Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures.
Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Li; Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun
2009-04-01
We propose a practical realization of electromagnetic spherical cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials. By mimicking the classic anisotropic cloak by many alternating thin layers of isotropic dielectrics, the permittivity and permeability in each isotropic layer can be properly determined by effective medium theory in order to achieve invisibility. The model greatly facilitates modeling by Mie theory and realization by multilayer coating of dielectrics. Eigenmode analysis is also presented to provide insights of the discretization in multilayers. PMID:19518392
Making waves round a structured cloak: lattices, negative refraction and fringes.
Colquitt, D J; Jones, I S; Movchan, N V; Movchan, A B; Brun, M; McPhedran, R C
2013-09-01
Using the framework of transformation optics, this paper presents a detailed analysis of a non-singular square cloak for acoustic, out-of-plane shear elastic and electromagnetic waves. Analysis of wave propagation through the cloak is presented and accompanied by numerical illustrations. The efficacy of the regularized cloak is demonstrated and an objective numerical measure of the quality of the cloaking effect is provided. It is demonstrated that the cloaking effect persists over a wide range of frequencies. As a demonstration of the effectiveness of the regularized cloak, a Young's double slit experiment is presented. The stability of the interference pattern is examined when a cloaked and uncloaked obstacle are successively placed in front of one of the apertures. This novel link with a well-known quantum mechanical experiment provides an additional method through which the quality of cloaks may be examined. In the second half of the paper, it is shown that an approximate cloak may be constructed using a discrete lattice structure. The efficiency of the approximate lattice cloak is analysed and a series of illustrative simulations presented. It is demonstrated that effective cloaking may be obtained by using a relatively simple lattice structure, particularly, in the low-frequency regime. PMID:24062625
All-Dielectric Multilayer Cylindrical Structures for Invisibility Cloaking
Ali Mirzaei; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2015-01-01
We study optical response of all-dielectric multilayer structures and demonstrate that the total scattering of such structures can be suppressed leading to optimal invisibility cloaking. We use experimental material data and a genetic algorithm to reduce the total scattering by adjusting the material and thickness of various layers for several types of dielectric cores at telecommunication wavelengths. Our approach demonstrates 80-fold suppression of the total scattering cross-section by empl...
All-dielectric multilayer cylindrical structures for invisibility cloaking.
Mirzaei, Ali; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S
2015-01-01
We study optical response of all-dielectric multilayer structures and demonstrate that the total scattering of such structures can be suppressed leading to optimal invisibility cloaking. We use experimental material data and a genetic algorithm to reduce the total scattering by adjusting the material and thickness of various layers for several types of dielectric cores at telecommunication wavelengths. Our approach demonstrates 80-fold suppression of the total scattering cross-section by employing just a few dielectric layers. PMID:25858295
Cymatics for the cloaking of flexural vibrations in a structured plate
Misseroni, D.; Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, A. B.; Movchan, N. V.; Jones, I. S.
2016-04-01
Based on rigorous theoretical findings, we present a proof-of-concept design for a structured square cloak enclosing a void in an elastic lattice. We implement high-precision fabrication and experimental testing of an elastic invisibility cloak for flexural waves in a mechanical lattice. This is accompanied by verifications and numerical modelling performed through finite element simulations. The primary advantage of our square lattice cloak, over other designs, is the straightforward implementation and the ease of construction. The elastic lattice cloak, implemented experimentally, shows high efficiency.
Cymatics for the cloaking of flexural vibrations in a structured plate.
Misseroni, D; Colquitt, D J; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Jones, I S
2016-01-01
Based on rigorous theoretical findings, we present a proof-of-concept design for a structured square cloak enclosing a void in an elastic lattice. We implement high-precision fabrication and experimental testing of an elastic invisibility cloak for flexural waves in a mechanical lattice. This is accompanied by verifications and numerical modelling performed through finite element simulations. The primary advantage of our square lattice cloak, over other designs, is the straightforward implementation and the ease of construction. The elastic lattice cloak, implemented experimentally, shows high efficiency. PMID:27068339
Homogeneous optical cloak constructed with uniform layered structures
Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Liu; Luo, Yu;
2011-01-01
The prospect of rendering objects invisible has intrigued researchers for centuries. Transformation optics based invisibility cloak design is now bringing this goal from science fictions to reality and has already been demonstrated experimentally in microwave and optical frequencies. However, the...... opportunities for using uniform layered medium to realize invisibility at any frequency ranges, where high-quality dielectrics are available. © 2011 Optical Society of America....
Ramadan, M.; Akl, W.; Elnady, T.; Elsabbagh, A.
2011-06-01
A finite-element model for three-dimensional acoustic cloaks in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates is presented. The model is developed through time-harmonic analysis to study pressure and velocity field distributions as well as the cloak's performance. The model developed accounts for the fluid-structure interaction of thin fluid-loaded shells. A plane strain model is used for the thin shell. Mechanical harmonic excitation is applied to the fluid-loaded shell to investigate the effect of mechanical oscillation of the shell on the performance of the acoustic cloak. In developing this model, a deeper insight into the acoustic cloak phenomena presented by Cummer and Shurig in 2007 is presented. Different nonlinear coordinate transformations are presented to study their effect on the acoustic cloak performance.
Ideal and nonideal electromagnetic cloaks
Zharova, Nina A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Zharov, Alexander A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2008-01-01
We employ the analytical results for the spatial transformation of the electromagnetic fields to obtain and analyze explicit expressions for the structure of the electromagnetic fields in invisibility cloaks, beam splitters, and field concentrators. We study the efficiency of nonideal electromagnetic cloaks and discuss the effect of scattering losses on the cloak invisibility.
Making Waves Round a Structured Cloak: Lattices, Negative Refraction and Fringes
Colquitt, DJ; Movchan, NV; Brun, AB Movchan M; McPhedran, RC
2013-01-01
Using the framework of transformation optics, this paper presents a detailed analysis of a non-singular square cloak for acoustic, out-of-plane shear elastic, and electromagnetic waves. The generating map is examined in detail and linked to the material properties of the cloak. Analysis of wave propagation through the cloak is presented and accompanied by numerical illustrations. The efficacy of the regularised cloak is demonstrated and an objective numerical measure of the quality of the cloaking effect is provided. It is demonstrated that the cloaking effect persists over a wide range of frequencies. As a demonstration of the effectiveness of the regularised cloak, a Young's double slit experiment is presented. The stability of the interference pattern is examined when a cloaked and uncloaked obstacle are successively placed in front of one of the apertures. This novel link with a well-known quantum mechanical experiment provides an additional method through which the quality of cloaks may be examined. In t...
Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks
Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei
2008-01-01
In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation or...
Electromagnetic Invisibility of Elliptic Cylinder Cloaks
Structures with unique electromagnetic properties are designed based on the approach of spatial coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations. This approach is applied to scheme out invisible elliptic cylinder cloaks, which provide more feasibility for cloaking arbitrarily shaped objects. The transformation expressions for the anisotropic material parameters and the field distribution are derived. The cloaking performances of ideal and lossy elliptic cylinder cloaks are investigated by finite element simulations. It is found that the cloaking performance will degrade in the forward direction with increasing loss. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Chen, Huanyang; Luo, Xudong; Ma, Hongru; Chan, C. T.
2008-01-01
A kind of transformation media, which we shall call the "anti-cloak", is proposed to partially defeat the cloaking effect of the invisibility cloak. An object with an outer shell of "anti-cloak" is visible to the outside if it is coated with the invisible cloak. Fourier-Bessel analysis confirms this finding by showing that external electromagnetic wave can penetrate into the interior of the invisibility cloak with the help of the anti-cloak.
A Near Zero Refractive Index Metamaterial for Electromagnetic Invisibility Cloaking Operation
Sikder Sunbeam Islam
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The paper reveals the design of a unit cell of a metamaterial that shows more than 2 GHz wideband near zero refractive index (NZRI property in the C-band region of microwave spectra. The two arms of the unit cell were splitted in such a way that forms a near-pi-shape structure on epoxy resin fiber (FR-4 substrate material. The reflection and transmission characteristics of the unit cell were achieved by utilizing finite integration technique based simulation software. Measured results were presented, which complied well with simulated results. The unit cell was then applied to build a single layer rectangular-shaped cloak that operates in the C-band region where a metal cylinder was perfectly hidden electromagnetically by reducing the scattering width below zero. Moreover, the unit cell shows NZRI property there. The experimental result for the cloak operation was presented in terms of S-parameters as well. In addition, the same metamaterial shell was also adopted for designing an eye-shaped and triangular-shaped cloak structure to cloak the same object, and cloaking operation is achieved in the C-band, as well with slightly better cloaking performance. The novel design, NZRI property, and single layer C-band cloaking operation has made the design a promising one in the electromagnetic paradigm.
Invisibility cloaks for toroids.
You, Yu; Kattawar, George W; Yang, Ping
2009-04-13
The material properties of toroidal invisibility cloaks are derived based on the coordinate transformation method. The permittivity and permeability tensors for toroidal cloaks are substantially different from those for spherical cloaks, but quite similar to those for 2D cylindrical cloaks because a singularity is involved at the inner boundary in both the cases. The cloaking effect is confirmed by the electric field distribution in the vicinity of toroidal cloaks simulated from the generalized discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method. This study extends the concept of electromagnetic cloaking of arbitrarily-shaped objects to a complex geometry. PMID:19365485
Invisibility cloak without singularity
Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun; Yang, Xin Mi; Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Ruopeng; Smith, David R
2008-01-01
An elliptical invisible cloak is proposed using a coordinate transformation in the elliptical-cylindrical coordinate system, which crushes the cloaked object to a line segment instead of a point. The elliptical cloak is reduced to a nearly-circular cloak if the elliptical focus becomes very small. The advantage of the proposed invisibility cloak is that none of the parameters is singular and the changing range of all parameters is relatively small.
Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials
We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.
Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials
Yu Zhenzhong; Feng Yijun; Xu Xiaofei; Zhao Junming; Jiang Tian, E-mail: yjfeng@nju.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)
2011-05-11
We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.
Object-dependent cloaking in the first-order Born approximation
We consider the cloaking of a slab object in scalar wave theory within the first-order Born approximation. We show that in the forward direction cloaking is achieved for any transversally invariant, positively refracting, and absorbing object by using a lossy, negative-index metamaterial cloak. Cloaking is perfect and occurs for incident fields having any spatial structure and bandwidth. In the backward direction cloaking is found to be possible for self-imaging fields. In both cases the refractive-index distribution and dispersive properties of the cloak slab resemble those of the object slab. The method of object-dependent cloaking with weak scatterers may find useful applications.
Experimental and computational studies of electromagnetic cloaking at microwaves
Wang, Xiaohui
An invisibility cloak is a device that can hide the target by enclosing it from the incident radiation. This intriguing device has attracted a lot of attention since it was first implemented at a microwave frequency in 2006. However, the problems of existing cloak designs prevent them from being widely applied in practice. In this dissertation, we try to remove or alleviate the three constraints for practical applications imposed by loosy cloaking media, high implementation complexity, and small size of hidden objects compared to the incident wavelength. To facilitate cloaking design and experimental characterization, several devices and relevant techniques for measuring the complex permittivity of dielectric materials at microwave frequencies are developed. In particular, a unique parallel plate waveguide chamber has been set up to automatically map the electromagnetic (EM) field distribution for wave propagation through the resonator arrays and cloaking structures. The total scattering cross section of the cloaking structures was derived based on the measured scattering field by using this apparatus. To overcome the adverse effects of lossy cloaking media, microwave cloaks composed of identical dielectric resonators made of low loss ceramic materials are designed and implemented. The effective permeability dispersion was provided by tailoring dielectric resonator filling fractions. The cloak performances had been verified by full-wave simulation of true multi-resonator structures and experimental measurements of the fabricated prototypes. With the aim to reduce the implementation complexity caused by metamaterials employment for cloaking, we proposed to design 2-D cylindrical cloaks and 3-D spherical cloaks by using multi-layer ordinary dielectric material (epsilon r>1) coating. Genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the dielectric profiles of the cloaking shells to provide the minimum scattering cross sections of the cloaked targets. The designed cloaks can
Invisibility Cloak Printed on a Photonic Chip
Feng, Zhen; Wu, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Xi; Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Xian-Min
2016-01-01
Invisibility cloak capable of hiding an object can be achieved by properly manipulating electromagnetic field. Such a remarkable ability has been shown in transformation and ray optics. Alternatively, it may be realistic to create a spatial cloak by means of confining electromagnetic field in three-dimensional arrayed waveguides and introducing appropriate collective curvature surrounding an object. We realize the artificial structure in borosilicate by femtosecond laser direct writing, where we prototype up to 5,000 waveguides to conceal millimeter-scale volume. We characterize the performance of the cloak by normalized cross correlation, tomography analysis and continuous three-dimensional viewing angle scan. Our results show invisibility cloak can be achieved in waveguide optics. Furthermore, directly printed invisibility cloak on a photonic chip may enable controllable study and novel applications in classical and quantum integrated photonics, such as invisualising a coupling or swapping operation with on-chip circuits of their own. PMID:27329510
Invisibility Cloak Printed on a Photonic Chip
Feng, Zhen; Zhao, Yu-Xi; Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Xian-Min
2016-01-01
Invisibility cloak capable of hiding an object can be achieved by properly manipulating electromagnetic field. Such a remarkable ability has been shown in transformation and ray optics. Alternatively, it may be realistic to create a spatial cloak by means of confining electromagnetic field in three-dimensional arrayed waveguides and introducing appropriate collective curvature surrounding an object. We realize the artificial structure in borosilicate by femtosecond laser direct writing, where we prototype up to 5000 waveguides to conceal millimeter-scale volume. We characterize the performance of the cloak by normalized cross correlation, tomography analysis and continuous three-dimensional viewing angle scan. Our results show invisibility cloak can be achieved in waveguide optics. Furthermore, directly printed invisibility cloak on a photonic chip may enable controllable study and novel applications in classical and quantum integrated photonics, such as invisualising a coupling or swapping operation with on-...
Invisibility Cloak Printed on a Photonic Chip.
Feng, Zhen; Wu, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Xi; Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Xian-Min
2016-01-01
Invisibility cloak capable of hiding an object can be achieved by properly manipulating electromagnetic field. Such a remarkable ability has been shown in transformation and ray optics. Alternatively, it may be realistic to create a spatial cloak by means of confining electromagnetic field in three-dimensional arrayed waveguides and introducing appropriate collective curvature surrounding an object. We realize the artificial structure in borosilicate by femtosecond laser direct writing, where we prototype up to 5,000 waveguides to conceal millimeter-scale volume. We characterize the performance of the cloak by normalized cross correlation, tomography analysis and continuous three-dimensional viewing angle scan. Our results show invisibility cloak can be achieved in waveguide optics. Furthermore, directly printed invisibility cloak on a photonic chip may enable controllable study and novel applications in classical and quantum integrated photonics, such as invisualising a coupling or swapping operation with on-chip circuits of their own. PMID:27329510
In this paper, we consider invisibility cloaking via the transformation optics approach through a ‘blow-up’ construction. An ideal cloak makes use of singular cloaking material. ‘Blow-up-a-small-region’ construction and ‘truncation-of-singularity’ construction are introduced to avoid the singular structure, however, giving only near-cloaks. The study in the literature is to develop various mechanisms in order to achieve high-accuracy approximate near-cloaking devices, and also from a practical viewpoint to nearly cloak an arbitrary content. We study the problem from a different viewpoint. It is shown that for those regularized cloaking devices, the corresponding scattering wave fields due to an incident plane wave have regular patterns. The regular patterns are both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, the regular wave pattern betrays the location of a cloaking device which is an intrinsic defect due to the ‘blow-up’ construction, and this is particularly the case for the construction by employing a high-loss layer lining. Indeed, our numerical experiments show robust reconstructions of the location, even by implementing the phaseless cross-section data. The construction by employing a high-density layer lining shows a certain promising feature. On the other hand, it is shown that one can introduce an internal point source to produce the canceling scattering pattern to achieve a near-cloak of an arbitrary order of accuracy. (paper)
Zhu, X. F.; Liang, B.; Tu, J; D. Zhang; Cheng, J C
2011-01-01
The magic "Harry Potter's cloak" has been the dream of human beings for really long time. Recently, transformation optics inspired from the advent of metamaterials offers great versatility for manipulating wave propagation at will to create amazing illusion effects. In the present work, we proposed a novel transformation recipe, in which the cloaking shell somehow behaves like a "cloaking lens", to provide almost all desired features one can expect for a real magic cloak. The most exciting fe...
Zhu, X F; Tu, J; Zhang, D; Cheng, J C
2011-01-01
The magic "Harry Potter's cloak" has been the dream of human beings for really long time. Recently, transformation optics inspired from the advent of metamaterials offers great versatility for manipulating wave propagation at will to create amazing illusion effects. In the present work, we proposed a novel transformation recipe, in which the cloaking shell somehow behaves like a "cloaking lens", to provide almost all desired features one can expect for a real magic cloak. The most exciting feature of the current recipe is that an object with arbitrary characteristics (e.g., size, shape or material properties) can be invisibilized perfectly with positive-index materials, which significantly benefits the practical realization of a broad-band cloaking device fabricated with existing materials. Moreover, the one concealed in the hidden region is able to undistortedly communicate with the surrounding world, while the lens-like cloaking shell will protect the cloaked source/sensor from being traced back by outside ...
Ultrabroadband Elastic Cloaking in Thin Plates
Farhat, Mohamed; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan
2009-07-01
Control of waves with metamaterials is of great topical interest, and is fueled by rapid progress in broadband acoustic and electromagnetic cloaks. We propose a design for a cloak to control bending waves propagating in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. This is achieved through homogenization of a multilayered concentric coating filled with piecewise constant isotropic elastic material. Significantly, our cloak displays no phase shift for both backward and forward scattering. To foster experimental efforts, we provide a simplified design of the cloak which is shown to work in a more than two-octave frequency range (30 Hz to 150 Hz) when it consists of 10 layers using only 6 different materials overall. This metamaterial should be easy to manufacture, with potential applications ranging from car industry to antiearthquake passive systems for smart buildings, depending upon the plate dimensions and wavelengths.
