss a difference between the macroscopic and microscopic calculation options in TALYS for the pre-equilibrium model, optical potential model, and γ-ray strength function. The predictive capability of the reaction codes for the capture reaction is examined by comparing their calculations with the ENDF data, which are based on measurements. Compared with the historic Foster and Arthur's evaluation, our new (n,2n) predictions are similar, although our capture predictions are almost an order of magnitude higher. Recommended cross sections for use in applications have been tabulated in ENDF-formatted files. (author)
Salmon, R.; Hermann, O.W.
1992-10-01
The rate of neutron production from ([alpha], n) reactions in canisters of immobilized high-level waste containing borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic compositions is significant and must be considered when estimating neutron shielding requirements. The personal computer program ALPHA calculates the ([alpha], n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the ([alpha], n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The ([alpha], n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass and do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister. In a typical application, these cases might represent the same canister of vitrified high-level waste at eight different decay times. Run time for a typical problem containing 20 chemical species, 24 actinides, and 8 decay times was 35 s on an IBM AT personal computer. Results of an example based on an expected canister composition at the Defense Waste Processing Facility are shown.
ALPHN: A computer program for calculating (α, n) neutron production in canisters of high-level waste
The rate of neutron production from (α, n) reactions in canisters of immobilized high-level waste containing borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic compositions is significant and must be considered when estimating neutron shielding requirements. The personal computer program ALPHA calculates the (α, n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (α, n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (α, n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass and do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister. In a typical application, these cases might represent the same canister of vitrified high-level waste at eight different decay times. Run time for a typical problem containing 20 chemical species, 24 actinides, and 8 decay times was 35 s on an IBM AT personal computer. Results of an example based on an expected canister composition at the Defense Waste Processing Facility are shown
A function to calculate all relative prime numbers up to the product of the first n primes
Schmitt, Matthias
2014-01-01
We prove an isomorphism between the finite domain from 1 up to the product of the first n primes and the new defined set of prime modular numbers. This definition provides some insights about relative prime numbers. We provide an inverse function from the prime modular numbers into this finite domain. With this function we can calculate all numbers from 1 up to the product of the first n primes that are not divisible by the first n primes. This function provides a non sequential way for the c...
Kivimäe, Caroline
2007-01-01
This thesis focus on the carbon and oxygen fluxes in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and presents four studies where the main topics are variability of biological production, air-sea exchange and budget calculations. The world ocean is the largest short term reservoir of carbon on Earth, consequently it has the potential to control the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and has already taken up ~50 % of the antropogenically emitted CO2. It is thus important to...
The 123Te(p,n)123I, 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(p,2n)123I reactions, among the many reaction channels opened, are the major reactions under consideration from a diagnostic purpose because reaction residuals as the gamma emitters are used for most radiopharmaceutical applications involving radioiodine. Based on the available experimental data, the absorption cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions of the proton-induced nuclear reaction on Te isotopes below 60 NeV are calculated using the optical model code APMNK. The transmission coefficients of neutron, proton, deuteron, trition and alpha particles are calculated by CUNF code and are fed into the GNASH code. By adjusting level density parameters and the pair correction values of some reaction channels, as well as the composite nucleus state density constants of the pre-equilibrium model, the production cross sections and energy-angle correlated spectra of the secondary light particles, as well as production cross sections and energy distributions of heavy recoils and gamma rays are calculated by the statistical plus pre-equilibrium model code GNAH. The calculated results are analysed and compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR. The optimized global optical model parameters give overall agreement with the experimental data over both the entire energy range and all tellurium isotopes. (author)
FAYE SOUPOURMAS; DUNCAN IRONMONGER
2002-01-01
This paper presents estimates for a thirty year period of Australia’s Gross Household Product (GHP), the economic value added by unpaid labour and the households own capital. In 2000 GHP was estimated to be worth $471 billion. Gross Market Product (GDP minus the imputed value of owner-occupied housing) was worth $604 billion in 2000. The household economy was nearly 80 per cent of the size of the market economy in 2000. More importantly, the GHP is nearly half (44%) of total economic activity...
Avsec Jurij
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl cycle is the most promissible thermochemical cycle to produce cheap hydrogen.This paper focuses on a CuCl cycle, and the describes the models how to calculate thermodynamic properties. Unfortunately, for many components in CuCl cycle the thermochemical functions of state have never been measured. This is the reason that we have tried to calculate some very important thermophysical properties. This paper discusses the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamic properties for pure substances and their mixtures such as CuCl, HCl, Cu2OCl2 important in CuCl hydrogen production in their fluid and solid phase with an aid of statistical thermodynamics. For the solid phase, we have developed the mathematical model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties for polyatomic crystals. In this way, we have used Debye functions and Einstein function for acoustical modes and optical modes of vibrations to take into account vibration of atoms. The influence of intermolecular energy we have solved on the basis of Murnaghan equation of state and statistical thermodynamics.
Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products
Bessou, Cécile; Chase, Laurence D. C.; Henson, Ian E.; Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Milà I Canals, Llorenç; Agus, Fahmuddin; Sharma, Mukesh; Chin, Melissa
2014-01-01
The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certification scheme. Two successive science-based working groups on greenhouse gas (GHG) were active in RSPO from 2009 to 2011, with the aim of identifying ways of achieving meaningful and verifiable reductions of GHG emissions. One of the outputs of the second group is PalmGHG, a GHG calculator using the life cycle assessment ap-proach to quantify major sources of emi...
PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products
Bessou, Cécile; Chase, Laurence; Henson, Ian; Amir F. N. Abdul-Manan; Milà-I-Canals, Llorenç; Agus, Fahmuddin; Sharma, Mukesh
2012-01-01
The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certi-fication scheme. Two successive science-based working groups on greenhouse gas (GHG) have been active in RSPO between 2009-2011, with the aim of identifying ways leading to meaningful and verifiable reduction of GHG emissions. One of the outputs is PalmGHG, a GHG calculator using the LCA approach to quantify the major sources of emission and sequestration for a mi...
Calculation of charged fusion product distributions in space, energy, and time
The equation for the radial diffusion and slowing down of fast ions in a plasma is solved by a finite-difference technique. The terms included are ion source, radial diffusion, electron and ion drag. From the ion density at the radial boundary, the loss flux is calculated and used to model the signals in a lost-ion diagnostic. The code is also used to model the density of α-particles in future DT experiments. This information is used to predict the features to be seen by alpha diagnostics
Igneous rock successions can be investigated with respect to their genetic coherence or to the role in fractional crystallization during their generation, respectively, by evaluating element concentration correlations. It is shown that the existence of a linear relation between element concentrations or their logarithms is only a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for fractional crystallization as the dominating factor of graduating element concentrations. The comparison of the slope of such correlation lines with the slope calculated on the basis of the distribution coefficients evaluated by using Schuetze's 18O index reveals whether fractional crystallization is dominant in graduating element concentrations in igneous rocks. Several applications are given. (author)
Monte Carlo calculations of pair production in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions
Duclous, Roland; Kirk, John; Bell, Anthony
2010-01-01
Gamma-ray and electron-positron pair production will figure prominently in laser-plasma experiments with next generation lasers. Using a Monte Carlo approach we show that straggling effects arising from the finite recoil an electron experiences when it emits a high energy photon, increase the number of pairs produced on further interaction with the laser fields.
Weak production and electroproduction of δ(1236) in a Zucker-model calculation
Zucker's model for weak production and electroproduction of δ(1236) is reconsidered in the light of recent experimental data. We find that the disagreement between the predictions of the Zucker model and the experimental data can be significantly reduced by choosing a different form for #betta# exchange
Weak production and electroproduction of Δ(1236) in a Zucker-model calculation
Choudhury, S. Rai; Dewan, H. K.
1983-07-01
Zucker's model for weak production and electroproduction of Δ(1236) is reconsidered in the light of recent experimental data. We find that the disagreement between the predictions of the Zucker model and the experimental data can be significantly reduced by choosing a different form for ω exchange.
Use of ELOCA.Mk5 to calculate transient fission product release from CANDU fuel elements
A change in fuel element power output, or a change in heat transfer conditions, will result in an immediate change in the temperature distribution in a fuel element. The temperature distribution change will be accompanied by concomitant changes in fuel stress distribution that lead, in turn, to a release of fission products to the fuel-to-sheath gap. It is important to know the inventory of fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap, because this inventory is a major component of the source term for many postulated reactor accidents. ELOCA.Mk5 is a FORTRAN-77 computer code that has been developed to estimate transient releases to the fuel-to-sheath gap in CANDU reactors. ELOCA.Mk5 is an integration of the FREEDOM fission product release model into the ELOCA fuel element thermo-mechanical code. The integration of FREEDOM into ELOCA allows ELOCA.Mk5 to model the feedback mechanisms between the fission product release and the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel element. This paper describes the physical model, gives details of the ELOCA.Mkt code, and describes the validation of the model. We demonstrate that the model gives good agreement with experimental results for both steady state and transient conditions
A study of Λ production has been made in the target fragmentation region from pp interactions at 360 GeV/c. The triple Regge analysis of the double differential distribution d2N/d(M2/s)dt led to an estimate of the kaon trajectory intercept as approx.=-0.6. Comparison of the double and single inclusive distributions supports the idea of Pomeron factorization. The charged multiplicities and moments from virtual 'K+'p interactions have been studied as a function of M, the c.m. energy of the virtual 'K+'p system. The results agree reasonably well with the on shell K+p data. (orig.)
