Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.
Valine is likely the fourth limiting amino acid in most diets based of corn and soybean meal. However, its exact needs are not well known, and information regarding it is sparse. A series of studies were conducted to validate valine’s limitation in all-vegetable diets fed to broilers, and subseque...
Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva
This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.
SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.
Pius P Ketaren; T. Purwadaria; A.P. Sinurat; T Haryati
Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on dete...
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of different probiotics on the performance of broiler chickens. A thousand and fifty one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (3 probiotics sources in the diet, 2 probiotics concentrations in drinking water and 1 control group, with 5 repetitions of 30 birds per parcel. The results showed better feed conversion (p<0.01 (1-21, 22-35 and 1-45 days and weight gain (p<0.05 (22-35 and 1-45 days in the control group in relation to the groups receiving probiotics. The use of Bacillus subtilis in the diet improved (p<0.05 feed conversion during the growing phase, but this was not seen in the following period. Thus, it was concluded that probiotics supplementation had no beneficial effects on the performance.
EM Oliveira; CBGS Tanure; FV Castejon; RMAD Castro; FRT Rocha; FB de Carvalho; MA Andrade; JH Stringhini
ABSTRACTAn experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and nutrient metabolizability of broilers fed diets containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) and an esterified glucomannan (EGM). In total, 420 male broilers were distributed according to a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, corresponding to three FB1 exposure times (seven, 21, or 35 days), two dietary glucomannan addition levels (0 or 0.1% EGM), and control diet, totaling seven treatments. The following diets were fed: 1) Control diet, 2) pr...
Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.
Lü, M B; Yan, L; Guo, J Y; Li, Y; Li, G P; Ravindran, V
An experiment was conducted to determine melamine residual levels in the tissues of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of melamine. Ten experimental diets were developed to contain 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Each diet was offered in 4 replicate cages (12 birds per cage) from d 1 to 42, followed by a 7-d feeding of a withdrawal diet that contained no melamine. On d 28, 42, and 49, one bird per replicate was killed and tissue samples from the breast meat, liver, and kidney were collected for the determination of residual melamine levels. Throughout the 42-d feeding period, feeding diets containing graded levels of melamine had no effect (P>0.05) on the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality of broiler chickens. Residue levels of melamine in broiler tissues at d 28 and 42 were below the detection limit when the diets contained
Pius P Ketaren
Full Text Available Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on determined metabolizable energy (ME content in the rice bran at 2040 kcal/kg, without taking into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation. These diets were: 1. A control diet (D2040, without enzymes; 2. D2040 + E. javanicum (BS4 + P. nalgiovense (S11; 3. D2040 + BS4 + A. niger; 4. D2040 + BS4 + commercial enzymes (CE; 5. D2040 + B. pumilus (PU4-2 + CE. Four other experimental diets contained the same protein and energy levels as in the diets 1-5, but had taken into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation,. These diets were: 6. D2702 + BS4 + S11; 7. D2650 + BS4 + A. niger; 8. D2465 + BS4 + CE ;and 9. D2465 + PU4-2+ CE. Each experimental diet was repeated six times and each replication consists of 5 day-old broiler chickens. Results showed that FCR of the chickens fed D2040 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.38 and D2465 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.46 were significantly (P < 0.01 improved compared to the control diet (FCR = 1.64. This experiment strongly shows that supplementation of PU4-2 + CE enzymes significantly (P < 0.01 improved feed efficiency of the broiler chickens by 11-16%.
Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R
The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681
Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and nutrient metabolizability of broilers fed diets containing fumonisin B1 (FB1 and an esterified glucomannan (EGM. In total, 420 male broilers were distributed according to a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, corresponding to three FB1 exposure times (seven, 21, or 35 days, two dietary glucomannan addition levels (0 or 0.1% EGM, and control diet, totaling seven treatments. The following diets were fed: 1 Control diet, 2 pre-starter diet containing FB1, 3 pre-starter diet containing FB1 and 0.1% EGM, 4 starter diet containing FB1, 5 starter diet containing FB1 and 0.1% EGM, 6 grower diet containing FB1, and 7 grower diet containing FB1 and 0.1% EGM. On d 7, broilers fed FB1 presented lower body weight gain and feed intake (p0.05. At 35 days of exposure to FB1 body weight gain was reduced (p<0.05 compared with broilers fed fumonisin B1 for seven days. From 4 to 7 days and 18 to 21 days of age, FB1 reduced nutrient metabolizability (p<0.05. From 36 to 39 days of age, the EGM allowed maintaining apparent metabolizability for ether extract. It was concluded that the EGM did not reduce FB1 effects on performance or nutrient metabolizability in broilers, except for apparent metabolizability of ether extract.
Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broilers. One-day-old male broiler chicks from the Cobb strain (n=1,260 were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and 3 prebiotics sources. Nine treatments with 4 repetitions and 35 birds per parcel were used. The results showed that there was no influence of treatment on feed intake at the different rearing phases. Better weight gain (p<0.05 was seen when diet was supplemented with the phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharide-based prebiotic (MOS compared to diets without prebiotics. Feed conversion of birds fed diets with probiotics and prebiotics was better than feed conversion of birds not receiving such additives. Such better results were seen in the initial period (1 to 21 days, but not in the following period (1 to 35 days or in the total period (1 to 42 days. Better rearing viability was seen when MOS was used together with organic acidifier when compared to the diets without prebiotic. Viability was worst when no prebiotics or probiotics were used. It was concluded that beneficial effects were seen in performance of birds at 21 days when the growth promoters were used, but not at 42 days of age. Nevertheless, there was better growth viability at 42 days of age when growth promoters were added.
Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers
Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.
Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase. PMID:26316335
LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang
An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.
Pelicano ERL; Souza PA; HBA Souza; A Oba; MM Boiago; NMBL Zeola; AM Scatolini; VA Bertanha; Lima TMA de
This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108) in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2) and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2). There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The resu...
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.
Luiz Juliano Valério Geron
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.