Natural Light Cloaking for Aquatic and Terrestrial Creatures
Chen, Hongsheng; Shen, Lian; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Zheludev, Nikolay; Zhang, Baile
2013-01-01
A cloak that can hide living creatures from sight is a common feature of mythology but still remains unrealized as a practical device. To preserve the phase of wave, the previous cloaking solution proposed by Pendry \\emph{et al.} required transforming electromagnetic space around the hidden object in such a way that the rays bending around it have to travel much faster than those passing it by. The difficult phase preservation requirement is the main obstacle for building a broadband polarization insensitive cloak for large objects. Here, we suggest a simplifying version of Pendry's cloak by abolishing the requirement for phase preservation as irrelevant for observation in incoherent natural light with human eyes that are phase and polarization insensitive. This allows the cloak design to be made in large scale using commonly available materials and we successfully report cloaking living creatures, a cat and a fish, in front of human eyes.
Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material properties
We propose a general methodology and a set of practical recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic cloaks-structures that can render themselves and a concealed object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the flexibility of continuum transformations that produce approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect, eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be composed of combinations of solid materials rather than fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic properties of such media, which support shear waves in addition to the compression waves associated with the acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic metamaterials with Poisson's ratio ν>0.49, shear waves do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with ν∼0.499) and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the scalar acoustic wave equation.
Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material properties
Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Ghezzo, Fabrizia; Hunt, John; Smith, David R, E-mail: yaroslav.urzhumov@duke.ed [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)
2010-07-15
We propose a general methodology and a set of practical recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic cloaks-structures that can render themselves and a concealed object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the flexibility of continuum transformations that produce approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect, eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be composed of combinations of solid materials rather than fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic properties of such media, which support shear waves in addition to the compression waves associated with the acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic metamaterials with Poisson's ratio {nu}>0.49, shear waves do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with {nu}{approx}0.499) and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the scalar acoustic wave equation.
Cloaking an acoustic sensor with single-negative materials
Cai, Chen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Xue-Feng [Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xu, Tao [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zou, Xin-Ye, E-mail: xyzou@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2015-07-15
In this review, a brief introduction is given to the development of acoustic superlens cloaks that allow the cloaked object to receive signals while its presence is not sensed by the surrounding, which can be regarded as “cloaking an acoustic sensor”. Remarkably, the designed cloak consists of single-negative materials with parameters independent of the background medium or the sensor system, which is proven to be a magnifying superlens. This has facilitated significantly the design and fabrication of acoustic cloaks that generally require double-negative materials with customized parameters. Such innovative design has then been simplified further as a multi-layered structure comprising of two alternately arranged complementary media with homogeneous isotropic single-negative materials. Based on this, a scattering analyses method is developed for the numerical simulation of such multi-layered cloak structures, which may serve as an efficient approach for the investigation on such devices.
Cloaking an acoustic sensor with single-negative materials
In this review, a brief introduction is given to the development of acoustic superlens cloaks that allow the cloaked object to receive signals while its presence is not sensed by the surrounding, which can be regarded as “cloaking an acoustic sensor”. Remarkably, the designed cloak consists of single-negative materials with parameters independent of the background medium or the sensor system, which is proven to be a magnifying superlens. This has facilitated significantly the design and fabrication of acoustic cloaks that generally require double-negative materials with customized parameters. Such innovative design has then been simplified further as a multi-layered structure comprising of two alternately arranged complementary media with homogeneous isotropic single-negative materials. Based on this, a scattering analyses method is developed for the numerical simulation of such multi-layered cloak structures, which may serve as an efficient approach for the investigation on such devices
Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak
Chuwen Lan; Yuping Yang; Zhaoxin Geng; Bo Li; Ji Zhou
2015-01-01
The invisibility cloak has been drawing much attention due to its new concept for manipulating many physical fields, from oscillating wave fields (electromagnetic, acoustic and elastic) to static magnetic fields, dc electric fields, and diffusive fields. Here, an electrostatic field invisibility cloak has been theoretically investigated and experimentally demonstrated to perfectly hide two dimensional objects without disturbing their external electrostatic fields. The desired cloaking effect ...
Prolate spheroidal quantum cloak
Syue, Cheng-De; Lin, De-Hone, E-mail: dhlin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)
2015-04-15
To understand the propagation behavior of an oblique incident matter wave in a three-dimensional non-spherical quantum cloak, we perform the transformation design for the prolate spheroidal coordinate system and obtain a quantum cloak with an ellipsoidal shape. The mass parameters and effective potential for the creation of a perfect prolate spheroidal invisibility region are given. The analytic representations of the cloaked matter wave and probability current in the cloaking shell are presented. Special attention is paid to the discussions of the probability current in the cloaking shell for only that current can manifestly exhibit how the wave vector of the matter wave is curved, rotated, and guided in the cloaking shell to flow around the non-spherically invisible region. With the current analysis, one shows that the presented cloak can perfectly guide the matter wave in the situation of any oblique incidence. The proposed prolate spheroidal cloak for matter waves provides the first non-spherically three-dimensional setup for quantum cloaking.
Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak
Xu, Jun
2015-06-09
We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak.
Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien
2015-01-01
We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. PMID:26057934
Zeng, Lunwu; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Hua, E-mail: 12.66@163.com
2015-04-01
We report that a bi-layer electret cylinder can cloak electrostatic field. We fabricated two hollow electret cylinders, the two hollow electret cylinders nested a bi-layer hollow electret cylinder. The direction of the polarization intensity is parallel to one of the diameters. Experimental results show that the bi-layer hollow electret cylinder can cloak electrostatic field.
Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiaojun
2012-12-01
Based on the effective medium theory, we propose a practical implementation of a cylindrical acoustic cloak with a concentric alternating multilayered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials, which can perfectly mimic the ideal radius-dependent and anisotropic ordinary lens cloak. The proposal exhibits near-ideal cloaking performance such as low-scattering and shadow-reducing in a wide frequency range, thus it can hide an object from the detection of acoustic waves. The acoustic wave can pass through the cloaking shell with an unchanged wavefront shape, which endues the cloaked object with duplex communication ability. More simulations on the acoustic far-field scattering patterns and the total scattering cross-section are performed to investigate the layer number and the frequency dependence of the cloaking effect, and the results show that the thinner layers exhibit a better cloaking effect. The proposal may significantly facilitate the experimental demonstration of the acoustic cloak.
Designing the coordinate transformation function for non-magnetic invisibility cloaking
Xu Xiaofei; Feng Yijun; Zhao Lin; Jiang Tian [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Lu Chunhua; Xu Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, 210009 (China)], E-mail: yjfeng@nju.edu.cn
2008-11-07
An optical invisibility cloak based on a transformation approach has recently been proposed by a reduced set of material properties due to their easier implementation in reality and little need for an inhomogeneous permeability distribution, but the drawback of undesired scattering caused by the impedance mismatching at the outer boundary is unavoidable in such a cloak. By properly designing the coordinate transformation function to ensure impedance matching at the outer surface, we show that the performance of a nonmagnetic cylindrical cloak could be improved with minimized scattering fields. Using either a single high order power function or an optimized piecewise continuous power function, a cylindrical non-magnetic cloak has been designed with nearly perfect cloaking performance, which is better than those generated with a linear or a quadratic function. Due to the monotonicity of the designed power functions, the resulting cloak has no restriction on the size of the cloaking shell, therefore is suitable for both thick and thin cloaking structures.
Dispersive finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis of the elliptic cylindrical cloak
Lee, Y. Y.; Ahn, D. [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-05-15
A dispersive full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model is used to calculate the performance of elliptic cylindrical cloaking devices. The permittivity and the permeability tensors for the cloaking structure are derived by using an effective medium approach in general relativity. The elliptic cylindrical invisibility devices are found to show imperfect cloaking, and the cloaking performance is found to depend on the polarization of the incident waves, the direction of the propagation of those waves, the semi-focal distances and the loss tangents of the meta-material. When the semifocal distance of the elliptic cylinder decreases, the performance of the cloaking becomes very good, with neither noticeable scatterings nor field penetrations. For a larger semi-focal distance, only the TM wave with a specific propagation direction shows good cloaking performance. Realistic cloaking materials with loss still show a cloak that is working, but attenuated back-scattering waves exist.
Broadband Acoustic Cloak for Ultrasound Waves
Zhang, Shu; Fang, Nicholas
2010-01-01
Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. Such a device is proposed to render the hidden object undetectable under the flow of light or sound, by guiding and controlling the wave path through an engineered space surrounding the object. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Due to the non-resonant nature of the building elements, this low loss (~6dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits excellent invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz in the measurements. The low visibility of the cloaked object for underwater ultrasound shed a light on the fundamental understanding of ma...
Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak.
Lan, Chuwen; Yang, Yuping; Geng, Zhaoxin; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji
2015-01-01
The invisibility cloak has been drawing much attention due to its new concept for manipulating many physical fields, from oscillating wave fields (electromagnetic, acoustic and elastic) to static magnetic fields, dc electric fields, and diffusive fields. Here, an electrostatic field invisibility cloak has been theoretically investigated and experimentally demonstrated to perfectly hide two dimensional objects without disturbing their external electrostatic fields. The desired cloaking effect has been achieved via both cancelling technology and transformation optics (TO). This study demonstrates a novel way for manipulating electrostatic fields, which shows promise for a wide range of potential applications. PMID:26552343
Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak
Lan, Chuwen; Yang, Yuping; Geng, Zhaoxin; Li, Bo; Yu, Xianglong; Zhou, Ji
2014-01-01
Invisibility cloak is drawing much attention due to its special camouflage when exposed to physical field varing from wave (electromagnetic field, acoustic field, elastic wave, etc.) to scalar field (thermal field, static magnetic field, dc electric field and mass diffusion). Here, an electrostatic field invisibility cloak has been theoretically investigated, and experimentally demonstrated for the first time to perfectly hide a certain region from sight without disturbing the external electr...
Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun
2008-11-01
It was qualitatively demonstrated through finite-element full-wave simulations that acoustic cloak can be constructed by using concentric multilayered structure with alternating homogeneous isotropic materials [Y. Cheng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151913 (2008)]. Here we present a sequential in-depth analysis of the proposed cloak by means of the multiple-scattering algorithms. Calculated pressure fields demonstrate that the cloak possesses low-reflection and wavefront-bending properties. The scattering patterns further characterize the directional cloaking performance in the far field, which is consistent with the pressure fields. The mechanism of the cloaking is ascribed to a specific multiple-scattering process determined by the microscopic material distribution and structural details of the cloak. We also discuss the behavior of the multilayered cloak as a function of wavelength.
Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation.
Bückmann, Tiemo; Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin
2015-04-21
Spatial coordinate transformations have helped simplifying mathematical issues and solving complex boundary-value problems in physics for decades already. More recently, material-parameter transformations have also become an intuitive and powerful engineering tool for designing inhomogeneous and anisotropic material distributions that perform wanted functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking. A necessary mathematical prerequisite for this approach to work is that the underlying equations are form invariant with respect to general coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this condition is not fulfilled in elastic-solid mechanics for materials that can be described by ordinary elasticity tensors. Here, we introduce a different and simpler approach. We directly transform the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material, while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice points the same. After showing that the approach works in various areas, we focus on elastic-solid mechanics. As a demanding example, we cloak a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression. Corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on polymer structures made by 3D printing are presented. The cloaking quality is quantified by comparing the average relative SD of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice. Theory and experiment agree and exhibit very good cloaking performance. PMID:25848021
Invisibility cloaking without superluminal propagation
Perczel, Janos; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf
2011-01-01
Conventional cloaking based on Euclidean transformation optics requires that the speed of light should tend to infinity on the inner surface of the cloak. Non-Euclidean cloaking still needed media with superluminal propagation. Here we show by giving an example that this is no longer necessary.
Invisibility cloaking without superluminal propagation
Perczel, Janos; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Tyc, Tomas, E-mail: jp394@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Kotlarska 2 and Faculty of Informatics, Botanicka 68a, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)
2011-08-15
Conventional cloaking based on Euclidean transformation optics requires that the speed of light should tend to infinity on the inner surface of the cloak. Non-Euclidean cloaking still needs media with superluminal propagation. Here we show by giving an example that this is no longer necessary.
We present a method for designing an open acoustic cloak that can conceal a perturbation on flat ground and simultaneously meet the requirement of communication and matter interchange between the inside and the outside of the cloak. This cloak can be constructed with a multilayered structure and each layer is an isotropic and homogeneous medium. The design scheme consists of two steps: firstly, we apply a conformal coordinate transformation to obtain a quasi-perfect cloak with heterogeneous isotropic material; then, according to the profile of the material distribution, we degenerate this cloak into a multilayered-homogeneous isotropic cloak, which has two open windows with negligible disturbance on its invisibility performance. This may greatly facilitate the fabrication and enhance the applicability of such a carpet-type cloak. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Ren Chun-Yu; Xiang Zhi-Hai; Cen Zhang-Zhi
2011-01-01
We present a method for designing an open acoustic cloak that can conceal a perturbation on flat ground and simultaneously meet the requirement of communication and matter interchange between the inside and the outside of the cloak.This cloak can be constructed with a multilayered structure and each layer is an isotropic and homogeneous medium.The design scheme consists of two steps:firstly,we apply a conformal coordinate transformation to obtain a quasi-perfect cloak with heterogeneous isotropic material; then,according to the profile of the material distribution,we degenerate this cloak into a multilayered-homogeneous isotropic cloak,which has two open windows with negligible disturbance on its invisibility performance.This may greatly facilitate the fabrication and enhance the applicability of such a carpet-type cloak.
We present the design and the experimental demonstration of an invisible cloak with irregular shape by using tensor transmission line (TL) metamaterials. The fabricated cloak consists of tensor TL unit cells exhibiting anisotropic effective material parameters, while the background medium consists of isotropic TL unit cells. The simulated and the measured field patterns around the cloak show a fairly good agreement, both demonstrate that the fabricated cloak can shield the cloaked interior area from electromagnetic fields without perturbing the external fields. The scattering of the cloaked perfect electric conductor (PEC) is minimized. Furthermore, the nonresonant property of the TL structure results in a relatively broad bandwidth of the realized cloak, which is clearly observed in our experiment. (paper)
Invisibility cloaking in weak scattering
Setälä, Tero; Hakkarainen, Timo; Ari T. Friberg; Hoenders, Bernhard J.
2010-01-01
We consider invisibility cloaking of a slab object in scalar wave theory within the first-order Born approximation. We show that in the forward direction cloaking is achieved for any object slab and incident field, whereas in the backward direction cloaking is possible at least for self-imaging fields. In both cases the scattering potential of the cloak slab depends on that of the object slab. The method of object-dependent cloaking using weak slab scatterers can be a useful addition to exist...
Cloaks with multiple invisible regions
This paper proposes a general method of extending the effective invisible regions for both the shell-like interior cloak and the complementary media exterior cloak, without affecting their original cloaking regions. The proposed method is based on layered spatial mapping instead of the intact mapping. Certain interior or exterior invisible regions can be obtained by properly using a compressed or folded transformation in each space layer. Therefore, the proposal enables the as-designed cloaks to provide multiple invisible regions of different types simultaneously. Thus objects can be hidden in the interior cavity and/or in the exterior space, or even be embedded between the cloaking shells
Adaptive building skin structures
The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method
Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping
2016-07-01
For macroscopically manipulating heat flow at will, thermal metamaterials have opened a practical way, which possesses a single function, such as either cloaking or concentrating the flow of heat even though environmental temperature varies. By developing a theory of transformation heat transfer for multiple functions, here we introduce the concept of intelligent thermal metamaterials with a dual function, which is in contrast to the existing thermal metamaterials with single functions. By assembling homogeneous isotropic materials and shape-memory alloys, we experimentally fabricate a kind of intelligent thermal metamaterials, which can automatically change from a cloak (or concentrator) to a concentrator (or cloak) when the environmental temperature changes. This work paves an efficient way for a controllable gradient of heat, and also provides guidance both for arbitrarily manipulating the flow of heat and for efficiently designing similar intelligent metamaterials in other fields.
Cloaking Effect of Superlens in Time Domain
Xiao, Meng; Dong, Jian Wen; Huang, Xueqin; Chan, Che Ting
2012-02-01
A ``perfect lens'' (ideal absorption-less slab with μ=?=-1) or ``superlens'' (a perfect lens with small absorption) can cloak a small object located in its vicinity such that no far field observer can detect the small particle, i.e., being invisible. While the problem is well understood in the steady state by solving the Maxwell equation in frequency domain, its time domain properties, such as how the cloaking effect started, remained unknown. In this paper, by using the time-dependent Green's function approach, we present a time domain study of the cloaking properties of the ``superlens'' As a current source is turned ``on,'' the system's response will be consisted of a transient response in the beginning and a steady state response in the long run. It turns out that it takes a long time (tens of thousands of cycle) for the ``perfect lens'' to build up the cloaking effect, and this required period depends on a number of factors, such as the separation between the lens and the particle, the absorption of the slab, and the dispersion of the slab. Moreover, along with many other interesting effects, we also find that, the dipole moment, on its way to be invisible, it oscillates with a decreasing amplitude.
Broadband cloaking for flexural waves
Zareei, Ahmad
2016-01-01
The governing equation for elastic waves in flexural plates is not form invariant, and hence designing a cloak for such waves faces a major challenge. Here, we present the design of a perfect broadband cloak for flexural waves through the use of a nonlinear transformation, and by matching term-by-term the original and transformed equations. For a readily achievable flexural cloak in a physical setting, we further present an approximate adoption of our perfect cloak under more restrictive physical constraints. Through direct simulation of the governing equations, we show that this cloak, as well, maintains a consistently high cloaking efficiency over a broad range of frequencies. The methodology developed here may be used for steering waves and designing cloaks in other physical systems with non form-invariant governing equations.
Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak
Lan, Chuwen; Zhou, Ji; Li, Bo
2014-01-01
Invisibility cloak is currently attracting much attention due to its special avenue for manipulation of physical fields,which has been demonstrated in various waves like electromagnetic field, acoustic field and elastic wave, as well as scalar fields, such as thermal field, static magnetic field and dc electric field. Here, we report on the first theoretical and experimental realization of electrostatic field invisibility cloak to shield a certain region without disturbing the external electrostatic field. Both scattering cancelling technology and transformation optics method were employed to achieve this goal.This work provides a novel method for manipulation of electrostatic field, which may find potential applications in broad areas.
Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach
This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication
Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach
Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2008-06-01
This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication.
Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach
Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de vera s.n., E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es
2008-06-15
This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication.
Robust large dimension terahertz cloaking
Liang, Dachuan; Gu, Jianqiang; Han, Jiaguang; Yang, Yuanmu; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Weili
2011-01-01
Invisibility cloaking not only catches the human imagination, but also promises fascinating applications in optics and photonics. By manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials, researchers have been able to realize electromagnetic cloaking in the microwave, terahertz and optical regimes. Nevertheless, the complex design and fabrication process, narrow bandwidth, and high intrinsic losses in the metamaterial-based cloaks have imposed intractable limitations on their realistic applic...
Grating-Coupled Waveguide Cloaking
WANG Jia-Fu; QU Shao-Bo; XU Zhuo; MA Hua; WANG Cong-Min; XIA Song; WANG Xin-Hua; ZHOU Hang
2012-01-01
Based on the concept of a grating-coupled waveguide (GCW),a new strategy for realizing EM cloaking is presented.Using metallic grating,incident waves are firstly coupled into the effective waveguide and then decoupled into free space behind,enabling EM waves to pass around the obstacle.Phase compensation in the waveguide keeps the wave-front shape behind the obstacle unchanged.Circular,rectangular and triangular cloaks are presented to verify the robustness of the GCW cloaking.Electric field animations and radar cross section (RCS)comparisons convincingly demonstrate the cloaking effect.
We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves at an air–fluid interface, to pressure waves in fluids and out-of-plane shear waves in elastic media: these waves are all governed by a second order scalar partial differential equation (PDE) invariant under geometric transform. Moreover, flexural waves propagating in thin plates represent a very peculiar situation whereby the displacement field satisfies a fourth order scalar PDE which also retains its form under geometric transform (unlike for the Navier equation in elastodynamics). Control of flexural wave trajectories is illustrated with a multilayered cloak and a carpet. Interestingly, the colours of waves can be revealed through an analysis of the band spectra of invisibility cloaks. In the context of acoustics, this suggests one can hear the shape of a drum. Alternative avenues towards cloaking based upon anomalous resonances of a negatively refracting coating (which can be seen as the result of folding the space back onto itself), and even plasmonic shells reducing the scattering cross-section of nano-objects are also addressed. (review article)
Cloaking in Heat Conduction and Light Diffusion
Schittny, Robert Johannes
2015-01-01
In free-space optics, invisibility cloaking is fundamentally limited by relativity, making passive broadband, macroscopic cloaks impossible. This thesis explores invisibility cloaking beyond ballistic optics. In the regimes of heat conduction and light diffusion, the relativity problem vanishes due to inherently slower energy transport. Macroscopic cloaks for transient heat flow and static diffusive light transport are designed, realized and experimentally characterized.
Structural rehabilitation of old buildings
Guedes, João; Varum, Humberto
2014-01-01
The present book describes the different construction systems and structural materials and solutions within the main old buildings typologies, and it analyses the particularities of each of them, including mechanical properties, structural behaviour, typical damage patterns and collapse mechanisms. Common or pioneering intervention measures to repair and/or strengthen some of these structural elements are also reviewed.
Structural building response review
The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations
Highlights: • We first propose that the cloak is composed of the bilayer of semiconductor and superconductor. • We realize the infrared broadband cloaking based on the scattering cancellation method. • The cloaking frequency can be tuned by external temperature. - Abstract: The infrared broadband tunable cloaking have been proposed and investigated with the bilayer coating materials of semiconductor (n-Ge) and high-temperature superconductor (YBa2Cu3O7), whose cloaking frequency can be controlled by external temperature. The analytical solution is derived based on the scattering cancellation cloaking technique from the Mie scattering theory, and the full-wave numerical simulation is performed by the finite element method. The calculated and simulated results have demonstrated that this invisibility cloak may reduce the total scattering cross section of the composite structure of 90% over a broad frequency band of nearly 20 THz, and the infrared cloaking frequency can be tuned by the external temperature. It can provide a feasible way to design a broadband tunable cloak
Wang, Xiaohua [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224051 (China); Liu, Youwen, E-mail: ywliu@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Feng, Yuncai [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)
2015-06-15
Highlights: • We first propose that the cloak is composed of the bilayer of semiconductor and superconductor. • We realize the infrared broadband cloaking based on the scattering cancellation method. • The cloaking frequency can be tuned by external temperature. - Abstract: The infrared broadband tunable cloaking have been proposed and investigated with the bilayer coating materials of semiconductor (n-Ge) and high-temperature superconductor (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}), whose cloaking frequency can be controlled by external temperature. The analytical solution is derived based on the scattering cancellation cloaking technique from the Mie scattering theory, and the full-wave numerical simulation is performed by the finite element method. The calculated and simulated results have demonstrated that this invisibility cloak may reduce the total scattering cross section of the composite structure of 90% over a broad frequency band of nearly 20 THz, and the infrared cloaking frequency can be tuned by the external temperature. It can provide a feasible way to design a broadband tunable cloak.
Two dimensional invisibility cloaking via transformation optics
Liu, Hongyu; Ting ZHOU
2010-01-01
We investigate two-dimensional invisibility cloaking via transformation optics approach. The cloaking media possess much more singular parameters than those having been considered for three-dimensional cloaking in literature. Finite energy solutions for these cloaking devices are studied in appropriate weighted Sobolev spaces. We derive some crucial properties of the singularly weighted Sobolev spaces. The invisibility cloaking is then justified by decoupling the underlying singular PDEs into...
EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics
Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.
2008-11-01
'Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic', as the late Arthur C Clarke wrote. So what does it take to do magic by technology? Transformation optics has developed some tantalizing ideas and the first practical demonstrations of 'pure and applied magic'. Transformation optics gathers an unusual mix of scientists, ranging from practically-minded engineers to imaginative theoretical physicists and mathematicians or hybrids of all three. The engineers have been developing new materials with extraordinary electromagnetic properties, from materials for microwaves, to be used in radar or wireless technology, to materials for terahertz radiation and visible light. These materials typically are composites—they consist of artificial structures much smaller than the wavelength that act like man-made atoms, apart being much larger in size. The properties of these artificial atoms depend on their shapes and sizes and so they are tunable, in contrast to most real atoms or molecules. This degree of control is what makes these materials—called metamaterials—so interesting. Such new-won freedom invites the other side of the spectrum of scientists, the theorists, to dream. Just imagine there are no practical limits on electromagnetic materials—what could we do with them? One exciting application of metamaterials has been Veselago's idea of negative refraction, dating back to the 1960s. Metamaterials have breathed life into Veselago's idea, culminating in recent optical demonstrations (see for example [1,2]). Another application is cloaking, developing ideas and first experimental demonstrations for invisibility devices [3]. It turns out that both negative refraction and cloaking are examples where materials seem to transform the geometry of space. Any optical material appears to change light's perception of space, as countless optical illusions prove, but the materials of transformation optics act in more specific ways: they appear to perform
Li, Jingzhi; Liu, Hongyu; Rondi, Luca; Uhlmann, Gunther
2015-04-01
We develop a very general theory on the regularized approximate invisibility cloaking for the wave scattering governed by the Helmholtz equation in any space dimensions via the approach of transformation optics. There are four major ingredients in our proposed theory: (1) The non-singular cloaking medium is obtained by the push-forwarding construction through a transformation that blows up a subset in the virtual space, where is an asymptotic regularization parameter. will degenerate to K 0 as , and in our theory K 0 could be any convex compact set in , or any set whose boundary consists of Lipschitz hypersurfaces, or a finite combination of those sets. (2) A general lossy layer with the material parameters satisfying certain compatibility integral conditions is employed right between the cloaked and cloaking regions. (3) The contents being cloaked could also be extremely general, possibly including, at the same time, generic mediums and, sound-soft, sound-hard and impedance-type obstacles, as well as some sources or sinks. (4) In order to achieve a cloaking device of compact size, particularly for the case when is not "uniformly small", an assembly-by-components, the (ABC) geometry is developed for both the virtual and physical spaces and the blow-up construction is based on concatenating different components. Within the proposed framework, we show that the scattered wave field corresponding to a cloaking problem will converge to u 0 as , with u 0 being the scattered wave field corresponding to a sound-hard K 0. The convergence result is used to theoretically justify the approximate full and partial invisibility cloaks, depending on the geometry of K 0. On the other hand, the convergence results are conducted in a much more general setting than what is needed for the invisibility cloaking, so they are of significant mathematical interest for their own sake. As for applications, we construct three types of full and partial cloaks. Some numerical experiments are
Five types of auxiliary structures are described such as were used during the construction of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, namely a portable staircase tower, a stable staircase tower, mobile tower scaffolding, mobile scaffolding on a crane track and a scaffold cradle. Basic technical data for all types of scaffolding are given. (Pu)
Extremely Thin Dielectric Metasurface for Carpet Cloaking
Hsu, LiYi; Kanté, Boubacar
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a novel and simple approach to cloaking a scatterer on a ground plane. We use an extremely thin dielectric metasurface ({\\lambda}/12) to reshape the wavefronts distorted by a scatterer in order to mimic the reflection pattern of a flat ground plane. To achieve such carpet cloaking, the reflection angle has to be equal to the incident angle everywhere on the scatterer. We use a graded metasurface and calculate the required phase gradient to achieve cloaking. Our metasurface locally provides additional phase to the wavefronts to compensate for the phase difference amongst light paths induced by the geometrical distortion. We design our metasurface in the microwave range using highly sub-wavelength dielectric resonators. We verify our design by full-wave time-domain simulations using micro-structured resonators and show that results match theory very well. This approach can be applied to hide any scatterer on a ground plane not only at microwave frequencies, but also at higher frequencies up to th...
Metasurface Cloaks for Large Cylindrical Cluster Configurations
Arslanagic, Samel; Yakovlev, A.B.
2014-01-01
Here, we investigate the performance of metasurfaces used for cloaking of cluster configurations formed by different arrangements of multiple dielectric cylinders and excited by an electric line source. While a suitably designed metasurface can be used to effectively cloak isolated electrically...... small cylinders, we demonstrate that even electrically large clusters of such particles can be cloaked by covering its constituent cylinders with the metasurface cloaks. This holds for densely packed cylinders due to significantly reduced coupling by the presence of the cloaks. The results may be of...... great potential for cloaking of large objects by integrating the metasurface elements into the object....
Invisible cloak with easily-realizable metamaterials
Jiang, Wei Xiang; Yang, Xin Mi; Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Ruopeng; Smith, David R
2008-01-01
A new elliptical invisible cloak is proposed using a coordinate transformation in the elliptical-cylindrical coordinate system, which crushes the cloaked object to a line segment instead of a point. The elliptical cloak is reduced to a nearly-circular cloak if the elliptical focus becomes very small. The advantage of the proposed invisible cloak is that none of the parameters is singular and the changing range of all parameters is relatively small, and hence the cloak is much easier to realize with the metamaterial techniques currently available.
Invisibility cloaks in relativistic motion
Halimeh, Jad C; Thompson, Robert T
2015-01-01
We consider an ideal invisibility cloak which is illuminated by monochromatic light and which moves in vacuum at constant relativistic velocity with respect to the common inertial frame of light source and observer. We show that, in general, the moving cloak becomes detectable by image distortions and by generating a broad frequency spectrum of the scattered light. However, for many special combinations of incident light frequency, wave vector of light, and cloak velocity, ideal cloaking remains possible. It becomes non-reciprocal though. This means that light rays emitted by the light source arrive at the observer as though they have travelled through vacuum, but they take completely different paths after being retro-reflected at the observer position.
First experimental demonstration of an isotropic electromagnetic cloak with strict conformal mapping
Ma, Yungui; Lan, Lu; Wu, Tiantian; Jiang, Wei; Ong, C K; He, Sailing
2013-01-01
In the past years quasi-conformal mapping has been typically used to design broadband electromagnetic cloaks. However, this technique has some inherit practical limitations such as the lateral beam shift, rendering the device visible or difficult to hide a large object. In this work we circumvent these issues by using strict conformal mapping to build the first isotropic cloak. Microwave near-field measurement shows that our device (with dielectric constant larger than unity everywhere) has a very good cloaking performance and a broad frequency response. The present dielectric approach could be technically extended to the fabrication of other conformal devices at higher frequencies.
Electromagnetic cloaking of cylindrical objects by multilayer or uniform dielectric claddings
Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A
2012-01-01
We show that dielectric or even perfectly conducting cylinders can be cloaked by a uniform or a layered dielectric cladding, without the need of any exotic or magnetic material parameters. In particular, we start by presenting a simple analytical concept that can accurately describe the cloaking effect obtained with conical silver plates in the visible spectrum. The modeled structure has been originally presented in [S. A. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, C. R. Simovski, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 103, p. 103905, 2009], where its operation as a cloak in the optical frequencies was studied only numerically. We model rigorously this configuration as a multi-layer dielectric cover surrounding the cloaked object, with excellent agreement to the simulation results of the actual device. The concept of using uniform or multilayer dielectric covers, with relative permittivities larger than unity, is then successfully extended to cloaking of impenetrable objects such as conducting cylinders.
Logarithm conformal mapping brings the cloaking effect
Lin XU; Chen, Huanyang
2014-01-01
Over the past years, invisibility cloaks have been extensively discussed since transformation optics emerges. Generally, the electromagnetic parameters of invisibility cloaks are complicated tensors, yet difficult to realize. As a special method of transformation optics, conformal mapping helps us design invisibility cloak with isotropic materials of a refractive index distribution. However, for all proposed isotropic cloaks, the refractive index range is at such a breadth that challenges cur...
Decoupling antennas in printed technology using elliptical metasurface cloaks
M. Bernety, Hossein; Yakovlev, Alexander B.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we extend the idea of reducing the electromagnetic interactions between transmitting radiators to the case of widely used planar antennas in printed technology based on the concept of mantle cloaking. Here, we show that how lightweight elliptical metasurface cloaks can be engineered to restore the intrinsic properties of printed antennas with strip inclusions. In order to present the novel approach, we consider two microstrip-fed monopole antennas resonating at slightly different frequencies cloaked by confocal elliptical metasurfaces formed by arrays of sub-wavelength periodic elements, partially embedded in the substrate. The presence of the metasurfaces leads to the drastic suppression of mutual near-field and far-field couplings between the antennas, and thus, their radiation patterns are restored as if they were isolated. Moreover, it is worth noting that this approach is not limited to printed radiators and can be applied to other planar structures as well.
Cloaked electromagnetic, acoustic, and quantum amplifiers via transformation optics.
Greenleaf, Allan; Kurylev, Yaroslav; Lassas, Matti; Leonhardt, Ulf; Uhlmann, Gunther
2012-06-26
The advent of transformation optics and metamaterials has made possible devices producing extreme effects on wave propagation. Here we describe a class of invisible reservoirs and amplifiers for waves, which we refer to as Schrödinger hats. The unifying mathematical principle on which these are based admits such devices for any time harmonic waves modeled by either the Helmholtz or Schrödinger equation, e.g., polarized waves in electromagnetism, acoustical waves and matter waves in quantum mechanics. Schrödinger hats occupy one part of a parameter-space continuum of wave-manipulating structures which also contains standard transformation optics based cloaks, resonant cloaks and cloaked sensors. Possible applications include near-field quantum microscopy. PMID:22699493
Decoupling antennas in printed technology using elliptical metasurface cloaks
Bernety, Hossein M., E-mail: hmehrpou@go.olemiss.edu, E-mail: yakovlev@olemiss.edu; Yakovlev, Alexander B., E-mail: hmehrpou@go.olemiss.edu, E-mail: yakovlev@olemiss.edu [Center for Applied Electromagnetic Systems Research (CAESR), Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677-1848 (United States)
2016-01-07
In this paper, we extend the idea of reducing the electromagnetic interactions between transmitting radiators to the case of widely used planar antennas in printed technology based on the concept of mantle cloaking. Here, we show that how lightweight elliptical metasurface cloaks can be engineered to restore the intrinsic properties of printed antennas with strip inclusions. In order to present the novel approach, we consider two microstrip-fed monopole antennas resonating at slightly different frequencies cloaked by confocal elliptical metasurfaces formed by arrays of sub-wavelength periodic elements, partially embedded in the substrate. The presence of the metasurfaces leads to the drastic suppression of mutual near-field and far-field couplings between the antennas, and thus, their radiation patterns are restored as if they were isolated. Moreover, it is worth noting that this approach is not limited to printed radiators and can be applied to other planar structures as well.
Decoupling antennas in printed technology using elliptical metasurface cloaks
In this paper, we extend the idea of reducing the electromagnetic interactions between transmitting radiators to the case of widely used planar antennas in printed technology based on the concept of mantle cloaking. Here, we show that how lightweight elliptical metasurface cloaks can be engineered to restore the intrinsic properties of printed antennas with strip inclusions. In order to present the novel approach, we consider two microstrip-fed monopole antennas resonating at slightly different frequencies cloaked by confocal elliptical metasurfaces formed by arrays of sub-wavelength periodic elements, partially embedded in the substrate. The presence of the metasurfaces leads to the drastic suppression of mutual near-field and far-field couplings between the antennas, and thus, their radiation patterns are restored as if they were isolated. Moreover, it is worth noting that this approach is not limited to printed radiators and can be applied to other planar structures as well
Finite wavelength cloaking by plasmonic resonance
Nicorovici, N-A P; Enoch, S; Tayeb, G
2008-01-01
We consider cloaking by a coated cylindrical system using plasmonic resonance, and extend previous quasistatic treatments to include the effect of finite wavelength. We show that a probe cylinder can still be cloaked at finite wavelengths, but the cloaking cylinder develops a non-zero scattering cross-section. We show that this latter effect is dominated by a monopole term in the case of an ideal (lossless) cloaking material, and by a dipole term in the case of a realistic (lossy) material. It can be reduced but not eliminated by variations of geometric or dielectric parameters of the cloaking cylinder.