Nuclear model calculations on the production of {sup 119}Sb via various nuclear reactions
Sadeghi, Mahdi, E-mail: msadeghi@nrcam.org [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 31485/498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enferadi, Milad [Research and Science Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-04-15
Only very few radionuclides exist that decay exclusively by EC-mode without accompanying radiation, {sup 119}Sb is one of them. Auger emitter {sup 119}Sb (T{sub 1/2} = 38.9 h, I{sub EC} = 100%) is a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy based on theoretical dosimetry calculations at a subcellular scale. Auger electron emitting radionuclides in cancer therapy offer the opportunity to deliver a high radiation dose to the tumor cells with high radiotoxicity while minimizing toxicity to normal tissue. {sup 119}Sb excitation function via {sup 119}Sn(p,n){sup 119}Sb, {sup 120}Sn(p,2n){sup 119}Sb, {sup 121}Sb(p,3n){sup 119}Te {yields} {sup 119}Sb, {sup 122}Sn(p,4n){sup 119}Sb, {sup 119}Sn(d,2n){sup 119}Sb and {sup 117}Sn({alpha},2n){sup 119}Te {yields} {sup 119}Sb reactions were calculated by ALICE/91, ALICE/ASH (GDH Model and Hybrid Model) and TALYS-1.0 (equilibrium and pre-equilibrium) codes. Requisite thicknesses of targets were obtained by SRIM code for each reaction.
Nuclear model calculations on the production of 119Sb via various nuclear reactions
Only very few radionuclides exist that decay exclusively by EC-mode without accompanying radiation, 119Sb is one of them. Auger emitter 119Sb (T1/2 = 38.9 h, IEC = 100%) is a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy based on theoretical dosimetry calculations at a subcellular scale. Auger electron emitting radionuclides in cancer therapy offer the opportunity to deliver a high radiation dose to the tumor cells with high radiotoxicity while minimizing toxicity to normal tissue. 119Sb excitation function via 119Sn(p,n)119Sb, 120Sn(p,2n)119Sb, 121Sb(p,3n)119Te → 119Sb, 122Sn(p,4n)119Sb, 119Sn(d,2n)119Sb and 117Sn(α,2n)119Te → 119Sb reactions were calculated by ALICE/91, ALICE/ASH (GDH Model and Hybrid Model) and TALYS-1.0 (equilibrium and pre-equilibrium) codes. Requisite thicknesses of targets were obtained by SRIM code for each reaction.
Calculation of iridium-192 production for radiography using G.A. Siwabessy reactor
Iridium-In is one of the radioisotopes used in gamma radiography. Calculation for producing iridium-In using G.A. Siwabessy nuclear reactor has been carried out. The targets were discs with 2.7 mm in diameter and 0.15 mm in thickness. The neutron flux was the value at the central irradiation position as high as 1.3 x 1014 n.s-1.cm-2. Calculation results showed that iridium metal irradiation for 12 days resulted in iridium-192 with radioactivity of 96.8 GBq per disc at the end of irradiation. If the irradiation was continued to the next irradiation period after 16 days of shut down, the irradiation resulted in 171.2 GBq of iridium-In. If the target was irradiated continuously for 40 days, the irradiation resulted in 284.5 GBq of iridium-192. The resulted radionuclide impurity was iridium-194 which decayed rapidly with half life of 19.15 hours. The initial radioactivity required for effective radiation source for gamma radiography was 3700 GBq in a radiation source. If the target was irradiated with shut down, the discs required in a radiation sources were 24 discs. If the target was irradiated continuously, the required discs were 14 discs in a radiation source. (author)
The production of l91Pt and l88Pt by cyclotron irradiation can be carried out by direct reactions using α and proton beams on osmium and iridium targets respectively. The lack of data in the literature concerning the excitation functions for these nuclear reactions makes the optimization of the irradiation parameters impossible. This report includes a review of the few nuclear data available in the literature, some theoretical predictions about the beam energy necessary for the production of the two radioisotopes of interest and the results of some preliminary irradiations carried out with the variable energy cyclotron of JRC-Ispra (VA, Italy) of the EU at three different energies: 35 MeV for protons, 22 and 33 MeV for α particles
Quantitative Calculations for Black Hole Production at the Large Hadron Collider
Bock, Nicolas
2008-01-01
The framework of Large Extra Dimensions provides a way to explain why gravity is weaker compared to the other forces in nature. A consequence of this model is the possible production of D-dimensional Black Holes in high energy p-p collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. The present work uses the CATFISH Black Hole generator to study quantitatively how these events could be observed in the hadronic channel at mid-rapidity using a particle tracking detector.
Analytical formulas for calculation of K X-ray production cross sections by alpha ions
In the present study, different procedures are followed to deduce the semi-empirical and the empirical K X-rayX-ray production cross sections induced by alpha ions from the available experimental data and the theoretical results of the ECPSSR model for elements with 20≤Z≤30. The deduced K X-ray production cross sections are compared with predictions from ECPSSR model and with other earlier works. Generally, the deduced K X-ray production cross sections obtained by fitting the available experimental data for each element separately give the most reliable values than those obtained by a global fit. - Highlights: ► The results were presented for elements with atomic numbers 20≤Z≤30 by alpha impact. ► The present semi-empirical formulas were derived from both theoretical and experimental values. ► The available experimental data are directly fitted to deduce the empirical one. ► The results obtained for each element separately give the most reliable values than those obtained by a global fit. ► This procedure is proposed as a black-box way to quickly estimate the cross section.
The energy ranges of prime interest for LWR's, FBR's, and MFE's are quite different, the low eV region for LWR's, the keV region for FBR's, and around 14 MeV for MFE's. Yet although the energy range is wide, the statistical model of nuclear reactions works well for most of the dosimetry and gas production needs. Even at 15 MeV where the predictions of the model are compared against experiments performed by Atomics International and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory the model works well
SPARC-90: A code for calculating fission product capture in suppression pools
This report describes the technical bases and use of two updated versions of a computer code initially developed to serve as a tool for calculating aerosol particle retention in boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression pools during severe accidents, SPARC-87 and SPARC-90. The most recent version is SPARC-90. The initial or prototype version (Owczarski, Postma, and Schreck 1985) was improved to include the following: rigorous treatment of local particle deposition velocities on the surface of oblate spherical bubbles, new correlations for hydrodynamic behavior of bubble swarms, models for aerosol particle growth, both mechanistic and empirical models for vent exit region scrubbing, specific models for hydrodynamics of bubble breakup at various vent types, and models for capture of vapor iodine species. A complete user's guide is provided for SPARC-90 (along with SPARC-87). A code description, code operating instructions, partial code listing, examples of the use of SPARC-90, and summaries of experimental data comparison studies also support the use of SPARC-90. 29 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs
Neutronic calculations of cold neutron intensity in a He chamber for ultra cold neutron production
Neutronic optimization studies were performed to get highest cold neutron intensity in a He-II chamber for ultra cold neutron (UCN) production as a UCN source to be installed at a spallation neutron source. Main components of the system studied were Pb-Bi target shield system, graphite reflector, D2O thermal moderator, D2 cold moderator and He-II UCN source. Effect of the size of these components on cold neutron intensity and on heat deposition was studied under the condition of 600 MeV proton energy and 20 μA proton current. It was found that in the limitation of 1 W heat removal of the He cryostat we would obtain a cold neutron average flux of 7x1011 (n/cm2/sec) in the He chamber. (authors)
Based on the Fick's law the computer program FPDR has been developed to calculate the one-dimensional diffusion and release behavior of fission products in the graphite sleeves of the first and second OGL-1 fuel assembly. Through the comparison between the measured and calculated penetration profiles, the diffusion coefficient of 90Sr in the first fuel sleeve has been estimated to be (2 -- 5) x 10-13 m2/s; those of 137Cs and 90Sr in the second fuel sleeve around or larger than 1 x 10-12 m2/s, and --10-14 m2/s, respectively. The release of 90Sr from the second fuel sleeve is negligible; that of 137Cs depends linearly on its diffusion coefficient if the coefficient is larger than 10-12 m2/s, but practically does not depend on its evaporation parameter. (author)
Mueller, S; Dunn, JB; Wang, M (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago)
2012-06-07
The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released May 31, 2012 which includes corn, as did the previous CCLUB version, and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. CCLUB calculations are based upon two data sets: land change areas and above- and below-ground carbon content. Table 1 identifies where these data are stored and used within the CCLUB model, which is built in MS Excel. Land change area data is from Purdue University's Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) economic model. Section 2 describes the GTAP data CCLUB uses and how these data were modified to reflect shrubland transitions. Feedstock- and spatially-explicit below-ground carbon content data for the United States were generated with a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic carbon sub-model (Kwon and Hudson 2010) as described in Section 3. CENTURY is a soil organic matter model developed by Parton et al. (1987). The previous CCLUB version used more coarse domestic carbon emission factors. Above-ground non-soil carbon content data for forest ecosystems was sourced from the USDA/NCIAS Carbon Online Estimator (COLE) as explained in Section 4. We discuss emission factors used for calculation of international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Section 5. Temporal issues associated with modeling LUC emissions are the topic of Section 6. Finally, in Section 7 we provide a step-by-step guide to using CCLUB and obtaining results.
We review recent developments in the QCD description of jet production and modification in reactions with heavy nuclei at relativistic energies. Our goal is to formulate a perturbative expansion in the presence of nuclear matter that allows to systematically improve the accuracy of the theoretical predictions. As an example, we present calculations of inclusive jet cross sections at RHIC, Z0/γ*-tagged jet cross sections at the LHC, and jet shapes that include both next-to-leading order perturbative effects and the effects of the nuclear medium. (author)
Sohan Kumar GHIMIRE; Mukand Singh BABEL
2004-01-01
This study verifies the applicability of EPIC model for an erosion plot (61.2 m2) and anupland terraced watershed (72 ha) using a total of 94 rainfall events over a study period of two years.In order to analyze the effect of storm size on runoff and soil loss processes,rainfall events are divided into three groups:small (＜25mm),moderate (25-50mm) and large (＞50mm).Results indicate that the model could predict reasonably well the runoff and soil loss from the erosion plot and the watershed for the moderate and large rainfall events.However,the runoff and soil loss prediction for the small rainfall events is found to be poor.On annual basis,both surface runoffand soil loss predictions match well the observations.In light of the importance of the moderate and large rainfall events in producing most of the annual runoff and soil loss in the study area,the EPIC model is applied to assess the impacts of erosion on agricultural productivity and to evaluate management practices to protect watersheds in the middle mountainous area of Nepal.
