Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus
Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole
2000-01-01
This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites are...
Stability analysis of active acoustic metamaterial with programmable bulk modulus
Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) have been considered as an effective means of controlling the propagation of acoustical wave energy through metamaterials. However, most of the currently exerted efforts are focused on studying passive metamaterials with fixed material properties. In this paper, the emphasis is placed on the development of a new class of one-dimensional acoustic metamaterials with effective bulk moduli that are programmed to vary according to any prescribed pattern along the volume of the metamaterial. Acoustic cavities coupled with either actively controlled Helmholtz or flush-mounted resonators are introduced to develop two possible configurations for obtaining active AMMs (AAMMs) with programmable bulk modulus capabilities. The resonators are provided with piezoelectric boundaries to enable control of the overall bulk modulus of the acoustic cavity through direct acoustic pressure feedback. Theoretical analyses of these two configurations of AAMMs are presented using the lumped-parameter modeling approach. The presented analyses are utilized to study the stability characteristics of the two configurations in an attempt to define their stable regions of operation. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance characteristics of the proposed AAMM configurations and their potential for generating prescribed spatial and spectral patterns of bulk modulus variation
Semi-Empirical formula for describing the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus
Garai, J
2006-01-01
The product of the bulk modulus and the molar volume is constant for materials with the same crystal structure. Using this correlation a semi-empirical formula is suggested for describing the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus.
The temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus at 1 bar pressure
Garai, J.; Laugier, A
2006-01-01
It is well established that the product of the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the bulk modulus is nearly constant at temperatures higher than the Debye temperature. Using this approximation allows predicting the values of the bulk modulus. The derived analytical solution for the temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus has been applied to ten substances. The good correlations to the experiments indicate that the expression may be useful for substances for which bulk ...
Thermodynamic regularities in compressed liquids: II. The reduced bulk modulus
In a previous work, we analysed some regularities found in the behaviour of the thermal expansion coefficient, αp, in compressed liquids. We confirmed that a given liquid presents a characteristic pressure range in which the condition (∂αp/∂T)p=0 is fulfilled within a narrow range of reduced densities. We also found that the density at which the condition (∂αp/∂T)p=0 is satisfied, ρα, decreases with temperature, a key feature not described before. Earlier studies by other authors suggested that similar regularities are expected for the reduced bulk modulus, B. We present here a detailed analysis of the temperature and density dependence of B from existing experimental results at high pressures. Several liquids have been analysed: argon, krypton, xenon, ethylene, tetrafluoromethane, trifluoromethane, carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, ethanol, 1-hexanol, m-cresol, and quinoline. We locate that the density ρB that fulfils the condition (∂B/∂T)ρ=0 occurs at a particular region of the phase diagram, between 3.4 and 2.4 times the critical density of each liquid. Interestingly, the previously found density ρα is close to ρB, in a similar region of the reduced phase diagram. However, we note that ρB typically decreases to a lesser extent with temperature than ρα. In addition, we have found that ρB(T) behaves in a parallel fashion for the different liquids, showing larger values of ρB as the complexity of the molecules increases. These findings provide a strong basis for developing general equation of state models to describe the behaviour of liquids in the high-pressure regime
Effect of bulk modulus on performance of a hydrostatic transmission control system
Ali Volkan Akkaya
2006-10-01
In this paper, we examine the performance of PID (proportional integral derivative) and fuzzy controllers on the angular velocity of a hydrostatic transmission system by means of Matlab-Simulink. A very novel aspect is that it includes the analysis of the effect of bulk modulus on system control. Simulation results demonstrates that bulk modulus should be considered as a variable parameter to obtain a more realistic model. Additionally, a PID controller is insufﬁcient in presence of variable bulk modulus, whereas a fuzzy controller provides robust angular velocity control.
The bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio of “incompressible” materials
Mott, P. H.; Dorgan, J. R.; Roland, C. M.
2008-05-01
Poisson's ratio, ν, is a fundamental parameter characterizing the mechanical behavior of a material. Because the ratio of the bulk to the shear modulus, B/G, becomes infinite when ν=1/2, it is often assumed that the bulk modulus becomes very large as a material approaches “incompressibility.” This is incorrect; experimental results for viscoelastic materials show that changes in the bulk modulus are actually negligible as ν approaches 1/2. An analysis is performed to clarify the apparent conflict between the classic elastic equations and the experiments. At ν=1/2, the bulk modulus is shown to exhibit a singularity, but this is irrelevant to real materials.
Size-induced enhancement of bulk modulus and transition pressure of nanocrystalline Ge
Wang, Hua; Liu, J.F.; He, Yongqi;
2007-01-01
modulus and transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size. Models are suggested to describe the grain-size dependences of bulk modulus and transition pressure. The trend of the predicted results is consistent with the experimental results while the absolute values are still different from......In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation source have been performed on nanocrystalline Ge with particle sizes 13, 49 and 100 nm by using diamond anvil cell. Whereas the percentage volume collapse at the transition is almost constant, the values of the bulk...
Why is the bulk modulus of jammed solids and granular packings much larger than the shear modulus?
Zaccone, Alessio; Weaire, Denis
2013-03-01
In granular packings and metallic glasses, the rigidity to compression is much more pronounced than with respect to shear, resulting in the bulk modulus being much larger than the shear modulus. This state of affairs becomes dramatic in marginal jammed solids which are solid-like to compression but not to shear (Ellenbroek, Zeravcic, van Saarloos, van Hecke, EPL 87, 34004 (2009)). For metallic glasses, it was argued by Weaire et al. some time ago (Acta Metall. 19, 779 (1971)) that this effect might be due to the nonaffinity of the particle displacements. These arise because the force acting on a particle upon strain as a result of the strain-induced motion of its neighbors is not balanced in the absence of local order. Hence the particles undergo nonaffine displacements to relax these forces to the expense of the elastic storage energy, leading to lower values of the elastic moduli. Using the nonaffine theory of Zaccone and Scossa-Romano (PRB, 83, 184205 (2011)) we found a conclusive solution to this long standing problem. We show that in packings and related materials the excluded volume between neighbors induces geometric correlations which significantly reduce the nonaffinity under compression but leave the nonaffinity in shear substantially unaltered.
To determine whether any pressure variation in pipeline hydrostatic test is a result of temperature changes or the presence of leaks, the calculation of pressure/temperature changes is required for test sections. In these calculations, bulk modulus and volumetric expansion coefficient of fresh or sea water must be taken into account. In this study, a simple-to-use correlation is developed to predict the bulk modulus and volumetric expansion coefficient of both fresh and sea water as a function of temperature and pressure. The proposed correlation helps to cover the bulk modulus and volumetric expansion coefficient of both fresh and sea water for temperatures less than 50 deg. C (40 deg. C for sea water) as well as pressures up to 55,000 kPa (550 bar). The results can be used in follow-up calculations to determine whether any pressure variation in pipeline hydrostatic test is a result of temperature changes or the presence of leaks. The proposed correlation showed promising results with average absolute deviations for volumetric expansion coefficient and bulk modulus of water being around 0.58% and 0.08% respectively. The novel correlation is easy to use and will prove to be of immense value for project engineers to test the critical limits accurately.
The bulk modulus of cubic spinel selenides: an experimental and theoretical study
Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.;
2009-01-01
It is argued that mainly the selenium sublattice determines the overall compressibility of the cubic spinel selenides, AB2Se4, and that the bulk modulus for these compounds is about 100GPa. The hypothesis is supported by experiments using high-pressure X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation...
Temperature Dependence of Interatomic Separation and Bulk Modulus for Alkali Halides
Liu, Quan
2016-07-01
The values of interatomic separation r with the change of temperature T for seven alkali halides have been investigated with the help of an isobaric equation of state. The calculated results are used to predict the values of bulk modulus at different temperatures. The results are compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical results and are further discussed in view of recent research in the field of high temperature physics.
Flute-Model Acoustic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Bulk Modulus and Mass Density
Zeng, H. C.; Luo, C. R.; Chen, H. J.; Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.
2012-01-01
We experimentally constructed a three-dimensional flute-model "molecular" structure acoustic metamaterial(AM)from a periodic array of perforated hollow steel tubes (PHSTs) and investigated its transmission and reflection behaviors in impedance tube system. The AM exhibited a transmission peak and an inverse phase, thus exhibiting the local resonance of the PHSTs. Based on the homogeneous media theory, the effective bulk modulus and mass density of the AM were calculated to be simultaneously n...
Soft resonator of omnidirectional resonance for acoustic metamaterials with a negative bulk modulus
Jing, Xiaodong; Meng, Yang; Sun, Xiaofeng
2015-11-01
Monopolar resonance is of fundamental importance in the acoustic field. Here, we present the realization of a monopolar resonance that goes beyond the concept of Helmholtz resonators. The balloon-like soft resonator (SR) oscillates omnidirectionally and radiates from all parts of its spherical surface, eliminating the need for a hard wall for the cavity and baffle effects. For airborne sound, such a low-modulus resonator can be made extremely lightweight. Deep subwavelength resonance is achieved when the SR is tuned by adjusting the shell thickness, benefiting from the large density contrast between the shell material and the encapsulated gas. The SR resonates with near-perfect monopole symmetry, as demonstrated by the theoretical and experimental results, which are in excellent agreement. For a lattice of SRs, a band gap occurs and blocks near-total transmission, and the effective bulk modulus exhibits a prominent negative band, while the effective mass density remains unchanged. Our study shows that the SR is suitable for building 3D acoustic metamaterials and provides a basis for constructing left-handed materials as a new means of creating a negative bulk modulus.
Flute-Model Acoustic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Bulk Modulus and Mass Density
Zeng, H C; Chen, H J; Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P
2012-01-01
We experimentally constructed a three-dimensional flute-model "molecular" structure acoustic metamaterial(AM)from a periodic array of perforated hollow steel tubes (PHSTs) and investigated its transmission and reflection behaviors in impedance tube system. The AM exhibited a transmission peak and an inverse phase, thus exhibiting the local resonance of the PHSTs. Based on the homogeneous media theory, the effective bulk modulus and mass density of the AM were calculated to be simultaneously negative; the refractive index was also negative. PHST AM slab focusing experiments showed that the medium with a resonant structure exhibited a distinct metamaterial property.
Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.
1985-01-01
The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.
Stability, themal expansion and bulk modulus of Na-Dawsonite up to 2.9 GPa
von der Gönna, Jutta; Nover, Georg; Lathe, Christian
2013-04-01
Dawsonite (NaAlCO3[OH]2), an uncommon mineral that occurs naturally in e.g. alkaline shales and coal bearing rocks, is one of the potential candiates for mineral trapping of CO2 in the framework of carbon capture and storage (CCS). It is assumed to precipitate from dissolution of minerals typical for deep seated saline aquifers, namely alkali feldsspar and clay minerals in the presence of Na-rich brines and elevated CO2-concentrations. Little is known about the thermal stability of Dawsonite at high pressure high temperature conditions comparable to the earth crust and currently no data for the thermal expansion and bulk modulus of Dawsonite are available. These data might be helpful for further thermodynamic model calculations to predict the formation and/or dissolution in a certain environment. Na-Dawsonite was synthesized from an aqueous solution of NaHCO3 and Al(OH)3 in a stainless steel autoclave at a temperature of 175 °C. X-Ray Powder diffraction revealed a single phase Dawsonite after removing excess NaHCO3 with distilled water. The thermal decomposition of the orthorhombic Dawsonite crystal structure was studied by means of in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction in a high pressure Multi-anvil device (MAX 80) at the Beamline F2.1 of HASYLAB, DESY, Germany in the pressure range 0.075 to 1.9 GPa. The onset temperature of the crystal structure break down showed a strong increase from 390 °C at 0.075 GPa to 540 °C at 1 GPa and remained nearly unchanged up to a pressure of 1.9. GPa. The thermal expansion was measured at a pressure of 1.6 GPa from room temperature up to 550 °C. Although the diffraction spectra apparently remained unchanged at elevated temperatures, a detailed analysis of the lattice parameters a, b and c revealed a striking discontinuity in the temperature dependance of b and c. Between 200 °C and 250 °C the slope of both parameters change significantly, while the lattice constant a is nearly constant over the whole temperature range
Yang, Shudong; Tao, Aihua; Luo, Yulin; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhou, Peng; Lin ZHOU
2016-01-01
Bulk modulus of hydraulic oil represents the resistance of hydraulic oil to compression and is the reciprocal of compressibility. The bulk modulus is a basic thermodynamic property of hydraulic oil that has a very important influence on work efficiency and dynamic characteristics of hydraulic systems, especially for the hydraulic systems at ultra-high pressure or ultra-high temperature. In this study, a bulk modulus experimental equipment for hydraulic oil was designed and manufactured, two t...
Aging bulk modulus obtained from enthalpy and volume relaxations of a-PMMA and its blends with PEO
Slobodian, P.; Verner, J.; Pelíšek, V.; Sáha, P.; Říha, Pavel; Rychwalski, R. W.; Kubát, J.; Emri, I.
2006-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 1 (2006), s. 1-15. ISSN 1385-2000 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : PMMA aging * Bulk modulus Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2006
We have calculated the theoretical lattice parameters, Bulk modulus, volume, energy, lattice parameters and magnetic moments for RB6 (R=La, Ce, Pr and Sm) of CaB6 type crystal structure with space group Pm3m using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The bulk modulus was found to be 9.56 % higher for LaB6 and 2.4% lower for CeB6 compared to the experimental results Gupta et al. [4] and Ogita et al [5], Magnetic moments for LaB6, CeB6 were found in qualitative agreement with the earlier reported results. The results based on generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were found and compared with local spin density approximation (LSDA) results for CeB6 and SmB6 as well.
Bulk modulus and P-V relationship up to 52 GPa of neptunium metal at room temperature
High purity neptunium metal was studied under high pressure using a diamond anvil cell in an energy dispersive X-ray facility. No phase transition was observed up to 52 GPa. A bulk modulus B0=118 GPa and its pressure derivative B'0=6.6 were calculated by fitting the V(P) data to the Birch and Murnaghan equations. The results are discussed in the context of recent compressibility measurements of other actinides. (orig.)
Ferreiro-Rangel, Carlos A; Gelb, Lev D
2013-06-13
Structural and mechanical properties of silica aerogels are studied using a flexible coarse-grained model and a variety of simulation techniques. The model, introduced in a previous study (J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 15792-15802), consists of spherical "primary" gel particles that interact through weak nonbonded forces and through microscopically motivated interparticle bonds that may break and form during the simulations. Aerogel models are prepared using a three-stage protocol consisting of separate simulations of gelation, aging, and a final relaxation during which no further bond formation is permitted. Models of varying particle size, density, and size dispersity are considered. These are characterized in terms of fractal dimensions and pore size distributions, and generally good agreement with experimental data is obtained for these metrics. The bulk moduli of these materials are studied in detail. Two different techniques for obtaining the bulk modulus are considered, fluctuation analysis and direct compression/expansion simulations. We find that the fluctuation result can be subject to systematic error due to coupling with the simulation barostat but, if performed carefully, yields results equivalent with those of compression/expansion experiments. The dependence of the bulk modulus on density follows a power law with an exponent between 3.00 and 3.15, in agreement with reported experimental results. The best correlate for the bulk modulus appears to be the volumetric bond density, on which there is also a power law dependence. Polydisperse models exhibit lower bulk moduli than comparable monodisperse models, which is due to lower bond densities in the polydisperse materials. PMID:23631801
Soft resonator of omnidirectional resonance for acoustic metamaterials with a negative bulk modulus
Xiaodong Jing; Yang Meng; Xiaofeng Sun
2015-01-01
Monopolar resonance is of fundamental importance in the acoustic field. Here, we present the realization of a monopolar resonance that goes beyond the concept of Helmholtz resonators. The balloon-like soft resonator (SR) oscillates omnidirectionally and radiates from all parts of its spherical surface, eliminating the need for a hard wall for the cavity and baffle effects. For airborne sound, such a low-modulus resonator can be made extremely lightweight. Deep subwavelength resonance is achie...
Bulk Modulus of Spherical Palladium Nanoparticles by Chen-Mobius Lattice Inversion Method
Abdul-Hafidh, Esam
2015-03-01
Palladium is a precious and rare element that belongs to the Platinum group metals (PGMS) with the lowest density and melting point. Numerous uses of Pd in dentistry, medicine and industrial applications attracted considerable investment. Preparation and characterization of palladium nanoparticles have been conducted by many researchers, but very little effort has taken place on the study of Pd physical properties, such as, mechanical, optical, and electrical. In this study, Chen-Mobius lattice inversion method is used to calculate the cohesive energy and modulus of palladium. The method was employed to calculate the cohesive energy by summing over all pairs of atoms within palladium spherical nanoparticles. The modulus is derived from the cohesive energy curve as a function of particles' sizes. The cohesive energy has been calculated using the potential energy function proposed by (Rose et al., 1981). The results are found to be comparable with previous predictions of metallic nanoparticles. This work is supported by the Royal commission at Yanbu- Saudi Arabia.
Oh, Jae Eun
2012-02-01
Using a diamond anvil cell, 14 Å tobermorite, a structural analogue of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), was examined by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 4.8 GPa under hydrostatic conditions. The bulk modulus of 14 Å tobermorite was calculated, K o = 47 GPa. Comparison of the current results with previous high pressure studies on C-S-H(I) indicates that: (1) the compression behavior of the lattice parameters a and b of 14 Å tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are very similar, implying that both materials may have very similar Ca-O layers, and also implying that an introduction of structural defects into the Ca-O layers may not substantially change in-plane incompressibility of the ab plane of 14 Å tobermorite; and (2) the bulk modulus values of 14 Å tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are dominated by the incompressibility of the lattice parameter c, which is directly related to the interlayer spacing composed of dreierketten silicate chains, interlayer Ca, and water molecules. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors
A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani
2005-01-01
Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term 2 is 6.77% to 11.85% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.
Size-induced enhancement of bulk modulus and transition pressure of nanocrystalline Ge
Wang, Hua; Liu, J.F.; He, Yongqi;
2007-01-01
In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation source have been performed on nanocrystalline Ge with particle sizes 13, 49 and 100 nm by using diamond anvil cell. Whereas the percentage volume collapse at the transition is almost constant, the values of the bulk...
Enhanced bulk modulus and reduced transition pressure in gamma-Fe2O3 nanocrystals
Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J. Staun; Gerward, Leif;
1998-01-01
GPa for the bulk material to 305 GPa for 9 nm size crystals. At the same time the transition pressure decreases from 35 to 27 GPa. The reduced transition pressure is explained in terms of nucleation and growth, the larger volume change upon transition in the nanocrystalline material being the main...
Schlosser, Herbert
1992-01-01
In this note we present two expressions relating the cohesive energy, E(sub coh), and the zero pressure isothermal bulk modulus, B(sub 0), of the alkali halides. Ag halides and TI halides, with the nearest neighbor distances, d(sub nn). First, we show that the product E(sub coh)d(sub 0) within families of halide crystals with common crystal structure is to a good approximation constant, with maximum rms deviation of plus or minus 2%. Secondly, we demonstrate that within families of halide crystals with a common cation and common crystal structure the product B(sub 0)d(sup 3.5)(sub nn) is a good approximation constant, with maximum rms deviation of plus or minus 1.36%.
Li Cheng-Bin; Li Ming-Kai; Yin Dong; Liu Fu-Qing; Fan Xiang-Jun
2005-01-01
A first principles study of the electronic properties and bulk modulus (B0) of the fcc and bcc transition metals,transition metal carbides and nitrides is presented. The calculations were performed by plane-wave pseudopotential method in the framework of the density functional theory with local density approximation. The density of states and the valence charge densities of these solids are plotted. The results show that B0 does not vary monotonically when the number of the valence d electrons increases. B0 reaches a maximum and then decreases for each of the four sorts of solids. It is related to the occupation of the bonding and anti-bonding states in the solid. The value of the valence charge density at the midpoint between the two nearest metal atoms tends to be proportional to B0.
Allen, Philip B.