Artificial Impedance Surfaces and Wire Media for Absorption and Cloaking
Padooru, Yashwanth Reddy
The main objective of this dissertation is to investigate the ability of utilizing artificial impedance surfaces and wire media for absorption and cloaking applications. The dissertation includes two parts which focus on the electromagnetic wave propagation in absorbers formed by stacked metasurfaces and structured wire media, and electromagnetic wave interaction with the cylindrical cloaking structures. In the first part, we propose a variety of physical systems that show multiband and wideband absorption properties in the microwave regime. For the multiband absorbers, we propose a simple analytical model to study the absorption properties. Further, using the same circuit model, the physical mechanisms of the observed behavior is clearly explained in terms of the open/coupled Fabry-Pérot resonators. To design wideband absorbers, we first analyze a single-layer wire medium loaded with an arbitrary material (a thin copper patch with finite bulk conductivity and a graphene patch characterized by its complex surface conductivity) at one end and a ground plane at the other. Based on the properties of the single-layer structure (which acts as a narrowband absorber), we next propose a novel multilayered mushroom structure with thin resistive patches at the wire-medium junctions for wideband absorption. To characterize the wideband properties, here, we derive new additional boundary conditions and solve the scattering problem using an analytical model developed particularly for the problem at hand. We also show a methodology to design these absorbers and explain the wideband absorption mechanisms. The second part focuses on the application of various metasurfaces for cloaking dielectric and conducting cylinders for plane-wave incidence and for line sources in close proximity. The cloaking mechanism is based on a mantle cloaking technique, wherein the scattered field produced by the object is cancelled by the cloak. The purpose of this work is to design the mantle cloaks
Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves
Salem, Mohamed
2011-08-01
A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.
Acoustic cloak/anti-cloak device with realizable passive/active metamaterials
Utilizing the coordinate transformation method, together with exchange of variables between Maxwell's equations and the acoustic equations with axial-invariance in cylindrical coordinates, the acoustic parameters (anisotropic density and scalar bulk modulus) for an ideal cloak and an ideal anti-cloak are obtained. An anti-cloak allows the inside object to ‘see’ outside, but to be invisible from outside; whereas a cloak is invisible from outside, but ‘blind’ from inside. Utilizing a scattering algorithm developed in this paper, the pressure field calculation of the cloak/anti-cloak is performed and the concepts and characteristics of the acoustic cloak/anti-cloak are revisited. To be more easily achievable experimentally, a multilayered cloak/anti-cloak model with homogeneous isotropic materials is introduced, and its corresponding pressure distributions are calculated. Also, the total scattering cross-section curves for the multilayered cloak and anti-cloak over a certain frequency range are presented and compared. Finally, an active acoustic metamaterial made up of piezo-diaphragm cavity arrays is designed for the cloak/anti-cloak. Taking into account the coupling between adjacent cavity cells, a multi-control strategy for piezo-diaphragm cavity arrays is exploited, rendering possible wide ranges of effective densities and effective bulk moduli (or acoustic speeds), or even double-negative transformation medium (i.e. both density and bulk modulus parameters are negative). With such sets of active acoustic metamaterials, the cloak and anti-cloak may become both theoretically and experimentally realizable. (paper)
All-dielectric invisibility cloaks made of BaTiO3-loaded polyurethane foam
Transformation optics has led the way in the development of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks from science fiction to engineering practice. Invisibility cloaks have been demonstrated over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with a variety of different fabrication techniques. However, all previous schemes have relied on the use of metamaterials consisting of arrays of sub-wavelength inclusions. We report on the first cloaking structure made of a high-κ dielectric-loaded foam mixture. A polyurethane foam mixed with different ratios of barium titanate is used to produce the required range of permittivities, and the invisibility cloak is demonstrated to work for all incident angles over a wide range of microwave frequencies. This method will greatly facilitate the development and large-scale manufacture of a wide range of transformation optics-based structures. (paper)
All-dielectric invisibility cloaks made of BaTiO3-loaded polyurethane foam
Bao, Di; Rajab, Khalid Z.; Hao, Yang; Kallos, Efthymios; Tang, Wenxuan; Argyropoulos, Christos; Piao, Yongzhe; Yang, Shoufeng
2011-10-01
Transformation optics has led the way in the development of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks from science fiction to engineering practice. Invisibility cloaks have been demonstrated over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with a variety of different fabrication techniques. However, all previous schemes have relied on the use of metamaterials consisting of arrays of sub-wavelength inclusions. We report on the first cloaking structure made of a high-κ dielectric-loaded foam mixture. A polyurethane foam mixed with different ratios of barium titanate is used to produce the required range of permittivities, and the invisibility cloak is demonstrated to work for all incident angles over a wide range of microwave frequencies. This method will greatly facilitate the development and large-scale manufacture of a wide range of transformation optics-based structures.
A spacetime cloak, or a history editor
We introduce a new type of electromagnetic cloak, the spacetime cloak (STC), which conceals events rather than objects. Non-emitting events occurring during a restricted period are never suspected by a distant observer. The cloak works by locally manipulating the speed of light of an initially uniform light distribution, whilst the light rays themselves always follow straight paths. Any 'perfect' spacetime cloak would necessarily rely upon the technology of electromagnetic metamaterials, which has already been shown to be capable of deforming light in ways hitherto unforeseen—to produce, for example, an electromagnetic object cloak. Nevertheless, we show how it is possible to use intensity-dependent refractive indices to construct an approximate STC, an implementation that would enable the distinct signature of successful event cloaking to be observed. Potential demonstrations include systems that apparently violate quantum statistics, 'interrupt-without-interrupt' computation on convergent data channels and the illusion of a Star Trek transporter
Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light
Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, J.B.; Zhang, Shuang
2011-01-01
Invisibility cloaks, which used to be confined to the realm of fiction, have now been turned into a scientific reality thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realization of electromagnetic...... invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region to a...... few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale of...
Electromagnetic detection of a perfect carpet cloak.
Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01
It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics. PMID:25997798
Superluminal media formed by photonic crystals for transformation optics-based invisibility cloaks
Semouchkina, Elena; Duan, Ran; Gandji, Navid P.; Jamilan, Saeid; Semouchkin, George; Pandey, Ravi
2016-04-01
We have developed an approach to building superluminal medium for transformation optics-based devices, including invisibility cloaks, from photonic crystals. Analysis of dispersion diagrams of 2D arrays composed from dielectric rods has shown that at frequencies corresponding to the second bands formed due to bandgap opening at increase of rod permittivity, the medium formed by arrays exhibits refractive indices providing for superluminal phase velocities of propagating waves. It is further demonstrated that rod arrays with various lattice constants could be used for realizing a range of superluminal index values prescribed by transformation optics for cylindrical cloaks at arbitrary chosen operating frequency. The performed studies allowed for solving a row of problems with employment rod arrays in the cloak medium: in particular, formulating transformation optics-based prescriptions for refractive index dispersion in the cloaking shell, defining the dimensions of array fragments capable of responding similar to infinite arrays, finding optimal distribution of linear arrays sets at their coiling to form concentric material layers in the cloaking shell, and employing interaction between neighboring array sets with various lattice constants to assist the realization of prescribed index dispersion. The performance of the superluminal medium formed by rod array sets was demonstrated on an example of a cloaking shell developed for microwave frequency range. In contrast to metamaterial-based cloak media, the developed media requires neither material homogenization, nor obtaining the effective parameters with peculiar values and Lorentz’s type resonances in rods. Combination of these advantages and low losses makes photonic crystals perspective materials for invisibility cloaks operating in THz and optical ranges.
Extremely Thin Dielectric Metasurface for Carpet Cloaking
Hsu, LiYi; Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a novel and simple approach to cloaking a scatterer on a ground plane. We use an extremely thin dielectric metasurface ({\\lambda}/12) to reshape the wavefronts distorted by a scatterer in order to mimic the reflection pattern of a flat ground plane. To achieve such carpet cloaking, the reflection angle has to be equal to the incident angle everywhere on the scatterer. We use a graded metasurface and calculate the required phase gradient to achieve cloaking. Our metasurface loca...
Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light
Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, John B.; Zhang, Shuang
2011-01-01
Invisibility cloaks, which used to be confined to the realm of fiction, have now been turned into a scientific reality thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realization of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite mate...
An invisibility cloak using silver nanowires
Xie, Yangbo; Xu, Yadong; Zhu, Lin; Ma, Hongru; Dong, Jian-Wen
2010-01-01
In this paper, we use the parameter retrieval method together with an analytical effective medium approach to design a well-performed invisible cloak, which is based on an empirical revised version of the reduced cloak. The designed cloak can be implemented by silver nanowires with elliptical cross-sections embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate host. This cloak is numerically proved to be robust for both the inner hidden object as well as incoming detecting waves, and is much simpler thus easier to manufacture when compared with the earlier proposed one [Nat. Photon. 1, 224 (2007)].
Influence of structural design on building costs
Sattler Cantons, Fernando
2016-01-01
This paper deals with the analysis and design of two buildings for two different uses. The first one is intended for residential use, while the second is designed for office usage. These buildings will be located in the city of Trondheim, Norway. The main objective of this document is to determine how the different structural designs for the same building affect in the final costs of the structure, taking into account different materials. The materials considered during the design and anal...
Approximate quantum and acoustic cloaking
Greenleaf, Allan; Lassas, Matti; Uhlmann, Gunther
2008-01-01
At any energy E > 0, we construct a sequence of bounded potentials $V^E_{n}, n\\in\\N$, supported in an annular region $B_{out}\\setminus B_{inn}$ in three-space, which act as approximate cloaks for solutions of Schr\\"odinger's equation: For any potential $V_0\\in L^\\infty(B_{inn})$ such that E is not a Neumann eigenvalue of $-\\Delta+V_0$ in $B_{inn}$, the scattering amplitudes $a_{V_0+V_n^E}(E,\\theta,\\omega)\\to 0$ as $n\\to\\infty$. The $V^E_{n}$ thus not only form a family of approximately transparent potentials, but also function as approximate invisibility cloaks in quantum mechanics. On the other hand, for $E$ close to interior eigenvalues, resonances develop and there exist {\\it almost trapped states} concentrated in $B_{inn}$. We derive the $V_n^E$ from singular, anisotropic transformation optics-based cloaks by a de-anisotropization procedure, which we call \\emph{isotropic transformation optics}. This technique uses truncation, inverse homogenization and spectral theory to produce nonsingular, isotropic app...
Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics
Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)
2010-03-24
In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)
Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics
In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)
Topology optimized cloak for airborne sound
Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole
2013-01-01
Directional acoustic cloaks that conceal an aluminum cylinder for airborne sound waves are presented in this paper. Subwavelength cylindrical aluminum inclusions in air constitute the cloak design to aid practical realizations. The positions and radii of the subwavelength cylinders are determined...
Invisibility with a tunable cloaking device
Full text: In the last decades, electromagnetic cloaking devices have been extensively investigated by physicists and engineers for several reasons. A variety of approaches have been proposed for achieving invisibility based on the unusual properties of meta materials, such as the coordinate-transformation method or scattering cancellation techniques, and both of them have already been experimentally implemented successfully. However, despite all the recent improvements in cloaking techniques, it is still a challenge to make practical tunable cloaking devices. Nowadays, the designed cloaks used in the experiments are generally manufactured to work at or around a certain frequency that cannot be freely controlled after fabrication. >From the experimental point of view this is a considerable limitation to test the cloaking efficiency in different frequency ranges of operation. Hence, it would be very interesting to conceive a cloaking device whose electromagnetic properties could be controlled by an external tunable agent. Our purpose in this work is to show that a magneto-optical cloaking device under the influence of a tunable external magnetic field can be used to control the invisibility condition for a frequency range of operation. Besides, our results, which can be achieved for moderate magnetic fields and typical plasmonic materials, are shown to be robust to material losses, so that they may pave the way for developing actively tunable, versatile plasmonic cloaks. (author)
Invisibility with a tunable cloaking device
Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Rosa, F.S.S.; Pinheiro, F.A.; Farina, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: In the last decades, electromagnetic cloaking devices have been extensively investigated by physicists and engineers for several reasons. A variety of approaches have been proposed for achieving invisibility based on the unusual properties of meta materials, such as the coordinate-transformation method or scattering cancellation techniques, and both of them have already been experimentally implemented successfully. However, despite all the recent improvements in cloaking techniques, it is still a challenge to make practical tunable cloaking devices. Nowadays, the designed cloaks used in the experiments are generally manufactured to work at or around a certain frequency that cannot be freely controlled after fabrication. >From the experimental point of view this is a considerable limitation to test the cloaking efficiency in different frequency ranges of operation. Hence, it would be very interesting to conceive a cloaking device whose electromagnetic properties could be controlled by an external tunable agent. Our purpose in this work is to show that a magneto-optical cloaking device under the influence of a tunable external magnetic field can be used to control the invisibility condition for a frequency range of operation. Besides, our results, which can be achieved for moderate magnetic fields and typical plasmonic materials, are shown to be robust to material losses, so that they may pave the way for developing actively tunable, versatile plasmonic cloaks. (author)
Designing near-perfect invisibility cloaks
Qiu, Min; Yan, Wei; Yan, Min
Using the theory of transformation optics, practical cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be devised to conceal objects from detection at a targeted wavelength.......Using the theory of transformation optics, practical cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be devised to conceal objects from detection at a targeted wavelength....
A simple example of temporal cloaking
Eskin, Gregory
2016-01-01
Recently the temporal cloaking was widely studied in the physical literature using the method of transformation optics (cf. M. McCall et al [9] and others). We give a simple example of temporal cloaking based on the change of coordinates and the reduction to the initialboundary value problem with additional interior conditions
Robustness of steel and composite building structures
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre; Demonceau, Jean-François; Coméliau, Ludivine
2011-01-01
Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. At Liège University, the robustness of building f...
Elliptic Cylindrical Invisibility Cloak, a Semianalytical Approach Using Mathieu Functions
Cojocaru, E.
2008-01-01
An elliptic cylindrical wave expansion method by using Mathieu functions is developed to obtain the scattering field for a two-dimensional elliptic cylindrical invisibility cloak. The cloak material parameters are obtained from the spatial transformation approach. A near-ideal model of the invisibility cloak is set up to solve the boundary problem at the inner boundary in the cloak shell. The proposed design provides a more practical cloak geometry when compared to previous designs of ellipti...
Detecting the existence of an invisibility cloak using temporal steering.
Chen, Shin-Liang; Chao, Ching-Shiang; Chen, Yueh-Nan
2015-01-01
An invisibility cloak provides a way to hide an object under the detection of waves. A good cloak guides the incident waves through the cloaking shell with few distortion. Even if one day a nearly perfect cloak is built, some important quantum effects, such as dephasing of the electron spin or photon polarization, may still remain. In this work, we consider the possibility that using the temporal steering of these degrees of freedom to detect the existence of an invisibility cloak. PMID:26493048
Detecting the existence of an invisibility cloak using temporal steering
Shin-Liang Chen; Ching-Shiang Chao; Yueh-Nan Chen
2015-01-01
An invisibility cloak provides a way to hide an object under the detection of waves. A good cloak guides the incident waves through the cloaking shell with few distortion. Even if one day a nearly perfect cloak is built, some important quantum effects, such as dephasing of the electron spin or photon polarization, may still remain. In this work, we consider the possibility that using the temporal steering of these degrees of freedom to detect the existence of an invisibility cloak.
Design, implementation, and extension of thermal invisibility cloaks
Youming Zhang; Hongyi Xu; Baile Zhang
2015-01-01
A thermal invisibility cloak, as inspired by optical invisibility cloaks, is a device which can steer the conductive heat flux around an isolated object without changing the ambient temperature distribution so that the object can be “invisible” to external thermal environment. While designs of thermal invisibility cloaks inherit previous theories from optical cloaks, the uniqueness of heat diffusion leads to more achievable implementations. Thermal invisibility cloaks, as well as the variatio...
Transformation thermodynamics and heat cloaking: a review
Raza, Muhammad; Liu, Yichao; Lee, El Hang; Ma, Yungui
2016-04-01
This article is a review of the advances and progresses in the field of heat cloaking which is being realized using metamaterials. Heat cloaking has been a particularly important subject of study due to its potential multidimensional applications. The process which manipulates the heat flux in such a way that it can neither enter into the cloaked region nor be distorted outside is called thermal cloaking. Transformation optics has made the hitherto inconceivable advancements in the field of thermodynamics possible with the remarkable assistance of metamaterials. In this article we present a review of the work done in the field of heat cloaking, its progress and outlook. We discuss the theoretical and experimental studies, models, design managements, implementations and behaviors of thermal invisibility cloaking and related devices. This review is intended to help further develop practical and applicable concepts, examine fabrication techniques for a variety of different invisibility cloaking devices and systems, and to pave a way for the new avenues leading to new future technologies.
Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites
Takezawa, Akihiro
2014-01-01
The effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, they can be efficiently designed by handling the physical properties of anisotropic materials directly. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 10% compared with existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials in eight-layer cylindrical cloaking materials. The same performance with eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using anisotropic materials. Cloaking with a about 50% reduct...
On Near-cloak in Acoustic Scattering
Liu, Hongyu
2012-01-01
We consider invisibility cloaking of active/radiating objects in acoustic scattering via the approach of transformation optics. A general lossy layer is incorporated into the construction of the near-cloaking devices. We derive very accurate estimates of the scattering amplitude in terms of the regularization parameter and the material parameters of the lossy layer in different settings. Our results on the one hand show how to cloak active contents more efficiently, and on the other hand indicate the optimal choice of choosing the lossy layer.
Theory of diffusive light scattering cancellation cloaking
Farhat, Mohamed; Guenneau, Sebastien; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled Nabil; Alu, Andrea
2016-01-01
We report on a new concept of cloaking objects in diffusive light regime using the paradigm of the scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking techniques. We show numerically that an object can be made completely invisible to diffusive photon density waves, by tailoring the diffusivity constant of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that photons' flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object were not present. Diffusive light invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography or tissue imaging.
The invention of the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal by Costas M. Soukoulis and coworkers in 1994 has stimulated much further research - excellent research stimulates further research. Here, we report on using spatially inhomogeneous polymer woodpile structures in the long-wavelength limit as artificial graded-index structures. After briefly reviewing previous work on carpet invisibility cloaks designed by transformation optics, we present new experiments for various focus planes of the inspecting microscope as well as for different inspection angles in three-dimensional space. Numerical ray-tracing modeling is also provided. These data confirm our previous assessment that three-dimensional cloaking is quite robust for these structures.