This report describes the calculation procedure of the TRANCS code, which deals with fission product transport in fuel rod of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The fundamental equation modeled in the code is a cylindrical one-dimensional diffusion equation with generation and decay terms, and the non-stationary solution of the equation is obtained numerically by a finite difference method. The generation terms consist of the diffusional release from coated fuel particles, recoil release from outer-most coating layer of the fuel particle and generation due to contaminating uranium in the graphite matrix of the fuel compact. The decay term deals with neutron capture as well as beta decay. Factors affecting the computation error has been examined, and further extention of the code has been discussed in the fields of radial transport of fission products from graphite sleeve into coolant helium gas and axial transport in the fuel rod. (author)
Śpiewanowski, M D; Horbatsch, M; Kirchner, T
2016-01-01
Inner-shell vacancy production for the O$^{8+}$-Li collision system at 1.5 MeV/amu is studied theoretically. The theory combines single-electron amplitudes for each electron in the system to extract multielectron information about the collision process. Doubly-differential cross sections obtained in this way are then compared with the recent experimental data by LaForge et al. [J. Phys. B 46, 031001 (2013)] yielding good resemblance, especially for low outgoing electron energy. A careful analysis of the processes that contribute to inner-shell vacancy production shows that the improvement of the results as compared to single-active-electron calculations can be attributed to the leading role of two-electron excitation-ionization processes.
Leclerc, Arnaud
2014-01-01
We propose an iterative method for computing vibrational spectra that significantly reduces the memory cost of calculations. It uses a direct product primitive basis, but does not require storing vectors with as many components as there are product basis functions. Wavefunctions are represented in a basis each of whose functions is a sum of products (SOP) and the factorizable structure of the Hamiltonian is exploited. If the factors of the SOP basis functions are properly chosen, wavefunctions are linear combinations of a small number of SOP basis functions. The SOP basis functions are generated using a shifted block power method. The factors are refined with a rank reduction algorithm to cap the number of terms in a SOP basis function. The ideas are tested on a 20-D model Hamiltonian and a realistic CH$_3$CN (12 dimensional) potential. For the 20-D problem, to use a standard direct product iterative approach one would need to store vectors with about $10^{20}$ components and would hence require about $8 \\tim...
J. Kaiser
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O_{2} (abbreviated ^{17}δ_{P} and ^{18}δ_{P} for ^{17}O/^{16}O and ^{18}O/^{16}O, respectively.
This comment has no merit for the following reasons: (a the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen cannot be "defined", it can only be measured, modelled or calculated based on other data; (b the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen was not "defined" in Kaiser (2011a, but derived from published measurements; (c the published measurements themselves were inconsistent and no single result could be identified as best; (d since no best value could be identified, a hypothetical base case was constructed in a way that was consistent with previous publications; (e the values of ^{17}δ_{P}=−11.646‰ and ^{18}δ_{P}=−22.835‰ assumed for the base case are compatible with the experimental evidence published before the paper of Kaiser (2011a; (f even if the "biological end-member" was based on a definition, there could be no argument about the "consistency" of this definition – as per its nature, a definition is arbitrary.
The qualification of base case gross production values as being "30 % too high" must therefore also be rejected. Even though recently revised measurements of the relative ^{17}O/^{16}O isotope ratio difference between VSMOW and Air-O_{2}, ^{17}δ_{VSMOW} (Barkan and Luz, 2011, do support lower estimates of gross production, our own measurements disagree with these revised ^{17}δ_{VSMOW} values. If scaled for differences in ^{18
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Sargsyan Samvel Volodyaevich
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Fire-resistance testing laboratory for building products and constructions is a production room with a substantial excess heat (over 23 W/m . Significant sources of heat inside the aforementioned laboratory are firing furnace, designed to simulate high temperature effects on structures and products of various types in case of fire development. The excess heat production in the laboratory during the tests is due to firing furnaces. The laboratory room is considered as an object consisting of two control volumes (CV, in each of which there may be air intake and air removal, pollutant absorption or emission. In modeling air exchange conditions the following processes are being considered: the processes connected with air movement in the laboratory room: the jet stream in a confined space, distribution of air parameters, air motion and impurity diffusion in the ventilated room. General upward ventilation seems to be the most rational due to impossibility of using local exhaust ventilation. It is connected with the peculiarities of technological processes in the laboratory. Air jets spouted through large-perforated surface mounted at the height of 2 m from the floor level, "flood" the lower control volume, entrained by natural convective currents from heat sources upward and removed from the upper area. In order to take advantage of the proposed method of the required air exchange calculation, you must enter additional conditions, taking into account the provision of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the current at the entrance of the service (work area. Exhaust air containing pollutants (combustion products, is expelled into the atmosphere by vertical jet discharge. Dividing ventilated rooms into two control volumes allows describing the research process in a ventilated room more accurately and finding the air exchange in the lab room during the tests on a more reasonable basis, allowing to provide safe working conditions for the staff without
Zayed, M. A.; Hawash, M. F.; Fahmey, M. A.; El-Habeeb, Abeer A.
2007-11-01
Sertraline (C 17H 17Cl 2N) as an antidepressant drug was investigated using thermal analysis (TA) measurements (TG/DTG and DTA) in comparison with electron impact (EI) mass spectral (MS) fragmentation at 70 eV. Semi-empirical MO-calculations, using PM3 procedure, has been carried out on neutral molecule and positively charged species. These calculations included bond length, bond order, bond strain, partial charge distribution and heats of formation (Δ Hf). Also, in the present work sertraline-iodine product was prepared and its structure was investigated using elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and TA. It was also subjected to molecular orbital calculations (MOC) in order to confirm its fragmentation behavior by both MS and TA in comparison with the sertraline parent drug. In MS of sertraline the initial rupture occurred was CH 3NH 2+ fragment ion via H-rearrangement while in sertraline-iodine product the initial rupture was due to the loss of I + and/or HI + fragment ions followed by CH 2dbnd NH + fragment ion loss. In thermal analyses (TA) the initial rupture in sertraline is due to the loss of C 6H 3Cl 2 followed by the loss of CH 3-NH forming tetraline molecule which thermally decomposed to give C 4H 8, C 6H 6 or the loss of H 2 forming naphthalene molecule which thermally sublimated. In sertraline-iodine product as a daughter the initial thermal rupture is due to successive loss of HI and CH 3NH followed by the loss of C 6H 5HI and HCl. Sertraline biological activity increases with the introduction of iodine into its skeleton. The activities of the drug and its daughter are mainly depend upon their fragmentation to give their metabolites in vivo systems, which are very similar to the identified fragments in both MS and TA. The importance of the present work is also due to the decision of the possible mechanism of fragmentation of the drug and its daughter and its confirmation by MOC.
In the field of tritium and fusion blanket technology possibly an important and early contribution to the development of a fusion reactor blanket can be obtained by irradiation experiments at the research reactor FRJ-2 in Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany. However, the tritium production rate of 0.2 x 1013 to 2 x 1013 cm-3s-1 and the power per volume of 2 to 20 W cm-3 characteristic for a fusion reactor blanket have to be realized. The present report shows the reachable tritium values calculated for different irradiation positions in the FRJ-2 for natural lithium as a breeder material considering the actual existing neutron spectrum. Based on these results we come to the conclusion that the specified blanket data can actually be reached and adjusted. Therefore irradiation experiments at the FRJ-2 would be able to supply basical results for the fusion blanket development. (orig.)
ZZ ORYX-E/38B, Group Constant Library from ENDF/B Fission Product Data for ORIGEN Calculation
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Format: ORIGEN; Number of groups: 124 energy groups; Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: ENDF/B-IV; Weighting spectrum: Maxwellian (1/E) fission spectrum with a one percent tolerance. ORYX-E increases the versatility of the program ORIGEN , the isotope generation and depletion code package by providing basic cross section and decay information for light element, fission-product, and actinide nuclides. This data library package results from data compiled for ORNL Chemical Technology Division's work with ORIGEN and from a 2-year effort of the cross section evaluation working group (CSEWG) fission product task force. 2 - Method of solution: The data is generated from ENDF/B-IV and is formatted for input to the ORIGEN code. Applications include calculations for waste projection, decay heat, nuclear safeguards, and fuel cycle economics. The data library is generated from the ENDF/B-IV fission product data. The capture cross section of all fission product nuclides for which capture cross section information is given (about 180 nuclides) were processed into 124 energy groups using MINX. Multigroup cross sections were generated at 0 degrees with infinite dilution and one broad thermal group. Fine group data was generated using a Maxwellian (1/E) fission spectrum with a one percent tolerance
Full text: this work is part of developing an analytical method for solving the neutrons transport equation in improving the treatment of the anisotropy of neutron scattering through heterogeneous shielding. We also develop the tools necessary for the formation of multigroup libraries (cross section) with the best choice of the weighting function. Among the radioprotection problems of radioisotopes production experiments in the research reactor core is mainly the photons gamma generation produced by radiative capture: activation of samples and their capsules. So, in order to review the safety of operating personnel and the public is essential to quantify the neutrons flux and gamma photons produced. In this study a numerical methods is used in two different Fortran program to solve the neutron transport problem and to determine the neutron and photon flux. This program based on the Monte Carlo method: the neutron is born with a unit statistical weight, this corrected after each imposed scattering event during its whole history within the shield. The final neutron statistical weight is used in an appropriate estimator to determine the searched response. The generated gamma rays by neutron capture are calculated of different isotopes, and then the equivalent dose rate is evaluated in biological tissue for different neutron source energies. We have identified and studied the choice of the best weighting function to calculate a library of multigroup cross sections self protected by using the energy weighting function. A Fortran program is used as a mathematical tool to solve the neutron slowing down equation in infinite homogeneous medium for different dilutions. We determined the energetic flux distribution and the effective integrals. The results of both calculations are in a good agreement; the relative error is less than 0.5%.