Cassenego, A.P.V.; d’Azevedo, P.A.; A.M.L. Ribeiro; Frazzon, J.; Van Der Sand, S.T.; Frazzon, A. P. G.
Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination o...
Full Text Available A total number of 5520 female and 480 male breeders (Arbor Acres plus at 42wks of age were used in a 10-week-trial to investigate the effect of an enzyme complex on the quality and quantity of egg production as well as hatchability of broiler breeders fed a corn-soybean meal diet. There were two dietary treatment groups: a control group fed on a corn-soybean based diet, and the multi-enzyme group that received the same diet plus an enzyme complex including xylanase, amylase, protease, phytase, ß-glucanase, hemicellulase, and pectinase. Results showed that egg production rate and egg mass were numerically increased as a result of enzyme supplementation and differences between the treatment groups were significant at week 46 (P
Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki
The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and sup...
Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.
J. Narasimha,; D. Nagalakshmi,; Y. Ramana Reddy; S. T. Viroji Rao
Aim: In view of the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), an attempt was made to explore the possibility of harnessing synergistic effect of non starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzymes, synbiotics and phytase on performance, nutrient retention, gut health and histology of broilers fed with corn-soybean meal based low calorie diets.Materials and Methods: A total of 150 a day-old broiler chicks were weighed, wing banded and randomly distributed into five experimental groups, six replicates per...
Eliete Souza Santana
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium.
Nanung Danar Dono
Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.
Full Text Available Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1. The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2, 1% fenugreek seeds (T3, combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4, enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5, enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6, and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5% and (1% fenugreek seeds (T7. The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves
Timms, L M
The incidence of leg abnormalities was studied in 216 male Ross I broilers, fed for 10 weeks on a diet containing 12.5 per cent extracted rapeseed. Regular serological examination showed that the birds remained free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reovirus throughout the period of investigation. Post mortem examination and radiographs were performed when birds were culled due to leg deformities or at the end of the experiment. Leg abnormalities were seen in 19.4 per cent of the birds which represents a very significant increase above that currently seen in commercial flocks. They consisted of a large range of skeletal deformities including valgus and varus deformities, dyschondroplasia, slipped gastrocnemius tendons, dislocated condyles, rotation and penetration of the distal tibiotarsus and fractured fibulas. Multiple forms of leg abnormality were often observed in individual birds and their association is briefly discussed. PMID:6635344
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental L-arginine (ARG in reduced-protein diets on cardiopulmonary performance and intestinal morphology in the broilers reared at high altitude. A total of 156 day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments and 4 replicates of 13 chicks and reared up to 42 days of age. Treatment groups were designed as a normal-protein diet (NPD, a reduced-protein diet (RPD with 30 g/Kg less crude protein compared to the NPD, and a reduced-protein diet plus 4 g/Kg L-arginine (RPD + ARG. There were no significant differences among dietary treatments for intestinal morphology and weight gain. Feed conversion ratio was improved in the chickens fed RPD + ARG compared to those fed RPD alone. The right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV was significantly increased in the chickens fed RPD when compared to those fed NPD or RPD + ARG. Serum nitric oxide and amplitude of the S waves of electrocardiogram significantly declined by reducing dietary protein content. Relative expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 gene was higher in the heart and lungs of chicks fed RPD than those fed NPD and it was off set when ARG supplemented to RPD (P. In conclusion, supplementing reduced-protein diets with ARG would be an effective strategy to prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension by increase in nitric oxide, and decrease in RV:TV and ET-1 gene expression.
Nei André Arruda Barbosa
calcium and 35% and 42.7% of phosphorus, in initial and growth phases, respectively. The enzyme supplementation consisted of a combination of phytase enzyme (100g t-1 and amylase, xylanase and protease (500g t-1. It was evaluated the performance of birds in phases 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days old. In the total period, the birds fed with negative control diet with added enzyme had feed intake (5.97%, body weight (8.47%, body weight gain (8.64% and feed conversion (2.92% higher (P0.05 to the group fed with positive control diet with or without enzyme. It is concluded that the addition of exogenous enzymes in diets with reduced metabolizable energy, calcium and phosphorus, providing a feed intake, average live weight and weight gain similar to a diet with adequate levels for broiler.
Full Text Available The study was aimed to compute Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler. Carcass, heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, and excreta. The data were obtained from broiler reared in the litter cage. Four treatments of feed were given to the broiler chicken, i.e. T1 = X brand of commercial feed, T2 = Y brand of commercial feed, T3 = self-prepared feed without fish meal addition and T4 = self prepared feed without fish meal but contaminated with cadmium chloride (Cd.Cl2.4H2O. For each treatment, five broiler chicken were grouped each week (from week I up to week VI. Results of the first stage of this study was analyzed descriptively. A polinomial regression equation was used as an empirical model to describe the heavy metal bioaccumulation phenomenon in broiler carcasses. The quadratic equation turned out to be the most suitable model for describing the bioaccumulation of heavy metal in broiler carcasses. From the simulation, it was found that quadratic model fit to 61.31% and 54.17% bioaccumulation data of Pb and Cd respectively. According to the model, initially metal concentrations declined since the first week and started to rebound at the fifth week, both in terms of chronological and physiological age. The patterns of Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in this study can be used as a reference to determine the proper slaughter period. It can be concluded that for reducing the risk of metal contamination the proper slaughter time of the broiler is before the fifth week.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.
Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki
The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (pessential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (pessential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956
Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract
Full Text Available The effects of the dietary substitution of dry corn by high-moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS were evaluated on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers reared in an alternative production system and submitted to different environmental temperatures. A total of 288 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral or cold and four levels of HMCGS in substitution of dry corn (0%, 20%, 40% or 60%. The acid analysis showed that the evaluated HMCGS contained average percentage values of ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid (expressed in 100% of dry matter of 0.7690, 2.7320 and 0.0249%, respectively. Propionic and butyric acids were not detected. Dry corn and HMCGS presented pH values of 5.8 and 3.3, respectively. The inclusion of HMCGS reduced dietary pH, as shown by the values of 5.7, 5.4, 5.1 and 4.8 recorded for the diets containing 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% of HMCGS, respectively. There was no significant interaction between diets and environmental temperature. HMCGS may replace up to 40% dry corn in broiler diets when performance, triglyceride levels, and HDL-cholesterol ratio is considered, and up to 60% when nutrient digestibility is evaluated. High environmental temperature impairs broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemistry, demonstrating the influence of environmental temperature on broiler metabolism and performance.
Peng, Y Z; Wang, Y W; Ning, D; Guo, Y M
This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary nutrient density on haematic parameters, oxidative status and mitochondrial complex activity in the heart and liver of broilers under low ambient temperature. Eight-day-old male ROSS-308 chickens were randomly divided into two treatments fed with normal (control) and high metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein density (H) diets. A high nutrient density diet increased body weight gain and reduced the feed conversation ratio during the first 3 weeks. Increased ascites-related mortality (weeks 4 to 6), right ventricle/total ventricle (week 6), blood haemoglobin (weeks 2 and 4) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (week 2) were observed in treatment H. Levels of malonaldehyde and protein carbonylation were increased at week 4, and activities of glutathione peroxidase at week 4 and CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase at week 6 were decreased in the heart; only malonaldehyde (week 6) was increased in the liver in treatment H. Relative mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (heart) was increased and heme oxygenase-1 (heart and liver) was decreased at week 4 in broilers fed with high ME and protein diet. Activities of mitochondrial complex III and IV (week 6) in the heart, and complex I (week 6) and complex III and IV (week 4) in the liver were decreased in treatment H. In conclusion, high levels of dietary ME and protein resulted in oxidative stress and high incidence of ascites in broilers under low ambient temperature. Heart dysfunction was primarily attributed to ascites development, in which oxidative injury and inhibition of mitochondrial complex activity were involved. PMID:23721102
Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases. PMID:26614118
Full Text Available Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L, tet(M and erm(B genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%, followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%, E. mundtii (10.8%, E. faecium (10.8%, E. columbae (5.8% and E. gallinarum (4.2%. Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M, tet(L and erm(B genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci.
Cassenego, A P V; d'Azevedo, P A; Ribeiro, A M L; Frazzon, J; Van Der Sand, S T; Frazzon, A P G
Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%), followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%), E. mundtii (10.8%), E. faecium (10.8%), E. columbae (5.8%) and E. gallinarum (4.2%). Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M), tet(L) and erm(B) genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci. PMID:24031659
Kiarie, E; Woyengo, T; Nyachoti, C M
A total of 420 day-old male Ross chicks were weighed at d 1 of life and assigned to test diets to assess the efficacy of a new Buttiauxella spp. phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei. Diets were: positive control (PC) adequate in nutrients and negative control (NC) diet (40% and 17% less available phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca), respectively) supplemented with 6 levels of phytase 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of diet. All diets had titanium dioxide as digestibility marker and each diet was allocated to ten cages (6 birds/cage). Diets were fed for 3 wk to measure growth performance, apparent retention (AR) on d 17 to 21 and bone ash and ileal digestibility (AID) on d 22. Growth performance and nutrient utilization was lower (p<0.05) for NC vs PC birds. Phytase response in NC birds was linear (p<0.05) with 2,000 FTU showing the greatest improvement on body weight gain (20%), feed conversion (7.4%), tibia ash (18%), AR of Ca (38%), AR of P (51%) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (5.1%) relative to NC. Furthermore, phytase at ≥750 FTU resulted in AID of total AA commensurate to that of PC fed birds and at ≥1,000 FTU improved (p<0.05) AR of P, dry matter, and N beyond that of the lower doses of phytase and PC diet. In conclusion, the result from this study showed that in addition to increased P and Ca utilization, the new Buttiauxella phytase enhanced growth performance and utilization of other nutrients in broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26323404
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multienzyme supplement (Natuzyme®) in diets containing wheat on the broilers performance. A total of one hundred twenty day old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with a 2 3 factorial arrangement (0, 150 and 300 gram per kilogram wheat and 0 and 0.025 gram per kilogram enzyme). Chickens were fed with starter, grower and finisher diets during 1-21, 22- 35, 36-49 day...
A total number of 300 Ross broiler chicks were obtained from commercial hatchery at one day of age. The chicks were divided into three groups (50 males and 50 females in each). The first and second groups were supplemented with 3000 and 2000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme, respectively, while the third group served as control and fed on basal diet. Birds fed on diets that supplemented with lipase enzyme showed significant increase in body weight and dry matter intake, as well as fats and protein content dry matters. The serum lipase activity showed significant increase in treated groups compared to the control. Non-significant changes were determined in serum total lipids, T3, T4 and ash content. Birds supplemented with lipase showed significant decrease in cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that birds fed diets containing 2000 or 3000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme exhibited improvement in broiler performance
Abdollahi, M.R.; Dalen, van A.B.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Ravindran, V.
Six broiler starter diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to contain 1.1 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g calcium (Ca)/kg. All diets were equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate phosphorus contents (5.4 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). The influence of dietary treatments on the gro
Jong, de, D.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van, R.S.; Blokhuis, H.J.
Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced. Broiler breeders were fed 4 different diets during the rearing and laying periods. Behavioral and physiological parameters were measured at different ages as indicators of hunger and frustration o...
C. Basavanta Kumar; Gloridoss, R. G.; K. Chandrapal Singh; T. M. Prabhu; Siddaramanna,; B. N. Suresh; Manegar, G. A.
Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated ...
The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...
Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interferon gamma (IFNγ in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6, TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.
Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M
.001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P <0.001) mortality rate, feed conversion ratio and feed cost (FC). At 42 days of age, the body weight of broilers fed control diet was 1662 g versus 838 to 1041 g for broilers fed commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...... some commercial diets. These results suggest the necessity to organize the market of poultry feed in Benin in the perspective to reduce the production cost by using more efficient and cheap commercial diets....
Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters; 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1; 3 - Probiotic (Pool based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, Streptococcus lactis and faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Aspergillus oryzae (Pro 2; 4 - Prebiotic based on Phosphorylated Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and Organic Acidifier (OA (Pre 1; 5 - MOS-based prebiotic (Pre 2; 6 - Pro 1 + Pre 1; 7 - Pro 1 + Pre 2; 8 - Pro 2 + Pre 1; 9 - Pro 2 + Pre 2. Higher villus height (VH (p<0.01 were seen in the duodenum of birds fed diets without prebiotics, whereas birds fed Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic and birds fed prebiotic based on MOS and OA showed higher VH (p<0.01 in jejunum and ileum. Greater crypt depths (CD (p<0.01 were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of birds receiving B. subtilis, and in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed diets without prebiotics. Significant interaction (p<0.01 between the evaluated factors was seen for both, VH and CD, in the three intestinal portions. Greater VH was obtained in duodenum, jejunum and ileum with the use of probiotics and prebiotics and greater CD with the use of probiotics, in relation to the control group. There was no difference in villus density (VD between birds fed diets without additives or diets containing probiotics and prebiotics. Nevertheless, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05 between the evaluated factors for VD in the duodenum. Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age.
Irani Ribeiro Vieira Lopes
Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the influence of diets containing cashew nut meal stored for 35 days and treated at different storage times with 500 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene on the characteristics of breast meat and abdominal fat. The experiment followed a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of diets containing: untreated cashew nut meal; cashew nut meal treated with antioxidant on zero day of storage, and cashew nut meal treated with antioxidant on 21st day of storage. At 42 days old, broilers were slaughtered. Breast and abdominal fat of each bird were identified, weighed, frozen stored for subsequent analysis. The variables studied were: pH, water holding capacity, cooking losses and shear force, in the meat and color of the meat and of the abdominal fat. Treatments did not affect (p > 0.05 the evaluated parameters. However, the yellowness (component b* of the abdominal fat was higher in birds fed the diet containing meal treated with antioxidant at storage day zero. In conclusion, the cashew nut meal can be stored for 35 days without antioxidant, but in order to achieve intense yellowness in abdominal fat of broilers 500 ppm antioxidant addition is required, at the beginning of storage.
Broomhead, J N; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E
Floor pen studies were conducted with 270 broiler chicks and 144 turkey poults, all 1 wk old, to evaluate the chronic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1). A completely randomized design was used in both studies with six pen replicates of 15 chicks or eight pen replicates of six poults assigned to each of three dietary treatments from Weeks 1 to 7 (broilers) or to Week 14 (turkeys). Fusarium moniliforme (M-1325) culture material was added to a typical corn-soybean basal diet to supply 0, 25, or 50 mg FB1/kg diet. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion of chicks were not affected (P > 0.05) by FB1. Turkeys fed 50 mg FB1/kg had significantly (P 0.05) by FB1, other than those chicks fed 25 mg FB1/kg, which had lower (P Broilers fed 50 mg FB1/kg had decreased serum calcium and increased serum chloride when compared to broilers fed 0 or 25 mg FB1/kg. Hematology was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary FB1. No lesions were present in any organ examined microscopically. Results indicate that 50 mg FB1/kg diet is detrimental to turkeys but is not toxic to broilers fed to market age. PMID:11885900
Saima, M. Z. U. Khan*, M. A. Jabbar, A. Mehmud1, M. M. Abbas and A. Mahmood1
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of lysine supplementation in low protein diets on the performance of growing broilers. Six broiler starter diets designated as A, B, C, D, E and F were formulated in such a way that diets A & B had CP 23%, diets C & D had CP level 21%, while diets E & F had CP 19%. Each pair of diets was supplemented with two levels of lysine i.e. 1.1 and 1.2%. These experimental diets were fed to the birds from day 0 to 28. Results indicated that both CP and...
Desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorventes Productive performance of broiler breeders fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbents
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente à base de glucomananos esterificados. Foram utilizados 300 fêmeas e 40 machos da linhagem Ross 308 alojados em 20 boxes experimentais na fase de 61 a 72 semanas de idade. Da 61ª à 68ª semana, as aves receberam dietas contendo três níveis de aflatoxina (0; 0,500; 0,750 mg/kg em combinação ou não a adsorvente (0,10% e, nas quatro últimas semanas, receberam dietas isentas de aflatoxina e adsorvente. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (níveis de aflatoxina vs níveis de adsorvente com 4 repetições, cada uma de 15 fêmeas e 2 machos. A partir da 65ª semana, as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxina e adsorvente apresentaram menor taxa de postura em relação àquelas que receberam dietas comuns, sem esses aditivos. O peso corporal das matrizes, assim como o peso, o peso específico dos ovos, a eclodibilidade, e a qualidade dos pintos produzidos não são afetados pelos níveis de aflatoxinas e adsorvente presentes na dieta.The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of broiler breeder hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and adsorbent on the basis of esterified glucomannan. It was used 300 Ross 308 females and 40 males broiler breeders, housed in 20 experimental pens in the 61-72 week of age phase. From the 61st to the 68th week, birds were fed diets containing three levels of aflatoxin (0; 0.500; 0.750 mg/kg combined or not to adsorbent (0.10% and on the last four weeks they received diets without aflatoxin and adsorbent. The birds were distributed in a complete randomized design in a factorial scheme (levels of aflotoxin vs levels of adsorbents with 4 replicates, each one with 15 females and 2 males. From the 65th week, birds fed diets with aflotoxin and adsorbent showed lower laying rate
The increase in production of ethanol in North America has led to increased production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the majority of which are fed to livestock. While there is evidence that DDGS can be included into poultry diets at rates as high as 15%, there has been no data reg...
Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.
Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N
1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response
C. Basavanta Kumar
Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.