Ergin, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.ergin@kit.edu [Institute of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanotechnology, and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanotechnology, and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2012-10-15
The invention of the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal by Costas M. Soukoulis and coworkers in 1994 has stimulated much further research - excellent research stimulates further research. Here, we report on using spatially inhomogeneous polymer woodpile structures in the long-wavelength limit as artificial graded-index structures. After briefly reviewing previous work on carpet invisibility cloaks designed by transformation optics, we present new experiments for various focus planes of the inspecting microscope as well as for different inspection angles in three-dimensional space. Numerical ray-tracing modeling is also provided. These data confirm our previous assessment that three-dimensional cloaking is quite robust for these structures.
A Cloaking Device for Transiting Planets
Kipping, David M
2016-01-01
The transit method is presently the most successful planet discovery and characterization tool at our disposal. Other advanced civilizations would surely be aware of this technique and appreciate that their home planet's existence and habitability is essentially broadcast to all stars lying along their ecliptic plane. We suggest that advanced civilizations could cloak their presence, or deliberately broadcast it, through controlled laser emission. Such emission could distort the apparent shape of their transit light curves with relatively little energy, due to the collimated beam and relatively infrequent nature of transits. We estimate that humanity could cloak the Earth from Kepler-like broadband surveys using an optical monochromatic laser array emitting a peak power of about 30 MW for roughly 10 hours per year. A chromatic cloak, effective at all wavelengths, is more challenging requiring a large array of tunable lasers with a total power of approximately 250 MW. Alternatively, a civilization could cloak ...
Macroscopic Invisible Cloak for Visible Light
Zhang, Baile; Liu, Xiaogang; Barbastathis, George
2011-01-01
Invisibility cloaks, a subject that usually occurs in science fiction and myths, have attracted wide interest recently because of their possible realization. The biggest challenge to true invisibility is known to be the cloaking of a macroscopic object in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye. Here we experimentally solve this problem by incorporating the principle of transformation optics into a conventional optical lens fabrication with low-cost materials and simple manufacturing techniques. A transparent cloak made of two pieces of calcite is created. This cloak is able to conceal a macroscopic object with a maximum height of 2 mm, larger than 3500 free-space-wavelength, inside a transparent liquid environment. Its working bandwidth encompassing red, green and blue light is also demonstrated.
Permittivity and permeability tensors for cloaking applications
Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan
2016-01-01
This book is focused on derivations of analytical expressions for stealth and cloaking applications. An optimal version of electromagnetic (EM) stealth is the design of invisibility cloak of arbitrary shapes in which the EM waves can be controlled within the cloaking shell by introducing a prescribed spatial variation in the constitutive parameters. The promising challenge in design of invisibility cloaks lies in the determination of permittivity and permeability tensors for all the layers. This book provides the detailed derivation of analytical expressions of the permittivity and permeability tensors for various quadric surfaces within the eleven Eisenhart co-ordinate systems. These include the cylinders and the surfaces of revolutions. The analytical modeling and spatial metric for each of these surfaces are provided along with their tensors. This mathematical formulation will help the EM designers to analyze and design of various quadratics and their hybrids, which can eventually lead to design of cloakin...
Transformation elastodynamics and active exterior acoustic cloaking
Vasquez, Fernando Guevara; Onofrei, Daniel; Seppecher, Pierre
2011-01-01
This chapter consists of three parts. In the first part we recall the elastodynamic equations under coordinate transformations. The idea is to use coordinate transformations to manipulate waves propagating in an elastic material. Then we study the effect of transformations on a mass-spring network model. The transformed networks can be realized with "torque springs", which are introduced here and are springs with a force proportional to the displacement in a direction other than the direction of the spring terminals. Possible homogenizations of the transformed networks are presented, with potential applications to cloaking. In the second and third parts we present cloaking methods that are based on cancelling an incident field using active devices which are exterior to the cloaked region and that do not generate significant fields far away from the devices. In the second part, the exterior cloaking problem for the Laplace equation is reformulated as the problem of polynomial approximation of analytic function...
Macroscopic Invisibility Cloak for Visible Light
Zhang, Baile; Luo, Yuan; Liu, Xiaogang; Barbastathis, George
2010-01-01
Invisibility cloaks, a subject that usually occurs in science fiction and myths, have attracted wide interest recently because of their possible realization. The biggest challenge to true invisibility is known to be the cloaking of a macroscopic object in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye. Here we experimentally solve this problem by incorporating the principle of transformation optics into a conventional optical lens fabrication with low-cost materials and simple manufa...
Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites
Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices
Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites
Takezawa, Akihiro, E-mail: akihiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Mitsuru [Division of Mechanical Systems and Applied Mechanics, Institute of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)
2014-01-15
Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.
Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites
Akihiro Takezawa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.
Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites
Takezawa, Akihiro; Kitamura, Mitsuru
2014-01-01
Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.
Acoustic cloaking using layered pentamode materials.
Scandrett, Clyde L; Boisvert, Jeffrey E; Howarth, Thomas R
2010-05-01
While receiving less attention in the literature than electromagnetic cloaking, theoretical efforts to define and create acoustic cloaks based upon mimicking coordinate transformations through use of metamaterials is of interest. The present work extends recent analysis of Norris [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 464, 2411-2434 (2008)] by considering a range of cloaks, from those comprised of fluid layers which are isotropic in bulk moduli with anisotropic density to those having anisotropic bulk moduli and isotropic density. In all but pure inertial varieties, fluid layers comprising the cloaks are pentamode materials governed by a special scalar acoustic equation for pseudopressure derived by Norris. In most cases presented, material properties of the fluid/pentamode layers are based upon target values specified by continuously varying properties resulting from theoretical coordinate transformations geared to minimize scattered pressure limited by realistic goals. The present work analyzes such cloaks for the specific case of plane wave scattering from an acoustically hard sphere. An initial exploration of the parameter space defining such cloaks (for example, material properties of its constituent layers, and operating frequency) is undertaken with a view toward "optimal" design. PMID:21117736
Elliptical metasurfaces for cloaking and antenna applications at microwave and terahertz frequencies
Mehrpourbernety, Hossein
One of the interesting applications of metamaterials is the phenomenon of electromagnetic invisibility and cloaking, which implies the suppression of bistatic scattering width of a given object, independent of incident and observation angles. In this regard, diverse techniques have been proposed to analyze and design electromagnetic cloak structures, including transformation optics, anomalous resonance methods, transmission-line networks, and plasmonic cloaking, among others. A common drawback of all these methods is that they rely on bulk materials, which are difficult to realize in practice. To overcome this issue, the mantle cloaking method has been proposed, which utilizes an ultrathin metasurface that provides anti-phase surface currents to reduce the scattering dominant mode of a given object. Recently, an analytical model has been proposed to cloak dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects realized with printed and slotted arrays at microwave frequencies. At low-terahertz (THz) frequencies, one of the promising materials to realize the required metasurface is graphene. In this regard, a graphene monolayer, characterized by inductive reactance, has been proposed to cloak dielectric planar and cylindrical objects. Then, it has been shown that a metasurface made of graphene nanopatches owns dual capacitive/inductive inductance and can be used to cloak both dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects at low-THz frequencies. So far, planar and cylindrical dielectric and conducting structures have been studied. In our study, we have extended the concept and presented an accurate analytical approach to investigate the cloaking of two-dimensional (2-D) elliptical objects including infinite dielectric elliptical cylinders using graphene monolayer; metallic elliptical cylinders, and also, as a special case, 2-D metallic strips using a nanostructured graphene patch array at low-THz frequencies. We have also obtained the results for cloaking of ellipses at
An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light.
Ni, Xingjie; Wong, Zi Jing; Mrejen, Michael; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2015-09-18
Metamaterial-based optical cloaks have thus far used volumetric distribution of the material properties to gradually bend light and thereby obscure the cloaked region. Hence, they are bulky and hard to scale up and, more critically, typical carpet cloaks introduce unnecessary phase shifts in the reflected light, making the cloaks detectable. Here, we demonstrate experimentally an ultrathin invisibility skin cloak wrapped over an object. This skin cloak conceals a three-dimensional arbitrarily shaped object by complete restoration of the phase of the reflected light at 730-nanometer wavelength. The skin cloak comprises a metasurface with distributed phase shifts rerouting light and rendering the object invisible. In contrast to bulky cloaks with volumetric index variation, our device is only 80 nanometer (about one-ninth of the wavelength) thick and potentially scalable for hiding macroscopic objects. PMID:26383946
50 CFR 260.99 - Buildings and structures.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buildings and structures. 260.99 Section... Contract Basis 1 § 260.99 Buildings and structures. The buildings and structures shall be properly..., ceilings, partitions, posts, doors, and other parts of all buildings and structures shall be of...
Photorealistic rendering of unidirectional free-space invisibility cloaks
Halimeh, J.C.; Wegener, M.
2013-01-01
Carpet or ground-plane invisibility cloaks hide an object in reflection and inhibit transmission by construction. This concept has significantly reduced the otherwise demanding material requirements and has hence enabled various experimental demonstrations. In contrast, free-space invisibility cloaks should work in both reflection and transmission. The fabrication of omnidirectional three-dimensional free-space cloaks still poses significant challenges. Recently, the idea of the carpet cloak ...
On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building
Chesi, Cristiano
2015-01-01
Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…
Towards all-dielectric, polarization-independent optical cloaks
Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole
2012-01-01
Fully enclosing, all-dielectric cloaks working for both E-z and H-z polarizations simultaneously are presented in this letter. The cloaks are effective for two antiparallel angles of incidence, and the layout of standard dielectric material in the cloak is determined by topology optimization. Sca...
On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak
A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.
Cloak based on the angle dependent constitutive parameters tensors.
Gurvitz, Egor; Andronaki, Semen; Vozianova, Anna; Khodzitsky, Mikhail
2015-10-01
The transformation optics cloak was proposed for the medium with the angle dependent tensors of permittivity and permeability consisted of the right-handed and left-handed metamaterial media. The cloaking effect was numerically simulated using finite element method in the terahertz frequency range for different wave sources. The impact of cloaking medium thickness on the invisibility effect was demonstrated. PMID:26480088
On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak
Kaproulias, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Sigalas, M.M., E-mail: sigalas@upatras.gr [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)
2012-10-15
A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.
Structural assessment of a modern heritage building
S. Sorace; Terenzi, G
2013-01-01
A structural assessment study on " Palazzo del Lavoro" in Turin, a masterpiece by Pier Luigi Nervi, was carried out within a National Research Project dedicated to the analysis of modern heritage architecture in Italy. Based on the original design documentation collected through records, a complete finite element model of the building was generated. The study included detailed models of the main structural members, represented by monumental reinforced concrete columns, a mushroom-type steel r...
Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak.
Xu, Su; Xu, Hongyi; Gao, Hanhong; Jiang, Yuyu; Yu, Faxin; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile
2015-06-23
Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has been achieved by exploiting topological electromagnetic surface states, but this approach is limited to narrow-band light transmission and subject to phase disturbances in the presence of disorder. Recent advances in transformation optics apply principles of general relativity to curve the space for light, allowing one to match the momentum and phase of light around any disorder as if that disorder were not there. This feature has been exploited in the development of invisibility cloaks. An ideal invisibility cloak, however, would require the phase velocity of light being guided around the cloaked object to exceed the vacuum speed of light--a feat potentially achievable only over an extremely narrow band. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally show that the bottlenecks encountered in previous studies can be overcome. We introduce a class of cloaks capable of remarkable broadband surface electromagnetic waves guidance around ultrasharp corners and bumps with no perceptible changes in amplitude and phase. These cloaks consist of specifically designed nonmagnetic metamaterials and achieve nearly ideal transmission efficiency over a broadband frequency range from 0(+) to 6 GHz. This work provides strong support for the application of transformation optics to plasmonic circuits and could pave the way toward high-performance, large-scale integrated photonic circuits. PMID:26056299
Acoustic cloaking by a superlens with single-negative materials.
Zhu, Xuefeng; Liang, Bin; Kan, Weiwei; Zou, Xinye; Cheng, Jianchun
2011-01-01
We propose a specific transformation in cloaking to make an acoustic sensor undetectable, in which the cloaking shell consists of complementary media with single-negative acoustic parameters instead of double-negative ones, and is proved to be a magnifying superlens. Moreover, the acoustical parameters of the cloak are completely independent of those of the host material as well as the cloaked object. This may significantly facilitate the experimental realization of acoustic cloaks and is of fundamental importance in a wide range of acoustics, optics, and engineering applications. PMID:21231745
Invisibility cloaks for irregular particles using coordinate transformations.
You, Yu; Kattawar, George W; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Yang, Ping
2008-04-28
Invisibility cloaks for ellipsoids, rounded cuboids and rounded cylinders have been studied on the basis of the coordinate transformation approach. The resultant material property tensors for irregular cloaks are more complicated in comparison with those for the spherical invisibility cloak. A generalized Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) formalism has been used to simulate the scattered field distribution in the vicinity of the aforementioned irregular cloaks illuminated by an incident plane wave. Simulated scattering efficiencies are on the order of 10(-5), and the simulated electric-field distribution outside of a cloak is the same as that of the incident radiation. PMID:18545315
Physical Bounds on Absorption and Scattering for Cloaked Sensors
Fleury, Romain; Alu, Andrea
2013-01-01
We derive and discuss general physical bounds on the electromagnetic scattering and absorption of passive structures. Our theory, based on passivity and power conservation, quantifies the minimum and maximum allowed scattering for an object that absorbs a given level of power. We show that there is a fundamental trade-off between absorption and overall scattering suppression for each scattering harmonic, providing a tool to quantify the performance of furtive sensors, regardless of the applied principle for scattering suppression. We illustrate these fundamental limitations with examples of light scattering from absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles and loaded dipole antennas, envisioning applications to the design of cloaked sensors and absorbers with maximized absorption efficiency.
STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY
Korkmaz, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl
2011-01-01
Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...
The effect of electrostatic shielding using invisibility cloak
Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Ge, Mo-Lin
2011-01-01
The effect of electrostatic shielding for a spherical invisibility cloak with arbitrary charges inside is investigated. Our result reveals that the charge inside the cloak is a crucial factor to determine the detection. When charged bodies are placed inside the cloak with an arbitrary distribution, the electric fields outside are purely determined by the total charges just as the fields of a point charge at the center of the cloak. As the total charges reduce to zero, the bodies can not be detected. On the other hand, if the total charges are nonzero, the electrostatic potential inside an ideal cloak tends to infinity. For unideal cloaks, this embarrassment is overcome, while they still have good behaviors of shielding. In addition, the potential across the inner surface of an ideal cloak is discontinuous due to the infinite polarization of the dielectric, however it can be alternatively interpreted as the dual Meissner effect of a dual superconductive layer with a surface magnetic current.
A Carpet Cloak Device for Visible Light
Gharghi, Majid; Zentgraf, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin; Yin, Xiaobo; Valentine, Jason; Zhang, Xiang
2011-01-01
We report an invisibility carpet cloak device, which is capable of making an object undetectable by visible light. The cloak is designed using quasi conformal mapping and is fabricated in a silicon nitride waveguide on a specially developed nano-porous silicon oxide substrate with a very low refractive index. The spatial index variation is realized by etching holes of various sizes in the nitride layer at deep subwavelength scale creating a local effective medium index. The fabricated device demonstrates wideband invisibility throughout the visible spectrum with low loss. This silicon nitride on low index substrate can also be a general scheme for implementation of transformation optical devices at visible frequency.
On directionality of phrase structure building.
Chesi, Cristiano
2015-02-01
Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction. PMID:25408515
MODERN BUILDING STRUCTURES USED FOR MILITARY PURPOSES
Mariana Domnica STANCIU
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the technical aspects of the spherical spatial structures, focusing on the tensegrity building systems used for military purpose. The spherical spatial structures have been studied and used since antiquity. Pythagoras, Plato and Euclid were conducted extensive research on the concept of such type of structures. Regular pentagon has properties related to the value of the golden section, intuitively used by great architects and engineers since ancient times. In the Middle Ages, Leonardo Da Vinci created spatial objects using proportions based on the golden number, and later R. B. Fuller made the famous geodesic domes. The structures proposed by the authors are based on concepts related to the "golden section", on studies made on the regular pentagon, on the spatial volumes able to be inscribed in spheres and on the tensegrity systems. The proposed structures present some advantages related to the ease of mounting, to the volume covered, to the resistance to the environmental factors (snow, wind, earthquake, and so on. The paper presents the conclusions of the investigations on the components of the spatial structures and on the outcomes of their use.
Photorealistic rendering of unidirectional free-space invisibility cloaks
Halimeh, Jad C
2013-01-01
Carpet or ground-plane invisibility cloaks hide an object in reflection and inhibit transmission by construction. This concept has significantly reduced the otherwise demanding material requirements and has hence enabled various experimental demonstrations. In contrast, free-space invisibility cloaks should work in both reflection and transmission. The fabrication of omnidirectional three-dimensional free-space cloaks still poses significant challenges. Recently, the idea of the carpet cloak has been carried over to experiments on unidirectional free-space invisibility cloaks that only work perfectly for one particular viewing direction and, depending on the design, also for one linear polarization of light only. Here, by using photorealistic ray tracing, we visualize the performance of four types of such unidirectional cloaks in three dimensions for different viewing directions and different polarizations of light, revealing virtues and limitations of these approaches in an intuitive manner.
Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks
Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently. We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries. Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated. It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary. At most positions, the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors. An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified. Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects, the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Nonsingularity in two-dimensional cylindrical invisible cloaks
The method of designing electromagnetic invisible cloaks is usually based on the form-invariance of Maxwell's equations in coordinate transformation. The exterior boundary of a cylindrical invisible cloak is unchanged and the interior boundary is extended from that of a point to that of a cylindrical region in coordination transformation. This transformation process makes perfect cloaks, but it causes singularity in the constitutive material parameters of cloaks. This singularity makes the cloaks impossible to realize in practice. In order to remove this singularity, this paper sets a small cylindrical region replacing a point in the space transformation. The cylindrical region is so small that it does not affect the invisibility effects, but it can remove the singularity for material parameters. Full wave simulations based on the finite element method were used to verify the designed cloaks. (classical areas of phenomenology)
An elasto-mechanical unfeelability cloak made of pentamode metamaterials.