Radon and its progenies in the atmosphere of normal working- and living-rooms contribute to parts of the respiratory tract the highest radiation load from all the natural radioactive environment. The base of todays calculations are the lung model of the ICRP-task groups and the physiological data of the ICRP-Reference Man. Both deal extensively with the problems associated with the adult but much less consideration is given to the physiological properties of the growing organism and the resulting radiation load. Functions for age dependent parameters, comprising geometrical dimensions of lung parts as well as respiratory standards were defined. With the use of a hybrid-computer the modifying influence of several parameters of the ICRP-lung model was investigated for the compartmental deposition of decay products as well as clearance effects. Furthermore typical daily routines for various ages, ranging from newborn to adult, comprising different activities, such resting, light and heavy work and times spent indoors and outdoors were considered; this shows great influence on the minute volume. Considering all these factors dose assessments were performed, which reveiled that the doses in the respiratory tract reach a maximum value for the age between 5 and 10 years. These values exceed the corresponding dose values for adults by factors of 2 and more. Dose calculations are presented for children of various ages and compared with those of male and female adults with different life patterns
J. Kaiser
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O_{2} (abbreviated ^{17}δ_{P} and ^{18}δ_{P} for ^{17}O/^{16}O and ^{18}O/^{16}O, respectively. The comment claims that this leads to an overestimate of the discrepancy between previous studies and that the resulting gross production rates are "30% too high". Nicholson recognises the improved accuracy of Kaiser's direct calculation ("dual-delta" method compared to previous approximate approaches based on ^{17}O excess (^{17}Δ and its simplicity compared to previous iterative calculation methods. Although he correctly points out that differences in the normalised gross production rate (g are largely due to different input parameters used in Kaiser's "base case" and previous studies, he does not acknowledge Kaiser's observation that iterative and dual-delta calculation methods give exactly the same g for the same input parameters (disregarding kinetic isotope fractionation during air-sea exchange. The comment is based on misunderstandings with respect to the "base case" ^{17}δ_{P} and ^{18}δ_{P} values. Since direct measurements of ^{17}δ_{P} and ^{18}δ_{P}do not exist or have been lost, Kaiser constructed the "base case" in a way that was consistent and compatible with literature data. Nicholson showed that an alternative reconstruction of ^{17}δ_{P} gives g values closer to previous studies. However, unlike Nicholson, we refrain from interpreting either reconstruction as a benchmark for the accuracy of g. A number of publications over the last 12 months
Ott, Lesley E.
2010-02-18
A three-dimensional (3-D) cloud-scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NOx on the basis of observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four field projects. Production per intracloud (PIC) and cloud-to-ground (PCG) flash is estimated by assuming various values of PIC and PCG for each storm and determining which production scenario yields NOx mixing ratios that compare most favorably with in-cloud aircraft observations. We obtain a mean PCG value of 500 moles NO (7 kg N) per flash. The results of this analysis also suggest that on average, PIC may be nearly equal to PCG, which is contrary to the common assumption that intracloud flashes are significantly less productive of NO than are cloud-to-ground flashes. This study also presents vertical profiles of the mass of lightning NOx after convection based on 3-D cloud-scale model simulations. The results suggest that following convection, a large percentage of lightning NOx remains in the middle and upper troposphere where it originated, while only a small percentage is found near the surface. The results of this work differ from profiles calculated from 2-D cloud-scale model simulations with a simpler lightning parameterization that were peaked near the surface and in the upper troposphere (referred to as a “C-shaped” profile). The new model results (a backward C-shaped profile) suggest that chemical transport models that assume a C-shaped vertical profile of lightning NOx mass may place too much mass near the surface and too little in the middle troposphere.
Artun, Ozan, E-mail: ozanartun@yahoo.com; Aytekin, Hüseyin, E-mail: huseyinaytekin@gmail.com
2015-02-15
In this work, the excitation functions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I with proton, alpha, and deuteron induced reactions were calculated by two different level density models. For the nuclear model calculations, the Talys 1.6 code were used, which is the latest version of Talys code series. Calculations of excitation functions for production of the {sup 122–125}I isotopes were carried out by using the generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Fermi-gas model (FGM). The results have shown that generalized superfluid model is more successful than Fermi-gas model in explaining the experimental results.
Despite of the renewed willing to accept nuclear power as a mean of mitigate the climate changing, to deal with the long lived waste still cause some concerning in relation to maintain in safety condition, during so many years. A technological solution to overcome this leg of time is to use a facility that burn these waste, besides to generate electricity. This is the idea built in the accelerator driven systems (ADS). This technology is being though to use some minor actinides (MAs) as fuel. This work presents a program to assess actinide concentrations, aiming a fertile-free fuel to be used in the future ADS technology. For that, use was made of a numerical code to solve the steady-state multigroup diffusion equation 3D to calculate the neutron fluxes, coupled it with a new code to solve, also numerically, depletion equations, named ACTRAN code. This paper shows the simulation of a PWR core during the residence time of the nuclear fuel, for three years, and after, for almost four hundred years, to assess the MAs production. The results show some insight in the best management to get a minimum amount of some MAs to use in the future generations of ADS. (author)
The computer program, TRANCS, has been developed for evaluating the fractional release of long-lived fission products from coated fuel particles. This code numerically gives the non-stationary solution of the diffusion equation with birth and decay terms. The birth term deals with the fissile material in the fuel kernel, the contamination in the coating layers and the fission-recoil transfer from the kernel into the buffer layer; and the decay term deals with effective decay not only due to beta decay but also due to neutron capture, if appropriate input data are given. The code calculates the concentration profile, the release to birth rates (R/B), and the release and residual fractions in the coated fuel particle. Results obtained numerically have been in good agreement with the corresponding analytical solutions after the Booth model. Thus, the validity of the present code was confirmed, and further undate of the code has been discussed for extention of its computation scopes and models. (author)
Sekizawa Kazuyuki
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present a microscopic calculation of multi-nucleon transfer reactions employing the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF theory. In our previous publication [Phys. Rev. C 88, 014614 (2013], we reported our analysis for the multi-nucleon transfer processes for several systems. Here we discuss effects of particle evaporation processes on the production cross sections. Since particle evaporation processes may not be described adequately by the TDHF calculations, we evaluate them using a statistical model. As an input of the statistical model, excitation energies of the final fragments are necessary. We evaluate them from the TDHF wave function after collisions, extending the particle number projection technique. From the calculation, the particle evaporation effects are found to improve descriptions of the production cross sections. However, the production cross sections are still underestimated for processes where a number of protons are transferred. Possible origins of the discrepancy are discussed.
Mihai BERCA; Roxana HOROIAŞ
2013-01-01
The Pedoclimatic Index (PCI) calculated by us is the product between the Aridity Index (AR) and the soil fertility status expressed through number of creditworthiness points (CWS – Creditworthiness of Soil): PCI = AR x CWS .Was used AR calculated after UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) instead of the older De Martonne index. Determinations were performed in 6 different pedoclimatic areas, in which PCI has varied from 12 to 47. Taking into account that AR varies between 0,20 and 1,00...
Excitation functions for the production of radionuclides Cs, Xe, I, Pb, Tl, Bi and some others for charged particle energies ranging from 5-100 MeV have been calculated. The well known experimental results have been compared to excitation functions calculated by two versions of the most widely used computer code ALICE. The generalized superfluid model of nuclei was used for level density description. The results of calculation for the ALICE-87 and ALICE-92 codes are discussed. Modified ALICE-92 code takes into account γ-ray competition, as well as cluster's preequilibrium emission. 43 refs.; 29 figs.; 3 tabs
The computer codes FRESCO-I, FRESCO-II, PANAMA and SPATRA developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany in the early 1980s are essential tools to predict the fission product release from spherical fuel elements and the TRISO fuel performance, respectively, under given normal or accidental conditions. These codes are able to calculate a conservative estimation of the source term, i.e. quantity and duration of radionuclide release. Recently, these codes have been reversed engineered, modernized (FORTRAN 95/2003) and combined to form a consistent code named STACY (Source Term Analysis Code System). STACY will later become a module of the V/HTR Code Package (HCP). In addition, further improvements have been implemented to enable more detailed calculations. For example the distinct temperature profile along the pebble radius is now taken into account and coated particle failure rates can be calculated under normal operating conditions. In addition, the absolute fission product release of an V/HTR pebble bed core can be calculated by using the newly developed burnup code Topological Nuclide Transformation (TNT) replacing the former rudimentary approach. As a new functionality, spatially resolved fission product release calculations for normal operating conditions as well as accident conditions can be performed. In case of a full-core calculation, a large number of individual pebbles which follow a random path through the reactor core can be simulated. The history of the individual pebble is recorded, too. Main input data such as spatially resolved neutron fluxes and fluid dynamics data are provided by the VSOP code. Capabilities of the FRESCO-I and SPATRA code which allow for the simulation of the redistribution of fission products within the primary circuit and the deposition of fission products on graphitic and metallic surfaces are also available in STACY. In this paper, details of the STACY model and first results for its application to the 200 MW(th) HTR
Xhonneux, Andre, E-mail: a.xhonneux@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology RWTH-Aachen, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology RWTH-Aachen, 52064 Aachen (Germany)
2014-05-01
The computer codes FRESCO-I, FRESCO-II, PANAMA and SPATRA developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany in the early 1980s are essential tools to predict the fission product release from spherical fuel elements and the TRISO fuel performance, respectively, under given normal or accidental conditions. These codes are able to calculate a conservative estimation of the source term, i.e. quantity and duration of radionuclide release. Recently, these codes have been reversed engineered, modernized (FORTRAN 95/2003) and combined to form a consistent code named STACY (Source Term Analysis Code System). STACY will later become a module of the V/HTR Code Package (HCP). In addition, further improvements have been implemented to enable more detailed calculations. For example the distinct temperature profile along the pebble radius is now taken into account and coated particle failure rates can be calculated under normal operating conditions. In addition, the absolute fission product release of an V/HTR pebble bed core can be calculated by using the newly developed burnup code Topological Nuclide Transformation (TNT) replacing the former rudimentary approach. As a new functionality, spatially resolved fission product release calculations for normal operating conditions as well as accident conditions can be performed. In case of a full-core calculation, a large number of individual pebbles which follow a random path through the reactor core can be simulated. The history of the individual pebble is recorded, too. Main input data such as spatially resolved neutron fluxes and fluid dynamics data are provided by the VSOP code. Capabilities of the FRESCO-I and SPATRA code which allow for the simulation of the redistribution of fission products within the primary circuit and the deposition of fission products on graphitic and metallic surfaces are also available in STACY. In this paper, details of the STACY model and first results for its application to the 200 MW(th) HTR
RETAIN-S is a code for calculating fission product transport in a multicompartment system. The fission products can occur in the form of aerosols and vapours, and revaporization due to surface heating is taken into consideration. The aerosol model uses log-normal approximation for size distribution. The differences between RETAIN-S and the Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking (IDCOR) version of RETAIN are mentioned briefly. The method for calculating condensation of vapours and vaporization due to heating is described. The results of test calculations made on the Surry AB sequence defined by the Group of Experts on the Source Term (GREST) are given and compared with corresponding NAUA results. It is concluded that the degree of agreement is strongly dependent on the model used for gravitational agglomeration efficiency. The calculations made on a Marviken-V experiment are also reported. It is shown that the results are dependent on the possible condensation of fission product vapour on the walls and on aerosols. In addition, the results are given for a BWR meltdown sequence characterized by a large loss-of-coolant accident with loss of all AC power. One important conclusion is that the source term after containment break is mainly determined by the possible re-evaporation of fission products. (author)
This work, on electron pair production, is in three parts. Measure of energetic and angular distributions for baryum and uranium at 1.33 MeV. The results on the baryum are in good agreement with the exact calculations and show that the influence of screening effects is important on uranium. The measure was made with a streamer chamber associated with magnetic field and stereoscopic taking of photographs. Analytic continuation of electron pair production to the tip of the positon spectrum in point-Coulomb calculation. At high energy the value of this point is not zero. Determination of a set of parameters in order to input the exact cross sections in electron gamma showers calculation above 5 MeV for lead
Takamiya, K; Imanaka, T; Egbert, S D; Rühm, W
2011-05-01
In a previous paper, Takamiya et al. calculated (63)Ni production in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb. More specifically, they used their experimental cross-section values of the (63)Cu(n,p)(63)Ni reaction and compared the result with that of the corresponding calculation in the radiation dosimetry system DS02, which used another set of cross-section values. These results were different, and the following two reasons were found: typographical errors in several energy boundary values in the DS02 report that was also used in the calculation by Takamiya et al. and an inappropriate assumption on the cross-section values of the low neutron energy region in the calculation by Takamiya et al. These two issues are described and amended in the present report. PMID:21327808
Production of negative ions on graphite surface in H2/D2 plasmas: Experiments and srim calculations
In previous works, surface-produced negative-ion distribution-functions have been measured in H2 and D2 plasmas using graphite surfaces (highly oriented pyrolitic graphite). In the present paper, we use the srim software to interpret the measured negative-ion distribution-functions. For this purpose, the distribution-functions of backscattered and sputtered atoms arising due to the impact of hydrogen ions on a-CH and a-CD surfaces are calculated. The srim calculations confirm the experimental deduction that backscattering and sputtering are the mechanisms of the origin of the creation of negative ions at the surface. It is shown that the srim calculations compare well with the experiments regarding the maximum energy of the negative ions and reproduce the experimentally observed isotopic effect. A discrepancy between calculations and measurements is found concerning the yields for backscattering and sputtering. An explanation is proposed based on a study of the emitted-particle angular-distributions as calculated by srim.