2015-08-01
The quasiharmonic (QH) approximation uses harmonic vibrational frequencies ωQ ,H(V ) computed at volumes V near V0 where the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) energy Eel(V ) is minimum. When this is used in the harmonic free energy, QH approximation gives a good zeroth order theory of thermal expansion and first-order theory of bulk modulus, where nth-order means smaller than the leading term by ɛn, where ɛ =ℏ ωvib/Eel or kBT /Eel , and Eel is an electronic energy scale, typically 2 to 10 eV. Experiment often shows evidence for next-order corrections. When such corrections are needed, anharmonic interactions must be included. The most accessible measure of anharmonicity is the quasiparticle (QP) energy ωQ(V ,T ) seen experimentally by vibrational spectroscopy. However, this cannot just be inserted into the harmonic free energy FH. In this paper, a free energy is found that corrects the double-counting of anharmonic interactions that is made when F is approximated by FH( ωQ(V ,T ) ) . The term "QP thermodynamics" is used for this way of treating anharmonicity. It enables (n +1 ) -order corrections if QH theory is accurate to order n . This procedure is used to give corrections to the specific heat and volume thermal expansion. The QH formulas for isothermal (BT) and adiabatic (BS) bulk moduli are clarified, and the route to higher-order corrections is indicated.
A simple model for calculating the bulk modulus of the mixed ionic crystal: NH4Cl1−xBr
Vassiliki Katsika-Tsigourakou
2011-10-01
The ammonium halides are an interesting systems because of their polymorphism and the possible internal rotation of the ammonium ion. The static properties of the mixed ionic crystal NH4Cl1−Br have been recently investigated, using the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law. Here, by using a simple theoretical model, we estimate the bulk modulus of the alloys NH4Cl1−Br, in terms of the bulk modulus of the end members alone. The calculated values are comparable to those deduced from the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law.
Thermal expansivity, bulk modulus, and melting curve of H2O-ice VII to 20 GPa
Fei, Yingwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J.
1993-01-01
Equation of state properties of ice VII and fluid H2O at high pressures and temperatures have been studied experimentally from 6 to 20 GPa and 300-700 K. The techniques involve direct measurements of the unit-cell volume of the solid using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an externally heated diamond-anvil cell. The pressure dependencies of the volume and bulk modulus of ice VII at room temperature are in good agreement with previous synchrotron X-ray studies. The thermal expansivity was determined as a function of pressure and the results fit to a newly proposed phenomenological relation and to a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state formalism. The onset of melting of ice VII was determined directly by X-ray diffraction at a series of pressures and found to be in accord with previous volumetric determinations. Thermodynamic calculations based on the new data are performed to evaluate the range of validity of previously proposed equations of state for fluid water derived from static and shock-wave compression experiments and from simulations.
Hargis, Craig W.
2013-12-12
The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.
Oh, Jae Eun
2011-11-01
Crystalline zeolitic materials, such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite, herschelite and nepheline, are often synthesized from geopolymerization using fly-ash and solutions of NaOH at high temperatures. Comprised mainly of 6-membered aluminosilicate rings that act as basic building units, their crystal structures may provide insight into the reaction products formed in NaOH-activated fly ash-based geopolymers. Recent research indicates that the hydroxycancrinite and hydroxysodalite may play an important role as possible analogues of zeolitic precursor in geopolymers. Herein is reported a high pressure synchrotron study of the behavior of hydroxycancrinite exposed to pressures up to 6.1 GPa in order to obtain its bulk modulus. A refined equation of state for hydroxycancrinite yielded a bulk modulus of Ko = 46 ± 5 GPa (assuming Ko′ = 4.0) for a broad range of applied pressure. When low pressure values are excluded from the fit and only the range of 2.5 and 6.1 GPa is considered, the bulk modulus of hydroxycancrinite was found to be Ko = 46.9 ± 0.9 GPa (Ko′ = 4.0 ± 0.4, calculated). Comparison with the literature shows that all zeolitic materials possessing single 6-membered rings (i.e., hydroxycancrinite, sodalite and nepheline) have similar bulk moduli. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AVINASH DAGA
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Bulk modulus & charge density of cubic SrMO3 perovskites (M = Ti, Zr, Mo, Rh & Ru have been investigated systematically using the first principle density functional calculations. Local density approximation (LDAmethod has been used to compute the two quantities for five perovskites. It is found that the calculated bulk modulus for all the transition metal oxides are in good agreement with the available experimental data and with other theoretical results previously reported in the literature. ABINIT computer code is used to carry out all the calculations. Charge density plots for all the five cubic SrMO3 perovskites have been drawn using MATLAB. The maximum and minimum values of charge density along with the corresponding reduced coordinates are reported for all the perovskites.
Study of atomic motions in the binary liquid alloys have been studied in terms of dynamical variables like velocity auto correlation, power spectrum and mean square displacement. Elastic constants and isothermal bulk modulus have been calculated to see the effeectiveness of ab-initio pseudopotentials which has been used in this paper. This appraoch is free from the fitting parameters and results obtained using this appraoch have been found very close to the average values
Thakur, Anil, E-mail: anil-t2001@yahoo.com; Kashyap, Rajinder [Department of Physics, Govt. P. G. College Solan-173212, Himachal Pradesh (India); Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University Shimla-171005, Himachal Pradesh (India)
2014-04-24
Study of atomic motions in the binary liquid alloys have been studied in terms of dynamical variables like velocity auto correlation, power spectrum and mean square displacement. Elastic constants and isothermal bulk modulus have been calculated to see the effeectiveness of ab-initio pseudopotentials which has been used in this paper. This appraoch is free from the fitting parameters and results obtained using this appraoch have been found very close to the average values.
The time dependences of the irreversible relaxation of the damping decrement and the shear modulus of a Zr52.5Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10 bulk metallic glass are investigated using an inverse torsion pendulum in the range from room temperature to ∼650 K. The spectrum of activation energies of irreversible structural relaxation is evaluated from the results obtained. Analysis of the amplitude dependences of the damping decrement and the shear modulus allows the conclusion that the relaxation centers responsible for the amplitude dependence differ from those associated with the irreversible structural relaxation at temperatures below and in the vicinity of the glass transition point
ZHAO Jing; GUO Lin; LIU Jing; YANG Yang; CHE Rong-Zheng; ZHOU Lei
2000-01-01
Structural transformation in γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystals (about 1Onm) with dodecyl benzene sulfonic (DBS) coated is studied by using high-pressure energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to the bulk crystal, the transition pressure showed a decrease while the compressibility increases significantly up to 375 (±9 GPa). HRTEM picture confirmed that there is surface cladding surrounding nanocrystals due to DBS, which formed new special boundaries between nanocrystals and should be different from the ordinary grain boundaries. The experimental results imply that the surface layers of γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystals have strong effect on the compressibility.
Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells
Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed
Tran, Fabien; Stelzl, Julia; Blaha, Peter
2016-05-01
A large panel of old and recently proposed exchange-correlation functionals belonging to rungs 1 to 4 of Jacob's ladder of density functional theory are tested (with and without a dispersion correction term) for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and cohesive energy of solids. Particular attention will be paid to the functionals MGGA_MS2 [J. Sun et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 044113 (2013)], mBEEF [J. Wellendorff et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 144107 (2014)], and SCAN [J. Sun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] which are meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGA) and are developed with the goal to be universally good. Another goal is also to determine for which semilocal functionals and groups of solids it is beneficial (or not necessary) to use the Hartree-Fock exchange or a dispersion correction term. It is concluded that for strongly bound solids, functionals of the GGA, i.e., rung 2 of Jacob's ladder, are as accurate as the more sophisticated functionals of the higher rungs, while it is necessary to use dispersion corrected functionals in order to expect at least meaningful results for weakly bound solids. If results for finite systems are also considered, then the meta-GGA functionals are overall clearly superior to the GGA functionals.
Oh, Jae Eun
2011-01-01
Synthetic basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4] 6(OH)2•2H2O, cubic, P43n, (also known as hydroxysodalite hydrate) was prepared by the alkaline activation of amorphous aluminosilicate glass, obtained from the phase separation of Class F fly ash. The sample was subjected to a process similar to geopolymerization, using high concentrations of a NaOH solution at 90 °C for 24 hours. Basic sodalite was chosen as a representative analogue of the zeolite precursor existing in Na-based Class F fly ash geopolymers. To determine its bulk modulus, high-pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction was applied using a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to a pressure of 4.5 GPa. A curve-fit with a truncated third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with a fixed K\\'o = 4 to pressure-normalized volume data yielded the isothermal bulk modulus, K o = 43 ± 4 GPa, indicating that basic sodalite is more compressible than sodalite, possibly due to a difference in interactions between the framework host and the guest molecules. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Modulus-Pressure Equation for Confined Fluids
Gor, Gennady Y; Shen, Vincent K; Bernstein, Noam
2016-01-01
Ultrasonic experiments allow one to measure the elastic modulus of bulk solid or fluid samples. Recently such experiments have been carried out on fluid-saturated nanoporous glass to probe the modulus of a confined fluid. In our previous work [J. Chem. Phys., (2015) 143, 194506], using Monte Carlo simulations we showed that the elastic modulus $K$ of a fluid confined in a mesopore is a function of the pore size. Here we focus on modulus-pressure dependence $K(P)$, which is linear for bulk materials, a relation known as the Tait-Murnaghan equation. Using transition-matrix Monte Carlo simulations we calculated the elastic modulus of bulk argon as a function of pressure and argon confined in silica mesopores as a function of Laplace pressure. Our calculations show that while the elastic modulus is strongly affected by confinement and temperature, the slope of the modulus versus pressure is not. Moreover, the calculated slope is in a good agreement with the reference data for bulk argon and experimental data for ...
Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus and a double negative structure
Sharma, Bhisham; Sun, Chin-teh
2015-01-01
An acoustic negative bulk modulus metamaterial based on the concept of expansion chambers is proposed. It is shown that addition of a neck region to an ordinary expansion chamber improves its transmission loss characteristics at low frequencies and the resulting structure displays a negative bulk modulus behavior. Additionally, membrane based metamaterials are analyzed. Using FEM, the negative density behavior of a membrane carrying a center mass and of a tensioned membrane array is analyzed ...
Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus and a double negative structure
Sharma, Bhisham
2015-01-01
An acoustic negative bulk modulus metamaterial based on the concept of expansion chambers is proposed. It is shown that addition of a neck region to an ordinary expansion chamber improves its transmission loss characteristics at low frequencies and the resulting structure displays a negative bulk modulus behavior. Additionally, membrane based metamaterials are analyzed. Using FEM, the negative density behavior of a membrane carrying a center mass and of a tensioned membrane array is analyzed and the inherent similarity of the two designs is discussed. Further, the modified expansion chamber is combined with an array of stretched membranes and the resulting structure is analyzed for double negative behavior.
Young's modulus of nanoconfined liquids?
Khan, Shah Haidar; Hoffmann, Peter Manfred
2016-07-01
In material science, bioengineering, and biology, thin liquid films and soft matter membranes play an important role in micro-lubrication, ion transport, and fundamental biological processes. Various attempts have been made to characterize the elastic properties, such as Young's modulus, of such films using Hertz theory by incorporating convoluted mathematical corrections. We propose a simple way to extract tip-size independent elastic properties based on stiffness and force measurement through a spherical tip on a flat surface. Using our model, the Young's modulus of nanoconfined, molecularly-thin, layers of a model liquid TEHOS (tetrakis 2-ethylhexoxy silane) and water were determined using a small-amplitude AFM. This AFM can simultaneously measure the stiffness and forces of nanoscale films. While the stiffness scales linearly with the tip radius, the measured Young's modulus essentially remains constant over an order of magnitude variation in the tip radius. The values obtained for the elastic modulus of TEHOS and water films on the basis of our method are significantly lower than the confining surfaces' elastic moduli, in contrast with the uncorrected Hertz model, suggesting that our method can serve as a simple way to compare elastic properties of nanoscale thin films as well as to characterize a variety of soft films. In addition, our results show that the elastic properties (elastic modulus) of nanoconfined liquid films remain fairly independent of increasing confinement. PMID:27060229
Determination of dynamic Young’s modulus of vulnerable speleothems
Konečný, Pavel; Lednická, Markéta; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kubina, Lukáš; Gribovszki, K.
2015-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 156-163. ISSN 1335-1788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : dynamic Young´s modulus * speleothem * bulk density * X-Ray Computed Tomography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2014 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2015/n2/10Konecny.pdf
Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus
We present experimental and theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits a negative effective modulus in a frequency range from 0 to 450 Hz. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of side holes on a tube was fabricated. We observed that acoustic waves above 450 Hz propagated well in this structure, but no sound below 450 Hz passed through. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the experimental results.
Thermal compression modulus of polarized neutron matter
We applied the equation of state for pure polarized neutron matter at finite temperature, calculated previously, to calculate the compression modulus. The compression modulus of pure neutron matter at zero temperature is very large and reflects the stiffness of the equation of state. It has a little temperature dependence. Introducing the spin excess parameter in the equation of state calculations is important because it has a significant effect on the compression modulus. (author). 25 refs, 2 tabs
Study on elastic modulus of individual ferritin
ZHANG JinHai; CUI ChengYi; ZHOU XingFei
2009-01-01
The mechanical property of individual ferriUn was measured with force-volume mapping (FV) under contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in this work. The elastic modulus of individual ferritin was estimated by the Hertz mode. The estimated value of the elastic modulus of individual ferritin was about 250-800 MPs under a small deformation. In addition, the elastic modulus of individual ferritin was compared with that of the colloid gold nanoparticle.
Various Expressions for Modulus of Random Convexity
Xiao Lin ZENG
2013-01-01
We first prove various kinds of expressions for modulus of random convexity by using an Lo(F,R)-valued function's intermediate value theorem and the well known Hahn-Banach theorem for almost surely bounded random linear functionals,then establish some basic properties including continuity for modulus of random convexity.In particular,we express the modulus of random convexity of a special random normed module Lo(F,X) derived from a normed space X by the classical modulus of convexity of X.
Enhancement of Young's modulus in InAs nanowires
Semiconducting nanowires are of great interest due to their potential in electrical and electromechanical applications. In our study Young's modulus of InAs nanowires (NWs) with a diameter of approximately 50 nm was determined by electromechanical resonance measurements. The NWs were grown by MOCVD on the (100) InAs substrate. Three types of NWs with different crystalline structures were identified by HR-TEM: Zinc-Blende (ZB) structure, Wurtzite (WZ) structure, mixed WZ and ZB structure. The electromechanical resonance was studied in-situ in TEM to correlate mechanical and structural properties of the NWs. The resonance frequency was determined by tuning the AC voltage frequency applied between STM tip and NW until the maximum amplitude of mechanical vibrations of the NW was achieved and directly observed in TEM. The measurements were performed on NWs with different lengths, diameters and structures. Young's modulus for two types of structures (pure WZ and mixed structure) was calculated using TEM tomography data for the NWs cross-section. An enhancement of about a factor of two of Young's modulus in comparison to the bulk value was observed for both NWs types.
Critical behavior of modulus of gel
Tokita, Masayuki; Niki, Ryoya; Hikichi, Kunio
1985-09-01
The critical behavior of the shear modulus of casein gel is studied. The shear modulus of casein gel scales with the conductivity exponent in the immediate vicinity of the sol-gel transition point. The asymptotic behavior of the modulus in the region far above the transition point is governed by a different exponent which is much larger than the conductivity exponent. These results are explainable by the crossover behavior of the percolation process. This study shows that the gelation of the casein micelle solution is a realization of the percolation process.
Shear modulus of solid helium-4 confined in a 10 μm gap
Aoki, Yuki; Iwasa, Izumi; Miura, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Akira; Okuda, Yuichi
2016-02-01
To investigate the elastic properties of solid 4He at low temperatures, the shear modulus of solid 4He confined in a narrow gap, comparable to the length of the dislocation network of solid 4He was measured. Two sets of parallel plate transducers were prepared. One set has a narrow gap of 11 μm and the other has a 290 μm gap as a reference of the bulk solid measurement. The temperature and strain dependences of the shear modulus were measured for solid 4He in both cases. The increase of the shear modulus from 200 mK down to 14 mK was found to be smaller by 0.3 in the narrow-gap solid compared with the case of the bulk solid. By measuring the strain dependence of the shear modulus, the stress required to unbind 3He in the narrow-gap solid was an order of magnitude larger than that in the bulk solid. These gap dependences can be related to the dislocation-network difference between two solids. The maximum length of the dislocation segment in the narrow-gap solid 4He was found to be shorter than 6 μm, which was one order of magnitude smaller than that in the bulk. The difference of the network distribution is considered to originate in the difference of the crystal quality which is caused by the confinement effect in the slab geometry.
Kattamis, T. Z.
1984-01-01
Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.
Elastic modulus of polypyrrole nanotubes: AFM measurement
Cuenot, Stéphane; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard
2001-03-01
Polypyrrole nanotubes were electrochemically synthesized within the pores of nanoporous track-etched membranes. After dissolution of the template membrane, they were dispersed on PET membranes. Their tensile elastic modulus was measured by probing them in three points bending using an atomic force microscope. The elastic modulus was deduced from force-curve measurements. In this communication, the effect of the synthesis temperature and of the nanotube diameter will be presented. Especially it will be shown that the elastic modulus strongly increases when the nanotube outer diameter is reduced from 160 nm down to 35 nm. These results are in good agreement with previous results showing that the electrical conductivity of polypyrrole nanotubes increases by more than one order of magnitude when the diameter decreases in the same range. These behaviors could be explained by a larger ratio of well-oriented defect-free polymer chains in smaller tubes.
The elastic modulus of isolated polytetrafluoroethylene filaments
Patrick Drawe
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We report vibrational Raman spectra of small extended perfluoro-n-alkanes (CnF2n+2 with n = 6, 8–10, 12–14 isolated in supersonic jet expansions and use wavenumbers of longitudinal acoustic vibrations to extrapolate the elastic modulus of cold, isolated polytetrafluoroethylene filaments. The derived value E = 209(10 GPa defines an upper limit for the elastic modulus of the perfectly crystalline, noninteracting polymer at low temperatures and serves as a benchmark for quantum chemical predictions.
Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus
Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil
1998-01-01
time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid.......This paper reports on aging of the silicone oil MS704 for sudden changes of temperature from 210.5 to 209.0 K and from 207.5 to 209.0 K studied by continuously monitoring the instantaneous shear modulus G [infinity]. The results are interpreted within the Tool-Narayanaswamy formalism with a reduced...
Fracture strength and Young's modulus of ZnO nanowires
The fracture strength of ZnO nanowires vertically grown on sapphire substrates was measured in tensile and bending experiments. Nanowires with diameters between 60 and 310 nm and a typical length of 2 μm were manipulated with an atomic force microscopy tip mounted on a nanomanipulator inside a scanning electron microscope. The fracture strain of (7.7 ± 0.8)% measured in the bending test was found to be close to the theoretical limit of 10% and revealed a strength about twice as high as in the tensile test. From the tensile experiments, the Young's modulus could be measured to be within 30% of that of bulk ZnO, contrary to the lower values found in the literature
Elastic modulus of cetacean auditory ossicles.
Tubelli, Andrew A; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R; Mountain, David C
2014-05-01
In order to model the hearing capabilities of marine mammals (cetaceans), it is necessary to understand the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of the middle ear bones in these species. Biologically realistic models can be used to investigate the biomechanics of hearing in cetaceans, much of which is currently unknown. In the present study, the elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) of eight species of cetacean, two baleen whales (mysticete) and six toothed whales (odontocete), were measured using nanoindentation. The two groups of mysticete ossicles overall had lower average elastic moduli (35.2 ± 13.3 GPa and 31.6 ± 6.5 GPa) than the groups of odontocete ossicles (53.3 ± 7.2 GPa to 62.3 ± 4.7 GPa). Interior bone generally had a higher modulus than cortical bone by up to 36%. The effects of freezing and formalin-fixation on elastic modulus were also investigated, although samples were few and no clear trend could be discerned. The high elastic modulus of the ossicles and the differences in the elastic moduli between mysticetes and odontocetes are likely specializations in the bone for underwater hearing. PMID:24523260
Determination of Young's modulus by nanoindentation
MA; Dejun; Chung; Wo; Ong; LIU; Jianmin; HE; Jiawen
2004-01-01
A methodology for determining Young's modulus of materials by non-ideally sharp indentation has been developed. According to the principle of the same area-to-depth ratio, a non-ideally pyramidal indenter like a Berkovich one can be approximated by a non-ideally conical indenter with a spherical cap at the tip. By applying dimensional and finite element analysis to the non-ideally conical indentation, a set of approximate one-to-one relationships between the ratio of nominal hardness/reduced Young's modulus and the ratio of elastic work/total work, which correspond to different tip bluntness, have been revealed. The nominal hardness is defined as the maximum indentation load divided by the cross-section area of the conical indenter specified at the maximum indentation depth. As a consequence, Young's modulus can be determined from a nanoindentation test only using the maximum indentation load and depth, and the work done during loading and unloading processes. The new method for determining Young's modulus is referred to as "pure energy method". The validity of the method was examined by performing indentation tests on five materials. The experimental results and the standard reference values are in good agreement, indicating that the proposed pure energy method is a promising substitution for the most widely used analysis models at present.