Tiago Goulart Petrolli
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.
Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G
Twenty-four organic Fe sources were evaluated by polarographic analysis and via solubility in buffers (pH 5 and 2) and deionized water. Organic Fe sources included 6 Fe-Met complexes (Fe-Met), 10 Fe-Gly complexes, 1 Fe-Lys complex, 4 Fe proteinates, and 3 Fe-AA complexes (Fe-AA). Sources varied considerably in chemical characteristics. Chelation strengths (quotient of formation [Q] values) ranged from weak (Q = 1.08) to extremely strong strength (Q = 8,590). A total of 1,170 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 6 replicate cages (15 chicks/cage) for each of 13 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 Fe sources × 3 added Fe levels) plus a control with no added Fe. Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; 55.8 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, or 60 mg Fe/kg as iron sulfate (FeSO∙7HO); an Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; Q = 1.37; 14.7% Fe); an iron proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Q = 43.6; 14.2% Fe); or an iron proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Q = 8,590; 10.2% Fe). The growth performance, Fe concentrations, hematological indices, and activities and gene expressions of 2 Fe-containing enzymes in tissues of broilers at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were determined in the present study. Transferrin saturation in plasma on 14 d; bone Fe on d 7 and 14; liver Fe on d 7, 14, and 21; kidney Fe on d 14; succinate dehydrogenase activities in the liver on d 21 and in the kidney on d 7 and 21; mRNA levels in the kidney and heart on d 14; and mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21 linearly increased ( < 0.05) as added Fe levels increased. However, differences in bioavailabilities among Fe sources were detected ( < 0.05) only for the mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of mRNA level in the liver or kidney of
Verônica da Silva Cardoso
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.
Zhao, Junmei; Shirley, Robert B.; Dibner, Julia J.; Wedekind, Karen J.; Yan, Frances; Fisher, Paula; Hampton, Thomas R.; Evans, Joseph L.; Vazquez-Añon, Mercedes
Background The goal of this study was to compare the antagonism of elevated dietary Cu (250 mg/kg) from CuSO4 on three different Zn sources (ZnSO4 · H2O; [Zn bis(−2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid)], Zn(HMTBa)2, a chelated Zn methionine hydroxy analogue; and Zn-Methionine), as measured using multiple indices of animal performance in ROSS 308 broilers. Methods Three experiments were conducted in broiler chicks fed a semi-purified diet. All birds were fed a Zn-deficient diet (8.5 mg/kg diet...
Desempenho de frangos de corte oriundos de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente Performance of broilers derived from breeder hens fed with diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbent
Alexandre Pires Rosa
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho da progênie de matrizes de corte que consumiram aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente por quatro ou oito semanas. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Em cada estudo foram utilizados 160 machos de 1 dia provenientes de matrizes alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente. Em ambos os ensaios, foi adotado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado para avaliação de cinco dietas (tratamentos, cada uma avaliada com quatro repetições de oito aves. Nas dietas fornecidas às matrizes, as aflatoxinas foram adicionadas nos níveis 0; 0,500; ou 0,750 mg/kg de ração em combinação ou não a 0,10% de adsorvente. Os dois ensaios com frangos de corte foram conduzidos em baterias instaladas em unidade experimental climatizada, onde os pintos receberam uma dieta comprovadamente isenta de aflatoxinas durante todo o período experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso corporal, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar pelo ganho de peso, proteínas plasmáticas totais, albumina sérica e pesos de fígado e bursa de Fabrícius ao primeiro dia de idade. A adição de até 0,750 mg aflatoxinas/kg e adsorvente durante oito semanas na dieta de matrizes de corte não influencia o desempenho zootécnico nem os parâmetros sanguíneos da progênie das matrizes.The performance of the progeny from breeders hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannans as a mycotoxins adsorbent during four and eight weeks was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In each study, one hundred and sixty 1-day old male chicks from broiler breeders fed diets with aflatoxins and mycotoxins adsorbent were used. The chicks were allocated in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. In the diets supplied to the breeder chickens, aflatoxins were added at
Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the intestinal integrity, using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the performance of broiler chickens fed additives alternative to antimicrobials. A total of 1080 male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments with six replicates of 30 birds each. The following treatments were evaluated: basal diet (control, basal diet supplemented with an antimicrobial, basal diet supplemented with a probiotic, basal diet supplemented with a prebiotic, basal diet with a symbiotic, and basal diet supplemented with organic acids. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and livability were recorded when broiler chickens were 10, 21, 35, and 42 days old. On day 42, 72 birds were individually weighed and sacrificed. In order to evaluate the morphometrics of the different intestinal wall layers, segments of the small intestine and the cecum were collected from two birds per replicate, and intestinal integrity (SEM was evaluated in the same segments of two birds per treatment. During the starter period (1-21 days old, birds fed the alternative additives presented similar weight gain as those fed the antimicrobial product, but were not different from control birds. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed alternative additives was better than that of the control birds from one to 10 days of age, but not during the remaining rearing period, and was similar to the birds receiving the antimicrobial. The morphometric parameters of the different intestinal wall layers was not influenced by the treatments. During the total rearing period, the evaluated alternative additives did not improve intestinal integrity or broiler performance.
Hossain, Md. Elias; Kim, Gwi Man; Lee, Sung Ki; Yang, Chul Ju
The experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Alisma canaliculatum with probiotics (ACP) on the growth performance, meat composition, oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition of broiler meat. Sixteen probiotic strains were tested for their levels of acid, bile, and heat tolerance. Among them, Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3111, Enterococcus faecium KCTC 2022, Bacillus subtilis KCTC 3239, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC 7928 were selected for use in ACP. Exactly 140 Ro...
Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu
This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p camelina meal. Weight gain (p camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p camelina meal had significantly higher (p camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197
THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE
Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.