2013-05-31
... of the 2003 tax rates because those tax rates have changed (75 FR 76921, December 10, 2010). USDA has... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1150 RIN 0910-AG81 Tobacco Products, User Fees... of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...
Mihai BERCA
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Pedoclimatic Index (PCI calculated by us is the product between the Aridity Index (AR and the soil fertility status expressed through number of creditworthiness points (CWS – Creditworthiness of Soil: PCI = AR x CWS .Was used AR calculated after UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme instead of the older De Martonne index. Determinations were performed in 6 different pedoclimatic areas, in which PCI has varied from 12 to 47. Taking into account that AR varies between 0,20 and 1,00 in Romania, while CWS is between 0 and 100, theoretically PCI can range in the interval 0-100 and practically from 10 to 50. For each PCI was calculated the wheat production according to the Technological Processes Intensity (TPI, Creditworthiness (CWS, them also with marks from 1 to 10, and the wheat production pattern was made based on the two parameters. It appears that at a very reduced and reduced index of the technological processes (TPI between 1-4 the wheat yields level is very slightly influenced by the pedoclimatic quality of the culture area. In the areals of culture with PCI below 15 the production can’t reach 30 q/ha, irrespective of the quality of technological processes. At PCI of over 40 the production achieves 60 q/ha if there are applied superior technologies and if the working capital is optimum used. At PCI between 30 and 40 the maximum yield that can be reached in conditions of highest technical and qualitative value of production slightly exceeds 50 q/ha. All these models and nomograms are useful to agricultural management in order to estimate the production, but also for her optimization
Measurements of neutron pulse time-width and intensity have been carried out on grids of small moderators placed side by side and decoupled by cadmium strips; a moderator concept introduced by the authors through previous publications. Transport calculations are based on the standard reactor code DOT 3.5 with the ENDF-B IV nuclear data library. (orig.)
Lee, C.E.; Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Foley, J.E.
1976-10-01
The report describes an analytic containment building model that is used for calculating the leakage into the environment of each isotope of an arbitrary radioactive decay chain. The model accounts for the source, the buildup, the decay, the cleanup, and the leakage of isotopes that are gas-borne inside the containment building.
The report describes an analytic containment building model that is used for calculating the leakage into the environment of each isotope of an arbitrary radioactive decay chain. The model accounts for the source, the buildup, the decay, the cleanup, and the leakage of isotopes that are gas-borne inside the containment building
Wemhoener, C.; Afjei, Th
2003-07-01
This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work done at the University of Applied Sciences Basel, in Muttenz, Switzerland, on the development of a simple method of calculating the seasonal performance of residential heat pumps that are used to simultaneously provide heat for both space heating and hot water preparation. The report reviews the 'state of the art' concerning calculation methods and existing standards and discusses the shortcomings of some of these methods as a basis for the further development. The principles of the method proposed are explained and the calculation steps involved are described. Sources for base-data for the individual calculation steps are described, such as meteorological data, heat-source temperature, heating and hot water demand and the coefficient of performance of the heat pumps used. Also, heat losses due to cyclic operation, test procedures and factors for simultaneous operation are discussed, whereby both theoretical values and results from simulations are presented. Finally, the method is applied to two sample systems.
Espinosa-Garcia, Joaquin; Corchado, Jose C
2016-03-01
For the OH + CH4/CD4 hydrogen abstraction reactions, the methyl radical (CH3 and CD3) product translational distributions and the water (H2O and HOD) product vibrational distributions experimentally reported by Liu's group are reproduced by quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations on an analytical full-dimensional potential energy surface when a quantum spirit is included in the analysis. Our simulations correctly predict: (i) the vibrational excitation of the water product, (ii) the inversion of the water vibrational population, and (iii) the propensity of transfer from reactant kinetic energy to product translational energy. These reactions therefore present a marked isotopic effect. In addition, the water product vibrational distributions for the OH/OD + CH4 reactions agree reasonably well with Butkovskaya and Setser's experiments for a similar alkane reaction. The theory/experiment agreement is better for the HOD than for the H2O product due to the mode coupling in the H2O molecule, which is absent in the HOD stretching modes, which show a more "local" character. In summary, for polyatomic systems with many degrees of freedom (15 in the present reaction), QCT calculations analyzed with a quantum spirit represent a useful alternative to quantum scattering methods. PMID:26061483
For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of 16O, 27Al, natFe, 59Co, natZr and 197Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for natZr and 197Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)
A calculational technique for quantifying the concentration of hydrogen generated by radiolysis in sealed radioactive waste containers was developed in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) study conducted by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) TMI-2 Technology Transfer Office. The study resulted in report GEND-041, entitled open-quotes A Calculational Technique to Predict Combustible Gas Generation in Sealed Radioactive Waste Containersclose quotes. The study also resulted in a presentation to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which gained acceptance of the methodology for use in ensuring compliance with NRC IE Information Notice No. 84-72 (NRC 1984) concerning the generation of hydrogen within packages. NRC IE Information Notice No. 84-72: open-quotes Clarification of Conditions for Waste Shipments Subject to Hydrogen Gas Generationclose quotes applies to any package containing water and/or organic substances that could radiolytically generate combustible gases. EPRI developed a simple computer program in a spreadsheet format utilizing GEND-041 calculational methodology to predict hydrogen gas concentrations in low-level radioactive wastes containers termed Radcalc. The computer code was extensively benchmarked against TMI-2 (Three Mile Island) EPICOR II resin bed measurements. The benchmarking showed that the model developed predicted hydrogen gas concentrations within 20% of the measured concentrations. Radcalc for Windows was developed using the same calculational methodology. The code is written in Microsoft Visual C++ 2.0 and includes a Microsoft Windows compatible menu-driven front end. In addition to hydrogen gas concentration calculations, Radcalc for Windows also provides transportation and packaging information such as pressure buildup, total activity, decay heat, fissile activity, TRU activity, and transportation classifications
Radiotoxicity is one of important characteristics of radwaste hazard. Radiotoxicity of actinides and fission products from spent fuel of VVER-1000 reactor for processes of burnup, long-term storage, and transmutation is discussed. (author)
Hörtenhuber, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Amon, Barbara; Markurt, Theresia; Kirner, Leopold; Zollitsch, Werner
2010-01-01
The aim of this study was to analyze various Austrian dairy production systems (PS) concerning their greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in a life-cycle chain, including effects of land-use change (LUC). Models of eight PS that differ, on the one hand, in their regional location (alpine, uplands and lowlands) and, on the other hand, in their production method (conventional versus organic, including traditional and recently emerging pasture-based dairy farming) were designed. In general, the GH...
Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J. O.