Improved method for complex modulus estimation
Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang; Wismer, N.J.; Gade, S.
1996-01-01
application note describes a method developed by Mr. Fuglsang Nielsen which will allow the standard non-resonant method for the determination of complex modulus to be used at higher frequencies than otherwise possible. It is also shown how this method can be implemented using Multichannel Analysis System Type...
Thickness dependence of nanofilm elastic modulus
Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Wang, A. B.; Cheng, H.H.
2009-01-01
Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), s. 152111-152113. ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nanofilm * elastic modulus * thickness dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152111/1
Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam
Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method.
Calculating Young's modulus for a carbon nanotube
Alzubi, Feras; Cosby, Ronald
2008-10-01
Young's modulus for an armchair single-wall carbon nanotube was calculated using an atomistic approach and density functional theory (DFT). Atomic forces and total energies for strained carbon nanotube segments were computed using Atomistix's Virtual NanoLab (VNL) and ToolKit (ATK) software. For a maximum strain of one percent, elastic moduli were calculated using both force-strain and energy-strain data. The average values found for Young's modulus were in the range 1.2 to 3.9 TPa depending on the cross-sectional area taken for the carbon nanotube, consideration of Poisson's ratio, and the calculation method used. Three possible choices of cross-sectional area for the carbon nanotube are discussed and parameter and convergence tests for the DFT computations are described.
Modulus of unbounded valence subdivision rules
Rushton, Brian
2011-01-01
Cannon, Floyd and Parry have studied the modulus of finite subdivision rules extensively. We investigate the properties of the modulus of subdivision rules with linear and exponential growth at every vertex, using barycentric subdivision and a subdivision rule for the Borromean rings as examples. We show that the subdivision rule arising from the Borromean rings is conformal, and conjecture that the subdivision rules for all alternating links are conformal. We show that the 1,2,3-tile criterion of Cannon, Floyd, and Parry is sufficient to prove conformality for linear growth, but not exponential growth. We show that the criterion gives a weaker form of conformality for subdivision rules of exponential growth at each vertex. We contrast this with the known, bounded-valence case, and illustrate our results with circle packings using Ken Stephenson's Circlepack.
Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene
An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)
Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene
Lu Qiang; Huang Rui [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Arroyo, Marino [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)
2009-05-21
An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)
Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation
Cicoli, Michele [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Pedro, Francisco Gil [Departamento de Fisica Teórica UAM and Instituto de Fisica Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2015-12-21
High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.
Modulus-tunable magnetorheological elastomer microcantilevers
Modulus-tunable microcantilevers are fabricated from magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) consisting of polydimethylsiloxane and carbonyl iron particles by using a simple sandwich molding method. Depending on the presence or absence of an external magnetic field during curing, isotropic or anisotropic MRE cantilevers are obtained. Randomly distributed particles are present in the polymer matrix of the isotropic microcantilevers, whereas the particles in the anisotropic microcantilevers are aligned in the direction of the magnetic field. The fractional changes in the resonance frequencies of the MRE cantilevers are measured as functions of the magnetic field intensity and the quantity of particles in the matrix. The anisotropic microcantilevers undergo greater changes in frequency than the isotropic microcantilevers when exposed to external magnetic fields, which indicates that larger changes in modulus are induced in the anisotropic microcantilevers. In addition, the dissipation and damping ratios of the MRE microcantilevers are determined by fitting the exponential decays of their deflection amplitudes with time. (paper)
High modulus high temperature glass fibers
Bacon, J. F.
1973-01-01
The search for a new high-modulus, high-temperature glass fiber involved the preparation of 500 glass compositions lying in 12 glass fields. These systems consisted primarily of low atomic number oxides and rare-earth oxides. Direct optical measurements of the kinetics of crystallization of the cordierite-rare earth system, for example, showed that the addition of rare-earth oxides decreased the rate of formation of cordierite crystals. Glass samples prepared from these systems proved that the rare-earth oxides made large specific contributions to the Young's modulus of the glasses. The best glasses have moduli greater than 21 million psi, the best glass fibers have moduli greater than 18 million psi, and the best glass fiber-epoxy resin composites have tensile strengths of 298,000 psi, compressive strengths of at least 220,000 psi, flexural strengths of 290,000 psi, and short-beam shear strengths of almost 17,000 psi.
Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation
Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco; Gil Pedro, Francisco
2015-12-01
High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.
Microscopic Origin of Volume Modulus Inflation
Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco Gil
2015-01-01
High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.
On the stabilization of modulus in Randall–Sundrum model by R$\\Phi^2$ interaction
Tofighi A
2016-03-01
A solution to the problem of modulus stabilization is to couple a massless bulk scalar field non-minimally to five-dimensional curvature. We present an exact treatment of the stabilization condition. Our results show that the square of effective mass of this scalar field is necessarily negative. We also find the existence of a closely spaced maximum near the minimum of the effective potential
Shear modulus of the neutron star crust
Complete text of publication follows. The shear modulus of the solid neutron star crust is calculated by the thermodynamic perturbation theory, taking into account ion motion. At given density, the crust is modelled as a body-centred cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of one type with the uniform charge-compensating electron background. Classic and quantum regimes of ion motion are considered. The calculations in the classic temperature range agree well with previous Monte Carlo simulations. At these temperatures, the shear modulus is given by the sum of a positive contribution due to the static lattice and a negative / T contribution due to the ion motion. The quantum calculations are performed for the first time. The main result is that at low temperatures the contribution to the shear modulus due to the ion motion saturates at a constant value, associated with zero-point ion vibrations. Such behaviour is qualitatively similar to the zero-point ion motion contribution to the crystal energy. The quantum effects may be important for lighter elements at higher densities, where the ion plasma temperature is not entirely negligible compared to the typical Coulomb ion interaction energy. Additionally, the correction to the static lattice shear modulus due to the electron gas polarizability is evaluated. This effect is taken into account in the formalism of the dielectric function. Static zero temperature dielectric function of degenerate relativistic electron gas obtained in the Random Phase Approximation is used. The results of numerical calculations are approximated by convenient fitting formulae. They should be used for precise neutron star oscillation modelling, a rapidly developing branch of stellar seismology. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 11-02-00253-a), by the State Program 'Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Federation' (grant NSh 3769.2010.2) and by the Ministry of Education and
Shear modulus titration in crystalline colloidal suspensions
Palberg, Thomas; Kottal, Johannes; Bitzer, Franz; Simon, Rolf; Würth, Mathias; Leiderer, Paul
1995-01-01
We present the first direct experimental access to the actual surface charge number Z of colloidal particles under conditions of strong electrostatic interaction. We further calculate a renormalized charge number Z *(Z) using the modified DLVO approximation and the dependence of the shear modulus G(Z*) on the concentration of neutral electrolyte ns. The excellent agreement of predicted and measured values provides an experimental verification of the renormalization concept under variation of ...
Fibonacci difference sequence spaces for modulus functions
Kuldip Raj
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we introduce Fibonacci difference sequence spaces l(F, Ƒ, p, u and l_∞(F, Ƒ, p, u by using a sequence of modulus functions and a new band matrix F. We also make an effort to study some inclusion relations, topological and geometric properties of these spaces. Furthermore, the alpha, beta, gamma duals and matrix transformation of the space l(F, Ƒ, p, u are determined.
Shear modulus of neutron star crust
Baiko, D A
2011-01-01
Shear modulus of solid neutron star crust is calculated by thermodynamic perturbation theory taking into account ion motion. At given density the crust is modelled as a body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of one type with the uniform charge-compensating electron background. Classic and quantum regimes of ion motion are considered. The calculations in the classic temperature range agree well with previous Monte Carlo simulations. At these temperatures the shear modulus is given by the sum of a positive contribution due to the static lattice and a negative $\\propto T$ contribution due to the ion motion. The quantum calculations are performed for the first time. The main result is that at low temperatures the contribution to the shear modulus due to the ion motion saturates at a constant value, associated with zero-point ion vibrations. Such behavior is qualitatively similar to the zero-point ion motion contribution to the crystal energy. The quantum effects may be important for li...
New multitarget constant modulus array for CDMA systems
Zhang Jidong; Zheng Baoyu
2006-01-01
A new multitarget constant modulus array is proposed for CDMA systems based on least squares constant modulus algorithm. The new algorithm is called pre-despreading decision directed least squares constant modulus algorithm (DDDLSCMA). In the new algorithm, the pre-despreading is first applied for multitarget arrays to remove some multiple access signals, then the despreaded signal is processed by the algorithm which united the constant modulus algorithm and decision directed method. Simulation results illustrate the good performance for the proposed algorithm.
Elastic modulus formulae for a crosslinked network
The usual formula for the elastic modulus E of a crosslinked highly elastic network E = 3ρRT/Mc involves the average molecular weight between crosslinks Mc. It has to be modified by several factors such as the fraction not involved in any external stress and the initial molecular weight distribution. Several correction terms have been proposed. In this paper a fuller calculation is made for two initial molecular weight distributions, uniform and random, to see how far these corrections are valid. Even at high degrees of crosslinking a very significant proportion of the network does not participate in this elastic deformation. It may appear preferable to relate the elastic modulus E to the number of effective segments between crosslinks, independent of their molecular weight Mc E = 3ρkTQ(1-s2)p where Q is the number of crosslinked monomer units per unit volume, and (1-s2)p is a correction factor to allow for segments which are ineffective in an elastic deformation. (author)
Development of a new β Ti alloy with low modulus and favorable plasticity for implant material.
Liang, S X; Feng, X J; Yin, L X; Liu, X Y; Ma, M Z; Liu, R P
2016-04-01
One of the most important development directions of the Ti and its alloys is the applications in medical field. Development of new Ti alloys with low elastic modulus and/or favorable biocompatibility plays an important role for promoting its application in medical field. In this work, a new β Ti alloy (Ti-31Nb-6Zr-5Mo, wt.%) was designed for implant material using d-electron alloy design method. Microstructure and tensile properties of the designed alloy after hot rolling (HR) and solution followed by aging treatments (SA) were investigated. Results show that the designed alloy is composed of single β phase. However, microstructural analysis shows that the β phase in the designed alloy separates into Nb-rich and Nb-poor phase regions. The Nb-rich regions in HR specimen are typical elongated fiber texture, but are equiaxed particles with several micrometers in SA specimen. Tensile results show that the designed alloy has low Young's modulus of 44 GPa for HR specimen and 48 GPa for SA specimen which are very close to the extreme of Young's modulus of bulk titanium alloys. At the same time, the designed alloy has favorable plasticity in term of elongation of 26.7% for HR specimen and 20.6% for SA specimen, and appropriate tensile strength over 700 MPa. In short, the designed alloy has low elastic modulus close to that of bone and favorable plasticity and strength which can be a potential candidate for hard tissue replacements. PMID:26838858
Ibrahim Dauda Muhammad
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The single-walled zirconia nanotube is structurally modeled and its Young’s modulus is valued by using the finite element approach. The nanotube was assumed to be a frame-like structure with bonds between atoms regarded as beam elements. The properties of the beam required for input into the finite element analysis were computed by connecting energy equivalence between molecular and continuum mechanics. Simulation was conducted by applying axial tensile strain on one end of the nanotube while the other end was fixed and the corresponding reaction force recorded to compute Young’s modulus. It was found out that Young’s modulus of zirconia nanotubes is significantly affected by some geometrical parameters such as chirality, diameter, thickness, and length. The obtained values of Young’s modulus for a certain range of diameters are in agreement with what was obtained in the few experiments that have been conducted so far. This study was conducted on the cubic phase of zirconia having armchair and zigzag configuration. The optimal diameter and thickness were obtained, which will assist in designing and fabricating bulk nanostructured components containing zirconia nanotubes for various applications.
Elastic modulus of solid-like microsphere heaps
Ortiz, Carlos; Daniels, Karen; Riehn, Robert
2013-03-01
We study the elastic modulus of heaps of repulsive microspheres to gain insight into the nature of the rigidity of the material. The heaps are initially created by flowing a colloidal microsphere suspension towards a flat-topped ridge placed within a quasi two-dimensional microfluidic channel. The suspension flow-rate determines the heap size via the angle of repose. Using fluorescence video microscopy, we measure the fluorescent heap size until it reaches steady state. We directly visualize the elastic recoil of these steady state heaps in response to controlled changes in the fluid flow rate. We change the flow rate by an amount Δv in a step-like fashion, and measure the amplitude of the bulk heap deformation ΔA . We investigate both compressions and decompressions of varying amplitudes with respect to the steady state. Three deformation regimes are observed. No deformations are observed below a critical perturbation magnitude Δvc . Above Δvc , deformation amplitudes are linear with Δv . However, for large perturbations, nonlinear deformation amplitudes are observed, and their relationship is asymmetric with respect to compression and decompression.
Cold Resistant Properties of High Modulus Polyurethane
LI Minghua; XIA Ru; ZHANG Yuchuan; HUANG Zhifang; YAO Heping; HUANG Wanli; WANG Yifeng; HUI Jianqiang; WU Chunyu
2009-01-01
Six kinds of polyurethane(PU)elastomers were prepared based on different poly-esters,polyethers and chain extenders.The structure,mechanical properties and cold resistant proper-ties of PU were systematically investigated by FTIR,XRD,DMTA,universal testing machine and flex ductility machine.The results show that T_g of soft segment is the main factor of the cold resistant properties of polyurethane elastomer.Compared with the same relative molecular mass of the polyester and the polyether,the polyether flexibility is better,the glass transition temperature(T_g)is lower and the cold resistant properties is remarkable,for example the cold resistant properties of PU based on poly(tetramethylene glycol),1,4-BG and MDI achieves the fifth level.The physics performances of polyurethane elastomers,such as breakdown strength,Young's modulus and the cold resistant prop-erties,are all superior.
Five Modulus Method for Image Compression
Firas A. Jassim
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Data may be compressed by reducing the redundancy in the original data, but this makes the data have more errors. In this paper a novel approach of image compression based on a new method that has been created for image compression which is called Five Modulus Method (FMM. The new method consists of converting each pixel value in an 8×8 block into a multiple of 5 for each of the R, G and B arrays. After that, the new values could be divided by 5 to get new values which are 6-bit length for each pixel and it is less in storage space than the original value which is 8-bits. Also, a new protocol for compression of the new values as a stream of bits has been presented that gives the opportunity to store and transfer the new compressed image easily.
Shear modulus of structured electrorheological fluid mixtures
Shitara, Kyohei; Sakaue, Takahiro
2016-05-01
Some immiscible blends under a strong electric field often exhibit periodic structures, bridging the gap between two electrodes. Upon shear, the structures tilt, and exhibit an elastic response which is mostly governed by the electric energy. Assuming a two-dimensional stripe structure, we calculate the Maxwell stress, and derive an expression for the shear modulus, demonstrating how it depends on the external electric field, the composition, and the dielectric properties of the blend. We also suggest the notion of effective interfacial tension, which renormalizes the effect of the electric field. This leads to a simple derivation of the scaling law for the selection of the wavelength of the structure formed under an electric field.
Liu, Jishan; Chen, Zhongwei [Shool of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA, 6009 (Australia); Elsworth, Derek [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Penn State University, PA 16802-5000 (United States); Miao, Xiexing; Mao, Xianbiao [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (China)
2010-07-01
Although coal-gas interactions have been comprehensively investigated, most prior studies have focused on one or more component processes of effective stress or sorption-induced deformation and for resulting isotropic changes in coal permeability. In this study a permeability model is developed to define the evolution of gas sorption-induced permeability anisotropy under the full spectrum of mechanical conditions spanning prescribed in-situ stresses through constrained displacement. In the model, gas sorption-induced coal directional permeabilities are linked into directional strains through an elastic modulus reduction ratio, R{sub m}. It defines the ratio of coal bulk elastic modulus to coal matrix modulus (0 < R{sub m} < 1) and represents the partitioning of total strain for an equivalent porous coal medium between the fracture system and the matrix. Where bulk coal permeability is dominated by the cleat system, the portioned fracture strains may be used to define the evolution of the fracture permeability, and hence the response of the bulk aggregate. The coal modulus reduction ratio provides a straightforward index to link anisotropy in deformability characteristics to the evolution of directional permeabilities. Constitutive models incorporating this concept are implemented in a finite element model to represent the complex interactions of effective stress and sorption under in-situ conditions. The validity of the model is evaluated against benchmark cases for uniaxial swelling and for constant volume reservoirs then applied to match changes in permeability observed in a field production test within a coalbed reservoir. (author)
Study on Size-Dependent Young’s Modulus of a Silicon Nano beam by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Young’s modulus of a silicon nano beam with a rectangular cross-section is studied by molecular dynamics method. Dynamic simulations are performed for doubly clamped silicon nano beams with lengths ranging from 4.888 to 12.491 nm and cross-sections ranging from 1.22 nm ×1.22 nm to 3.39 nm × 3.39 nm. The results show that Young’s moduli of such small silicon nano beams are much higher than the value of Young’s modulus for bulk silicon. Moreover, the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus of the Si nano beam are strongly dependent not only on the size of the nano beam but also on surface effects. Young’s modulus increases significantly with the decreasing of the thickness of the silicon nano beam. This result qualitatively agrees with one of the conclusions based on a semi continuum model, in which the surface relaxation and the surface tension were taken into consideration. The impacts of the surface reconstruction with (2 ×1) dimmers on the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus are studied in this paper too. It is shown that the surface reconstruction makes the silicon nano beam stiffer than the one without the surface reconstruction, resulting in a higher resonant frequency and a larger Young’s modulus
Estimating the density scaling exponent of viscous liquids from specific heat and bulk modulus data
Pedersen, Ulf R.; Hecksher, Tina; Jakobsen, Bo; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2009-01-01
It was recently shown by computer simulations that a large class of liquids exhibits strong correlations in their thermal fluctuations of virial and potential energy [Pedersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 015701 (2008)]. Among organic liquids the class of strongly correlating liquids includes van der Waals liquids, but excludes ionic and hydrogen-bonding liquids. The present note focuses on the density scaling of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., the fact their relaxation time tau at diffe...
On the realization of the bulk modulus bounds for two-phase viscoelastic composites
Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Andreassen, Erik; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;
2014-01-01
can be realized by additive manufacturing technologies followed by an infiltration process. Viscoelastic composites consisting of a relatively stiff elastic phase, e.g. steel, and a relatively lossy viscoelastic phase, e.g. silicone rubber, have non-connected stiff regions when optimized for maximum...
Dynamic resilient modulus of silt%粉土动态回弹模量试验研究
董城; 冷伍明; 李志勇
2012-01-01
For the sake of investigating the factors which affect the silt dynamic resilient modulus and their laws, a series resilient modulus tests were carried out by conducting dynamic-triaxial test. The relationships between deviation stress, confining stress, bulk stress and dynamic resilient modulus were analyzed. Considering that dynamic resilient modulus is a function of deviation stress and bulk stress, with a brief introduction of the present resilient modulus constitutive prediction models, the dynamic resilient modulus constitutive model which reflects the effect of bulk stress and deviator stress was utilized for experimental data regression analysis. The results demonstrate that dynamic resilient modulus rise with the increase of confining stress and compaction degree, in reverse of circular deviator stress and moisture content. A high relativity between the predictive results and the experimental value shows that the model which reflects the effect of bulk stress and deviator stress is accurate and credible. A high coefficient of determination shows that the model which reflects the effect of bulk stress and deviator stress is accurate and credible. The prediction models for different compaction degrees, and moisture content were achieved, and they can provide parameters for the pavement design based on dynamic method.%利用动三轴试验,研究粉土动态回弹模量的影响因素及其规律,分析动态回弹模量对偏应力、侧应力和体应力的依赖关系,在回弹模量本构预估模型的基础上,采用偏应力和体应力为变量的动态回弹模量本构模型对试验数据进行回归分析.结果表明:动态回弹模量随围压和压实度的提高而增大,随循环偏应力和含水量的增大而减小.所选模型具有较高的决定系数,证明所选模型具有较高的合理性与可靠性,同时获得了不同含水量和压实度下粉土的动态回弹模量预估模型,可为基于动力学的路面结构设计提供参数.