Latshaw, J D
An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. A factorial arrangement was used to test effects of protein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet contained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein from a combination of corn gluten meal, fish meal, and peanut meal. Hydrolyzed fat was added at 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of the diets. A combination of alfalfa meal, oats, and wheat middlings was used to increase the fiber of the corn soy diet by approximately 2 and 4%. The 36 combinations were fed as mash. In addition, 8 of the diets were fed as pellets. All diets were fed for 12 d from the time broilers reached approximately 1.2 kg. A total excreta collection was used to determine ME, and carcass analysis provided fat and energy content. When fed mash, only sex had a significant effect on grams of feed eaten per day. Sex and dietary fat content affected gain per day. Sex, fat, and fiber altered the kcal of ME eaten per day. Broilers fed 5% added fat ate approximately 10% more energy per day than those fed no added fat, and broilers fed 4% added fiber ate approximately 20% less ME than those fed no added fiber. A comparison of results from mash and pellets showed that only sex and form affected gain per day, feed per day, and kilocalories of ME eaten per day. For the mash and pellets, protein, fat, fiber, and several interactions affected the ME per gram; however, the ME per gram was similar for pellets and mash. The results suggest that the diet composition and form have a significant effect on the energy intake of broiler chickens. PMID:18079455
Galib A. M. Al-Kassie,
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets with black pepper (Piper nigrum. A total of 250 (Rose 308 day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of black pepper at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet of broilers for six weeks. The Results revealed that the inclusion of black pepper at the levels of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and conversion ratio. At the same time the black pepper of 0.50 %, 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of black pepper as feed additive at 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.
Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other
Full Text Available Problem Statement: The efficacy of Methionine (Met sparing effect of Betaine (BET has been shown to be associated with dietary compositions, animal physiological stage and living conditions. This study was to determine the extent to which dietary Met could be replaced by BET in broiler chickens under the feeding conditions specific to Chinese poultry industry.Approach: A total of 900 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were fed three corn-soybean meal-based starter rations (d 1-21 and grower rations (d 22-42 for a total of 42 days. Met levels in the diets were: Diet 1, Met content at the recommended level (Control; diet 2, Met level at 85% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 400 (starter or 300 (grower mg kg-1 DM; Diet 3, Met level at 75% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 600 (starter or 500 (grower mg khg-1 DM. The broilers were raised in a temperature controlled house with 3 pens (replicates per dietary treatment. Results: In general, treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake or feed efficiency. Concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the serum of broilers fed Diet 3 were higher (pConclusions/Recommendations: Supplementation of BET to replace up to 25% of total dietary Met did not affect the growth performance but improved the carcass quality of the broilers. BET could be used to spare 25% of the total Met in broiler diet that was formulated based on the Feeding Standard of China.
Annison, G; Moughan, P J; Thomas, D V
1. A soluble material (703 g/kg non-starch polysaccharide, 141 g/kg starch and 166 g/kg protein) of low viscosity (termed RB-NSP), was isolated in large quantities from defatted Australian rice bran using a mild alkaline extraction and ethanol precipitation. 2. The soluble non-starch polysaccharide fraction of RB-NSP comprised arabinose (0.40 mol%), xylose (0.32 mol%) galactose (0.17 mol%), glucose (0.08 mol%) and mannose (0.03 mol%). 3. RB-NSP was included at graded concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/kg) in a sorghum/casein basal diet and the diet fed to male broilers in a classical balance trial to determine apparent metabolisable energy (AME). The AME values recorded were 13.26, 13.85, 14.26 and 14.00 MJ/kg DM with a significant correlation (r = 0.65, P protein which were both high (0.98-0.99 and 0.88-0.89, respectively). 5. It was concluded that the RB-NSP may have been a substrate for hindgut fermentation in the broiler but that it possessed no anti-nutritive activity. PMID:7583378
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium perfringens (Cp is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that causes necrotic enteritis (NE in poultry when it overgrows in the small intestine. NE disease has previously been controlled through the use of growth-promoting antibiotics. This practice was recently banned in European countries, leading to significantly increased incidence of NE threatening the poultry industry. Control strategies and technology as substitutes to dietary antibiotics are therefore urgently required. To develop the substitutes, it is important to understand host immune responses to Cp infection. However, the knowledge is still lacking. We therefore investigated gene expression profiles within immunologically-relevant tissue, the spleen, in order to identify factors that are involved in immunity to NE and have potential as therapeutic targets. Results Use of a 44 K Agilent chicken genome microarray revealed significant up-regulation of many immune-associated genes in Cp-challenged chickens, including galectin 3, IFNAR1, IgY-receptor, TCRγ, granzyme A, and mannose-6-P-R, which were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR assays. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes was conducted using the High Throughput Gene Ontology Functional Annotation database. Medicated and Non-medicated chickens had similar annotation profiles with cell activities and regulation being the most dominant biological processes following Cp infection. Conclusion Broiler chickens demonstrated an intricate and holistic magnitude of host response to Cp challenge and the development of NE. Although the influence of dietary antibiotics appeared to be less significant than the disease process, both had a considerable impact on the host response. Markers previously identified in intestinal inflammatory diseases of other species, including humans, and indicators of enhanced antibody responses, appeared to be involved in the chicken response to Cp challenge
Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm
); 7.25MJ/kg), C (38% DF; 7.25MJ/kg) and D (30% DF; 8.00MJ/kg) were fed each to 8 groups of 28 chickens. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. From 19-30 weeks all groups were fed the same commercial...... contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed...... and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders....