2012-12-01
Cosmogenic nuclides have been used to develop a set of tools critical to the quantification of a wide range of geomorphic and climatic processes and events (Dunai 2010). Having reliable absolute measurement methods has had great impact on research constraining ice age extents as well as providing important climatic data via well constrained erosion rates, etc. Continuing to improve CN methods is critical for these sciences. While significant progress has been made in the last two decades to reduce uncertainties (Dunai 2010; Gosse & Phillips 2001), numerous aspects still need to be refined in order to achieve the analytic resolution desired by glaciologists and geomorphologists. In order to investigate the finer details of the radiation responsible for cosmogenic nuclide production, we have developed a physics based model which models the radiation cascade of primary and secondary cosmic-rays through the atmosphere. In this study, a Monte Carlo method radiation transport code, MCNPX, is used to model the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) radiation impinging on the upper atmosphere. Beginning with a spectrum of high energy protons and alpha particles at the top of the atmosphere, the code tracks the primary and resulting secondary particles through a model of the Earth's atmosphere and into the lithosphere. Folding the neutron and proton flux results with energy dependent cross sections for nuclide production provides production rates for key cosmogenic nuclides (Argento et al. 2012, in press; Reedy 2012, in press). Our initial study for high latitude shows that nuclides scale at different rates for each nuclide (Argento 2012, in press). Furthermore, the attenuation length for each of these nuclide production rates increases with altitude, and again, they increase at different rates. This has the consequence of changing the production rate ratio as a function of altitude. The earth's geomagnetic field differentially filters low energy cosmic-rays by deflecting them away
The solubility of the transmutants and construction materials can influence the corrosion of the target vessel and the circuit components. In addition the solubility has an influence on the formation of solid depositions on the surfaces as well as on the segregation of mobile solid particles. As a first step calculations of the partial molar enthalpies of mixing at in infinite dilution were performed using the Miedema-Model. The bonding energies of metallic elements with mercury are present as periodic function in dependence on the atomic number. In a second step an extension was performed with the introduction of the latent enthalpies and entropies of transformation and fusion of the metallic elements. In case of formation of amalgams the integral molar formation enthalpies of the mercury-richest intermetallic compounds were considered. The calculated partial molar enthalpies of solution are discussed in comparison with literature data. For metals which co-exist in pure state with the saturated solution in liquid mercury the solubilities were calculated in the temperature range between 400 - 550 K. (author)
Purified Cyanex 301 which contains >99% bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithio-phosphinic acid (HBTMPDTP) shows high extraction selectivity toward Am3+ over light lanthanides (Lns). In a bench scale 4 stage cross-flow hot test, 99.999% of Am in Am+Lns fraction obtained from a hot experiment of the TRPO extraction of a real HAW was extracted while only 3% Lns was co-extracted. The average separation factor of Am over FPLns is about 3500. An empirical distribution ratio model for Am and Lns in HBTMPDTP extraction and a method of countercurrent extraction process parameter calculation were established and the results of calculation were verified with tracer amount of 241Am and macro amount of Lns. For an Am+Lns fraction with typical PWR HAW composition, the calculated results show that a five stage countercurrent HBTMPDTP extraction process without scrubbing can get a separation of Am from Lns of 106 and a separation of Lns from Am of 700. (author)
Lazarev, V.; Geidmanis, D.
2016-02-01
The theoretical problem solved in this article is the calculation of thermodynamic parameters such as final temperature, distribution of the liquid and dry saturated vapour phases of the substance that are considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure of the system of several reaction products after adding to the system a certain amount of heat or the thermal effect released during rapid exothermic reaction in a closed volume that occurs so fast that it can be considered to be adiabatic, and when the volume of liquid reagents is several orders of magnitude less than the volume of the reactor. The general multi-substance problem is reduced to a theoretical problem for one substance of calculation thermodynamic parameters of system after adding a certain amount of heat that gives theoretically rigorous isochoric calculation. In this article, we substantiate our view that isochoric pass of calculation is more robust compared to seemingly more natural isobaric pass of calculation, if the later involves quite not trivial calculation of the adiabatic compression of a two-phase system (liquid - dry saturated vapour) that can pass itself into another kind of state (liquid - wet saturated vapour), which requires, apparently, more complex descriptions compared with isochoric calculation because the specific heat capacity of wet saturated vapour can be negative. The solved theoretical problem relates to a practical problem that has been a driver for our research as part of a design of the reactor of the titanium reduction from magnesium and titanium tetrachloride supplied into atmosphere of the reactor at high temperatures when both reagents are in gaseous state. The reaction is known to be exothermic with a high thermal effect, and estimate of the final temperature and pressure of the products of reaction, for instance, designing the reactor allows eliminating the possibility of the reaction products to penetrate backwards into supply tracts of the reagents
Hong, S W; Lee, D H; Ryu, C Y
1999-01-01
Calculations of the LAMBDA-hypernucleus production cross section in the (pi sup + ,K sup +) reaction are presented. The nuclear reaction part is treated within the distorted wave impulse approximation, and the nuclear structure part is based on the Green function formalism. In the nuclear reaction part, the pion and Kaon distorted wave functions and the elementary transition amplitudes for N(pi,K)GAMMA are properly employed to construct an external field. The formalism allows us to calculate the wave function of LAMBDA's in nuclei by taking care of both bound and continuum states of the LAMBDA. The quasi-free peak, as well as bound state peaks, are reproduced by the calculation. The LAMBDA knock-out and spreading mode are separated and compared with the coincidence measurement data.
Buděšínský, Miloš; Vaněk, Václav; Dračínský, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Pícha, Jan; Císařová, I.
2014-01-01
Roč. 70, č. 25 (2014), s. 3871-3886. ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1919; GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : six-membered saturated heterocycles (N, P, S, Se) * oxidation products * configuration * NMR * quantum chemical calculations * X-ray structures Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.641, year: 2014
Gadomski, P. J.; Deems, J. S.; Glennie, C. L.; Hartzell, P. J.; Butler, H.; Finnegan, D. C.
2015-12-01
The use of high-resolution topographic data in the form of three-dimensional point clouds obtained from laser scanning systems (LiDAR) is becoming common across scientific disciplines.However little consideration has typically been given to the accuracy and the precision of LiDAR-derived measurements at the individual point scale.Numerous disparate sources contribute to the aggregate precision of each point measurement, including uncertainties in the range measurement, measurement of the attitude and position of the LiDAR collection platform, uncertainties associated with the interaction between the laser pulse and the target surface, and more.We have implemented open-source software tools to calculate per-point stochastic measurement errors for a point cloud using the general LiDAR georeferencing equation.We demonstrate the use of these propagated uncertainties by applying our methods to data collected by the Airborne Snow Observatory ALS, a NASA JPL project using a combination of airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data to estimate snow-water equivalent distributions over full river basins.We present basin-scale snow depth maps with associated uncertainties, and demonstrate the propagation of those uncertainties to snow volume and snow-water equivalent calculations.
Wave propagational inverse problems arise in several applications including medical imaging and geophysical exploration. In these problems, one is interested in obtaining the parameters describing the medium from its response to excitations. The problems are characterized by their large size, and by the hyperbolic equation which models the physical phenomena. The inverse problems are often posed as a nonlinear data-fitting where the unknown parameters are found by minimizing the misfit between the predicted data and the actual data. In order to solve the problem numerically using a gradient-type approach, one must calculate the action of the Jacobian and its adjoint on a given vector. In this paper, the authors explore the use of automatic differentiation (AD) to develop codes that perform these calculations. They show that by exploiting structure at 2 scales, they can arrive at a very efficient code whose main components are produced by AD. In the first scale they exploit the time-stepping nature of the hyperbolic solver by using the Extended Jacobian framework. In the second (finer) scale, they exploit the finite difference stencil in order to make explicit use of the sparsity in the dependence of the output variables to the input variables. The main ideas in this work are illustrated with a simpler, one-dimensional version of the problem. Numerical results are given for both one- and two-dimensional problems. They present computational templates that can be used in conjunction with optimization packages to solve the inverse problem
NONE
2002-05-01
After having analyzed the answers given to the public inquiry about the methods used for the calculation of the saved costs, the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) indicates in this document the trends it has retained for the calculation of the charges of the power production public utility for 2002: cost overruns due to the obligation of purchase and to the purchase contracts anterior to the law from February 10, 2000; production cost overruns in non-interconnected areas (Corsica and overseas departments). (J.S.)
A mass transfer coefficient (kla) and an axial effective diffusivity (De) of U in the separation of U from fission products using ion exchange method have been calculated. In this separation process, mass transfer of uranium occurs in the liquid and solid phases. Mathematical model calculation is started by setting up mass balances on an element volume in the ion exchange column which can be assumed to have a similarity to the above process. The set up differential equations (in the form of simultaneous differential equations) are then solved using numerical analysis method. It is started by predicting the (kla) value to obtain the uranium concentrations as a function of distance and time, CA1(x,t) and XA1(x,t). Both the resulted concentrations of uranium and the predicted kla are used to calculate De and concentrations of uranium in the liquid, CA2(x,t) and solid phases, XA2(x,t). The resulted concentrations of uranium are then compared with the concentrations of uranium in the previous calculation. Both the kla and De values can be accepted if the difference between the concentrations resulted from both the calculations are similar or nearly equal, i.e the concentration difference performed by sum of squares of errors (SSE) is minimum (nearly zero). For the superficial linear velocity of about 20-40 cm/minute the results from the calculations are kl a= 15.18588 -20. 48588 per minute and De = 9.14117x10-4 - 1.11612x10-3 cm2/minute. The sum of squares of errors and the average relative error on the condition above are about 2.25117.10-9 - 3.98145x10-9 and 11,541% -25.981%
We present the results of a complete tree-level calculation of the processes pp(anti p)→Wb anti b and Wb anti b+jet that includes the single-top signal and all irreducible backgrounds simultaneously. In order to probe the structure of the Wtb coupling with the highest possible accuracy and to look for possible deviations from standard model predictions, we identify sensitive observables and propose an optimal set of cuts which minimizes the background, as compared to the signal. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the single-top and the single-antitop rates are different, and the corresponding asymmetry yields additional information. The analysis shows that the sensitivity for anomalous couplings will be improved at the LHC by a factor of 2-3, as compared to the expectations for the first measurements at the upgraded Tevatron. Still, the bounds on anomalous couplings obtained at hadron colliders will remain 2-8 times larger than those from high-energy γe colliders; however, these will not be available for some time. All basic calculations have been carried out using the computer package CompHEP. The known next-to-leading-order corrections to the single-top rate have been taken into account. (orig.)