Holmes Amey J
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.
Minimal subfamilies and the probabilistic interpretation for modulus on graphs
Albin, Nathan
2016-01-01
The notion of $p$-modulus of a family of objects on a graph is a measure of the richness of such families. We develop the notion of minimal subfamilies using the method of Lagrangian duality for $p$-modulus. We show that minimal subfamilies have at most $|E|$ elements and that these elements carry a weight related to their "importance" in relation to the corresponding $p$-modulus problem. When $p=2$, this measure of importance is in fact a probability measure and modulus can be thought as trying to minimize the expected overlap in the family.
Floating liquid bridge tensile behavior: Electric-field-induced Young's modulus measurements
Teschke, Omar; Mendez Soares, David; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz
2013-12-01
A floating bridge is formed spontaneously when high voltage is applied to polar fluids in two capillary tubes that were in contact and then separated. This bridge bends under its own weight, and its bending profile was used to calculate its Young's modulus. For electric field intensities of ˜106 V/m, water bridges exhibit viscoelastic behavior, with Young's moduli of ˜24 MPa; dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) bridges exhibited Young's moduli of ˜60 kPa. The scheme devised to measure the voltage drop across the water bridge for high voltages applied between the electrodes shows that the bulk water resistance decreases with increasing voltage.
On the Modulus of a Union of Nested Annuli
Comerford, Mark
2011-01-01
We prove a result which gives sufficient conditions for a conformal annulus which is a countable union of nested conformal annuli to have bounded modulus. Our theorem also gives estimates for the modulus of such an annulus and is proved using an interpolation result which constructs a quasiconformal map between two annuli given a smooth identification of their boundaries.
Inflationary Constraints on Late Time Modulus Dominated Cosmology
Dutta, Koushik
2014-01-01
We consider cosmological scenarios in which density perturbations are generated by inflation at early times; the late time dynamics involves a modulus which first dominates the energy density of the universe and then decays to reheat the visible sector. By examining the evolution of energy density of the universe from the time of horizon exit of a pivot mode to the present day, and the fact that a modulus field decays via Planck suppressed interactions, we arrive at a relation which relates the mass of the modulus, inflationary observables/parameters and broad characteristics of the post inflationary reheating phase. When viewed together with generic expectations regarding reheating and the initial field displacement of the modulus after inflation, the relation gives a bound on the minimum mass of the modulus. For a large class of models, the bounds obtained (for the central values of Planck data) can be much stronger than the "cosmological moduli problem" bound.
Optical measurement of DNA torsional modulus under various stretching forces
Choi, Jaehyuck
2005-03-01
Optical measurement of DNA torsional modulus under various stretching forces Jaehyuck Choi[1], Kai Zhao[2] Y.-H. Lo[1] [1] Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, [2] Department of Physics University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 We have measured the torsional spring modulus of a double stranded-DNA by applying an external torque around the axis of a vertically stretched DNA molecule. We observed that the torsional modulus of the DNA increases with stretching force. This result supports the hypothesis that an applied stretching force may raise the intrinsic torsional modulus of ds-DNA via elastic coupling between twisting and stretching. This further verifies that the torsional modulus value (C = 46.5 +/- 10 pN nm2) of a ds-DNA investigated under Brownian torque (no external force and torque) could be the pure intrinsic value without contribution from other effects such as stretching, bending, or buckling of DNA chains.
Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals
Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.
1978-01-01
Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...
STM verification of the reduction of the Young's modulus of CdS nanoparticles at smaller sizes
Hazarika, A.; Peretz, E.; Dikovsky, V.; Santra, P. K.; Shneck, R. Z.; Sarma, D. D.; Manassen, Y.
2014-12-01
We demonstrate the first STM evaluation of the Young's modulus (E) of nanoparticles (NPs) of different sizes. The sample deformation induced by tip-sample interaction has been determined using current-distance (I-Z) spectroscopy. As a result of tip-sample interaction, and the induced surface deformations, the I-z curves deviates from pure exponential dependence. Normally, in order to analyze the deformation quantitatively, the tip radius must be known. We show, that this necessity is eliminated by measuring the deformation on a substrate with a known Young's modulus (Au(111)) and estimating the tip radius, and afterwards, using the same tip (with a known radius) to measure the (unknown) Young's modulus of another sample (nanoparticles of CdS). The Young's modulus values found for 3 NP's samples of average diameters of 3.7, 6 and 7.5 nm, were E ~ 73%, 78% and 88% of the bulk value, respectively. These results are in a good agreement with the theoretically predicted reduction of the Young's modulus due to the changes in hydrostatic stresses which resulted from surface tension in nanoparticles with different sizes. Our calculation using third order elastic constants gives a reduction of E which scales linearly with 1/r (r is the NP's radius). This demonstrates the applicability of scanning tunneling spectroscopy for local mechanical characterization of nanoobjects. The method does not include a direct measurement of the tip-sample force but is rather based on the study of the relative elastic response.
Elastic modulus of phases in Ti–Mo alloys
Zhang, Wei-dong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu11@aliyun.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Wu, Hong; Song, Min [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Tuo-yang [Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Lan, Xiao-dong; Yao, Tian-hang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)
2015-08-15
In this work, a series of binary Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were prepared using non-consumable arc melting. The microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, and the elastic modulus was evaluated by nanoindentation testing technique. The evolution of the volume fractions of ω phase was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the phase constitution and elastic modulus of the Ti–Mo alloys are sensitive to the Mo content. Ti–3.2Mo and Ti–8Mo alloys containing only α and β phases, respectively, have a low elastic modulus. In contrast, Ti–4.5Mo, Ti–6Mo, Ti–7Mo alloys, with different contents of ω phase, have a high elastic modulus. A simple micromechanical model was used to calculate the elastic modulus of ω phase (E{sub ω}), which was determined to be 174.354 GPa. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were investigated. • XPS was used to investigate the volume fractions of ω phase. • The elastic modulus of Ti–Mo alloys is sensitive to the Mo content. • The elastic modulus of ω phase was determined to be 174.354 GPa.
Relationship between swelling and the shear modulus of irradiated metal
In three alloy systems, AISI 316, the Ni-Al binary system, and the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary system, a relationship exists between the shear modulus of the unirradiated alloys and the resultant swelling observed. An alloying addition which reduces the shear modulus will subsequently reduce the irradiation-induced swelling in a solid solution hardened alloy system. The reduction in swelling is thought to be associated with the void nucleation phase of the swelling phenomenon. Thus, relative high temperature swelling behavior of the solid solution hardened alloys can be described with reasonable certainty from room temperature shear modulus measurement
Measurements of elastic modulus in Zr alloys for CANDU applications
Measurements of elastic modulus as a function of temperature from 20 to 400°C were carried out on specimens of Zr-2.5Nb, Zircaloy-4, Zircaloy-2 and Excel Zr alloy using an ultrasonic resonance technique. The specimens were machined from CANDU pressure tubes, a calandria tube and commercial sheet material. Effects of crystallographic texture, neutron irradiation and hydrogen on elastic modulus were investigated. The results show that elastic modulus of the Zr alloys (1) decreases with increasing temperature, (2) depends strongly on crystallographic texture, and (3) increases slightly with neutron irradiation. (author)
Luiz Claudio Pardini
2002-10-01
Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.
Temperature, Frequency and Young’s Modulus of a Wineglass
2015-01-01
A crystal soda-lime wineglass, heated to temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 150 °C, was tapped and the frequency recorded. It was shown that the relative change in the frequency at different temperatures can be used to determine the effect of temperature on Young’s Modulus of the glass. This simple method of tapping a wineglass is proposed as an effective way of determining the relative effect of temperature on Young’ Modulus of glass.
Young's modulus of polyelectrolyte multilayers from microcapsule swelling
Vinogradova, O. I.; Andrienko, D.; Lulevich, V. V.; Nordschild, S.; Sukhorukov, G. B.
2003-01-01
We measure Young's modulus of a free polyelectrolyte multilayer film by studying osmotically induced swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules filled with the polyelectrolyte solution. Different filling techniques and core templates were used for the capsule preparation. Varying the concentration of the polyelectrolyte inside the capsule, its radius and the shell thickness yielded an estimate of an upper limit for Young's modulus of the order of 100 MPa. This corresponds to an elas...
Modeling of change in asphalt concrete dynamic modulus
A.M. Kirillov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Historically, since the 1930s, deformation and power criteria were defined by methods of calculation of non-rigid road clothes (the deformation modulus, the California bearing ratio, the dynamic modulus. For almost a centenary history considerable statistical changes of the specified indicators in road layers were collected. However, the physical essence of these changes and their regularity still remain unknown. Over the last decade in the field of auto roads the use of energy criteria has been more universal in comparison with the strength and deformation. These criteria bear in itself a predictive function, allow not only estimating integrally and complexly the pavement functional condition, but also managing this state during operation. Despite this fact, in today’s regulatory documents one of the main characteristics of asphalt concrete is still the deformation indicator – dynamic modulus. At the same time, now there is no reliable approach that would make it possible to define change of dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete in operation, so this task is still urgent. Moreover, there are no accurate dependences of ratio change between static and dynamic modules of asphalt concrete during operation. Change of dynamic modulus as private indicator can be used at calculation of energy functions variation. In this paper the authors made an attempt to simulate changes of dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete when loading and analyzed the suggested viscoelastic model. New results, in particular analytical dependences, can form the basis of new regulatory documents for asphalt concrete pavement construction.
Berryman, J G
2005-03-23
To provide quantitative measures of the importance of fluid effects on shear waves in heterogeneous reservoirs, a model material called a ''random polycrystal of porous laminates'' is introduced. This model poroelastic material has constituent grains that are layered (or laminated), and each layer is an isotropic, microhomogeneous porous medium. All grains are composed of exactly the same porous constituents, and have the same relative volume fractions. The order of lamination is not important because the up-scaling method used to determine the transversely isotropic (hexagonal) properties of the grains is Backus averaging, which--for quasi-static or long-wavelength behavior--depends only on the volume fractions and layer properties. Grains are then jumbled together totally at random, filling all space, and producing an overall isotropic poroelastic medium. The poroelastic behavior of this medium is then analyzed using the Peselnick-Meister-Watt bounds (of Hashin-Shtrikman type). We study the dependence of the shear modulus on pore fluid properties and determine the range of behavior to be expected. In particular we compare and contrast these results to those anticipated from Gassmann's fluid substitution formulas, and to the predictions of Mavko and Jizba for very low porosity rocks with flat cracks. This approach also permits the study of arbitrary numbers of constituents, but for simplicity the numerical examples are restricted here to just two constituents. This restriction also permits the use of some special exact results available for computing the overall effective stress coefficient in any two-component porous medium. The bounds making use of polycrystalline microstructure are very tight. Results for the shear modulus demonstrate that the ratio of compliance differences R (i.e., shear compliance changes over bulk compliance changes when going from drained to undrained behavior, or vice versa) is usually nonzero and can take a wide
Factors that influence muscle shear modulus during passive stretch.
Koo, Terry K; Hug, François
2015-09-18
Although elastography has been increasingly used for evaluating muscle shear modulus associated with age, sex, musculoskeletal, and neurological conditions, its physiological meaning is largely unknown. This knowledge gap may hinder data interpretation, limiting the potential of using elastography to gain insights into muscle biomechanics in health and disease. We derived a mathematical model from a widely-accepted Hill-type passive force-length relationship to gain insight about the physiological meaning of resting shear modulus of skeletal muscles under passive stretching, and validated the model by comparing against the ex-vivo animal data reported in our recent work (Koo et al. 2013). The model suggested that resting shear modulus of a slack muscle is a function of specific tension and parameters that govern the normalized passive muscle force-length relationship as well as the degree of muscle anisotropy. The model also suggested that although the slope of the linear shear modulus-passive force relationship is primarily related to muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (i.e. the smaller the muscle cross-sectional area, the more the increase in shear modulus to result in the same passive muscle force), it is also governed by the normalized passive muscle force-length relationship and the degree of muscle anisotropy. Taken together, although muscle shear modulus under passive stretching has a strong linear relationship with passive muscle force, its actual value appears to be affected by muscle's mechanical, material, and architectural properties. This should be taken into consideration when interpreting the muscle shear modulus values. PMID:26113291
Role of gradients in vocal fold elastic modulus on phonation.
Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Kelleher, Jordan E; Siegmund, Thomas
2015-09-18
New studies show that the elastic properties of the vocal folds (VFs) vary locally. In particular strong gradients exist in the distribution of elastic modulus along the length of the VF ligament, which is an important load-bearing constituent of the VF tissue. There is further evidence that changes in VF health are associated with alterations in modulus gradients. The role of VF modulus gradation on VF vibration and phonation remains unexplored. In this study the magnitude of the gradient in VF elastic modulus is varied, and sophisticated computational simulations are performed of the self-oscillation of three-dimensional VFs with realistic modeling of airflow physical properties. Results highlight that phonation frequency, characteristic modes of deformation and phase differences, glottal airflow rate, spectral-width of vocal output, and glottal jet dynamics are dependent on the magnitude of VF elastic modulus gradation. The results advance the understanding of how VF functional gradation can lead to perceptible changes in speech quality. PMID:26159059
Determination of Young's Modulus of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy
Lee, Jae-Ung; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik
2012-02-01
The mechanical properties of graphene are interesting research subjects because its Young's modulus and strength are extremely high. Values of ˜1 TPa for the Young's modulus have been reported [Lee et al. Science, 321, 385 (2008), Koenig et al. Nat. Nanotech. 6, 543 (2011)]. We made a graphene sample on a SiO2/Si substrate with closed-bottom holes by mechanical exfoliation. A pressure difference across the graphene membrane was applied by putting the sample in a vacuum chamber. This pressure difference makes the graphene membrane bulge upward like a balloon. By measuring the shifts of the Raman G and 2D bands, we estimated the amount of strain on the graphene membrane. By comparing the strain estimated from the Raman measurements with numerical simulations based on the finite element method, we obtained the Young's modulus of graphene.
Dynamic Shear Modulus of Polymers from Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Byutner, Oleksiy; Smith, Grant
2001-03-01
In this work we describe the methodology for using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) simulations to obtain the viscoelastic properties of polymers in the glassy regime. Specifically we show how the time dependent shear stress modulus and frequency dependent complex shear modulus in the high-frequency regime can be determined from the off-diagonal terms of the stress-tensor autocorrelation function obtained from MD trajectories using the Green-Kubo method and appropriate Fourier transforms. In order to test the methodology we have performed MD simulations of a low-molecular-weight polybutadiene system using quantum chemistry based potential functions. Values of the glassy modulus and the maximum loss frequency were found to be in good agreement with experimental data for polybutadiene at 298 K.
Young's modulus of a solid two-dimensional Langmuir monolayer
Bercegol, H.; Meunier, J.
1992-03-01
LANGMUIR monolayers-films of amphiphilic molecules at the surface of water-exhibit many phases1,2. Some of these behave like two-dimensional solids on experimental timescales, but previous measurements of the shear modulus of these 'solid' monolayers3-5 have yielded a value too small to be compatible with a two-dimensional crystal. The interpretation of these is complicated, however, by the likelihood of inhomogeneities in the films, which are probably assemblies of microscopic crystalline domains. Here we describe measurements of the Young's modulus of an isolated "solid' domain of NBD-stearic acid monolayers. We obtain a value large enough to be compatible with the modulus of a two-dimensional crystal6-8. This suggests that Langmuir monolayers should provide model systems for studies of melting in two dimensions6-8.
Determination of the elastic modulus of snow via acoustic measurements
Gerling, Bastian; van Herwijnen, Alec; Löwe, Henning
2016-04-01
The elastic modulus of snow is a key quantity from the viewpoint of avalanche research and forecasting, snow engineering or materials science in general. Since it is a fundamental property, many measurements have been reported in the literature. Due to differences in measurement methods, there is a lot of variation in the reported values. Especially values derived via computer tomography (CT) based numerical calculations using finite element methods are not corresponding to the results of other methods. The central issue is that CT based moduli are purely elastic whereas other methods may include viscoelastic deformation. In order to avoid this discrepancy we derived the elastic modulus of snow via wave propagation measurements and compared our results with CT based calculations. We measured the arrival times of acoustic pulses propagating through the snow samples to determine the P-wave velocity and in turn derive the elastic modulus along the direction of wave propagation. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to derive the P-wave modulus of snow in relation to density. The P-wave modulus ranged from 10 to 280 MPa for a snow density between 150 and 370 kg/m³. The moduli derived from the acoustic measurements correlated well with the CT-based values and both exhibited a power law trend over the entire density range. Encouraged by these results we used the acoustic method to investigate the temporal evolution of the elastic modulus. The rate of increase was very close to values mentioned in literature on the sintering rate of snow. Overall, our results are a first but important step towards a new measurement method to attain the elastic properties of snow.
Reconstruction of a tissue shear modulus together with mechanical sources
To achieve a differential diagnosis of cancerous disease in human soft tissues in vivo in organs such as the liver, breast etc., of cardiac dynamics with myocardial infarction etc. and hemodynamics or atherosclerosis etc., various strain measurement based shear modulus reconstruction methods have been developed. The strain tensor in a region of interest (ROI) is measured using ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The shear modulus reconstruction methods have also been applied to confirm the effectiveness of thermal treatments such as in human liver in vivo, exempli gratia (e.g.), regeneration, coagulation etc. In this study, the previously developed shear modulus reconstruction methods are extended, so that arbitrary internal mechanical sources expressed as a static or dynamic pressure, or as a force vector in a region of interest can be reconstructed together with a shear modulus such as a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and a radiation force for a tissue deformation as well as for treatments, static compressors, vibrators, heart motion and pulsation. Originally, the methods assumed that mechanical sources existed outside of a ROI (id est (i.e.), external sources). The new methods are also expected to be able to deal with an internal mechanical source combined with other unknowns, except for the shear modulus, e.g., inertia and mean normal stress. For the purpose of shear modulus reconstructions, such a decrease in the number of unknowns decrease computational time and increase the reconstruction accuracy and stability. The performed simulations show that the extended reconstruction methods have a high potential for yielding an arbitrary internal mechanical source reconstruction together with shear modulus reconstruction. The extension of the reconstruction methods will increase the applications of shear modulus reconstruction, e.g., a deeply situated tissue can be dealt with, and an image during a treatment with a HIFU or radiation force
Young modulus dependence of nanoscopic friction coefficient in hard coatings
Riedo, E.; Brune, H.
2003-01-01
We present an atomic force microscope study of nanoscopic sliding friction on diamond, diamond-like carbon, and on three CrN thin films with varying hardness obtained by different growth temperatures. For the CrN films, we show that the changes in the friction coefficient can be traced back to variations of the Young modulus. More generally, we show for all samples investigated and in wearless regime, that the nanoscopic friction coefficient is directly linked to the Young modulus. (C) 2003 A...
Determination of Young's modulus of silica aerogels using holographic interferometry
Chikode, Prashant P.; Sabale, Sandip R.; Vhatkar, Rajiv S.
2016-05-01
Digital holographic interferometry technique is used to determine elastic modulus of silica aerogels. Tetramethoxysilane precursor based Silica aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel process followed by supercritical methanol drying. The alcogels were prepared by keeping the molar ratio of tetramethoxysilane: methyltrimethoxysilane: H2O constant at 1:0.6:4 while the methanol / tetramethoxysilane molar ratio (M) was varied systematically from 12 to 18. Holograms of translucent aerogel samples have been successfully recorded using the digital holographic interferometry technique. Stimulated digital interferograms gives localization of interference fringes on the aerogel surface and these fringes are used to determine the surface deformation and Young's modulus (Y) of the aerogels.