Bückmann, T; Thiel, M; Kadic, M; Schittny, R; Wegener, M
2014-01-01
Metamaterial-based cloaks make objects different from their surrounding appear just like their surrounding. To date, cloaking has been demonstrated experimentally in many fields of research, including electrodynamics at microwave frequencies, optics, static electric conduction, acoustics, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and quasi two-dimensional solid mechanics. However, cloaking in the seemingly simple case of three-dimensional solid mechanics is more demanding. Here, inspired by invisible core-shell nanoparticles in optics, we design an approximate elasto-mechanical core-shell 'unfeelability' cloak based on pentamode metamaterials. The resulting three-dimensional polymer microstructures with macroscopic overall volume are fabricated by rapid dip-in direct laser writing optical lithography. We quasi-statically deform cloak and control samples in the linear regime and map the displacement fields by autocorrelation-based analysis of recorded movies. The measured and the calculated displacement fields show very good cloaking performance. This means that one can elastically hide objects along these lines. PMID:24942191
Nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak for electrically large conducting cylinders.
Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Xu, He-Xiu; Cui, Tie Jun
2014-09-01
Based on the concept of the scattering cancellation technique, we propose a nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak that can efficiently suppress the total scattering cross sections of an electrically large conducting cylinder (over one free-space wavelength). The cloaking mechanism is investigated in depth based on the Mie scattering theory and is simultaneously interpreted from the perspective of far-field bistatic scattering and near-field distributions. We remark that, unlike the perfect transformation-optics-based cloak, this nonideal cloaking technique is mainly designed to minimize simultaneously several scattering multipoles of a relatively large geometry around considerably broad bandwidth. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the antiscattering ability of the metasurface gives rise to excellent total scattering reduction of the electrically large cylinder and remarkable electric-field restoration around the cloak. The outstanding cloaking performance together with the good features of and ultralow profile, flexibility, and easy fabrication predict promising applications in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25401449
Theory and optimization of transformation-based quadratic spherical cloaks
Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2009-01-01
Based on the concept of the cloak generating function, we propose a numerical method to compute the invisibility performance of various quadratic spherical cloaks and obtain optimal invisibility results. A non-ideal discrete model is used to calculate and optimize the total scattering cross-sections of different profiles of the generating function. A bell-shaped quadratic spherical cloak is found to be the best candidate, which is further optimized by controlling design parameters involved. S...
A rigorous analysis of high order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks
Weder, Ricardo
2007-01-01
There is currently a great deal of interest in the invisibility cloaks recently proposed by Pendry et al. that are based in the transformation approach. They obtained their results using first order transformations. In recent papers Hendi et al. and Cai et al. considered invisibility cloaks with high order transformations. In this paper we study high order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media obtained by high order transformations from general anisotropic media. We cons...
Cylindrical Cloak with Axial Permittivity/Permeability Spatially Invariant
Luo, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Hongsheng; Xi, Sheng; Wu, Bae-Ian
2008-01-01
In order to reduce the difficulties in the experimental realizations of the cloak but still keep good performance of invisibility, we proposed a perfect cylindrical invisibility cloak with spatially invariant axial material parameters. The advantage of this kind of TE (or TM) cloak is that only rho and phi components of mu (or epsilon) are spatially variant, which makes it possible to realize perfect invisibility with two-dimensional (2D) magnetic (or electric) metamaterials. The effects of p...
Experiments on metasurface carpet cloaking for audible acoustics
Faure, Cédric; Richoux, Olivier; Félix, Simon; Pagneux, Vincent
2016-02-01
We present experiments on acoustic carpet cloaking by using a metasurface made of graded Helmholtz resonators. The thin metasurface, placed over the object to hide, is designed such that the reflection phase shifts of the resonators at the resonance frequency are tuned to compensate the shape of the object to cloak. Experimental as well as numerical results show the efficiency of the cloak at the resonance frequency. The reflection of a short pulse is also reported to inspect the broadband character of the cloak.
Nonsingular cylindrical cloaks with internal–external invisible regions
Two-dimensional nonsingular cloaks with internal and external invisible regions are presented. Objects can be hidden either in the internal cavity or the external concealment regions without being detected. Also in the latter case, the cloaked objects can receive incoming signals. In order to avoid the singularity (an infinitely large value of the constitutive parameters) which may appear at the inner boundary, the method of adjusting the principal stretches out of the cloaking plane is adopted. Detailed examples and their electromagnetic simulations are presented to validate the design. In addition, the effect of the material loss on the invisible property of the cloaks is also discussed
Lan, Lu; Liu, Yichao; Ong, C K; Ma, Yungui
2013-01-01
Electromagnetic invisible devices usually designed by transformation optics are rather complicated in material parameters and not suitable for general applications. Recently a topology optimized cloak based on level-set method was proposed to realize nearly perfect cloaking by Fujii et al [Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013)]. In this work we experimentally implemented this idea and fabricated a unidirectional cloak with a relative large invisible region made of single dielectric material. Good cloaking performance was verified through measurement which consists very well with numerical simulation. The advantages and disadvantages of this optimization method are also discussed.
Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility
This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements
Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility
Mertz, G.
1999-12-16
This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.
Magnetic sensor for building structural vibrations.
García, Alfonso; Morón, Carlos; Tremps, Enrique
2014-01-01
This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core) using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building. PMID:24504104
Padooru, Yashwanth R.; Yakovlev, Alexander B.; Chen, Pai-Yen; Alù, Andrea
2012-08-01
Following the idea of "cloaking by a surface" [A. Alù, Phys. Rev. B 80, 245115 (2009); P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205110 (2011)], we present a rigorous analytical model applicable to mantle cloaking of cylindrical objects using 1D and 2D sub-wavelength conformal frequency selective surface (FSS) elements. The model is based on Lorenz-Mie scattering theory which utilizes the two-sided impedance boundary conditions at the interface of the sub-wavelength elements. The FSS arrays considered in this work are composed of 1D horizontal and vertical metallic strips and 2D printed (patches, Jerusalem crosses, and cross dipoles) and slotted structures (meshes, slot-Jerusalem crosses, and slot-cross dipoles). It is shown that the analytical grid-impedance expressions derived for the planar arrays of sub-wavelength elements may be successfully used to model and tailor the surface reactance of cylindrical conformal mantle cloaks. By properly tailoring the surface reactance of the cloak, the total scattering from the cylinder can be significantly reduced, thus rendering the object invisible over the range of frequencies of interest (i.e., at microwaves and far-infrared). The results obtained using our analytical model for mantle cloaks are validated against full-wave numerical simulations.
On three-dimensional spherical acoustic cloaking
Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia, E-mail: ligia_munteanu@hotmail.com, E-mail: veturiachiroiu@yahoo.com [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Romanian Academy, 15 Constantin Mille, PO Box 1-863, 010141 Bucharest (Romania)
2011-08-15
Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the design of acoustic metamaterials, which are materials engineered at the subwavelength scale in order to mimic the parameters in wave equations. The design of the acoustic cloaking is based on the property of equations being invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e. a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a variation of the material parameters in the original space. In this paper, the sound invisibility performance is discussed for spherical cloaks. The original domain consists of alternating concentric layers made from piezoelectric ceramics and epoxy resin, following a triadic Cantor sequence. The spatial compression, obtained by applying the concave-down transformation, leads to an equivalent domain with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the material parameters.
On three-dimensional spherical acoustic cloaking
Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the design of acoustic metamaterials, which are materials engineered at the subwavelength scale in order to mimic the parameters in wave equations. The design of the acoustic cloaking is based on the property of equations being invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e. a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a variation of the material parameters in the original space. In this paper, the sound invisibility performance is discussed for spherical cloaks. The original domain consists of alternating concentric layers made from piezoelectric ceramics and epoxy resin, following a triadic Cantor sequence. The spatial compression, obtained by applying the concave-down transformation, leads to an equivalent domain with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the material parameters.
Experimental demonstration of a bilayer thermal cloak.
Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Gao, Dongliang; Thong, John T L; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2014-02-01
Invisibility has attracted intensive research in various communities, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, thermodynamics, dc, etc. However, many experimental demonstrations have only been achieved by virtue of simplified approaches due to the inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by the transformation-optic method, and usually require a challenging realization with metamaterials. In this Letter, we demonstrate a bilayer thermal cloak made of bulk isotropic materials, and it has been validated as an exact cloak. We experimentally verified its ability to maintain the heat front and its heat protection capabilities in a 2D proof-of-concept experiment. The robustness of this scheme is validated in both 2D (including oblique heat front incidence) and 3D configurations. The proposed scheme may open a new avenue to control the diffusive heat flow in ways inconceivable with phonons, and also inspire new alternatives to the functionalities promised by transformation optics. PMID:24580600
Experimental acoustic ground cloak in air.
Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Zigoneanu, Lucian; Cummer, Steven A
2011-06-24
We present the design, fabrication, and performance analysis for a class of two-dimensional acoustic cloaking coatings in air. Our approach takes advantage of transformation acoustics and linear coordinate transformations that result in shells which are homogeneous, broadband, and compact. The required material parameters are highly anisotropic; however, we show that they are easily achievable in practice in metamaterials made of perforated plastic plates. The good performance of the fabricated design is assessed from measurements of the sound field produced around the cloak by a broadband source. The remarkably low complexity of the device made of perforated plastic plates shows that sound in air can be fully and effectively manipulated using realizable transformation acoustics devices. PMID:21770640
A cloaking device for transiting planets
Kipping, David M.; Teachey, Alex
2016-06-01
The transit method is presently the most successful planet discovery and characterization tool at our disposal. Other advanced civilizations would surely be aware of this technique and appreciate that their home planet's existence and habitability is essentially broadcast to all stars lying along their ecliptic plane. We suggest that advanced civilizations could cloak their presence, or deliberately broadcast it, through controlled laser emission. Such emission could distort the apparent shape of their transit light curves with relatively little energy, due to the collimated beam and relatively infrequent nature of transits. We estimate that humanity could cloak the Earth from Kepler-like broad-band surveys using an optical monochromatic laser array emitting a peak power of ˜30 MW for ˜10 hours per year. A chromatic cloak, effective at all wavelengths, is more challenging requiring a large array of tunable lasers with a total power of ˜250 MW. Alternatively, a civilization could cloak only the atmospheric signatures associated with biological activity on their world, such as oxygen, which is achievable with a peak laser power of just ˜160 kW per transit. Finally, we suggest that the time of transit for optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is analogous to the water-hole in radio SETI, providing a clear window in which observers may expect to communicate. Accordingly, we propose that a civilization may deliberately broadcast their technological capabilities by distorting their transit to an artificial shape, which serves as both a SETI beacon and a medium for data transmission. Such signatures could be readily searched in the archival data of transit surveys.
Building Points - MO 2012 New Madrid Structure Points (SHP)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...
Building Points - MO 2012 Dunklin Structure Points (SHP)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...
Building Points - MO 2012 Stoddard Structure Points (SHP)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...
Building Points - MO 2012 Pemiscot Structure Points (SHP)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...
Building Points - MO 2012 Mississippi Structure Points (SHP)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...
Building Points - MO 2012 Scott Structure Points (SHP)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...
Design Numerical Method for Nonsingular Invisibility Cloak-Carpet with Arbitrary Shapes
V.I. Vyunnik; A.A. Zvyagintsev
2012-01-01
The using of the nonsingular invisibility cloak similarly as invisibility carpet was proposed. The possibility of fully numerical approach to calculation arbitrary nonsingular invisibility cloak, by a choice of elliptic coordinate system during coordinate transformation, was shown. The numerical modeling nonsingular cloak and cloak-carpet of arbitrary form and the estimation of efficiency while using, was completed.
Design Numerical Method for Nonsingular Invisibility Cloak-Carpet with Arbitrary Shapes
V. I. Vyunnik
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The using of the nonsingular invisibility cloak similarly as invisibility carpet was proposed. The possibility of fully numerical approach to calculation arbitrary nonsingular invisibility cloak, by a choice of elliptic coordinate system during coordinate transformation, was shown. The numerical modeling nonsingular cloak and cloak-carpet of arbitrary form and the estimation of efficiency while using, was completed.
About the survey of building structures with signs of biodeterioration
S.A. Startsev
2010-11-01
Full Text Available In the article different types of biological destructors and mechanism of their influence on building structures are examined. Experience in the survey of masonry, brick, metal, wooden, reinforced-concrete buildings damaged or destroyed biologically is depicted. Recommendations for microbiological survey of buildings are given.
Simplified ground plane invisibility cloak by multilayer dielectrics.
Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun; Yu, Zhenzhong; Jiang, Tian; Zhao, Junming
2010-11-22
Most implementations of the ground plane invisibility cloak are based on the isotropic design through the quasi-conformal transformation. However recent theoretical analysis predicts the unavoidable lateral shift of the scattering fields associated with these cloaks making them detectable. In this paper, we propose an alternative method to design the ground plane invisibility clock with electromagnetic beam modulation blocks through simple coordinate transformation discussed in our previous work. The ground plane cloak obtained with the rigorous transformation optics possesses moderate anisotropic distributions of material parameters, but results in no lateral shift of the scattering fields. To realize the design, a possible scheme is suggested by discretizing the ground plane cloak to several homogeneous sub-blocks. These sub-blocks can be realized with multilayer isotropic dielectrics with alignment angles that are determined by the effective medium theory. Thus the non-magnetic ground plane invisibility cloak can be constructed by several multilayered normal dielectrics aligned in different angles. The performance of the proposed cloak and its practical implementation is validated by full-wave electromagnetic simulations with both near field distributions and far field scattering patterns under different EM wave incident angles. The proposed cloak is composed of normal dielectric multilayers, thus can leads to easy experimental demonstration of non-magnetic ground plane cloak in the frequency range from microwave to optical. PMID:21164794
Topology optimized low-contrast all-dielectric optical cloak
Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
A systematic methodology for designing low-contrast all-dielectric cloaks operating in the optical range is presented. Topology optimization is used to find the layout of standard dielectric material that minimizes the norm of the scattered field in the surroundings of the cloak. Rotational symme...... than the noncloaked object. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3540687]...
Spontaneous emission and the operation of invisibility cloaks
Morshed Behbahani, Mina; Amooghorban, Ehsan; Mahdifar, Ali
2016-07-01
As a probe to explore the ability of invisibility cloaks to conceal objects in the quantum mechanics domain, we study the spontaneous emission rate of an excited two-level atom in the vicinity of an ideal invisibility cloaking. On this base, first, a canonical quantization scheme is presented for the electromagnetic field interacting with atomic systems in an anisotropic, inhomogeneous, and absorbing magnetodielectric medium which can suitably be used for studying the influence of arbitrary invisibility cloak on the atomic radiative properties. The time dependence of the atomic subsystem is obtained in the Schrodinger picture. By introducing a modified set of the spherical wave-vector functions, the Green tensor of the system is calculated via exact and discrete methods. In this formalism, the decay rate and as well the emission pattern of the aforementioned atom are computed analytically for both weak and strong coupling interaction, and then numerically calculations are done to demonstrate the performances of cloaking in the quantum mechanics domain. Special attention is paid to different possible orientations and locations of the atomic system near the spherical invisibility cloaking. Results in the presence and the absence of the invisibility cloak are compared. We find that the cloak works very well far from its resonance frequency to conceal a macroscopic object, whereas at near the resonance frequency the object is more visible than the situation where the object is not covered by the cloak.
Invisibility cloaking via non-smooth transformation optics and ray tracing
We present examples of theoretically-predicted invisibility cloaks with shapes other than spheres and cylinders, including cones and ellipsoids, as well as shapes spliced from parts of these simpler shapes. In addition, we present an example explicitly displaying the non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. We depict rays propagating through these example cloaks using ray tracing for geometric optics. - Highlights: → Theoretically-predicted conical and ellipsoidal invisibility cloaks. → Non-smooth cloaks spliced from parts of simpler shapes. → Example displaying non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. → Rays propagating through example cloaks depicted using geometric optics.
Invisibility cloaking via non-smooth transformation optics and ray tracing
Crosskey, Miles M., E-mail: mmc31@duke.ed [Mathematics Department, Duke University, Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708-0320 (United States); Nixon, Andrew T., E-mail: andrew_nixon@brown.ed [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, 182 George Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Schick, Leland M., E-mail: lschick@math.arizona.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, 617 N. Santa Rita Ave., P.O. Box 210089, Tucson, AZ 85721-0089 (United States); Kovacic, Gregor, E-mail: kovacg@rpi.ed [Mathematical Sciences Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)
2011-05-02
We present examples of theoretically-predicted invisibility cloaks with shapes other than spheres and cylinders, including cones and ellipsoids, as well as shapes spliced from parts of these simpler shapes. In addition, we present an example explicitly displaying the non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. We depict rays propagating through these example cloaks using ray tracing for geometric optics. - Highlights: Theoretically-predicted conical and ellipsoidal invisibility cloaks. Non-smooth cloaks spliced from parts of simpler shapes. Example displaying non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. Rays propagating through example cloaks depicted using geometric optics.
Omnidirectional surface wave cloak using an isotropic homogeneous dielectric coating
Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Quevedo-Teruel, O.; Sambles, J. R.; Hibbins, A. P.
2016-08-01
The field of transformation optics owes a lot of its fame to the concept of cloaking. While some experimental progress has been made towards free-space cloaking in three dimensions, the material properties required are inherently extremely difficult to achieve. The approximations that then have to be made to allow fabrication produce unsatisfactory device performance. In contrast, when surface wave systems are the focus, it has been shown that a route distinct from those used to design free-space cloaks can be taken. This results in very simple solutions that take advantage of the ability to incorporate surface curvature. Here, we provide a demonstration in the microwave regime of cloaking a bump in a surface. The distortion of the shape of the surface wave fronts due to the curvature is corrected with a suitable refractive index profile. The surface wave cloak is fabricated from a metallic backed homogeneous dielectric waveguide of varying thickness, and exhibits omnidirectional operation.