M. D. Corre
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Soil respiration is the second largest flux in the global carbon cycle, yet the underlying belowground process, carbon dioxide (CO2 production, is not well understood because it can not be measured in the field. CO2 production has frequently been calculated from the vertical CO2 diffusive flux divergence, known as "soil-CO2 profile method". This relatively simple method requires knowledge of soil CO2 concentration profiles and soil diffusive properties. Application of the method in a tropical lowland forest soil in Panama gave inconsistent results when using diffusion coefficients (D calculated based on relationships with soil porosity and moisture (empirical D. Our objective was to investigate whether these inconsistencies were caused by (1 the applied interpolation and solution methods, (2 uncertainties in describing the profile of D using empirical equations, or (3 the assumptions of the soil-CO2 profile method. We show that the calculated CO2 production strongly depended on the function used to interpolate between measured CO2 concentrations. With an inverse analysis of the soil-CO2 profile method we deduce which D would be required to explain the observed CO2 concentrations, assuming the model assumptions are valid. In the top soil, this inverse D closely resembled the empirical D. In the deep soil, however, the inverse D increased sharply while the empirical D did not. This deviation between the empirical and inverse D disappeared upon conducting a constrained fit parameter optimization. A radon (Rn mass balance model, in which diffusion was calculated based on the empirical or constrained inverse D, simulated the observed Rn profiles reasonably well. However, the CO2 concentrations which corresponded to the constrained inverse D were too small compared to the measurements, and the inverse D gave depth-constant fluxes and hence zero production in the soil CO2-profile method. We suggest that, in well-structured soils, a missing description
The Monte Carlo design of the waste assay region of a dual assay system, to be installed at the Fluorinal and Storage Facility, is described. The instrument will be used by the facility operator to assay high-enriched spent fuel packages and waste solids produced from dissolution of the fuels. The fissile content discharged in the waste is expected to vary between 0 and 400 g of 235U. Material accountability measurements of the waste must be obtained in the presence of large neutron (0.5 x 106 n/s) and gamma (50,000 R/hr) backgrounds. The assay system employs fast-neutron irradiation of the sample, using a 5 mg 252Cf source, followed by delayed neutron counting after the source is transferred to storage. Calculations indicate a +-4-g (2 sigma) assay for a waste canister containing 300 g of 235U is achievable with an end-of-life (1 mg) 252Cf source and a background rate of 0.5 x 106 n/s
Feng, Ping; Baugh, Steve
2013-01-01
A method for the calculation of the whey protein fraction was developed for milk-based infant formula products based upon amino acid ratio calculated from asparaginelaspartic acid, alanine, proline, and phenylalanine amino acid data. Historical and literature amino acid data were combined to establish the reference amino acid values used in the validation study. This method has been evaluated for accuracy versus label claim for 12 products, with results from 90 to 107.5% of label claim and an overall average of 98.7%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were determined over 4 different days. Repeatability results were 4.75, 2.06, 4.18, and 2.44% RSD, respectively, with an overall intermediate precision of 3.68% RSD. Since the amino acid profile of infant formula finished products depends on the amino acid profile of ingredients used, the applicability of the method needs to be confirmed for specific types of infant formula, for which data will be gathered. Additional reference material data are being gathered for better estimation of milk and whey reference values, which are based on being normalized to total amino acid content, during the two year AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis method approval process. PMID:24000754
Mueller, Don E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marshall, William J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowen, Douglas G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-09-01
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation recently issued Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8, Revision 3. This ISG provides guidance for burnup credit (BUC) analyses supporting transport and storage of PWR pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in casks. Revision 3 includes guidance for addressing validation of criticality (k_{eff}) calculations crediting the presence of a limited set of fission products and minor actinides (FP&MA). Based on previous work documented in NUREG/CR-7109, recommendation 4 of ISG-8, Rev. 3, includes a recommendation to use 1.5 or 3% of the FP&MA worth to conservatively cover the bias due to the specified FP&MAs. This bias is supplementary to the bias and bias uncertainty resulting from validation of k_{eff} calculations for the major actinides in SNF and does not address extension to actinides and fission products beyond those identified herein. The work described in this report involves comparison of FP&MA worths calculated using SCALE and MCNP with ENDF/B-V, -VI, and -VII based nuclear data and supports use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias when either SCALE or MCNP codes are used for criticality calculations, provided the other conditions of the recommendation 4 are met. The method used in this report may also be applied to demonstrate the applicability of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias to other codes using ENDF/B V, VI or VII based nuclear data. The method involves use of the applicant s computational method to generate FP&MA worths for a reference SNF cask model using specified spent fuel compositions. The applicant s FP&MA worths are then compared to reference values provided in this report. The applicants FP&MA worths should not exceed the reference results by more than 1.5% of the reference FP&MA worths.
As part of the Initial Feasibility Study of the Fast Mixed Spectrum Reactor, a series of benchmark calculations were made to determine the sensitivity of the physics analysis to differences in methods and data. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were invited to participate with Brookhaven National Laboratory in the analysis of a FMSR model prescribed by BNL. Detailed comparisons are made including a comprehensive study on the adequacy of the fission product treatments
M. D. Corre
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Soil respiration is the second largest flux in the global carbon cycle, yet the underlying below-ground process, carbon dioxide (CO2 production, is not well understood because it can not be measured in the field. CO2 production has frequently been calculated from the vertical CO2 diffusive flux divergence, known as "soil-CO2 profile method". This relatively simple model requires knowledge of soil CO2 concentration profiles and soil diffusive properties. Application of the method for a tropical lowland forest soil in Panama gave inconsistent results when using diffusion coefficients (D calculated based on relationships with soil porosity and moisture ("physically modeled" D. Our objective was to investigate whether these inconsistencies were related to (1 the applied interpolation and solution methods and/or (2 uncertainties in the physically modeled profile of D. First, we show that the calculated CO2 production strongly depends on the function used to interpolate between measured CO2 concentrations. Secondly, using an inverse analysis of the soil-CO2 profile method, we deduce which D would be required to explain the observed CO2 concentrations, assuming the model perception is valid. In the top soil, this inversely modeled D closely resembled the physically modeled D. In the deep soil, however, the inversely modeled D increased sharply while the physically modeled D did not. When imposing a constraint during the fit parameter optimization, a solution could be found where this deviation between the physically and inversely modeled D disappeared. A radon (Rn mass balance model, in which diffusion was calculated based on the physically modeled or constrained inversely modeled D, simulated observed Rn profiles reasonably well. However, the CO2 concentrations which corresponded to the constrained inversely modeled D were too small compared to the measurements. We suggest that, in well-structured soils, a missing description of steady state CO2
Doubleday, Charles; Boguslav, Mayla; Howell, Caronae; Korotkin, Scott D; Shaked, David
2016-06-22
An unusual H/D kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is described, in which isotopic selectivity arises primarily from nonstatistical dynamics in the product. In DFT-based quasiclassical trajectories of Bergman cyclization of (Z)-3-hexen-1,5-diyne (1) at 470 K, the new CC bond retains its energy, and 28% of nascent p-benzyne recrosses back to the enediyne on a vibrational time scale. The competing process of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in p-benzyne is too slow to prevent this. Deuteration increases the rate of IVR, which decreases the fraction of recrossing and increases the yield of statistical (trapable) p-benzyne, 2. Trapable yields for three isotopomers of 2 range from 72% to 86%. The resulting KIEs for Bergman cyclization differ substantially from KIEs predicted by transition state theory, which suggests that IVR in this reaction can be studied by conventional KIEs. Leakage of vibrational zero point energy (ZPE) into the reaction coordinate was probed by trajectories in which initial ZPE in the CH/CD stretching modes was reduced by 25%. This did not change the predicted KIEs. PMID:27281683
Velinov, P. I. Y.; Mateev, L. N.
2008-02-01
The effects of galactic cosmic rays (CRs) in the middle atmosphere are considered in this work. We take into account the CR modulation by solar wind and the anomalous CR component also. In fact, CRs determine the electric conductivity in the middle atmosphere and influence the electric processes in itin this way. CRs introduce solar variability in the terrestrial atmosphere and ozonosphere--because they are modulated by solar wind. A new analytical approach for CR ionization by protons and nuclei with charge Z in the lower ionosphere is developed in this paper. For this purpose, the ionization losses (dE/dh) according to the Bohr-Bethe-Bloch formula for the energetic charged particles are approximated in three different energy intervals. More accurate expressions for CR energy decrease E(h) and electron production rate profiles q(h) are derived. The obtained formulas allow comparatively easy computer programming. q(h) is determined by the solution of a 3D integral with account of geomagnetic cut-off rigidity. The integrand in q(h) gives the possibility for application of adequate numerical methods--in this case Gauss quadrature, for the solution of the mathematical problem. Computations for CR ionization in the middle atmosphere are made. In this way the process of interaction of CR particles with the upper and middle atmosphere are described much more realistically. The full CR composition is taken into account: protons, helium ([alpha]-particles), light L, medium M, heavy H and very heavy VH group of nuclei. All computations are made for geomagnetic cut-off rigidity R=1 GV in the altitude interval 15-120 km. The COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere CIRA'86 is applied in the computer program for the neutral density and scale height values. The proposed improved CR ionization model will contribute to the quantitative understanding of solar-atmosphere relationships.