Temperature, Frequency and Young’s Modulus of a Wineglass
Amitta Miller
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A crystal soda-lime wineglass, heated to temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 150 °C, was tapped and the frequency recorded. It was shown that the relative change in the frequency at different temperatures can be used to determine the effect of temperature on Young’s Modulus of the glass. This simple method of tapping a wineglass is proposed as an effective way of determining the relative effect of temperature on Young’ Modulus of glass.
Modulus of families of loops with applications in network analysis
Shakeri, Heman; Albin, Nathan; Scoglio, Caterina
2016-01-01
We study the structure of loops in networks using the notion of modulus of loop families. We introduce a new measure of network clustering by quantifying the richness of families of simple loops. Modulus tries to minimize the expected overlap among loops by spreading the expected link-usage optimally. We propose weighting networks using these expected link-usages to improve classical community detection algorithms. We show that the proposed method enhances the performance of certain algorithms, such as spectral partitioning and modularity maximization, on standard benchmarks.
Bending modulus of bidisperse particle rafts: Local and collective contributions
Petit, Pauline; Biance, Anne-Laure; Lorenceau, Elise; Planchette, Carole
2016-04-01
The bending modulus of air-water interfaces covered by a monolayer of bidisperse particles is probed experimentally under quasistatic conditions via the compression of the monolayer, and under dynamical conditions studying capillary-wave propagation. Simple averaging of the modulus obtained solely with small or large particles fails to describe our data. Indeed, as observed in other configurations for monodisperse systems, bidisperse rafts have both a granular and an elastic character: chain forces and collective effects must be taken into account to fully understand our results.
M. Boudjema
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The elastic response of many rocks to quasistatic stress changes is highly nonlinear and hysteretic, displaying discrete memory. Rocks also display unusual nonlinear response to dynamic stress changes. A model to describe the elastic behavior of rocks and other consolidated materials is called the Preisach-Mayergoyz (PM space model. In contrast to the traditional analytic approach to stress-strain, the PM space picture establishes a relationship between the quasistatic data and a number density of hysteretic mesoscopic elastic elements in the rock. The number density allows us to make quantitative predictions of dynamic elastic properties. Using the PM space model, we analyze a complex suite of quasistatic stress-strain data taken on Berea sandstone. We predict a dynamic bulk modulus and a dynamic shear modulus surface as a function of mean stress and shear stress. Our predictions for the dynamic moduli compare favorably to moduli derived from time of flight measurements. We derive a set of nonlinear elastic constants and a set of constants that describe the hysteretic behavior of the sandstone.
Boudjema, M.; Santos, I. B.; McCall, K. R.; Guyer, R. A.; Boitnott, G. N.
The elastic response of many rocks to quasistatic stress changes is highly nonlinear and hysteretic, displaying discrete memory. Rocks also display unusual nonlinear response to dynamic stress changes. A model to describe the elastic behavior of rocks and other consolidated materials is called the Preisach-Mayergoyz (PM) space model. In contrast to the traditional analytic approach to stress-strain, the PM space picture establishes a relationship between the quasistatic data and a number density of hysteretic mesoscopic elastic elements in the rock. The number density allows us to make quantitative predictions of dynamic elastic properties. Using the PM space model, we analyze a complex suite of quasistatic stress-strain data taken on Berea sandstone. We predict a dynamic bulk modulus and a dynamic shear modulus surface as a function of mean stress and shear stress. Our predictions for the dynamic moduli compare favorably to moduli derived from time of flight measurements. We derive a set of nonlinear elastic constants and a set of constants that describe the hysteretic behavior of the sandstone.
Measurement of elastic modulus in a 92% dense LiTiO3 through nanoindentation technique
Nano-indentation testing is used to evaluate the mechanical properties of materials with limited size and of thin coatings. The indentation depth is the prime parameter which is measured to evaluate the hardness and modulus. The materials generally used for this technique are dense and pore free. Of late, attempts are being made to extend the nanoindentation technique to evaluate the properties of porous materials. In this work, nanoindentation technique is employed to investigate the bulk mechanical properties of LiTiO3 with low pore fraction. Here, the number of pores in the indentation volume is made to vary by varying the indentation load and the relevant mechanical properties are estimated by conventional analysis
Fracture strength and Young's modulus of ZnO nanowires
Hoffmann, S [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Feuerwerkerstrasse 36, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Oestlund, F [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Feuerwerkerstrasse 36, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Michler, J [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Feuerwerkerstrasse 36, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Fan, H J [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Zacharias, M [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Christiansen, S H [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Ballif, C [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, A-L Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)
2007-05-23
The fracture strength of ZnO nanowires vertically grown on sapphire substrates was measured in tensile and bending experiments. Nanowires with diameters between 60 and 310 nm and a typical length of 2 {mu}m were manipulated with an atomic force microscopy tip mounted on a nanomanipulator inside a scanning electron microscope. The fracture strain of (7.7 {+-} 0.8)% measured in the bending test was found to be close to the theoretical limit of 10% and revealed a strength about twice as high as in the tensile test. From the tensile experiments, the Young's modulus could be measured to be within 30% of that of bulk ZnO, contrary to the lower values found in the literature.
Increasing the elastic modulus of graphene by controlled defect creation
López-Polín, Guillermo; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Parente, Vincenzo; Guinea, Francisco; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Gómez-Herrero, Julio
2015-01-01
The extraordinary strength, stiffness and lightness of graphene have generated great expectations of its application in flexible electronics and as a mechanical reinforcement agent. However, the presence of lattice defects, unavoidable in sheets obtained by scalable routes, might degrade its mechanical properties. Here we report a systematic study on the elastic modulus and strength of graphene with a controlled density of defects. Counter-intuitively, the in-plane Young’s modulus increases with increasing defect density up to almost twice the initial value for a vacancy content of ~0.2%. For a higher density of vacancies, the elastic modulus decreases with defect inclusions. The initial increase in Young’s modulus is explained in terms of a dependence of the elastic coefficients on the momentum of flexural modes predicted for two-dimensional membranes. In contrast, the fracture strength decreases with defect density according to standard fracture continuum models. These quantitative structure-property relationships, measured in atmospheric conditions, are of fundamental and technological relevance and provide guidance for applications in which graphene mechanics represents a disruptive improvement.
Device for measuring elastic modulus of superconducting coils (See 7903169)
1979-01-01
This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903169, 7901386.
Device to measure elastic modulus of superconducting windings
1979-01-01
This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903547X, 7901386.
Modulus of smoothness and theorems concerning approximation on compact groups
H. Vaezi
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf(g=∫Gf(tut−1gdt on a compact group G, and by using this operator, we define spherical modulus of smoothness. So, we prove Stechkin and Jackson-type theorems.
Predicting bulk mechanical properties of cellularized collagen gels using multiphoton microscopy
Raub, CB; Putnam, AJ; Tromberg, BJ; George, SC
2010-01-01
Cellularized collagen gels are a common model in tissue engineering, but the relationship between the microstructure and bulk mechanical properties is only partially understood. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is an ideal non-invasive tool to examine collagen microstructure, cellularity and crosslink content in these gels. In order to identify robust image parameters that characterize microstructural determinants of the bulk elastic modulus, we performed serial MPM and mechanical tests on acellu...
UV caps and modulus stabilization for 6D gauged chiral supergravity
We describe an explicit UV regularization of the brane singularities for all 4D flat configurations of 6D gauged chiral supergravity compactified on axially symmetric internal spaces (for which the general solutions are known). All such solutions have two or fewer co-dimension two singularities, which we resolve in terms of microscopic co-dimension one cylindrical 4-branes, whose interiors are capped using the most general possible 4D flat solution of the 6D field equations. By so doing we show that such a cap is always possible for any given bulk geometry, and obtain an explicit relationship between the properties of the capped 4-branes and the various parameters which describe the bulk solution. We show how these branes generically stabilize the size of the extra dimensions by breaking the scale invariance which relates classical solutions to 6D supergravity, and we compute the scalar potential for this modulus in the 4D effective theory. The lifting of this marginal direction provides a natural realization of the Goldberger-Wise stabilization mechanism in six dimensions
Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity
Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL
2012-06-01
This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity
Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Kelvin Foam
Oh Sukwon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Elastic modulus of 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam of 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fablicate a Kelvin foam plate of 14mm thickness by 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is filled completely with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF method to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity.
Alternative Method for Determining the Elastic Modulus of Concrete
A. H. A. Santos
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the use of the technique of digital image correlation for obtaining the elasticity modulus of concrete. The proposed system uses a USB microscope that captures images at a rate of five frames per second. The stored data are correlated with the applied loads, and a stress-strain curve is generated to determine the concrete compressive modulus of elasticity. Two different concretes were produced and tested using the proposed system. The results were compared with the results obtained using a traditional strain gauge. It was observed a difference in the range of 4% between the two methods, wherein this difference depends of a lot of parameter in the case of the DIC results, as focal length and a video capture resolution, indicating that DIC technique can be used to obtain mechanical properties of concrete.
Bending Modulus Measurement of Single High Performance Fiber
无
2007-01-01
The bending modulus property of high performance fiber is an important property for both polymer science and engineering. The measurement of the bending performance is, however, difficult because of the thin size of the fiber. We have measured this property by the axial compression bending method where single fiber with suitable slenderness is compressed in the fiber axial direction to obtain the peak point of the force-displacement curve. Then the bending modulus and the flexural rigidity can be calculated by measuring the protruding length and diameter of fiber needles and the critical force, Pcr. The measured data show that the bending characteristics of all kinds of high performance fiber are dissimilar evidently.
Determination of effective mass density and modulus for resonant metamaterials.
Park, Jeongwon; Park, Buhm; Kim, Deokman; Park, Junhong
2012-10-01
This work presents a method to determine the effective dynamic properties of resonant metamaterials. The longitudinal vibration of a rod with periodically attached oscillators was predicted using wave propagation analysis. The effective mass density and modulus were determined from the transfer function of vibration responses. Predictions of these effective properties compared favorably with laboratory measurements. While the effective mass density showed significant frequency dependent variation near the natural frequency of the oscillators, the elastic modulus was largely unchanged for the setup considered in this study. The effective mass density became complex-numbered when the spring element of the oscillator was viscoelastic. As the real part of the effective mass density became negative, the propagating wavenumber components disappeared, and vibration transmission through the metamaterial was prohibited. The proposed method provides a consistent approach for evaluating the effective parameters of resonant metamaterials using a small number of vibration measurements. PMID:23039545
Concreting method that produce high modulus of elasticity
Abdelgader H.S.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available During the last decades, the concrete industry has been widely developing in many ways such as the methods of pouring concrete in order to achieve high quality concrete and low cost. Two-stage concrete is characterised by a higher proportion of coarse aggregate therefore the variation in aggregate content influences significantly its mechanical properties. The mechanical characteristics of the two-stage concrete (TSC in failure conditions are dissimilar from the ordinary ones. Behaviour of TSC in compression has been well documented, but there are little published data on its behaviour in tension and modulus of elasticity. This paper presents the results of experimental testing of one type of coarse aggregate and three different mix proportions of grout. It was found that the modulus of elasticity and splitting tensile strength of two-stage concrete is equivalent or higher than that of conventional concrete at the same compressive strength.
Multigene Genetic Programming for Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete
Alireza Mohammadi Bayazidi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new multigene genetic programming (MGGP approach for estimation of elastic modulus of concrete. The MGGP technique models the elastic modulus behavior by integrating the capabilities of standard genetic programming and classical regression. The main aim is to derive precise relationships between the tangent elastic moduli of normal and high strength concrete and the corresponding compressive strength values. Another important contribution of this study is to develop a generalized prediction model for the elastic moduli of both normal and high strength concrete. Numerous concrete compressive strength test results are obtained from the literature to develop the models. A comprehensive comparative study is conducted to verify the performance of the models. The proposed models perform superior to the existing traditional models, as well as those derived using other powerful soft computing tools.
Young's Modulus of Single-Crystal Fullerene C Nanotubes
Tokushi Kizuka
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We performed bending tests on single-crystal nanotubes composed of fullerene C70 molecules by in situ transmission electron microscopy with measurements of loading forces by an optical deflection method. The nanotubes with the outer diameters of 270–470 nm were bent using simple-beam and cantilever-beam loading by the piezomanipulation of silicon nanotips. Young's modulus of the nanotubes increased from 61 GPa to 110 GPa as the outer diameter decreased from 470 nm to 270 nm. Young's modulus was estimated to be 66% of that of single-crystal C60 nanotubes of the same outer diameter.
Hardness and elastic modulus of silicalite-1 crystal twins
Brabec, Libor; Boháč, Petr; Stranyánek, Martin; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Kočiřík, Milan
2006-01-01
Roč. 94, 1-3 (2006), s. 226-233. ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100100563; GA ČR GA203/05/0846 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : silicalite-1 crystlas * hardness * elastic modulus * HF+etching patterns Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.796, year: 2006
Sublinear dispersive conductivity in polyetherimides by the electric modulus formalism
Mudarra López, Miguel; Sellarès González, Jordi; Cañadas Lorenzo, Juan Carlos; Diego Vives, José Antonio
2013-01-01
It can be seen by Dynamic Electrical Analysis that the electrical properties of polyetherimide at temperatures above the glass transition are strongly influenced by space charge. We have studied space charge relaxation in two commercial grades of polyetherimide, Ultem 1000 and Ultem 5000, using this technique. The electric modulus formalism has been used to interpret their conductive properties. In both grades of polyetherimide, asymmetric Argand plots are observed, which are related to a sub...
Determination of Young modulus using portable device for split test
Major, Štěpán; Beneš, Pavel; Vavřík, Daniel; Kocour, Vladimír
Vol. 3. Sarajevo : CICOPBH, 2015 - (Popovac, M.; Idrizbegović-Zgonić, A.; Klarić, S.; Rustempašić, N.; Čausević, A.), s. 277-286 ISSN 2232-965X. - (1). [International conference The importance of place /3./. Sarajevo (BA), 21.10.2015-24.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV001 Keywords : Young modulus * split test * brittle building materials Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage
Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil
López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia
2011-01-01
Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young’s moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young’s modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temper...
Origin of Negative Density and Modulus in Acoustic Metamaterials
Lee, Sam Hyeon; Wright, Oliver B.
2015-01-01
This paper provides a review and fundamental physical interpretation for the effective densities and moduli of acoustic metamaterials. We introduce the terminology of hidden force and hidden source of volume: the effective density or modulus is negative when the hidden force or source of volume is larger than, and operates in antiphase to, respectively, the force or volume change that would be obtained in their absence. We demonstrate this ansatz for some established acoustic metamaterials wi...
Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.
2008-01-01
Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a
Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys
This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material
Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices
Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)
2013-02-04
We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.
Compressive elastic modulus of natural fiber based binary composites
Widayani, Susanah, Y.; Utami, L. S.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.
2012-06-01
The composites made of bamboo apus fiber - epoxy resin and charcoal - tapioca starch with several compositions have been synthesized. Bamboo fiber powder as the rest of cutting process was refined and filtered by mesh 40 before used. Epoxy resin 1021A and hardener 1021B has been used as resin. The synthesis of epoxy resin-based composites was carried out via simple mixing method by adding adequate 70% ethanol solution before drying. The 100 mesh-filtered dry charcoal was mixed with tapioca mixture before it was pressed and dried to produce briquette composites. To study the compressive elastic modulus of the composites, pressure tests using Mark 10 Pressure Test Machine have been carried out. It was found that all the composites show maximum compressive elastic modulus at certain component compositions. The maximum elastic modulus for bamboo fiber-epoxy resin, charcoal - epoxy resin and charcoal-tapioca starch were observed at 52.9%, 56.3%, and 25.0% of mass fraction of bamboo fiber, charcoal and tapioca starch, respectively.
Static mechanical properties for Ca48Mg27Cu25 bulk metallic glass by ultrasonic velocity measurement
The static mechanical properties of a Ca48Mg27Cu25 bulk metallic glass were investigated using a technique of ultrasonic measurement and compressive test. The Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (v), shear modulus (G) and bulk modulus (B) for the Ca48Mg27Cu25 alloy at room temperature are significantly smaller than those for Zr- and Pd- based bulk metallic glasses. The values of E, v, G and B for the Ca48Mg27Cu25 alloy are 29.8GPa, 0.230, 12.1GPa and 18.4GPa, respectively. The results of compression test for the Ca48Mg27Cu25 alloy have been also described.
Duarte, N.; Xiong, Qihua; Srinivas, Tadigadapa; Eklund, Peter
2006-03-01
In this approach, a nanowire beam is fixed at two ends and an AFM is used to apply a force F(x) where x locates the position along the beam and the beam deflection δz(x) is measured simultaneously. This situation is realized by placing a nanobeam over a trench fabricated on a Silicon substrate via photolithography followed by metal evaporation, lift-off and XeF2 etching. The AFM tip force-distance curve is first obtained from experiments on the rigid substrate. The slope of the AFM force-distance obtained when the tip contacts the beam is then measured and the Young's modulus Y is obtained from the change in slope using the Euler-Bernoulli (E-B) equation. The beam dimensions are also required: the beam height and length via AFM and the beam width and length by SEM. We believe this method can be used in any other nano-beam systems to measure the Young's modulus. Results for rectangular ZnS beams (˜100nm x 100 nm x 5μm long) will be presented that demonstrate the potential for this method. Values for Y lower than reported for the bulk are obtained (i.e. Y(nano) ˜ 70% Y(bulk)). This work was supported, in part, by NSF-NIRT DMR-0304178
Experiment Study and Interpretation on Relation between Modulus of Rock and Strain Amplitude
Bao Xueyang; Shi Xingjue; Wen Dan; Li Chengbo; Wang Xingzhou
2006-01-01
Nonlinear elasticity of the earth medium produces a numerical difference between the dynamic and the static modulus of rock. The dynamic modulus is calculated with the ultrasonic velocity measurement, the small-cycle modulus is calculated with small cycles in the load-unload experiment, the static modulus is calculated from the slope of the stress-strain curve in the large cycle, the Young' s modulus is obtained from the ratio of stress to strain in the measured point.The relationship between the modulus and the strain amplitudes is studied by changing the strain amplitude in the small cycles. The moduli obtained from different measuring methods are thus compared. The result shows that the dynamic modulus is the largest, the small-cycle modulus takes the second place, the static modulus of bigger-cycle is the third, and finally the Young's modulus is the smallest. Nonlinear modulus of rock is a function of the strain level and strain amplitude. The modulus decreases exponentially with the ascending of the strain amplitude, while increases with the ascending of the strain level. Finally, the basic concept of the P-M model is briefly introduced and the relationship between the modulus and strain amplitude is explained by the rock having different distribution densities and the different open-and-close stresses of the micro-cracks.
Control of Ostwald ripening by using surfactants with high surface modulus.
Tcholakova, Slavka; Mitrinova, Zlatina; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D; Vethamuthu, Martin; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P
2011-12-20
We describe results from systematic measurements of the rate of bubble Ostwald ripening in foams with air volume fraction of 90%. Several surfactant systems, with high and low surface modulus, were used to clarify the effect of the surfactant adsorption layer on the gas permeability across the foam films. In one series of experiments, glycerol was added to the foaming solutions to clarify how changes in the composition of the aqueous phase affect the rate of bubble coarsening. The experimental results are interpreted by a new theoretical model, which allowed us to determine the overall gas permeability of the foam films in the systems studied, and to decompose the film permeability into contributions coming from the surfactant adsorption layers and from the aqueous core of the films. For verification of the theoretical model, the gas permeability determined from the experiments with bulk foams are compared with values, determined in an independent set of measurements with the diminishing bubble method (single bubble attached at large air-water interface) and reasonably good agreement between the results obtained by the two methods is found. The analysis of the experimental data showed that the rate of bubble Ostwald ripening in the studied foams depends on (1) type of used surfactant-surfactants with high surface modulus lead to much slower rate of Ostwald ripening, which is explained by the reduced gas permeability of the adsorption layers in these systems; (2) presence of glycerol which reduces the gas solubility and diffusivity in the aqueous core of the foam film (without affecting the permeability of the adsorption layers), thus also leading to slower Ostwald ripening. Direct measurements showed that the foam films in the studied systems had very similar thicknesses, thus ruling out the possible explanation that the observed differences in the Ostwald ripening are due to different film thicknesses. Experiments with the Langmuir trough were used to demonstrate
Bulk materials handling review
NONE
2007-02-15
The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.