Hiding a Realistic Object Using a Broadband Terahertz Invisibility Cloak
Zhou, Fan; Cao, Wei; Stuart, Colin T; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Cheng
2011-01-01
The invisibility cloak has been a long-standing dream for many researchers over the decades. The introduction of transformational optics has revitalized this field by providing a general method to design material distributions to hide the subject from detection. By transforming space and light propagation, a three-dimensional (3D) object is perceived as having a reduced number of dimensions, in the form of points, lines, and thin sheets, making it "undetectable" judging from the scattered field. Although a variety of cloaking devices have been reported at microwave and optical frequencies, the spectroscopically important Terahertz (THz) domain remains unexplored. Moreover, due to the difficulties in fabricating cloaking devices that are optically large in all three dimensions, hiding realistic 3D objects has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of a 3D THz cloaking device fabricated using a scalable Projection Microstereolithography process. The cloak operates at a broa...
Numerical Analysis of Three-dimensional Acoustic Cloaks and Carpets
Dupont, Guillaume; Diatta, Andre; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan
2011-01-01
We start by a review of the chronology of mathematical results on the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map which paved the way towards the physics of transformational acoustics. We then rederive the expression for the (anisotropic) density and bulk modulus appearing in the pressure wave equation written in the transformed coordinates. A spherical acoustic cloak consisting of an alternation of homogeneous isotropic concentric layers is further proposed based on the effective medium theory. This cloak is characterised by a low reflection and good efficiency over a large bandwidth for both near and far fields, which approximates the ideal cloak with a inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of material parameters. The latter suffers from singular material parameters on its inner surface. This singularity depends upon the sharpness of corners, if the cloak has an irregular boundary, e.g. a polyhedron cloak becomes more and more singular when the number of vertices increases if it is star shaped. We thus analyse the acoust...
Cloaking by shells with radially inhomogeneous anisotropic permittivity.
Reshetnyak, V Yu; Pinkevych, I P; Sluckin, T J; Evans, D R
2016-01-25
We model electromagnetic cloaking of a spherical or cylindrical nanoparticle enclosed by an optically anisotropic and optically inhomogeneous symmetric shell, by examining its electric response in a quasi-static uniform electric field. When the components of the shell permittivity are radially anisotropic and power-law dependent (ε~rm) whereris distance to the shell center, and m a positive or negative exponent which can be varied), the problem is analytically tractable. Formulas are calculated for the degree of cloaking in the general case, allowing the determination of a dielectric condition for the shells to be used as an invisibility cloak. Ideal cloaking is known to require that homogeneous shells exhibit an infinite ratio of tangential and radial components of the shell permittivity, but for radially inhomogeneous shells ideal cloaking can occur even for finite values of this ratio. PMID:26832575
Homogeneous thermal cloak with constant conductivity and tunable heat localization.
Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2013-01-01
Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and finite conductivity only employing naturally available materials. It is demonstrated that the thermal localization inside the coating layer can be tuned and controlled robustly by anisotropy, which enables an incomplete cloak to function perfectly. Practical realization of such homogeneous thermal cloak has been suggested by using two naturally occurring conductive materials, which provides an unprecedentedly plausible way to flexibly realize thermal cloak and manipulate heat flow with phonons. PMID:23549139
Metasurface Cloak Performance Near-by Multiple Line Sources and PEC Cylindrical Objects
Arslanagic, Samel; Yatman, William H.; Pehrson, Signe;
2014-01-01
The performance/robustness of metasurface cloaks to a complex field environment which may represent a realistic scenario of radiating sources is presently reported. Attention is devoted to the cloak operation near-by multiple line sources and multiple perfectly electrically conducting cylinders. It...... is shown that the metasurface cloaks, initially designed to cloak an isolated dielectric cylinder excited by a single line source, retain their ability to cloak in these new, more realistic, excitation cases....
Amemiya, Tomohiro; Taki, Masato
2012-01-01
Is it possible to actually make Harry's invisibility cloaks? The most promising approach for realizing such magical cloaking in our real world would be to use transformation optics, where an empty space with a distorted geometry is imitated with a non-distorted space but filled with transformation medium having appropriate permittivity and permeability. An important requirement for practical invisibility cloaks is nonreciprocity; that is, a person in the cloak should not be seen from the outside but should be able to see the outside. This invisibility cloak, or a nonreciprocal shield, cannot be created as far as we stay in conventional transformation optics. Conventional transformation optics is based on Riemann geometry with a metric tensor independent of direction, and therefore cannot be used to design the nonreciprocal shield. To overcome this problem, we propose an improved theory of transformation optics that is based on Finsler geometry, an extended version of Riemann geometry. Our theory shows that no...
Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.
1980-02-01
As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.
As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities
The effect of electrostatic shielding using invisibility cloak
Ruo-Yang Zhang
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of electrostatic shielding for a spherical invisibility cloak with arbitrary charges inside is investigated. Our result reveals that the charge inside the cloak is a crucial factor to determine the detection. When charged bodies are placed inside the cloak with an arbitrary distribution, the electric fields outside are purely determined by the total charges just as the fields of a point charge at the center of the cloak. As the total charges reduce to zero, the bodies can not be detected. On the other hand, if the total charges are nonzero, the electrostatic potential inside an ideal cloak tends to infinity. For unideal cloaks, this embarrassment is overcome, while they still have good behaviors of shielding. In addition, the potential across the inner surface of an ideal cloak is discontinuous due to the infinite polarization of the dielectric, however it can be alternatively interpreted as the dual Meissner effect of a dual superconductive layer with a surface magnetic current.
The highly automated PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is described. The procedure can be applied equally well to phases derived from isomorphous/anomalous and molecular-replacement methods. The PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE model building, RESOLVE statistical density modification and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model-completion algorithms and automated solvent-molecule picking. Model-completion algorithms in the AutoBuild wizard include loop building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 Å, resulting in a mean R factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density and is relatively independent of resolution
Structural Reforms, IMF Programs and Capacity Building; An Empirical Investigation
Rabah Arezki; Marc Quintyn; Frederik G Toscani
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the role that International Monetary Fund (IMF) programs and capacity building play in fostering structural reforms. To do so, we exploit two novel datasets on IMF capacity building and structural reforms available for over one hundred IMF member countries over the period 1980 - 2010. The main results are threefold. First, there is a general association between IMF programs and structural reforms but this relationship is not very robust. Second, IMF training leads to a...
Aharonov-Bohm detection of two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks
Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Askarpour, Amir Nader; Alù, Andrea
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks, even when perfectly designed to mitigate the magnetic field disturbance of a scatterer, may be still detectable with Aharonov-Bohm (AB) measurements, and therefore may affect quantum interactions and experiments with elongated objects. We explore a multilayered cylindrical cloak whose permeability profile is tailored to nullify the magnetic-flux perturbation of the system, neutralizing its effect on AB measurements, and simultaneously optimally suppress the overall scattering. In this way, our improved magnetostatic cloak combines substantial mitigation of the magnetostatic scattering response with zero detectability by AB experiments.
Optimization of multilayer cylindrical cloaks using genetic algorithms and NEWUOA
Sakr, Ahmed A.; Abdelmageed, Alaa K.
2016-06-01
The problem of minimizing the scattering from a multilayer cylindrical cloak is studied. Both TM and TE polarizations are considered. A two-stage optimization procedure using genetic algorithms and NEWUOA (new unconstrained optimization algorithm) is adopted for realizing the cloak using homogeneous isotropic layers. The layers are arranged such that they follow a repeated pattern of alternating DPS and DNG materials. The results show that a good level of invisibility can be realized using a reasonable number of layers. Maintaining the cloak performance over a finite range of frequencies without sacrificing the level of invisibility is achieved.
Wind-resistant studies on tall buildings and structures
无
2010-01-01
This paper introduces some aspects of wind-resistant studies of our research team on tall buildings and structures. Wind tunnel tests were carried out on 27 typical tall building models by using wind pressure scanning and HFFB techniques. The characteristics of wind pressures and forces acting on these buildings were analyzed. Some results have been adopted in a Shanghai code for structural design of steel tall buildings. Interference effects on wind forces and wind pressures among two and three tall buildings were experimentally investigated with about 10000 testing conditions. Regression analyses of the interference factors under different parameter conditions were made and the main regression formulas are presented. Theoretical study on equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings and structures are then introduced. Especially,a new concept of "mode coupling factor" and a modified SRSS method for wind response and equivalent static wind load of complicated tall buildings and structures with consideration of multi mode contributions and their coupling effects are presented. Finally,practical applications of wind-resistant studies on tall building and structures,taking the Guangzhou New TV Tower as an example,are presented.
Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...
Leadership: Building a Team Using Structured Activities
Rivas, Olivia; Jones, Irma S.
2012-01-01
Educators strive to anticipate reactions or outcomes of instruction so that the learning or acquiring of information by others is as pain-free as possible. Leaders also strive to build cohesiveness and trust in groups or teams of employees so that the end goal or task is produced in a timely manner. However, setting the stage or mood for teamwork…
Acoustic cloaking and mirages with flying carpets
Diatta, Andre; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan
2009-01-01
Carpets under consideration here, in the context of pressure acoustic waves propagating in a compressible fluid, do not touch the ground: they levitate in mid-air (or float in mid-water), which leads to approximate cloaking for an object hidden underneath, or touching either sides of a square cylinder on, or over, the ground. The tentlike carpets attached to the sides of a square cylinder illustrate how the notion of a carpet on a wall naturally generalizes to sides of other small compact objects. We then extend the concept of flying carpets to circular cylinders. However, instead of reducing its scattering cross-section like in acoustic cloaks, we rather mimic that of another obstacle, say a square rigid cylinder. For instance, show that one can hide any type of defects under such circular carpets, and yet they still scatter waves just like a smaller cylinder on its own. Interestingly, all these carpets are described by non-singular acoustic parameters. To exemplify this important aspect, we propose a multi-...
Environmental effect of structural solutions and building materials to a building
The field of building environmental assessment tools has become a popular research area over the past decade. However, how the service life of a building affects the results of the environmental assessment of a building has not been emphasised previously. The aim of this study is to analyse how different structural solutions and building materials affect the results of the environmental assessment of a whole building over the building's life cycle. Furthermore, how the length of the building's service life affects the results is analysed. The environmental assessments of 78 single-family houses were calculated for this study. The buildings have different wall insulations, claddings, window frames, and roof materials, and the length of the service life varies from 60 years up to 160 years. The current situation and the future of the environmental assessment of buildings are discussed. In addition, topics for further research are suggested; for example, how workmanship affects the service life and the environmental impact of a building should be studied
Structural evaluation of the 2736Z Building for seismic loads
The 2736Z building structure is evaluated for high-hazard loads. The 2736Z building is analyzed herein for normal and seismic loads and is found to successfully meet the guidelines of UCRL-15910 along with the related codes requirements
Building with electromagnetic shield structure for individual floors
This invention relates to a building having a floor-by-floor electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system in which an electromagnetically shielded space is divided by individual floors and electric waves are utilized within the building on a floor-by-floor basis. (author). 8 figs
Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance
Yusof M.Z.
2014-01-01
Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance
Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance
Yusof M.Z.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.
2007-04-29
The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model-building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model-building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 {angstrom} to 3.2 {angstrom}, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution.
Impact of climate change on building structures
Drdácký, Miloš
Bari : EDIPUGLIA, 2010 - (Lefebre, R.; Sabbioni, C.), s. 139-153 ISBN 978-88-7228-601-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) 6th FP EC CHEF -044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : climate change impact * weathering * vulnerability of buildings Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage
Achieving acoustic cloak by using compressible background flow
Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Ge, Mo-Lin
2016-01-01
We propose a scheme of acoustic spherical cloaking by means of background irrotational flow in compressible fluid. The background flow forms a virtual curved spacetime and guides the sound waves bypass the cloaked objects. To satisfy the laws of real fluid, we show that spatially distributed mass source and momentum source are necessary to supply. The propagation of sound waves in this system is studied via both geometric acoustics approximation and full wave approach. The analytic solution of sound fields is obtained for plane wave incidence. The results reveal the effect of phase retardation (or lead) in comparison with the ordinary transformation-acoustic cloak. In addition, the ability of cloaking is also evaluated for unideal background flows by analyzing the scattering cross section.
Diffuse-light all-solid-state invisibility cloak.
Schittny, Robert; Niemeyer, Andreas; Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Naber, Andreas; Wegener, Martin
2015-09-15
An ideal invisibility cloak makes arbitrary macroscopic objects within the cloak indistinguishable from its surrounding—for all directions, illumination patterns, polarizations, and colors of visible light. Recently, we have approached such an ideal cloak for the diffusive regime of light propagation using a core-shell geometry and a mixture of water and white wall paint as the surrounding. Here, we present an all-solid-state version based on polydimethylsiloxane doped with titania nanoparticles for the surrounding/shell and on a high-reflectivity microporous ceramic for the core. By virtue of reduced effects of absorption, especially from the core, the cloaking performance and the overall light throughput are improved significantly. PMID:26371896
Achieving acoustic cloak by using compressible background flow
Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Zhao, Qing; Ge, Mo-Lin
2016-08-01
We propose a scheme of acoustic spherical cloaking by means of background irrotational flow in compressible fluid. The background flow forms a virtual curved spacetime and directs the sound waves to bypass the cloaked objects. To satisfy the laws of real fluid, we show that spatially distributed mass source and momentum source are necessary to supply. The propagation of sound waves in this system is studied via both geometric acoustics approximation and full wave approach. The analytic solution of sound fields is obtained for plane wave incidence. The results reveal the effect of phase retardation (or lead) in comparison with the ordinary transformation-acoustic cloak. In addition, the ability of cloaking is also evaluated for unideal background flows by analyzing the scattering cross section. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475088 and 11275024) and the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ030595-3).
Active cloaking for clusters of pins in thin plates
O'Neill, Jane; Haslinger, Stewart; Movchan, Natasha; Craster, Richard
2016-01-01
This paper considers active cloaking of a square array of evenly spaced pins in a Kirchhoff plate in the presence of flexural waves. Active sources are distributed exterior to the cluster and are represented by the non-singular Green's function for the biharmonic operator. The complex amplitudes of the active sources, which cancel out selected multipole orders of the scattered field, are found by solving an algebraic system of equations. For frequencies in the zero-frequency stop band, we find that a small number of active sources located on a grid is sufficient for cloaking. For higher frequencies, we achieve efficient cloaking with the active sources positioned on a circle surrounding the cluster. We demonstrate the cloaking efficiency with several numerical illustrations, considering key frequencies from band diagrams and dispersion surfaces for a Kirchhoff plate pinned in a doubly periodic fashion.
Innovated Building Material's Interactions with Structural Form in Architectural Projects
Mozaikci, Begüm
2009-01-01
ABSTRACT: Interpretation of building materials into architectural form, is gaining greater interest and attention due to the conservation of architectural heritage. This study highlight, the influences of technological developments of building materials and their interactions with structural form in architectural design projects. Architectural form and decisions can potentially effects by introduced new materials and this study focus on the interaction of new material and structural form...
Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load
Mahmoud Yahyai; Masoud Mirtaheri; Mehrab Mahoutian; Amir S. Daryan
2008-01-01
In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance bet...
A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves
Yihao Yang; Huaping Wang; Faxin Yu; Zhiwei Xu; Hongsheng Chen
2016-01-01
We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the re...
Creation of Tunable Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity
Han, Tiancheng; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2013-01-01
Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. On the contrary, we demonstrate that tunable thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogen...
Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity and Tunable Heat Localization
Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2013-01-01
Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and f...
Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking
Farhat, M.; Chen, P.-Y.; H. Bagci; Amra, Claude; Guenneau, Sébastien; Alu, A.
2015-01-01
We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal...
Time-of-flight imaging of invisibility cloaks
Halimeh, Jad C.; Wegener, Martin
2012-01-01
As invisibility cloaking has recently become experimental reality, it is interesting to explore ways to reveal remaining imperfections. In essence, the idea of most invisibility cloaks is to recover the optical path lengths without an object (to be made invisible) by a suitable arrangement around that object. Optical path length is proportional to the time of flight of a light ray or to the optical phase accumulated by a light wave. Thus, time-of-flight images provide a direct and intuitive t...
The simplified material parameter equation for elliptical cylinder cloaks
Ma Hua; Qu Shao-Bo; Xu Zhuo; Zhang Jie-Qiu; Wang Jia-Fu
2009-01-01
We simplify the material parameter equation for elliptical cylinder cloaks under transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic modcis, respectively, and confirm these simplified equations by numerical simulations. As a result, the number of the component parameters is reduced from three to two, which simplifies the design of meta-materials and thus opens up the possibility of achieving elliptical cylinder cloaks in an easy way.
Push-Over Analysis for Concrete Structures of Tall Building
朱杰江; 张佩军; 吕西林; 容柏生
2004-01-01
In this paper, push-over analysis for tall concrete structures was made and a corresponding computer program was given.Several kinds of elements in the program were considered to meet the demand of tall buildings with complex structural type. These elements included beam-column element for beams and columns, single slice wall element and three vertical line element for walls, and tube-wall element for tubes. Computational example for verifying the models indicates that the result obtained by this method is identical with a well-known test result and the program can be used to search for the full process of structural reaction, even the softening stage of the structure. With this push-over analysis method, an actual tall building with complex structural type was analyzed, and the result has been put into practice of the structural design of the building.
Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible
Fruhnert, Martin; Monti, Alessio; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Alù, Andrea; Toscano, Alessandro; Bilotti, Filiberto; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2016-06-01
The scattering cancellation technique is a powerful tool to reduce the scattered field from electrically small objects in a specific frequency window. The technique relies on covering the object of interest with a shell that scatters light into a far field of equal strength as the object but with a phase shift of π . The resulting destructive interference prohibits its detection in measurements that probe the scattered light. Whereas at radio or microwave frequencies feasible designs have been proposed that allow us to tune the operational frequency upon request, similar capabilities have not yet been explored in the visible. However, such an ability is necessary to capitalize on the technique in many envisioned applications. Here, we solve the problem and study the use of small metallic nanoparticles with an ellipsoidal shape as the material from which the shell is made to build an isotropic geometry. Changing the aspect ratio of the ellipsoids allows us to change the operational frequency. The basic functionality is explored with two complementary analytical approaches. Additionally, we present a powerful multiscattering algorithm that can be used to perform full-wave simulations of clusters of arbitrary particles. We utilize this method to analyze the scattering of the presented designs numerically. Herein we provide useful guidelines for the fabrication of this cloak with self-assembly methods by investigating the effects of disorder.