We investigate the initial and secondary oxidation products on the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface at room-temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and density functional theory calculations. At the initial oxidation stages, we find that there are two types of bright spots in AFM images. One of them is identified as a Si adatom with one O atom inserted into one of the backbonds, while the other is ascribed to a Si adatom with two inserted O atoms. We observe that the latter one turns into the secondary oxidation product by a further coming O2 molecule, which appears as a more protruded bright spot. The atomic configuration of this product is identified as Si adatom whose top and all three backbonds make bonds with O atoms. The appearances of initial and secondary oxidation products are imaged as bright and dark sites by scanning tunneling microscopy, respectively. It is revealed that AFM gives us the topographic information close to the real atomic corrugation of adsorbed structures on the semiconductor surfaces
The inventory estimation of long-lived fission products (LLFP) is essential for the long-term safety assessment of a geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). 79Se and 135Cs are a main contributor to the total dose from the geological repository of HLW, owing to their solubility in the strata. In this study, the post-irradiation experimental data of LLFPs, such as 79Se, 99Tc, 126Sn and 135Cs, were compared with ORIGEN2 calculation using the data library of JENDL-3.3. A fragment of the UO2 fuel pellet irradiated in a commercial Japanese PWR was dissolved with nitric acid in a hot cell. The resultant solution was filtered to remove insoluble residue. After Se, Tc, Sn, and Cs were chemically separated, the concentrations of 79Se, 99Tc, 126Sn and 135Cs were determined with an inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS). The concentration of 79Se, 99Tc, 126Sn and 135Cs in the sample solution were 0.78±0.22, 101±24, 3.2±0.6, and 68±6.0 ng/g of the sample solution (ng/g-sol), respectively. The results for 79Se and 135Cs obtained in this study showed good agreement with those obtained through ORIGEN2 calculation. This indicates that ORIGEN2 calculation is applicable to the estimation of the amounts of 79Se and 135Cs generated during irradiation. In contrast, the experimentally determined concentration of 99Tc and 126Sn were equivalent to approximately 70% and 60%, respectively, of those obtained through ORIGEN2 calculation. (author)
Perez, Daniel Milian; Lorenzo, Daniel E. Milian; Garcia, Lorena P. Rodriguez; Llanes, Jesus Salomon; Hernandez, Carlos R. Garcia, E-mail: dperez@instec.cu, E-mail: dmilian@instec.cu, E-mail: lorenapilar@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Lira, Carlos A. Brayner de Oliveira, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Rodriguez, Manuel Cadavid, E-mail: mcadavid2001@yahoo.com [Tecnologia Nuclear Medica Spa, TNM (Chile)
2015-07-01
{sup 99m}Tc is the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine. It is a very useful radioisotope, which is used in about 30-40 million procedures worldwide every year. Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using {sup 99m}Tc represent approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. Although {sup 99m}Tc can be produced directly on a cyclotron or other type of particle accelerator, currently is almost exclusively produced from the beta-decay of its 66-h parent {sup 99}Mo. {sup 99}Mo production system in an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR) is potentially advantageous because of its low cost, small critical mass, inherent passive safety, and simplified fuel handling, processing and purification characteristics. In this paper, an AHR conceptual design using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) is studied and optimized for the production of {sup 99}Mo. Aspects related with the neutronic behavior such as optimal reflector thickness, critical height, medical isotopes production and the reactivity feedback introduced in the solution by the volumetric expansion of the fuel solution due to thermal expansion of the fuel solution and the void volume generated by radiolytic gas bubbles were evaluated. Thermal-hydraulics studies were carried out in order to show that sufficient cooling capacity exists to prevent fuel overheating. The neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations have been performed with the MCNPX computational code and the version 14 of ANSYS CFX respectively. The neutronic calculations demonstrated that the reactor is able to produce 370 six-day curies of {sup 99}Mo in 5 days operation cycles and the CFD simulation demonstrated that the heat removal systems provide sufficient cooling capacity to prevent fuel overheating, the maximum temperature reached by the fuel (89.29 deg C) was smaller to the allowable temperature limit (90 deg C). (author)
Extensive studies on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products under long term field conditions have been performed in Sweden since 1961. Effects of various remedial measures to be taken after farm land contamination have been studied in long term microplot experiments, in ploughing experiments and in conventional field experiments in Chernobyl fallout areas. Furthermore, the transfer of radiocaesium in various farm ecosystems, as influenced by farm management practices and the line of production applied, has been calculated. Fertilization with potassium has been found to effectively reduce the transfer of radiocaesium from the soil to various crops. The best effects were found on peat and sandy soils in the Chernobyl fallout areas, where a reduction by a factor of 2-5 or more has been recorded. Also, on clay soils heavy K application was found to depress the Cs transfer appreciably. Placement of the nuclide below the normal ploughing depth reduced the Cs transfer by a factor of 2-3 as compared with the effect of a homogeneous distribution in the plough layer. With a combination of deep placement and K fertilization a reduction by a factor of 10 or more has been obtained. It seems possible to reduce the caesium transfer from soil to food by a factor of 5-10 by changing the line of production on a farm in various ways. (author). 12 refs, 5 tabs
车间生产精益驾驶舱数显参量设计与计算%Numerical parameter design and calculation of lean production dashboard
王志国; 唐任仲
2009-01-01
基于车间生产精益驾驶舱的管理思想,设计了精益驾驶舱仪表盘.在分析仪表盘设计参量指标内容和选取原则的基础上,构建仪表盘参量指标体系.结合工位信息模型、车间工位级实时数据采集以及现场生产管理仪表盘参量指标体系,分析从可采集的车间生产现场数据到生产系统运作参数设计过程,提出驾驶舱参量指标的计算模型--"数据-参量转换公式组".以某玩具机器人装配生产过程为例开展了实例研究,从而验证了指标体系结构的合理性和计算模型的有效性.%A lean visual dashboard was designed based on the management theory of lean production dashboard (LPD). The parameter index system of the visual dashboard was established on the basis of analyzing the content and selection principle of the dashboard's parameter index. Combined with the workstation information model and the real-time data acquisition of parameter index system of the dashboard, a calculation model of LPD parameter index was developed through studying the processes from collecting data to displaying parameter. The method was applied to the assembly production of toy robots. Results show that the parameter index system of LPD is reasonable and the calculation model is feasible.
Bonnet, L; Corchado, J
2015-01-01
Ten years ago, Liu and co-workers measured pair-correlated product speed and angular distributions for the OH+CH4/CD4 reactions at the collision energy of ~ 10 kcal/mol [B. Zhang, W. Shiu, J. J. Lin and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys 122, 131102 (2005); B. Zhang, W. Shiu and K. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 8989]. Recently, two of us could semi-quantitatively reproduce these measurements by performing full-dimensional classical trajectory calculations in a quantum spirit on an ab-initio potential energy surface of their own [J. Espinosa-Garcia and J. C. Corchado, Theor Chem Acc, 2015, 134, 6 ; J. Phys. Chem. B, Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b04290]. The goal of the present work is to show that these calculations can be significantly improved by adding a few more constraints to better comply with the experimental conditions. Overall, the level of agreement between theory and experiment is remarkable considering the large dimensionality of the processes under scrutiny.
Harlander, Robert V.; Liebler, Stefan; Mantler, Hendrik
2013-06-01
This article describes the code SusHi (for "Supersymmetric Higgs") [108] which calculates the cross sections pp/pp ¯ →ϕ+X in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the SM and the MSSM, where ϕ is any of the neutral Higgs bosons within these models. Apart from inclusive cross sections up to NNLO QCD, differential cross sections with respect to the Higgs transverse momentum pT and (pseudo-)rapidity y(η) can be calculated through NLO QCD. In the case of gluon fusion, SusHi contains NLO QCD contributions from the third family of quarks and squarks, NNLO corrections due to top-quarks, approximate NNLO corrections due to top-squarks, and electro-weak effects. It supports various renormalization schemes for the sbottom sector and the bottom Yukawa coupling, as well as resummation effects of higher order tanβ-enhanced sbottom contributions. SusHi provides a link to FeynHiggs for the calculation of the Higgs masses. Program SummaryProgram title: SusHi Catalogue identifier: AEOY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 47725 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 338380 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Unix/Linux, Mac OS. RAM: A few 100 MB Classification: 11.1. External routines: LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org), FeynHiggs (http://www.feynhiggs.de) Nature of problem: Calculation of inclusive and exclusive Higgs production cross sections in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM through next-to-leading order QCD, includes next-to-next-to-leading order top-(s)quark contributions and electro-weak effects Solution method: Numerical Monte Carlo integration
Calculation of Greenhouse Gases Emission from Agricultural Production in China%中国农业生产温室气体排放量的测算
闵继胜; 胡浩
2012-01-01
As China is a large agricultural country, and China' s greenhouse gases of agricultural production occupy a great proportion in the total greenhouse gases emission, it is very important to calculate greenhouse gases from the agricultural production process in China. In light of the previous research and various greenhouse gases emission factors of crop and livestock, this study aimed at preliminarily calculating the greenhouse gases emission from agricultural production in China during 1991 -2008. We found that: (1) Methane emission of crop decreased from 9 995 000 t in 1991 to 9 314 400 t in 2008, but nitrous oxide emission of crop increased from 346 700 t in 1991 to 487 400 t in 2008. (2) Methane and nitrous oxide emission of livestock showed a trend of "inverse U-shape" : Methane emission increased from 7 635 300 t in 1991 to 11 114 300 t in 2006 and then decreased to 9 007 400 t in 2008. Nitrous oxide emission increased from 353 200 t in 1991 to 559 300 t in 2006 and then decreased to 469 000 t in 2008. (3) On the regional angle, greenhouse gases emission from agricultural production in Sichuan (plus Chongqing City) , Hunan, Jiangsu, Henan, Shandong and Anhui Provinces are in the front ranks of greenhouse gases emission of agricultural production in China.%农业生产的温室气体排放在总排放量中占有较大比重,中国是农业大国,因此,对中国农业生产的温室气体排放量进行测算显得尤为重要.借鉴前人研究,结合农业生产中各种产品的温室气体排放系数,对1991 -2008年中国农业生产的温室气体排放量进行了初步测算.结果表明:①1991-2008年,种植业的CH4排放量从999.5万t下降到931.44万t,N2O的排放量从34.67万t增加到48.74万t;②同期间的畜牧业的CH4和N2O排放量均星先升后降的趋势；CH4排放量从1991年的763.53万t上升到2006年的1111.43万t后,又下降到2008年的900.74万t;N2O排放量从1991年的35.32万t上升到2006年的55.93
SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access) This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.
R Baldik; H Aytekin; E Tel
2013-02-01
In this study, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium calculations of cross-sections of 89Y(, ), 90Zr$(p, xn)$ and 94Mo(, ) reactions, which were used for the production of 89Zr, 90Nb and 94Tc positron-emitting radioisotopes, have been investigated. Pre-equilibrium calculations have been performed at different proton incident energies by using the hybrid, geometry-dependent-hybrid and full exciton models. The Weisskopf–Ewing model is used for calculating the equilibrium effects at the same incident energies. The calculated results have been discussed and compared with the experimental results.