Rare earth hexaborides have unusual combination of properties with metallic conductivity and low work function as well as low volatility at temperatures providing technologically useful thermionic electron current density, micro-beam applications. Hexaborides of the rare-earth elements are considered for applications as wear- and corrosion-resistant hard coatings for decoration of consumer products such as eye-glass frames and wristwatch casings
Reynolds, Matthew; Gao, Yan; Daley, Stephen
2013-01-01
Over the last decade there has been significant interest in the design and production of acoustic metamaterials with physical qualities not seen in naturally occurring media. Progress in this area has been stimulated by the desire to create materials that exhibit novel behaviour such as negative refraction due to negative material parameters, and band gaps in the frequency response of the material. An acoustic metamaterial is presented that consists of an acoustically transparent mesh with an...
Low modulus Ti–Nb–Hf alloy for biomedical applications
González, M., E-mail: Marta.Gonzalez.Colominas@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Peña, J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Gil, F.J.; Manero, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN (Spain)
2014-09-01
β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to reduce stress shielding effect and to enhance bone remodeling in implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. For biomaterial application, investigation on the mechanical behavior, the corrosion resistance and the cell response is required. The new Ti25Nb16Hf alloy was studied before and after 95% cold rolling (95% C.R.). The mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by potentiostatic equipment in Hank's solution at 37 °C. The cell response was studied by means of cytotoxicity evaluation, cell adhesion and proliferation measurements. The stress–strain curves showed the lowest elastic modulus (42 GPa) in the cold worked alloy and high tensile strength, similar to that of Ti6Al4V. The new alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in terms of open circuit potential (E{sub OCP}), but was similar in terms of corrosion current density (i{sub CORR}) compared to Ti grade II. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the chemical composition of the alloy does not induce cytotoxic activity. Cell studies in the new alloy showed a lower adhesion and a higher proliferation compared to Ti grade II presenting, therefore, mechanical features similar to those of human cortical bone and, simultaneously, a good cell response. - Highlights: • Presents low elastic modulus and high strength and elastic deformability. • Exhibits good biocompatibility in terms of cytotoxicity and cell response. • Corrosion resistance of this alloy is good, similar to that of Ti grade II. • Potential candidate for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue.
Low modulus Ti–Nb–Hf alloy for biomedical applications
β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to reduce stress shielding effect and to enhance bone remodeling in implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. For biomaterial application, investigation on the mechanical behavior, the corrosion resistance and the cell response is required. The new Ti25Nb16Hf alloy was studied before and after 95% cold rolling (95% C.R.). The mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by potentiostatic equipment in Hank's solution at 37 °C. The cell response was studied by means of cytotoxicity evaluation, cell adhesion and proliferation measurements. The stress–strain curves showed the lowest elastic modulus (42 GPa) in the cold worked alloy and high tensile strength, similar to that of Ti6Al4V. The new alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in terms of open circuit potential (EOCP), but was similar in terms of corrosion current density (iCORR) compared to Ti grade II. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the chemical composition of the alloy does not induce cytotoxic activity. Cell studies in the new alloy showed a lower adhesion and a higher proliferation compared to Ti grade II presenting, therefore, mechanical features similar to those of human cortical bone and, simultaneously, a good cell response. - Highlights: • Presents low elastic modulus and high strength and elastic deformability. • Exhibits good biocompatibility in terms of cytotoxicity and cell response. • Corrosion resistance of this alloy is good, similar to that of Ti grade II. • Potential candidate for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue
Young modulus and internal friction in YFe11Ti
Temperature dependences of Young modulus and internal friction of YFe11Ti polycrystals were studied in approximately 80-380 K range, using the method of bend oscillations of sample slender column - at sonis range frequencies approximately 2 kHz. Experimental data on internal friction were analyzed in the framework of relaxation model of inelastic solid behaviour. Characteristic parameters of relaxation maximums of internal friction, observed at 130-140 and 240-250 K, were determined. 9 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs
Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials
Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.
Elastic modulus of tree frog adhesive toe pads
Barnes, W. Jon. P.; Goodwyn, Pablo J. Perez; Nokhbatolfoghahai, Mohsen; Gorb, Stanislav N.
2011-01-01
Previous work using an atomic force microscope in nanoindenter mode indicated that the outer, 10- to 15-μm thick, keratinised layer of tree frog toe pads has a modulus of elasticity equivalent to silicone rubber (5–15 MPa) (Scholz et al. 2009), but gave no information on the physical properties of deeper structures. In this study, micro-indentation is used to measure the stiffness of whole toe pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea. We show here that tree frog toe pads are amongst the softes...
Generalized vector valued double sequence space using modulus function
Anindita Basu
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a generalized vector valued paranormed double sequence space $ F^{2}(E,p,f,s $, using modulus function $ f $, where $ p=(p_{nk} $ is a sequence of non-negative real numbers, $ s\\geq 0 $ and the elements are chosen from a seminormed space $ (E, q_{E} $. Results regarding completeness, normality, $ K_{2} $-space, co-ordinatewise convergence etc. are derived. Further, a study of multiplier sets, ideals, notion of statistical convergence and ($ p_{nk} $ -Ces\\'aro summability in the space $ F^{2}(E,p,f,s $ is also made.
Connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters
Avinash Khare; Uday Sukhatme
2004-11-01
The simplest formulas connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters were first obtained over two hundred years ago by John Landen. His approach was to change integration variables in elliptic integrals. We show that Landen’s formulas and their subsequent generalizations can also be obtained from a different approach, using which we also obtain several new Landen transformations. Our new method is based on recently obtained periodic solutions of physically interesting non-linear differential equations and remarkable new cyclic identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions.
Lazy Modulus Switching for the BKW Algorithm on LWE
Albrecht, Martin Roland; Faugère, Jean-Charles; Fitzpatrick, Robert;
2014-01-01
algorithm for binary-LWE and other small secret variants and show that this variant reduces the complexity for solving binary-LWE. We also give estimates for the cost of solving binary-LWE instances in this setting and demonstrate the advantage of this BKW variant over standard BKW and lattice reduction...... techniques applied to the SIS problem. Our variant can be seen as a combination of the BKW algorithm with a lazy variant of modulus switching which might be of independent interest....
Information-Theoretic Secure Verifiable Secret Sharing over RSA Modulus
QIU Gang; WANG Hong; WEI Shimin; XIAO Guozhen
2006-01-01
The well-known non-interactive and information-theoretic secure verifiable secret sharing scheme presented by Pedersen is over a large prime. In this paper, we construct a novel non-interactive and information-theoretic verifiable secret sharing over RSA (Rivest,Shamir,Adleman) modulus and give the rigorous security proof. It is shown how to distribute a secret among a group such that any set of k parties get no information about the secret. The presented scheme is generally applied to constructions of secure distributed multiplication and threshold or forward-secure signature protocols.
ECG Analysis based on Wavelet Transform and Modulus Maxima
Mourad Talbi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a new technique of P, Q, R, S and T Peaks detection using Wavelet Transform (WT and Modulus maxima. One of the commonest problems in electrocardiogram (ECG signal processing, is baseline wander removal suppression. Therefore we have removed the baseline wander in order to make easier the detection of the peaks P and T. Those peaks are detected after the QRS detection. The proposed method is based on the application of the discritized continuous wavelet transform (Mycwt used for the Bionic wavelet transform, to the ECG signal in order to detect R-peaks in the first stage and in the second stage, the Q and S peaks are detected using the R-peaks localization. Finally the Modulus maxima are used in the undecimated wavelet transform (UDWT domain in order to detect the others peaks (P, T. This detection is performed by using a varying-length window that is moving along the whole signal. For evaluating the proposed method, we have compared it to others techniques based on wavelets. In this evaluation, we have used many ECG signals taken from MIT-BIH database. The obtained results show that the proposed method outperforms a number of conventional techniques used for our evaluation.
Charged string solutions with dilaton and modulus fields
We find charged, abelian, spherically symmetric solutions (in flat space-time) corresponding to the effective action of D=4 heterotic string theory with the scale-dependent dilaton Φ and modulus φ fields. We take into account perturbative (genus-one), moduli-dependent ''threshold'' corrections to the coupling function f(Φ, φ) in the gauge field kinetic term f(Φ, φ)F2μν, as well as the non-perturbative scalar potential V(Φ, φ), e.g., induced by gaugino condensation in the hidden gauge sector. Stable, finite-energy, electric solutions (corresponding to an abelian subgroup of a non-abelian gauge group) have the small scale region as the weak coupling region (Φ→∞) with the modulus φ slowly varying towards smaller values. Stable, finite-energy, abelian magnetic solutions exist only for a specific range of threshold correction parameters. At small scales they correspond to the strong coupling region (Φ→∞) and the compactification region (φ→0). The non-perturbative potential V plays a crucial role at large scales, where it fixes the asymptotic values of Φ and φ to be at the minimum of V. (orig.)
Changes in the Young Modulus of hafnium oxide thin films
Vargas, André Luís Marin; de Araújo Ribeiro, Fabiana; Hübler, Roberto
2015-12-01
Hafnium-oxide (HfO2)-based materials have been extensively researched due to their excellent optical and electrical properties. However, the literature data on the mechanical properties of these materials and its preparation for heavy machinery application is very limited. The aim of this work is to deposit hafnium oxide thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering with different Young's Modulus from the Ar/O2 concentration variation in the deposition chamber. The thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering with different Ar/O2 gas concentrations in plasma. After deposition, HfOx thin films were characterized through XRD, AFM, RBS and XRF. In this regard, it was observed that the as-deposited HfO2 films were mostly amorphous in the lower Ar/O2 gas ratio and transformed to polycrystalline with monoclinic structure as the Ar/O2 gas ratios grows. RBS technique shows good compromise between the experimental data and the simulated ones. It was possible to tailored the Young Modulus of the films by alter the Ar/O2 content on the deposition chamber without thermal treatment.
Modulus reconstruction from prostate ultrasound images using finite element modeling
Yan, Zhennan; Zhang, Shaoting; Alam, S. Kaisar; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Garra, Brian S.; Feleppa, Ernest J.
2012-03-01
In medical diagnosis, use of elastography is becoming increasingly more useful. However, treatments usually assume a planar compression applied to tissue surfaces and measure the deformation. The stress distribution is relatively uniform close to the surface when using a large, flat compressor but it diverges gradually along tissue depth. Generally in prostate elastography, the transrectal probes used for scanning and compression are cylindrical side-fire or rounded end-fire probes, and the force is applied through the rectal wall. These make it very difficult to detect cancer in prostate, since the rounded contact surfaces exaggerate the non-uniformity of the applied stress, especially for the distal, anterior prostate. We have developed a preliminary 2D Finite Element Model (FEM) to simulate prostate deformation in elastography. The model includes a homogeneous prostate with a stiffer tumor in the proximal, posterior region of the gland. A force is applied to the rectal wall to deform the prostate, strain and stress distributions can be computed from the resultant displacements. Then, we assume the displacements as boundary condition and reconstruct the modulus distribution (inverse problem) using linear perturbation method. FEM simulation shows that strain and strain contrast (of the lesion) decrease very rapidly with increasing depth and lateral distance. Therefore, lesions would not be clearly visible if located far away from the probe. However, the reconstructed modulus image can better depict relatively stiff lesion wherever the lesion is located.
Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology
Jamil, Mubasher
2008-01-01
We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.
Bacon, J. F.
1971-01-01
Emphasis on the consideration of glass formation on a kinetic process made it possible to think of glass compositions different from those normally employed in the manufacture of glass fibers. Approximately 450 new glass compositions were prepared and three dozen of these compositions have values for Young's modulus measured on bulk specimens greater than nineteen million pounds per square inch. Of the new glasses about a hundred could be drawn into fibers by mechanical methods at high speeds. The fiber which has a Young's modulus measured on the fiber of 18.6 million pounds per square inch and has been prepared in quantity as a monofilament (to date more than 150 million lineal feet of 0.2 to 0.4 mil fiber have been produced). This fiber has also been successfully incorporated both in epoxy and polyimide matrices. The epoxy resin composite has shown a modulus forty percent better than that achievable using the most common grade of competitive glass fiber, and twenty percent better than that obtainable with the best available grade of competitive glass fiber. Other glass fibers of even higher modulus have been developed.
Fabrication of ternary Ca-Mg-Zn bulk metallic glasses
R. Nowosielski
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes the preparation, structure and thermal properties of ternary Ca-Mg-Zn bulk metallic glass in form of as-cast rods.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations on the ternary Ca-Mg-Zn glassy rods were conducted by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM which energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS.Findings: The X-ray diffraction investigations have revealed that the studied as-cast rod was amorphous. The fractures of studied alloy could be classified as mixed fracture with indicated “river” and “smooth” fractures. Both type of the fracture surfaces consist of weakly formed “river” and “shell” patterns and “smooth” regions. The “river” patterns are characteristic for metallic glassy alloys.Practical implications: The studied Ca-based bulk metallic glasses is a relatively new group of material. Ca-based bulk metallic glasses are applied for many applications in different elements. Ca-based bulk metallic glasses have many unique properties such as low density (~2.0 g/cm3, low Youn g’s modulus ( ~20 to 30 GPa. The elastic modulus of Ca-b ased BMGs is comparable to that of hum an bone s, and Ca, Mg, and Zn are biocompatible. These features make the Ca-Mg-Zn–based alloys attractive for use in biomedical applications.Originality/value: Fabrication of amorphous alloy in the form of rod ternary Ca-Mg-Zn alloy by pressure die casting method.
Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.
Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin
2008-10-01
Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.
Miller, Jacob Lee
2015-04-21
An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.
Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro
2014-01-01
Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...
Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata
2014-01-01
The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558
KOVALEV OLEG; KUZKIN VITALY
2011-01-01
In the present paper simple analytical expressions connecting bulk moduli for fullerenes C20 and C60 with stiffness of interatomic bond and geometrical characteristics of the fullerenes are derived. Ambiguities related to definition of the bulk modulus are discussed. Nonlinear volumetrical deformation of the fullerenes is considered. Pressure-volume dependence for the fullerenes under volumetrical compression are derived. Simple analytical model for volumetrical vibrations of the fullerenes i...
Young’s modulus of [111] germanium nanowires
This paper reports a diameter-independent Young’s modulus of 91.9 ± 8.2 GPa for [111] Germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). When the surface oxide layer is accounted for using a core-shell NW approximation, the YM of the Ge core approaches a near theoretical value of 147.6 ± 23.4 GPa. The ultimate strength of a NW device was measured at 10.9 GPa, which represents a very high experimental-to-theoretical strength ratio of ∼75%. With increasing interest in this material system as a high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode, the presented data provide inputs that are essential in predicting its lithiation-induced stress fields and fracture behavior
Measurement of corneal tangent modulus using ultrasound indentation.
Wang, Li-Ke; Huang, Yan-Ping; Tian, Lei; Kee, Chea-Su; Zheng, Yong-Ping
2016-09-01
Biomechanical properties are potential information for the diagnosis of corneal pathologies. An ultrasound indentation probe consisting of a load cell and a miniature ultrasound transducer as indenter was developed to detect the force-indentation relationship of the cornea. The key idea was to utilize the ultrasound transducer to compress the cornea and to ultrasonically measure the corneal deformation with the eyeball overall displacement compensated. Twelve corneal silicone phantoms were fabricated with different stiffness for the validation of measurement with reference to an extension test. In addition, fifteen fresh porcine eyes were measured by the developed system in vitro. The tangent moduli of the corneal phantoms calculated using the ultrasound indentation data agreed well with the results from the tensile test of the corresponding phantom strips (R(2)=0.96). The mean tangent moduli of the porcine corneas measured by the proposed method were 0.089±0.026MPa at intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15mmHg and 0.220±0.053MPa at IOP of 30mmHg, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of tangent modulus were 14.4% and 0.765 at 15mmHg, and 8.6% and 0.870 at 30mmHg, respectively. The preliminary study showed that ultrasound indentation could be applied to the measurement of corneal tangent modulus with good repeatability and improved measurement accuracy compared to conventional surface displacement-based measurement method. The ultrasound indentation can be a potential tool for the corneal biomechanical properties measurement in vivo. PMID:27262352
Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region
Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong
2001-01-01
In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, and...... Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...... flow, rather than the two different crystallization processes in the region, suggested in the literature. No decomposition was detected at a temperature only 5 K below the crystallization temperature....
Determination of rock mass deformation modulus in closely jointed Columbia River basalt
Lanigan, D.C.; Cramer, M.L.; Kim, K.
1982-01-01
The basalts delineated for the repository feasibility study are located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. One of the rock properties of interest is the deformation modulus. In order to properly apply a deformation modulus value to construction design or numerical models, it is necessary to understand the range of value the modulus can exhibit. The modulus values can vary as functions of sample size, stress level, location, and orientation. No single test method allows an evaluation of all these variables, so several different types of modulus tests must be performed. The three types of tests discussed are: laboratory testing of recovered core; borehole jacking tests using the Goodman Jack; and borehole deformation measurements during a flat jack test. The following conclusions can be inferred from data collected in tests in the closely jointed Pomona basalt: deformation modulus decreases with increasing specimen size; laboratory tests indicate a deformation modulus of approximately 87 gigapascals; borehole deformation measurements in a flatjack test indicate a deformation modulus of approximately 40 gigapascals; borehole jacking test with a Goodman Jack indicate a deformation modulus of approximately 20 gigapascals; and there is no significant temperature effect on modulus values (up to 100/sup 0/C).
Determination of rock mass deformation modulus in closely jointed Columbia River basalt
The basalts delineated for the repository feasibility study are located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. One of the rock properties of interest is the deformation modulus. In order to properly apply a deformation modulus value to construction design or numerical models, it is necessary to understand the range of value the modulus can exhibit. The modulus values can vary as functions of sample size, stress level, location, and orientation. No single test method allows an evaluation of all these variables, so several different types of modulus tests must be performed. The three types of tests discussed are: laboratory testing of recovered core; borehole jacking tests using the Goodman Jack; and borehole deformation measurements during a flat jack test. The following conclusions can be inferred from data collected in tests in the closely jointed Pomona basalt: deformation modulus decreases with increasing specimen size; laboratory tests indicate a deformation modulus of approximately 87 gigapascals; borehole deformation measurements in a flatjack test indicate a deformation modulus of approximately 40 gigapascals; borehole jacking test with a Goodman Jack indicate a deformation modulus of approximately 20 gigapascals; and there is no significant temperature effect on modulus values (up to 1000C)
Pengaruh Modulus Cor Riser Terhadap Cacat Penyusutan Pada Produk Paduan Al-Si
Soejono Tjitro
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Shrinkage defect can be eliminated or reduced by controlling the casting modulus of riser. Casting modulus is ratio volume to surface area of castings. The higher casting modulus of riser, the longer solidification time of melted metal. Therefore the temperature gradient of melted metal become lower. However, the temperature gradient is also influenced by the composition of aluminum-silicon alloys. This research investigates 7% Al-Si alloy and 12.5% Al-Si alloy using two type of risers with different casting modulus. The casting process is sand casting. The research result shows that casting modulus of riser and alloys composition influence shrinkage defect. However, for the same Al-Si alloys, grain size isn't influenced by casting modulus of riser. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Cacat penyusutan dapat dieliminir atau dikurangi dengan mengontrol modulus cor riser. Modulus cor merupakan perbandingan antara volume terhadap luas permukaan coran. Modulus cor besar berarti waktu pembekuan cairan logam lebih lama. Akibatnya gradien temperatur cair logam rendah. Namun demikian, gradien temperatur cair logam juga dipengaruhi oleh komposisi paduan aluminium-silikon. Penelitian ini menggunakan paduan Al-Si 7% dan Al-Si 12,5% . Riser yang digunakan dua jenis yang memiliki modulus cor yang berbeda. Proses pengecoran yang digunakan adalah pengecoran dengan cetakan pasir. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modulus cor riser dan komposisi paduan berpengaruh terhadap terjadinya cacat penyusutan. Besar butir tidak dipengaruhi oleh modulus cor riser untuk paduan Al-Si yang sama. Kata kunci: modulus cor, cacat penyusutan, paduan Al-Si.