Time-of-flight imaging of invisibility cloaks
Halimeh, Jad C
2011-01-01
As invisibility cloaking has recently become experimental reality, it is interesting to explore ways to reveal remaining imperfections. In essence, the idea of most invisibility cloaks is to recover the optical path lengths without an object (to be made invisible) by a suitable arrangement around that object. Optical path length is proportional to the time of flight of a light ray or to the optical phase accumulated by a light wave. Thus, time-of-flight images provide a direct and intuitive tool for probing imperfections. Indeed, recent phase-sensitive experiments on the carpet cloak have already made early steps in this direction. In the macroscopic world, time-of-flight images could be measured directly by light detection and ranging (LIDAR). Here, we show calculated time-of-flight images of the conformal Gaussian carpet cloak, the conformal grating cloak, the cylindrical free-space cloak, and of the invisible sphere. All results are obtained by using a ray-velocity equation of motion derived from Fermat's ...
Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Instrumented Buildings and Test Structures
Givens, Michael James
2013-01-01
The effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) are investigated through careful interpretation of available data from instrumented buildings and recently performed forced vibration experiments on instrumented buildings and test structures. Conventional engineering practice typically ignores soil-structure interaction (SSI) during evaluation of the seismic demand on buildings based on the perception that consideration of SSI will reduce demands on structures and ignoring SSI effects will caus...
Strengthening of building structures using carbon composite materials
N.V. Paranicheva
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Currently, the question of ensuring the reliability of various building structures both at the stage of their construction and during operation is very urgent. There are a lot of different ways and constructive methods of structures strengthening. Аt the same time, traditional ways of concrete structures strengthening with steel reinforcement are such expensive, time consuming and in some cases require to interrupt the building operation. As an alternative, it is proposed to use composite materials based on high-strength carbon fibers.The authors consider the properties, advantages, disadvantages and the methods of application of these materials. This article presents results of a technical survey carried out in a public building in 2009. In this building the CFRP was used to strengthen concrete slabs, resting on the crossbar consoles. The calculation of the strength is adduced and the section selection is made. The authors demonstrate their conclusions about the feasibility of using carbon composite materials.
Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM
C. Dore
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.
Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load
Mahmoud Yahyai
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance between the two buildings. Three types of soil such as soft clay, sandy gravel and compacted sandy gravel are considered for this study. The result obtained that the interaction effect increases time period of both buildings base shear and lateral displacement of the structures increases.
Behbahani, Mina Morshed; Amooghorban, Ehsan; Mahdifar, Ali
2016-01-01
As a probe to explore the ability of invisibility cloaks to conceal objects in the quantum mechanics domain, we study the spontaneous emission rate of an excited two-level atom in the vicinity of an ideal invisibility cloaking. On this base, first, a canonical quantization scheme is presented for the electromagnetic field interacting with atomic systems in an anisotropic, inhomogeneous and absorbing magnetodielectric medium which can suitably be used for studying the influence of arbitrary in...
Building damage due to structural pounding during earthquakes
Sołtysik, B.; Jankowski, R.
2015-07-01
Earthquake-induced pounding between adjacent buildings has been identified as one of the reasons for substantial damage or even total collapse of colliding structures. A major reason leading to interactions in buildings results from the differences in their dynamic parameters and also from insufficient distance between the structures. Although the research on structural pounding has been much advanced, the studies have mainly been conducted for concrete structures. The aim of this paper is to show the results of the non-linear numerical analysis focuses on damage due to pounding between two steel buildings under earthquake excitation. The numerical analysis has been performed using models of steel asymmetric structures with different number of storeys which makes them vibrate out-of-phase. Pounding between buildings has been controlled using three-dimensional gap-friction elements which become active when contact is detected. In order to identify the dynamic characteristics of analyzed structures, the modal analysis has been first conducted. Then, the detailed non-linear dynamic analysis of colliding structures has been performed. The acceleration time histories of the El Centro earthquake have been used in the numerical analysis. The results of the study clearly indicate that pounding may substantially influence the response of steel buildings intensifying their damage during earthquakes.
Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes
Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play...... CLT-based systems, which are studied and analysed by using a combination of digital tools for structural and environmental design and analysis. The results show gainful, rational properties of folded systems and beneficial effects from an integration of architectural and environmental performance...... criteria in the design of CLT-based façades....
Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking
The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)
Seismic soil-structure interaction in buildings. II: Empirical findings
Stewart, Jonathan P.; Seed, Raymond B; Fenves, Greggory L
1999-01-01
System identification analyses are used to evaluate soil-structure interaction effects for 77 strong motion data sets at 57 building sites that encompass a wide range of structural and geotechnical conditions. Kinematic interaction effects on the "input" motion at the bases of structures are found to be relatively modest in many cases, whereas inertial interaction effects on the structural response to these motions can be significant. To quantify inertial interaction effects, fixed- and flexi...
Invisibility Cloaks Modeled by Anisotropic Metamaterials Based on Inductor-capacitor Networks
Liu, Xiao; Li, Chao; Yao, Kan; Meng, Xiankun; Li, Fang
2009-01-01
Based on the transformation optics, a novel transmission-line (TL) approach to realize invisibility cloaking using planar anisotropic metamaterials (MTMs) is proposed. The two-dimensional cylindrical cloaks are modeled based on inductor-capacitor (L-C) MTMs networks. The three elements of the constitutive parameters are all allowed to be spatially inhomogeneous which lead to the full parameter realization of a cylindrical cloak. As an example, a cloak working at VHF band is modeled and its in...
Building nuclear structures : challenges and achievements
Reliability and safety are factors of prime importance in construction of civil engineering structures of nuclear facilities. There cannot be any compromise in the strength and life of the structure. This involves rigorous control of: (1) quality of materials and end products, (2) time taken for construction, (3) cost, and also continuing innovation. India has now accumulated more than three decades of experience in nuclear civil engineering and the civil engineering fraternity of India and particularly of the Department of Atomic Energy is now fully capable of designing and construction of all types of structures involved in the nuclear field. Illustrative examples are given. Dome of the CIRUS reactor was constructed in steel plates, but then there was a switch over to reinforced concrete for containment structures and subsequently to prestressed concrete. The aspects taken into consideration of the design to ensure absolute leak tightness are: (1) earthquake safeguards, (2) concrete surface protection, and (3) minimization of cracking in concrete due to pressure loading and shrinkage. Coordination charts are prepared for monitoring time required for various operations and time and motion studies are employed to cut down on construction time. Close control over the cost is kept through internal and external audit, executing the work departmentally or employing an outside agency as the occasion demands and proper selection of materials. Some of the innovations in materials use and construction techniques are mentioned. (K.M.)
Electoral structure of building foundations in nuclear fuel element plant
Plant structures of nuclear fuel elements have a substantial burden. This requires analysis of the selection of the proper foundation for building support for a variety of different soil conditions found in two locations, first at a location near the nuclear power plant in Jepara and the second location BATAN Serpong area. Expected to know the location of soil conditions, we can determined the type of foundation that will be used based on the criteria requirements of the building. (author)
Superlens-cloaking of small dielectric bodies in the quasistatic regime
Bruno, Oscar P.; Lintner, Stéphane
2007-01-01
It has been conjectured that, in the quasistatic regime, dielectric bodies of finite size could be perfectly cloaked by certain cylindrical arrangements of materials of positive and negative permittivities known as superlenses. We show that, although they do not cloak perfectly dielectrics objects of any size, cylindrical superlenses do cloak, to a significant extent, dielectric bodies of small size.
Smolyaninova, V. N.; Smolyaninov, I. I.; Ermer, H. K.
2012-01-01
Very recently Farhat et al. [1] have suggested that arrays of invisibility cloaks may find important applications in low-interference communication, noninvasive probing, sensing and communication networks, etc. We report on the first experimental realization of such an array of broadband invisibility cloaks, which operates in the visible frequency range. Wavelength and angular dependencies of the cloak array performance have been studied.
Structural Analysis of Buildings at Explosive Actions in SCAD
N.A. Chernukha
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of structural analysis of buildings and structures at explosive actions. In introduction, there is a review of types of explosions and the features of their action on structures. In the theoretical part of the study the main issue was to present different methods of structural analysis of buildings at explosions. Determination of wave parameters and process of wave diffraction are presented. Impulse loading of building structures in SCAD is described. The article also shows how module «Direct integration of motion equations» in SCAD can be used for solving problems of explosion dynamics. In the empirical part of the study the main concern was to compare stress-strain condition of building structures at explosions, using different methods of structural analysis. Automatic analysis was performed in SCAD, which implements finite element method (FEM. The results of the study demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of described methods, as well as the functional abilities of SCAD, when solving the problems of explosion dynamics.
Seismic safety of building structures of NPP Kozloduy III
In the proposed paper is presented a general summary of the analyses carried out to evaluate the dynamic behavior and to assess the seismic safety of some safety related building structures of NPP Kozloduy. The design seismic loads for the site of Kozloduy NPP has been reevaluated and increased during and after the construction of investigated Units 5 and 6. Deterministic and probabilistic approaches are applied to assess the seismic vulnerability of the investigated structures, taking into account the newly defined seismic excitations. The presented results show sufficient seismic safety for the studied critical structures and good efficiency of the seismic upgrading. The applicability of the investigated structures at sites with some higher seismic activities is discussed. The presented study is dealing mainly with the civil structures of the Reactor building, Turbine hall, Diesel Generator Station and Water Intake Structure. (authors)
Testing the technical condition of maintained building structures
A.A. Smorchkov; S.A. Kereb; Orlov, D. A.; K.O. Baranovskiy
2012-01-01
The accumulation of damage in structures under mechanical and environmental influences reduces their carrying capacity and changes its technical condition.A new approach to the evaluation of technical condition of building structures. Besides comparing the strength and deformation parameters it was proposed additional criteria: the probability of failure and reliability index. That allows setting the clear boundaries between categories of technical condition from the positions of structure in...
Hydraulic behaviour of a representative structural volume for containment buildings
Jason, L; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles; Ghavamian, S.; Huerta, Antonio
2007-01-01
For particular structures like containment buildings of nuclear power plants, the study of the hydraulic behaviour is of great concern. These structures are indeed the third barrier used to protect the environment in case of accidents. The evolution of the leaking rate through the porous medium is closely related to the changes in the permeability during the ageing process of the structure. It is thus essential to know the relation between concrete degradation and the transfer property when t...
Replies are made to comments in N N Rozanov's letter to the editors ''Can even monochromatic radiation ensure ideal invisibility?'' (see Usp. Fiz. Nauk 181 787 (2011) [Phys. Usp. 54 763 (2011)]) concerning our paper ''Invisible cloaking of material bodies using the wave flow method'' (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 180 475 (2010) [Phys. Usp. 53 455 (2010)]). Examples are given of spatial configurations that enable the creation of singularity-free cloaking materials. Some emerging cloaking ideas are discussed. (letters to the editors)
Structural integrity analysis of an INPP building under external loading
After the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington D. C. using civil airplanes, the evaluation of civil airplane crashes into civil and NPP structures has become very important. The interceptions of many terrorists' communications reveal that the use of commandeered commercial aircraft is still a major part of their plans for destruction. Aircraft crash or other flying objects in the territory of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) represents a concern to the plant. Aircraft traveling at high velocity have a destructive potential. The aircraft crash may damage the roof and walls of buildings, pipelines, electric motors, cases of power supplies, power cables of electricity transmission and other elements and systems, which are important for safety. Therefore, the evaluation of the structural response to an of aircraft crash is important and was selected for analysis. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an NPP building structure is the subject of this paper. The finite element method was used for the structural analysis of a typical Ignalina NPP building. The structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS using the dynamic loading of an aircraft crash impact model. The computer code NEPTUNE was used for this analysis. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. (authors)
Phonons as building blocks in nuclear structure
The structure of a nuclear system in terms of eigenmodes (phonons) of subsystems is investigated in three different approaches. In the frame of nuclear field theory the three identical particle system is analysed and the elimination of spurious states due to the violation of the Pauli principle is emphasized. In terms of weak coupling, a new approach of the shell model is proposed which is shown to be rapidly convergent with the number of basis vectors. Applications of three particle systems in the lead region are made. Lastly, a microscopic multiphonon theorie of collective K=0 states in deformed nuclei based on a Tamm Dancoff phonon is developed. The role of the Pauli principle as well as comparisons with boson expansion methods are deeply analysed
ICT technologies for the refurbishment of wooden structure buildings
Arakistain, Ivan; Abascal, Jose Miguel; Munne, Oriol
2014-01-01
Nowadays, one would think that after years of massive concrete and steel construction in Spain, there are not many wood structure buildings left to be refurbished except for some palaces or cathedrals. However, if we go for a walk and have a look at the old part of any city, we will realize that still most of the buildings have a wood structure. In spite of the fact that the majority of urban regulations forbid their demolition, other bad practices such as casting and overloading the wood str...
Analysis of the structural design process of the adaptive reuse of building structures
Pasterkamp, S.
2014-01-01
In the field of structural building engineering there is a market shift taking place as a result of the growing number of buildings that are listed as cultural heritage, secularization, the economic situation and the increasing office vacancy rate in Europe and the US. More and more structural engin
Shen, Huijie; Wen, Jihong; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen
2013-09-01
This work derives the set of acoustic parameters of a metamaterial for an ideal cylindrical cloak through scattering theory. A multilayered cloak with homogeneous isotropic materials is introduced to approximate the ideal cloak. An active metamaterial, consisting of active arrays of acoustic cavities separated by piezo-diaphragms, is addressed to achieve the required parameters for each layer of the multilayered cloak. In particular, with the aid of a multi-control strategy that takes into account the coupling between adjacent cells, the effective parameters for the cloak can be accurately realized.
By means of embedded optical transformation, three-dimensional diamond-shaped invisible cloaks composed of tetrahedral homogeneous blocks have been designed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the invisible cloaks can be obtained based on the form invariance of Maxwell's equations in coordinate transformation. Numerical methods using the finite element method verified the diamond-shaped cloaks. The invisible properties of the designed cloaks are nearly perfect when the original line section is sufficiently short compared with its counterpart in the after-transformed space. The designed cloaks can operate in a wide bandwidth due to the line transformation in the coordinate transformation process.
Invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement
Based on the theory of phase complement, an anti-cloak with circular cross section can be made invisible to an object outside its domain. As the cloak with elliptic cross section is more effective to make objects invisible than that with circular cross section, a scaled coordinate system is proposed to design equivalent materials of invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement. The cloaks with conventional dielectric and double negative parameters are both simulated with the geometrical transformations. The results show that the cloak with elliptic cross section through phase complement can effectively hide the outside objects. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Confirmation of Cylindrical Perfect Invisibility Cloak Using Fourier-Bessel Analysis
Ruan, Zhichao; Yan, Min; Neff, Curtis W.; Qiu, Min
2007-01-01
A cylindrical wave expansion method is developed to obtain the scattering field for an ideal two-dimensional cylindrical invisibility cloak. A near-ideal model of the invisibility cloak is set up to solve the boundary problem at the inner boundary of the cloak shell. We confirm that a cloak with the ideal material parameters is a perfect invisibility cloak by systematically studying the change of the scattering coefficients from the near-ideal case to the ideal one. However, due to the slow c...
This work derives the set of acoustic parameters of a metamaterial for an ideal cylindrical cloak through scattering theory. A multilayered cloak with homogeneous isotropic materials is introduced to approximate the ideal cloak. An active metamaterial, consisting of active arrays of acoustic cavities separated by piezo-diaphragms, is addressed to achieve the required parameters for each layer of the multilayered cloak. In particular, with the aid of a multi-control strategy that takes into account the coupling between adjacent cells, the effective parameters for the cloak can be accurately realized. (paper)
The relation between ventilation rates and building structures
As the concept of building and structure includes so various kinds of factors, the discussion in this paper on the ventilation rates refers mainly to the 'residential buildings' of 'reinforced concrete and timber frame'. Although it was believed, since before the world war II, that the concrete structure was better in air tightness than the timber frame of which ventilation rates were estimated as more than one air change per hour or so, it is getting hard to decide which one is tighter and to estimate the amount of ventilation rate based on just only the construction style. A description was given on the methodology to estimate the ventilation rate of a house using a simple chart. Outline of the values thus obtained is presented for the ventilation rates in Japanese residential buildings. (author)
Structural approach for building reconstruction from a single DSM.
Lafarge, Florent; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc
2010-01-01
We present a new approach for building reconstruction from a single Digital Surface Model (DSM). It treats buildings as an assemblage of simple urban structures extracted from a library of 3D parametric blocks (like a LEGO set). First, the 2D-supports of the urban structures are extracted either interactively or automatically. Then, 3D-blocks are placed on the 2D-supports using a Gibbs model which controls both the block assemblage and the fitting to data. A Bayesian decision finds the optimal configuration of 3D-blocks using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler associated with original proposition kernels. This method has been validated on multiple data set in a wide-resolution interval such as 0.7 m satellite and 0.1 m aerial DSMs, and provides 3D representations on complex buildings and dense urban areas with various levels of detail. PMID:19926904
GLLH EM Invisible Cloak With Novel Front Branching And Without Exceed Light Speed Violation
Xie, Ganquan; Xie, Lee; Xie, Feng
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose new Global and Local (GL) electromagnetic (EM) cloaks with distinctive class material a_{\\alpha \\beta}\\log ^\\alpha (b_{\\alpha \\beta}/h) h^\\beta (GLLH Cloak) without exceed light speed violation. The refractive index of the GLLH cloak material, $n(r)$, is large than one or equal to one. Our GLLH cloak is created by GL EM modeling and GL EM cloak inversion with searching class \\it a_{\\alpha \\beta}\\log ^\\alpha (b_{\\alpha \\beta}/h) h^\\beta. The GLLH cloaks in this paper have finite speed and have no exceed light speed? physical violations and have more advantages. The GLLH EM cloaks can be practicable by using normal materials and are available for all broad frequency band. The GL EM cloak inversion and electromagnetic integral equation for cloak are presented in this paper. The novel EM wave propagation and front branching in the GLLH cloak by GL EM modeling are presented in this paper. The EM wave front propagation in GLLH cloak is behind of the front in free space. At time steps $118 ...