Peida Hao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In situ nanoindentation was employed to probe the mechanical properties of individual polycrystalline titania (TiO2 microspheres. The force-displacement curves captured by a hybrid scanning electron microscope/scanning probe microscope (SEM/SPM system were analyzed based on Hertz’s theory of contact mechanics. However, the deformation mechanisms of the nano/microspheres in the nanoindentation tests are not very clear. Finite element simulation was employed to investigate the deformation of spheres at the nanoscale under the pressure of an AFM tip. Then a revised method for the calculation of Young’s modulus of the microspheres was presented based on the deformation mechanisms of the spheres and Hertz’s theory. Meanwhile, a new force-displacement curve was reproduced by finite element simulation with the new calculation, and it was compared with the curve obtained by the nanoindentation experiment. The results of the comparison show that utilization of this revised model produces more accurate results. The calculated results showed that Young’s modulus of a polycrystalline TiO2 microsphere was approximately 30% larger than that of the bulk counterpart.
Blaise, A.; André, S.; Delobelle, P.; Meshaka, Y.; Cunat, C.
2016-04-01
Exact measurements of the rheological parameters of time-dependent materials are crucial to improve our understanding of their intimate relation to the internal bulk microstructure. Concerning solid polymers and the apparently simple determination of Young's modulus in tensile tests, international standards rely on basic protocols that are known to lead to erroneous values. This paper describes an approach allowing a correct measurement of the instantaneous elastic modulus of polymers by a tensile test. It is based on the use of an appropriate reduced model to describe the behavior of the material up to great strains, together with well-established principles of parameter estimation in engineering science. These principles are objective tools that are used to determine which parameters of a model can be correctly identified according to the informational content of a given data set. The assessment of the methodology and of the measurements is accomplished by comparing the results with those obtained from two other physical experiments, probing the material response at small temporal and length scales, namely, ultrasound measurements with excitation at 5 MHz and modulated nanoindentation tests over a few nanometers of amplitude.
High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A bulk nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy was produced by high-pressure torsion processing. • Excellent mechanical properties for biomedical implants were obtained. • Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility was also demonstrated
Bamba, Kazuharu
2015-01-01
We explore the perfect fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model with the bulk-viscosity term. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit equation of state (EoS) of the viscous fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Furthermore, we show that the singular inflation can occur in the viscous fluid ...
Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;
2015-01-01
restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and...... three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low...
A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age
Isamu Yoshitake; Farshad Rajabipour; Yoichi Mimura; Andrew Scanlon
2012-01-01
Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results sh...
Analysis of the variation in the stiffness modulus through four point bending tests
Pais, Jorge; Pereira, Paulo; Minhoto, Manuel; Fontes, Liseane; Kumar, D.S.N.V.A.; Silva, B. T. A.
2009-01-01
Pavement layers are characterized by basic material properties, among which the stiffness modulus and the Poisson ratio assume a preponderant importance in linear elastic anal-ysis. The stiffness modulus is usually assessed through samples extracted from a pavement or prepared in laboratory. The number of specimens used to calculate the stiffness modulus of an asphalt mixture plays an important role in the precision of pavement design. Thus, this paper presents a study to evaluate the number ...
Short cellulosic fiber/starch acetate composites — micromechanical modeling of Young’s modulus
Madsen, Bo; Joffe, Roberts; Peltola, Heidi;
2011-01-01
(density and Young’s modulus). The measured Young’s modulus of the composites varies in the range 1.1—8.3 GPa, and this is well predicted by the model calculations. A property diagram is presented to be used for the tailor-making of composites with Young’s modulus in the range 0.2—10 GPa....
Thermal and elastic properties of Cu–Zr–Be bulk metallic glass forming alloys
Duan, Gang; Lind, Mary Laura; De Blauwe, Katrien; Wiest, Aaron; Johnson, William L.
2007-01-01
The compositional dependence of thermal and elastic properties of Cu–Zr–Be ternary bulk metallic glass forming alloys was systematically studied. There exists a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature Tg and the total Zr concentration. G decreases linearly with increasing Zr concentration as well. The results also show that Tg, shear modulus G, and Poisson's ratio nu are very sensitive to changes in compositions. Low Tg, low G, and relatively high nu can be achieved with ...
Impedance and modulus spectroscopic study of nano hydroxyapatite
Jogiya, B. V.; Jethava, H. O.; Tank, K. P.; Raviya, V. R.; Joshi, M. J.
2016-05-01
Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP) is the main inorganic component of the hard tissues in bones and also important material for orthopedic and dental implant applications. Nano HAP is of great interest due to its various bio-medical applications. In the present work the nano HAP was synthesized by using surfactant mediated approach. Structure and morphology of the synthesized nano HAP was examined by the Powder XRD and TEM. Impedance study was carried out on pelletized sample in a frequency range of 100Hz to 20MHz at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and a.c. conductivity with frequency of applied field was studied. The Nyquist plot as well as modulus plot was drawn. The Nyquist plot showed two semicircle arcs, which indicated the presence of grain and grain boundary effect in the sample. The typical behavior of the Nyquist plot was represented by equivalent circuit having two parallel RC combinations in series.
Low elastic modulus titanium–nickel scaffolds for bone implants
Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Huifeng; Ruan, Jianming, E-mail: jianming@csu.edu.cn
2014-01-01
The superelastic nature of repeating the human bones is crucial to the ideal artificial biomedical implants to ensure smooth load transfer and foster the ingrowth of new bone tissues. Three dimensional interconnected porous TiNi scaffolds, which have the tailorable porous structures with micro-hole, were fabricated by slurry immersing with polymer sponge and sintering method. The crystallinity and phase composition of scaffolds were studied by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphology, size and distribution in the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porosity ranged from 65 to 72%, pore size was 250–500 μm. Compressive strength and elastic modulus of the scaffolds were ∼ 73 MPa and ∼ 3GPa respectively. The above pore structural and mechanical properties are similar to those of cancellous bone. In the initial cell culture test, osteoblasts adhered well to the scaffold surface during a short time, and then grew smoothly into the interconnected pore channels. These results indicate that the porous TiNi scaffolds fabricated by this method could be bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A novel approach for the fabrication of porous TiNi scaffolds • Macroporous structures are replicated from the polymer sponge template. • The pore characteristics and mechanical properties of TiNi scaffolds agree well with the requirement of trabecular bone. • Cytocompatibility of TiNi scaffolds is assessed, and it closely associated with pore property.
Polymerization Shrinkage and Flexural Modulus of Flowable Dental Composites
Janaína Cavalcanti Xavier
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Linear polymerization shrinkage (LPS, flexural strength (FS and modulus of elasticity (ME of low-viscosity resin composites (Admira Flow™, Grandio Flow™/VOCO; Filtek Z350 Flow™/3M ESPE; Tetric Flow™/Ivoclar-Vivadent was evaluated using a well-established conventional micro-hybrid composite as a standard (Filtek Z250™/3M ESPE. For the measurement of LPS, composites were applied to a cylindrical metallic mould and polymerized (n = 8. The gap formed at the resin/mould interface was observed using SEM (1500×. For FS and ME, specimens were prepared according to the ISO 4049 specifications (n = 10. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. The conventional resin presented significantly lower LPS associated with high FS and ME, but only the ME values of the conventional resin differed significantly from the low-viscosity composites. The relationship between ME and LPS of low-viscosity resin composites when used as restorative material is a critical factor in contraction stress relief and marginal leakage.
Constraining The Hubble Parameter Using Distance Modulus - Redshift Relation
Onuchukwu, C C
2015-01-01
Using the relation between distance modulus (m-M) and redshift (z), deduced from Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric and assuming different values of deceleration parameter (q0). We constrained the Hubble parameter (h). The estimates of the Hubble parameters we obtained using the median values of the data obtained from NASA Extragalactic Database (NED), are: h=0.7+/-0.3 for q0=0, h=0.6+/-0.3, for q0=1 and h=0.8+/-0.3, for q0=-1. The corresponding age ({\\tau}) and size (R) of the observable universe were also estimated as: {\\tau}=15+/-1 Gyrs, R=(5+/-2)x10^3 Mpc, {\\tau}=18+/-1 Gyrs, R=(6+/-2)x10^3 Mpc and {\\tau}=13+/-1 Gyrs, R=(4+/-2)x10^3 Mpc for q0=0, q0=1 and q0=-1 respectively.
Tensile Modulus Measurements of Carbon Nanotube Incorporated Electrospun Polymer Fibers
Ozturk, Yavuz; Kim, Jaemin; Shin, Kwanwoo
2006-03-01
Electrospinning has become a popular method for producing continuous polymer fibers with diameters in sub-micron scale. By this technique uniaxially aligned fibers can also be obtained, by using two separate parallel strips as conductive collectors. Uniaxial alignment of polymer fibers gives us the chance to well-characterize their structural properties via tensile modulus measurements. Here we report a simple and new technique for tensile testing of polymer fibers which employs a computerized spring-balance/step-motor setup. The key point in our technique is the production of fibers directly on the tensile tester by using two vertical strips as collectors. By this way, even fibers of very brittle nature can be tested without handling them. Calculation of total cross-sectional areas - which is crucial for determining stress values - was done by using scanning electron and optical microscope images for each sample. In this study we have investigated mechanical properties of Polystyrene (PS), Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and PS/PMMA blend fibers; as well as Carbon Nanotube (CNT) incorporated PS, PMMA and PS/PMMA blend fibers. It is expected that the extraordinary mechanical properties of CNTs can be transferred into polymer matrix, by their incorporation into confined space within electrospun fibers. Here we analyzed the influence of CNT on polymer fibers as function of CNT amounts.
Origin of negative density and modulus in acoustic metamaterials
Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.
2016-01-01
This paper provides a review and fundamental physical interpretation for the effective densities and moduli of acoustic metamaterials. We introduce the terminology of hidden force and hidden source of volume: the effective density or modulus is negative when the hidden force or source of volume is larger than, and operates in antiphase to, respectively, the force or volume change that would be obtained in their absence. We demonstrate this ansatz for some established acoustic metamaterials with elements based on membranes, Helmholtz resonators, springs, and masses. The hidden force for membrane-based acoustic metamaterials, for instance, is the force from the membrane tension. The hidden source for a Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterial is the extra air volume injected from the resonator cavity. We also explain the analogous concepts for pure mass-and-spring systems, in which case, hidden forces can arise from masses and springs fixed inside other masses, whereas hidden sources—more aptly termed hidden expanders of displacement in this case—can arise from light rigid trusses coupled to extra degrees of freedom for mechanical motion such as the case of coupling to masses that move at right angles to the wave-propagation direction. This overall picture provides a powerful tool for conceptual understanding and design of new acoustic metamaterials, and avoids common pitfalls involved in determining the effective parameters of such materials.
Volume modulus inflection point inflation and the gravitino mass problem
Several models of inflection point inflation with the volume modulus as the inflaton are investigated. Non-perturbative superpotentials containing two gaugino condensation terms or one such term with threshold corrections are considered. It is shown that the gravitino mass may be much smaller than the Hubble scale during inflation if at least one of the non-perturbative terms has a positive exponent. Higher order corrections to the Kähler potential have to be taken into account in such models. Those corrections are used to stabilize the potential in the axion direction in the vicinity of the inflection point. Models with only negative exponents require uplifting and in consequence have the supersymmetry breaking scale higher than the inflation scale. Fine-tuning of parameters and initial conditions is analyzed in some detail for both types of models. It is found that fine-tuning of parameters in models with heavy gravitino is much stronger than in models with light gravitino. It is shown that recently proposed time dependent potentials can provide a solution to the problem of the initial conditions only in models with heavy gravitino. Such potentials can not be used to relax fine tuning of parameters in any model because this would lead to values of the spectral index well outside the experimental bounds
Feng Xue
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the flux-pinning-induced elastic stress analysis considering the crack-inclusion interaction is carried out for a bulk superconductor in the magnetization process. A approximate model for the crack problem of a bulk superconductor with nonsuperconducting inclusions (particles dispersed in a superconducting matrix is described. The crack is simulated as a continuous distribution of edge dislocations in the solution procedure. The obtained results show that, the shear modulus, inclusion-crack size, inclusion-crack distance, and also the magnetic field have obvious effects on the stress intensity factors (SIFs at the crack tips of the superconductor.
Possible contribution of low shear modulus C44 to the low Young's modulus of Ti-36Nb-5Zr alloy
Despite the importance of single-crystal elastic constants of β-phase titanium alloys in understanding their low Young's modulus—a property crucial for many applications, such data are often difficult to obtain when the alloy composition is close to the instability limit of the β phase, where the presence of α' martensite precludes the fabrication of β-phase single crystal. In the present study, we extracted the single-crystal elastic constants of such a β-phase titanium alloy with low Young's modulus, Ti-36Nb-5Zr (wt. %), from polycrystalline specimens by using an in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique. It is indicated that the low Young's modulus of the alloy originates from the anomalously low shear modulus C44 as well as the low shear modulus C′, which is different from a common viewpoint that the Young's modulus of β-phase titanium alloys is dominantly controlled by the C′. This suggests that low C44 is an important contributor to low Young's modulus for instable β-phase titanium alloys.
Experimentally-based relaxation modulus of polyurea and its composites
Jia, Zhanzhan; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nantasetphong, Wiroj; Nemat-Nasser, Sia
2016-01-01
Polyurea is a block copolymer that has been widely used in the coating industry as an abrasion-resistant and energy-dissipative material. Its mechanical properties can be tuned by choosing different variations of diamines and diisocyanates as well as by adding various nano- and micro-inclusions to create polyurea-based composites. Our aim here is to provide the necessary experimentally-based viscoelastic constitutive relations for polyurea and its composites in a format convenient to support computational studies. The polyurea used in this research is synthesized by the reaction of Versalink P-1000 (Air Products) and Isonate 143L (Dow Chemicals). Samples of pure polyurea and polyurea composites are fabricated and then characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Based on the DMA data, master curves of storage and loss moduli are developed using time-temperature superposition. The quality of the master curves is carefully assessed by comparing with the ultrasonic wave measurements and by Kramers-Kronig relations. Based on the master curves, continuous relaxation spectra are calculated, then the time-domain relaxation moduli are approximated from the relaxation spectra. Prony series of desired number of terms for the frequency ranges of interest are extracted from the relaxation modulus. This method for developing cost efficient Prony series has been proven to be effective and efficient for numerous DMA test results of many polyurea/polyurea-based material systems, including pure polyurea with various stoichiometric ratios, polyurea with milled glass inclusions, polyurea with hybrid nano-particles and polyurea with phenolic microbubbles. The resulting viscoelastic models are customized for the frequency ranges of interest, reference temperature and desired number of Prony terms, achieving both computational accuracy and low cost. The method is not limited to polyurea-based systems. It can be applied to other similar polymers systems.
Experimentally-based relaxation modulus of polyurea and its composites
Jia, Zhanzhan; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nantasetphong, Wiroj; Nemat-Nasser, Sia
2016-06-01
Polyurea is a block copolymer that has been widely used in the coating industry as an abrasion-resistant and energy-dissipative material. Its mechanical properties can be tuned by choosing different variations of diamines and diisocyanates as well as by adding various nano- and micro-inclusions to create polyurea-based composites. Our aim here is to provide the necessary experimentally-based viscoelastic constitutive relations for polyurea and its composites in a format convenient to support computational studies. The polyurea used in this research is synthesized by the reaction of Versalink P-1000 (Air Products) and Isonate 143L (Dow Chemicals). Samples of pure polyurea and polyurea composites are fabricated and then characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Based on the DMA data, master curves of storage and loss moduli are developed using time-temperature superposition. The quality of the master curves is carefully assessed by comparing with the ultrasonic wave measurements and by Kramers-Kronig relations. Based on the master curves, continuous relaxation spectra are calculated, then the time-domain relaxation moduli are approximated from the relaxation spectra. Prony series of desired number of terms for the frequency ranges of interest are extracted from the relaxation modulus. This method for developing cost efficient Prony series has been proven to be effective and efficient for numerous DMA test results of many polyurea/polyurea-based material systems, including pure polyurea with various stoichiometric ratios, polyurea with milled glass inclusions, polyurea with hybrid nano-particles and polyurea with phenolic microbubbles. The resulting viscoelastic models are customized for the frequency ranges of interest, reference temperature and desired number of Prony terms, achieving both computational accuracy and low cost. The method is not limited to polyurea-based systems. It can be applied to other similar polymers systems.
Measurement of the dynamic shear modulus of surface layers I. Theory
Waterman, Herman A.
1984-01-01
In measuring the dynamic surface-shear modulus of a surface layer on a liquid, conditions may occur—low-shear modulus and/or high frequencies—which promote wave-propagation effects to play a predominant role. A theory is presented with the help of which the (complex) wave number of the wave in the l
A^I-statistical convergence with respect to a sequence of modulus functions
Yamancı, Ulaş; GÜRDAL, MEHMET; Saltan, Suna
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the notion of A^{I}-[V,λ]-summability and A^{I}-λ-statistical convergence with respect to a sequence of modulus functions. We basically study some connections between A^{I}-λ-statistical convergence and A^{I}-statistical convergence with respect to a sequence of modulus functions.
Huntzicker, Steven; Nayak, Rohit; Doyley, Marvin M
2014-07-01
Quantitative sparse array vascular elastography visualizes the shear modulus distribution within vascular tissues, information that clinicans could use to reduce the number of strokes each year. However, the low transmit power sparse array (SA) imaging could hamper the clinical usefulness of the resulting elastograms. In this study, we evaluated the performance of modulus elastograms recovered from simulated and physical vessel phantoms with varying attenuation coefficients (0.6, 1.5, and [Formula: see text]) and modulus contrasts ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]) using SA imaging relative to those obtained with conventional linear array (CLA) and plane-wave (PW) imaging techniques. Plaques were visible in all modulus elastograms, but those produced using SA and PW contained less artifacts. The modulus contrast-to-noise ratio decreased rapidly with increasing modulus contrast and attenuation coefficient, but more quickly when SA imaging was performed than for CLA or PW. The errors incurred varied from 10.9% to 24% (CLA), 1.8% to 12% (SA), and [Formula: see text] (PW). Modulus elastograms produced with SA and PW imagings were not significantly different ([Formula: see text]). Despite the low transmit power, SA imaging can produce useful modulus elastograms in superficial organs, such as the carotid artery. PMID:26158040
Some multiordered difference sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers defined by modulus function
Manmohan Das; Bipul Sarma
2016-01-01
In this article we introduce some new multi ordered difference operator on sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers by using modulus function and study their some algebraic and topological properties. Also we study some statistical convergent sequence space of fuzzy real numbers defined by modulus function.
Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics
Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...
A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age
Isamu Yoshitake
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.
Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity
Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede
2010-01-01
In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... of air voids. Second, SAP addition may at the same time lead to increased compressive strength (as shown in [5]) and reduced E-modulus. A prediction based solely on compressive strength therefore overrates the modulus of elasticity, so the empirical models are unsafe to use for concrete with SAP...
In the literature, the electric modulus representation has been used to provide comparative analysis of the ion transport properties in different ion-conducting materials. In this paper we show that the modulus representation is not a suitable tool for such purposes. Our arguments derive from an examination of the scaling properties of both the ac conductivity σ*(ν) and the modulus M*(ν) which demonstrates how scaling that is inherent in σ*(ν) is lost in M*(ν) by inclusion of the high frequency permittivity ε'(∞), the latter quantity being unrelated to ion transport processes. Furthermore, we show how highly regarded shape changes of the modulus that occur with varying ion concentration are merely a manifestation of including ε'(∞) in the definition of M*(ν). We conclude then that the electric modulus formalism has resulted in misleading interpretations of the ion dynamics and, hence, should be discouraged
E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements
Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently developed methodology allowed continuous monitoring of E-modulus from the time of casting. The methodology is a variant of classic resonant frequency methods, which are based on determination of the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material. The hydration kinetics — and thus the rate of formation of solids — was determined using chemical shrinkage measurements. For the cements studied similar relationships between E-modulus and chemical shrinkage were observed for comparable water-to-binder ratio. For commercial cements it is suggested to model the E-modulus evolution based on the amount of binder reacted, instead of the degree of hydration.
Mining the bulk positron lifetime
Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)
2009-02-15
We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Mining the bulk positron lifetime
We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Advances in bulk port development
Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))
1991-03-01
The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.
Chakoumakos, B. C.; Oliver, W. C.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Ewing, R. C.
1991-12-01
For a natural single crystal of zircon, ZrSiO4, from Sri Lanka, exhibiting zonation in U and Th contents, the hardness and elastic modulus have been determined as a function of α-decay dose using a mechanical properties microprobe (MPM). The zones vary in thickness from one to hundreds of micrometers, and have uranium and thorium concentrations such that the α-decay dose varies between 2 ? 1015 and 1 ? 1016 α-decay events/mg (0.15 to 0.65 dpa, displacement per atom). The transition from the crystalline to the aperiodic metamict state occurs over this dose range. For a traverse of 75 indent pairs across layers sampling a large portion of the crystalline-to-metamict transition (3.7 ? 1015 to 9.7 ? 1015 α-decay events/mg) both the hardness and elastic modulus decrease linearly with increasing α-decay dose. The radiation-induced softening follows a behavior similar to other radiation-induced changes, that is with the expansion of the unit cell parameters there is a decrease in density, birefringence, hardness and bulk modulus.
Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions
Danielewicz, P.
2002-01-01
Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.
Bulk charges in eleven dimensions
Hawking, Stephen William
1998-01-01
Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge preserving between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singlely charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped a...
Dynamic method for the measurement of Young'S modulus. Application to nuclear graphites
A dynamic method has been developed for measuring Young's modulus and the rigidity modulus using the 'Forster Elastomat'. The principle consists in the determination of the resonance frequencies of graphite samples submitted to transverse, longitudinal, and torsional vibrations. The first two modes of vibration make it possible to calculate the elasticity modulus or the Young's modulus E, the third mode makes possible the calculation of the rigidity modulus G. The relationships from which the moduli E and G are measured are given. A systematic study has been made of graphite samples produced by extrusion or compression and submitted afterwards to one or several impregnations with pitch. For graphites made from the same coke by the same method, a linear relationship has been found for Young's modulus as a function of the apparent density. For the same apparent density, graphites made from different starting materials have generally different Young's moduli that bear a relationship to the crystalline characteristics of the material. The measurements of the rigidity modulus C made on different graphites also show the influence of crystallite orientation. (authors)
The effect of frequency on Young's modulus and seismic wave attenuation
Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effect of frequency, water-saturation, and strain amplitude on Young's modulus and seismic wave attenuation on rock cores recovered on or near the site of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of this investigation is to perform the measurements using four techniques: cyclic loading, waveform inversion, resonant bar, and ultrasonic velocity. The measurements ranged in frequency between 10-2 and 106 Hz. For the dry specimens Young's modulus and attenuation were independent of frequency; that is, all four techniques yielded nearly the same values for modulus and attenuation. For saturated specimens, a frequency dependence for both Young's modulus and attenuation was observed. In general, saturation reduced Young's modulus and increased seismic wave attenuation. The effect of strain amplitude on Young's modulus and attenuation was measured using the cyclic loading technique at a frequency of 10-1 Hz. The effect of strain amplitude in all cases was small. For some rocks, such as the potential repository horizon of the Topopah Spring Member tuff (TSw2), the effect of strain amplitude on both attenuation and modulus was minimal
Reliable measurement of elastic modulus of cells by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope
Zhou, Zhoulong
2012-04-01
The elastic modulus of an oral cancer cell line UM1 is investigated by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope with a flat-ended tip. The commonly used Hertzian method gives apparent elastic modulus which increases with the loading rate, indicating strong effects of viscoelasticity. On the contrary, a rate-jump method developed for viscoelastic materials gives elastic modulus values which are independent of the rate-jump magnitude. The results show that the rate-jump method can be used as a standard protocol for measuring elastic stiffness of living cells, since the measured values are intrinsic properties of the cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
The Experiment and Simulation Method to Calibrate the Shear Modulus of Individual ZnO Nanorod.
Yu, Guangbin; Jiang, Chengming; Dai, Bing; Song, Jinhui
2016-04-01
A general method is presented to directly measure the shear modulus of an individual nanorod using atomic force microscope (AFM). To obtain shear modulus with less experiment error, finite element simulation is employed to simulate the twisting process of a ZnO nanorod. Based on the experimental measurements, the shear modulus of ZnO nanorod with 4 µm in length and 166 nm in radius is characterized to be 9.1 ± 0.2 GPa, which is obviously more accurate than the simple averaged experimental result. PMID:27451763
Dynamic glass transition in Zr-Al-Ni-Cu bulk metallic glass
The elastic and viscoelastic behavior of a bulk metallic glass Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 (in mol%) has been studied by isothermal forced-vibration measurements of the dynamic shear modulus. At temperatures of the calorimetric glass transition, on decreasing the frequency from 10+1 to 10-3 Hz at a constant temperature, the storage modulus exhibits a striking drop, of an order of magnitude, which is similar to the change observed under continuous heating. The lowering of the storage modulus and the accompanying maximum in the loss modulus indicate a dynamic glass transition; the material behaves as a solid at high frequencies but as a liquid at low frequencies. The range of frequencies where the storage and loss moduli exhibit the characteristic behavior is much wider than expected from a simple Maxwell model of viscoelasticity. A parallel combination of Maxwell units is found to reproduce the observed trend, and is used to evaluate the characteristic rate constant. Its activation energy and the pre-exponential factor turn out to be anomalously high, indicating that the dynamic glass transition is controlled by collective movements of atoms
Room-temperature dynamic quasi-elastic mechanical behavior of a Zr-Cu-Fe-Al bulk metallic glass
Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu.; Zadorozhnyy, M.Yu.; Shuryumov, A.Yu.; Golovin, I.S. [National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISiS' ' , 119049, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ketov, S.V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)
2016-02-15
The paper represents storage modulus and internal friction modulation upon cyclic loading of Zr{sub 61}Cu{sub 27}Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glassy samples within quasi-reversible deformation regime. The structure of the samples was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy including high-resolution imaging and selected-area electron diffraction. It is found that kinetically frozen anelastic deformation accumulates on mechanical cycling at room temperature and causes an increase in the storage modulus and even nanocrystallization of a metallic glassy phase after a certain number of cycles. The study has shown that even a minor cyclic deformation in an elastic region can lead to the changes the atomic structure and in turn affect the elastic modulus. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander
2015-01-01
We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.
Gamma probe dry bulk densities
The gamma density probe is a useful instrument for measuring water content in small volumes of soil. Essentially, the gamma probe measures the density of the soil and water between a source and a detector. To transpose the gamma densities into water content, the dry bulk density of the soil is needed. A nondestructive method for estimating dry bulk densities for use with the gamma probe is proposed. The procedure is based on the assumption that water content values in a field dry condition were more stable than the dry bulk density values and could be transferred from one point to another. The procedure was successfully used on three areas in Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho. (U.S.)
Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Nelson, Keith Adam;
2013-01-01
We present dynamic shear and bulk modulus measurements of supercooled tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane (DC704) and 5-phenyl-4-ether over a range of temperatures close to their glass transition. The data are analyzed and compared in terms of time-temperature superposition (TTS), the relaxation ...
Numerical study of pile-up in bulk metallic glass during spherical indentation
2008-01-01
Pile-up around indenter is usually observed during instrumented indentation tests on bulk metallic glass. Neglecting the pile-up effect may lead to errors in evaluating hardness,Young’s modulus,stress-strain response,etc. Finite element analysis was employed to implement numerical simulation of spherical indentation tests on bulk metallic glass. A new model was proposed to describe the pile-up effect. By using this new model,the contact radius and hardness of Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass were obtained under several different indenter loads with pile-up,and the results agree well with the data generated by numerical simulation.
Numerical study of pile-up in bulk metallic glass during spherical indentation
Al Ke; DAI LanHong
2008-01-01
Pile-up around indenter is usually observed during instrumented indentation tests on bulk metallic glass. Neglecting the pile-up effect may lead to errors in evaluating hardness, Young's modulus, stress-strain response, etc. Finite element analysis was employed to implement numerical simulation of spherical indentation tests on bulk metallic glass. A new model was proposed to describe the pile-up effect. By using this new model, the contact radius and hardness of Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass were obtained under several different indenter loads with pile-up, and the results agree well with the data generated by numerical simulation.
Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...
Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...
Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...
The dimensional stability and elastic modulus of cemented simulant Winfrith reactor (SGHWR) sludge
Dimensional changes and elastic modulus have been monitored on cemented simulant sludge stored in various environments. Specimens prepared using a blended cement show no serious detrimental effects during sealed storage, underwater storage or freeze/thaw cycling. (author)
Experimental Study of Estimating the Subgrade Reaction Modulus on Jointed Rock Foundations
Lee, Jaehwan; Jeong, Sangseom
2016-06-01
The subgrade reaction modulus for rock foundations under axial loading is investigated by model footing tests. This study focuses on quantifying a new subgrade reaction modulus by considering rock discontinuities. A series of model-scale footing tests are performed to investigate the effects of the unconfined compressive strength, discontinuity spacing and inclination of the rock joint. Based on the experimental results, it is observed that the subgrade reaction modulus of the rock with discontinuities decreases by up to approximately 60 % of intact rock. In addition, it is found that the modulus of subgrade reaction is proportional to the discontinuity spacing, and it decreases gradually within the range of 0°-30° and tends to increase within the range of 30°-90°.
Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand
无
2004-01-01
Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of molding sand.
Order estimates of the modulus of variation of the sum of a lacunary trigonometric series
We find order estimates for the modulus of variation and the averaged modulus of the sum of a lacunary trigonometric series in terms of its coefficients. These interesting global characteristics of a function and their applications have been studied in papers by Chanturiya, Dolzhenko, Sevast'yanov, Sendov, Popov, and others. Since the sum of a lacunary trigonometric series has frequently been used in the theory of functions to provide an example of a function having one property or another, it is useful to know as much as possible about such a function, especially such global characteristics as the modulus of variation and the averaged modulus. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for the sum of a lacunary trigonometric series to belong to certain classes of functions defined in terms of these characteristics
The measurement of the shear modulus for polymer porous layer with two microphones
Gareton, Vincent; Lafarge, Denis; Sahraoui, Sohbi
2009-01-01
An experimental method is described for measuring the shear modulus of thin porous layer. An acoustical excitation with a loudspeaker and a simulation performed with the Biot theory allow measurement without any mechanical excitation.
Elastic modulus and hardness of cortical and trabecular bovine bone measured by nanoindentation
WANG X J; CHEN X B; HODGSON P D; WEN C E
2006-01-01
The elastic modulus and hardness of several microstructure components of dry bovine vertebrae and tibia have been investigated in the longitude and transverse directions using nanoindentation. The elastic modulus for the osteons and the interstitial lamellae in the longitude direction were found to be (24.7±2.5) GPa and (30.1±2.4) GPa. As it's difficult to distinguish osteons from interstitial lamellae in the transverse direction,the average elastic modulus for cortical bovine bone in the transverse direction was (19.8±1.6) GPa. The elastic modulus for trabecular bone in the longitude and transverse direction were (20±2) GPa and (14.7±1.9) GPa respectively. The hardness also varied among the microstructure components in the range of 0.41-0.89 GPa. Analyses of variance show that the values are significantly different.
Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons
Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash
2009-01-01
We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...
Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons
Wiranata, A
2009-01-01
We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.
M El Hamma; R Daher
2014-05-01
Using a generalized spherical mean operator, we define generalized modulus of smoothness in the space $L^2_k(\\mathbb{R}^d)$. Based on the Dunkl operator we define Sobolev-type space and -functionals. The main result of the paper is the proof of the equivalence theorem for a -functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on $\\mathbb{R}^d$.
Delamination behaviour of very high modulus carbon/epoxy marine composites
Baral, N.; Davies, P; Baley, C.; Bigourdan, B.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a study of the delamination resistance Of unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites manufactured from prepreg for racing yacht mast applications. Fibre modulus has been varied from 290 to 640 GPa. Two manufacturing methods, oven cure under vacuum and autoclave, were used to produce samples. Results show that delamination resistance tinder mode I and mixed mode loading decreases as fibre modulus increases. The manufacturing route affects G, values by modifying...
Characterization of Various Plant-Produced Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Dynamic Modulus Test
Muhammad Irfan; Asad S. Waraich; Sarfraz Ahmed; Yasir Ali
2016-01-01
This research characterizes the performance of various plant-produced asphalt concrete mixtures by dynamic modulus |E∗| test using asphalt mixture performance tester (AMPT). Marshall designed specimens of seven different mixtures were prepared using the Superpave gyratory compactor and subjected to sinusoidal compressive loading at various temperatures (4.4 to 54.4°C) and loading frequencies (0.1 to 25 Hz). A catalog of default dynamic modulus values for typical asphalt concrete mixtures of P...
Nondestructive evaluation of the complex modulus master curve of asphalt concrete specimens
Gudmarsson, A.; Ryden, N.; Birgisson, B.
2013-01-01
The dynamic Young's modulus of asphalt concrete is directly related to pavement quality and is used in thickness design of pavements. There is a need for a nondestructive laboratory method to evaluate the complex modulus, which can be linked to nondestructive field measurements. This study applies seismic measurements to an asphalt concrete beam where resonant acoustic spectroscopy and optimization of frequency response functions are used to estimate the complex moduli. A good estimation of the master curve is obtained.
A Jafari Malekabadi; M Khojastehpour; B Emadi; M. R Golzarian
2016-01-01
Introduction: Poisson ratio and modulus of elasticity are two fundamental properties of elastic and viscoelastic solids that use in solving all contact problems, including the calculation of stress, the contact surfaces and elastic deformation (Mohsenin, 1986; Gentle and Halsall, 1982). There are many published literature on Poisson ratio and elasticity modulus of fruit and vegetables. Shitanda et al. (2002) calculated Poisson ratio of rice by considering Boussinesq’s theory. They showed ...
Huntzicker, Steven; Nayak, Rohit; Doyley, Marvin M.
2014-01-01
Abstract. Quantitative sparse array vascular elastography visualizes the shear modulus distribution within vascular tissues, information that clinicans could use to reduce the number of strokes each year. However, the low transmit power sparse array (SA) imaging could hamper the clinical usefulness of the resulting elastograms. In this study, we evaluated the performance of modulus elastograms recovered from simulated and physical vessel phantoms with varying attenuation coefficients (0.6, 1....
Multi-Modulus Algorithms Using Hyperbolic and Givens Rotations for MIMO Deconvolution
Shah, Syed A. W.; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of blind multiple-input multiple-output deconvolution of a communication system. Two new iterative blind source separation (BSS) algorithms are presented, based on the minimization of multi-modulus criterion. Further, we show that the design of algorithm in the complex domain is quite complicated, so a special structure of real filtering matrix is suggested and maintained throughout the design. Then, a first multi-modulus algorithm based on data whitening and ...
Quadratic Inverse Function Tsallis Entropy Multi-modulus Blind Equalization Algorithm
Guo Yecai; Gong Xiuli; Chen Qu; Gong Xi
2013-01-01
In underwater acoustic communication systems, inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by communication channel distortion is the main factor affecting the quality of communication. Aiming at the shortcomings of computational complexity, slow convergence rate, and poor stability of Multi-Modulus Algorithm (MMA), a quadratic inverse function Tsallis entropy of Cascade Multi-Modulus blind equalization Algorithm (TCMMA) was proposed. In the proposed algorithm, quadratic inverse function Tsallis en...
MR Maleki pour
2015-09-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of two different types of glass fiber and quartz fiber posts. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study eighty FRC posts of two different types: forty DT-light posts (quartz fiber and forty Whitepost DC (glass fiber, were used and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10: 1. No surface treatment (control, 2. Laser irradiation, 3. Air-born particle abrasion, 4. Hydrogen peroxide 10%. To evaluate flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, 3-point bending test was performed in universal machine in Torabinejad searching center of dental school of Isfahan University and maximum fracture load was recorded. Then flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were calculated with formula. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey and t tests. Results: Before surface treatment the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of DT- light posts were significantly higher that Withepost DC (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in flexural strength and modulus of elasticity between different groups of Withepost DC with control group (p=0.16 & p=0.15, respectively. But in DT-light posts there were statistical significant differences in flexural strength and modulus of elasticity only between air-abraded group and control. (p=0.02 & p=0.002, respectively Conclusions: Surface pretreatments of glass and quartz fiber posts with laser and hydrogen peroxide 10% have no adverse effect on their flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Key words: Fiber post, Surface Treatment, 3-Point Bending Test, elastic Modulus
Characterization of Various Plant-Produced Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Dynamic Modulus Test
Muhammad Irfan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This research characterizes the performance of various plant-produced asphalt concrete mixtures by dynamic modulus |E∗| test using asphalt mixture performance tester (AMPT. Marshall designed specimens of seven different mixtures were prepared using the Superpave gyratory compactor and subjected to sinusoidal compressive loading at various temperatures (4.4 to 54.4°C and loading frequencies (0.1 to 25 Hz. A catalog of default dynamic modulus values for typical asphalt concrete mixtures of Pakistan was established by developing stress-dependent master curves separately, for wearing and base course mixtures. The sensitivity of temperature and loading frequency on determination of dynamic modulus value was observed by typical isothermal and isochronal curves, respectively. Also, the effects of various variables on dynamic modulus were investigated using statistical technique of two-level factorial design of experiment. Furthermore, two dynamic modulus prediction models, namely, Witczak and Hirsch, were evaluated for their regional applicability. Results indicated that both the Witczak and Hirsch models mostly underpredict the value of dynamic modulus for the selected conditions/mixtures. The findings of this study are envisaged to facilitate the implementation of relatively new performance based mechanistic-empirical structural design and analysis approach.
Geometrical modulus of a casting and its influence on solidification process
F. Havlicek
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Object: The work analyses the importance of the known criterion for evaluating the controlled solidification of castings, so called geometrical modulus defined by N. Chvorinov as the first one. Geometrical modulus influences the solidification process. The modulus has such specificity that during the process of casting formation it is not a constant but its initial value decreases with the solidification progress because the remaining melt volume can decrease faster than its cooling surface.Methodology: The modulus is determined by a simple calculation from the ratio of the casting volume after pouring the metal in the mould to the cooled mould surface. The solidified metal volume and the cooled surface too are changed during solidification. That calculation is much more complicated. Results were checked up experimentally by measuring the temperatures in the cross-section of heavy steel castings during cooling them.Results: The given experimental results have completed the original theoretical calculations by Chvorinov and recent researches done with use of numerical calculations. The contribution explains how the geometrical modulus together with the thermal process in the casting causes the higher solidification rate in the axial part of the casting cross-section and shortening of solidification time. Practical implications: Change of the geometrical modulus negatively affects the casting internal quality. Melt feeding by capillary filtration in the dendritic network in the casting central part decreases and in such a way the shrinkage porosity volume increases. State of stress character in the casting is changed too and it increases.
Modular correction method of bending elastic modulus based on sliding behavior of contact point
During the three-point bending test, the sliding behavior of the contact point between the specimen and supports was observed, the sliding behavior was verified to affect the measurements of both deflection and span length, which directly affect the calculation of the bending elastic modulus. Based on the Hertz formula to calculate the elastic contact deformation and the theoretical calculation of the sliding behavior of the contact point, a theoretical model to precisely describe the deflection and span length as a function of bending load was established. Moreover, a modular correction method of bending elastic modulus was proposed, via the comparison between the corrected elastic modulus of three materials (H63 copper–zinc alloy, AZ31B magnesium alloy and 2026 aluminum alloy) and the standard modulus obtained from standard uniaxial tensile tests, the universal feasibility of the proposed correction method was verified. Also, the ratio of corrected to raw elastic modulus presented a monotonically decreasing tendency as the raw elastic modulus of materials increased. (technical note)