Holsheimer, J P; Vereijken, P F; Schutte, J B
1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the response of broiler chicks to threonine-supplemented diets between 10 and 28 d and 7 and 21 d of age, respectively. 2. In the first experiment female broiler chicks were fed on 11 experimental diets. Two iso-energetic basal diets (diets 1 and 2) were prepared with 200 and 160 g CP/kg and 7.6 and 6.0 g threonine/kg respectively. Both diets contained 11.5 g lysine and 8.7 g sulphur-containing amino acids/kg. Diet 3 was composed of diet 2, supplemented with all essential and non-essential amino acids (EAA and NEAA, respectively) except threonine, to the concentrations of the amino acids in diet 1. The NEAA were added as a combination of glutamic acid and glycine. Diets 4 to 11 had the same compositions as diet 3, but contained increasing amounts of threonine. 3. For birds fed on diet 2, gain was significantly lower and food/gain ratio was significantly higher than for birds fed on diet 1. Supplementation with EAA, NEAA and threonine to the same concentrations in diet 1 resulted in a performance similar to that found on diet 1. 4. In experiment 2, male and female broiler chicks both received 10 experimental diets. Diet 1 contained 220 g CP/kg and 8.5 g threonine/kg, diet 2 contained 160 g CP/kg from natural raw materials and 6 g threonine/kg. Both diets contained 12.4 g lysine and 9.3 g sulphur-containing amino acids/kg. Basal diet 2 was supplemented with all EAA and NEAA to the concentrations of basal diet 1, except for threonine. Diets 3 to 10 had the same compositions as the supplemented diet 2, but contained increasing amounts of threonine. 5. For male and female chicks on diet 2, gain was significantly lower and food/gain ratio significantly higher than those on diet 1. Diet 10 (160 g CP/kg plus all EAA, including threonine, and NEAA supplemented to the concentrations of diet 1) resulted in the same performance as diet 1. 6. The results indicate that, when low protein maize-soyabean meal diets supplemented with
Fernanda Alvares da Silva
Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de níveis de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu e vitamina D3 (VD no soro de pintos de corte de um dia, machos, Hubbard, criados em baterias aquecidas, recebendo dieta básica purificada, suplementada com 5, 10 e 15% de L-Glu combinados com 0, 5.000, 10.000 e 15.000 UI de vitamina D3/kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, quatro repetições e sete aves por repetição. As concentrações máximas de cálcio no soro (9,61 mg/dL foram obtidas com 15% de L-Glu e 14.181UI de VD; 7,33 mg/dL de cálcio iônico com 15% de L-Glu e 15.664UI de VD; 7,20 mg/dL de fósforo com 10% de L-Glu e 10.863UI de VD. Os maiores valores de atividade de fosfatase alcalina no soro foram obtidos com 10% de L-Glu e na deficiência de VD. Em geral, as aves alimentadas com 10% de L-Glu e 15.000UI de VD apresentaram melhor desempenho, melhor perfil sangüíneo e menor incidência de problemas de pernas.An experiment was conducted with day-old male Hubbard, broiler chicks, reared in electrically heated batteries, and raised in wire mesh floors and fed purified amino acid diets and water ad libitum for a 14 days period. The purified diets containing all essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals at adequate levels and was supplemented with 5, 10 and 15% of L-Glu and with 0, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 IU of vitamin D3. The experimental design was a factorial 3 x 4 with four replicates with seven chicks each. The blood calcium increased up (9.61mg/dL to an estimated level of 15% of L-Glu and 14,181IU of VD, 7.33 mg/dL of ionized calcium was obtained with 15% of L-Glu and 15.664 of VD. The highest blood phosphorus (7.20 mg/dL was obtained at an estimated level of 10% of L-Glu and 10,863IU of VD. The highest blood alkaline phosphatase was obtained at level of 10% of L-Glu and vitamin D deficiency. Birds fed 10% L-Glu and 15,000IU VD had
K. Shirzadegan; Falahpour, P.
A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influen...
Efeito da nicarbazina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de lisina submetidos a estresse por calor Effect of nicarbazin on the performance of broiler chicks fed diets with different lysine levels submitted to heat stress
Juarez Lopez Donzele
a dual anticoccidial program and a control anticoccidial program where only the monensin was fed to the birds from 1 to 42 d. The diet and the water were ad libitum fed. Birds fed nicarbazin-monenzin showed lower feed intake and average weight gain, and higher feed:gain ratio than those fed control anticoccidial program. The body weights and the carcass and edible cuts yield were reduced by the effect of the nicarbazin. The birds fed diet with nicarbazin showed reduced absolute and relative organs weights as compared to those that did not receive the drug in the diet. The addition of nicarbazin in diets for broilers under heat stress is not feasible.
Mario Lo Pinto
Full Text Available The nutritional performance of three high-protein maize hybrids was compared with conventional maize in a 42-day feeding trial in broilers. The following experimental diets were compared: i control diet (CTR containing conventional maize; ii diet containing hybrid IPM1; iii diet containing hybrid IPM2; iv diet containing hybrid IPM3. The diets were offered to male broilers (Hubbard Ultra-Yield; 120 birds per treatment in 3 phases: starter, grower and finisher. All the diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. The IPM2 and IPM3 diets (containing maize grains with the highest protein and essential and non-essential amino acid contents resulted in a higher final weight in broilers (2622 and 2632 g, respectively, versus IPM1 and CTR diets; P<0.05, a higher average daily gain (60.8 and 61.4 g/d, respectively, versus IPM1 and CTR diets; P<0.05 and better feed to gain ratios (1.70 and 1.69, respectively, versus the CTR diet; P<0.05 throughout the experimental period. The nutritional characteristics of the different maize varieties were also evaluated using a 9-day digestibility trial in male rats (6 rats per treatment. Higher percentages of nitrogen retention were obtained from the IPM2 (54.02% and IPM3 (53.51% diets compared with the CTR (44.20% and IPM1 (41.87% diets (P<0.05. These results suggest a greater amino acid availability in the diets based on high-protein maize varieties. Therefore, high-protein maize can profitably be included in broiler diets with the advantage of reducing the use of imported protein sources (such as soybean meal because of its higher protein content and consequently, providing savings on feed costs.
Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens;
litter quality. Birds on diet H2 continued to show foraging behaviour throughout the day, and were more frequently engaged in dust bathing and other comfort behaviour. This experiment indicates that high-fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high......With a view to alleviate the feeling of hunger in broiler breeders, different types of fibre sources were used in high-fibre diets to increase feed quantity while limiting growth to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (C1: commercial control diet, 1 × fibre content, 80......, birds fed C1 ate significantly faster and showed a higher compensatory feed intake than birds on diets H2 and L2, indicating that the two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Behavioural observations carried out at 14 weeks of age showed high levels of tail pecking...
Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP. A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m. A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC; 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC; 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet; and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet. The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher. At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases, better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days, the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.
Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm
chickens. The food allowance was adjusted twice weekly to obtain commercial growth curves. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured seven times during 24 hours at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. Group size was reduced to 10 hens per group at...... diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed, but...... the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders...
Shirzadegan, K; Falahpour, P
A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (Ptaste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342
Full Text Available The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Birds in groups T1 (wheat offal, T3 (rice bran, T5 (corn bran were fed unsupplemented diets. Diets in T2 (wheat offal, T4 (rice bran and T6 (corn bran were supplemented with Maxigrain® at 100mg/kg. The results showed Maxigrain addition to corn bran– and rice bran–diets significantly (P<0.05 improved feed conversion of heat stress birds. Heat stress chickens fed rice bran Maxigrain diet had better final liveweight and improved compressive strength than those fed enzyme wheat offal diet (final liveweight of 1758.9 versus 1566.67 g per bird and compressive strength of 4.75 versus 3.04 Newton percm2. Heat stress broilers fed rice bran enzyme supplemented diet had the best feed conversion, strongest compressive strength and achieved the highest profit (P<0.05. Birds consumed less of Maxigrain diets. However, the enzyme failed to improve final liveweight of heat stress chickens fed wheat bran diet.
Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural Electrophoresis profile of serum proteins in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and/or natural clinoptilolite clay
Roberto Marinho Maciel
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com 4 repetições cada: T1 - testemunha (ração sem aflatoxinas ou clinoptilolita, T2 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas, T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T4 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T5 - ração com 0,5% de clinoptilolita e T6 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,5% de clinoptilolita. Os animais ficaram alojados em 24 boxes, e submetidos aos tratamentos do 1° ao 42° dia, quando foram sacrificados. Foram analisadas as proteínas totais, as frações albumina, alfa 1, alfa 2, beta e gama. Com exceção das médias da fração gama, o teste de Tukey revelou diferenças significativas (PThis study was aimed at evaluating the electrophoresis profile of serum protein in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite clay. Five hundred and twenty eight male broilers Ross were distributed in six treatments and each one with 4 replications: T1 - control (without aflatoxins or clinoptilolite, T2 -5ppm of aflatoxins, T3 -0.25% of clinoptilolite, T4 -5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.25% of clinoptilolite, T5 -0.5% of clinoptilolite and T6 - 5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.5% of clinoptilolite. The broilers were allocated in 24 boxes and submitted to a treatments for 42 days, when they were slaughtered. Total proteins, albumin fractions, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma were analyzed. Except gamma fraction the Tukey test showed differences (P<0.05 on serum total proteins and proteins fractions in all treatments which aflatoxin was present. The clinoptilolite did not modify (P<0.05 the serum proteins. The control broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and clinoptilolite presented low levels (P<0.05 of
Ebling, P D; Kessler, A M; Villanueva, A P; Pontalti, G C; Farina, G; Ribeiro, A M L
Although most industries use a specific diet for the pre-starter phase, ingredients are used in the later phases, primarily corn and soybean meal, which at this stage do not have high digestibility. Three experiments : Exp : were carried out to evaluate the substitution of corn by white or parboiled rice : WR, PR : and the inclusion of 6% soy protein isolate : SPI : in pre-starter diets (1 to 7 d). In Exp 1 (1 to 21 d), WR, PR, and SPI were added to the diets until the birds were 21-day-old, whereas in Exps 2 and 3 (1 to 33 d), only until birds were 7-day-old. Birds were fed a basal diet based on corn and soybean meal until the end of the experimental period. In Exp 1, the coefficients of total tract apparent retention : CTTAR : of the pre-starter and the starter diets, ileal and jejunal digestibility of starch in the starter diets, and broiler performance were measured. Subsequently, the same pre-starter diets Exp 1 were evaluated in pellet (Exp 2) or mash (Exp 3) form and different oil percentage (Exp 2) or not (Exp 3). We hypothesized that the ingredients particle size (Exp 2) and fat content (Exp 3) could influence feed intake. There was no interaction among the evaluated factors (P > 0.05). Rice (WR or PR) promoted better results than corn in terms of CTTAR of dietary components, jejunal and ileal starch digestibility, and broiler performance (P 0.05), so that SPI may not be the best choice for pre-starter diets. The study also suggests that better growth performance and nutrient digestibility can be obtained in broiler chickens if corn is replaced by rice in pre-starter diets. PMID:26500274
Iván Camilo Ospina-Rojas
Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to determine the influence of threonine-lysine (Thr:Lys ratio on requirements of digestible lysine (Lys in low crude protein diets for broilers in the growth phase. In the first experiment, a total of 480 Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four dietary Thr:Lysratio (57.0; 60.5; 64.0 and 67.5% and with five replicates of 24 birds each. No significant differences were reported in weight gain, feed intake, poultry manure humidity, carcass and meat yields. However, the feed conversion was increased linearly as dietary Thr:Lysratio was increased. In the second experiment, a total of 400 Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four digestibleLyslevels (1.005, 1.045, 1.085 and 1.125%, and with four replicates of 25 birds each. No significant differences were reported in performance, poultry litter humidity and carcass and meat yields. Lys levels of 1.005% and Thr:Lysat 57% were sufficient to maximize the performance and carcass yield of broilers during the growth phase when fed on low crude protein diets.
Full Text Available Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1 and treatment group (T2 were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2 was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g, cumulative feed intake (g and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers.
Anjum Faqir Muhammad
Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.
Sharifi, M R; Khajali, F; Hassanpour, H
A reduced-protein diet (designated as RPD) was prepared and its effects on growth performance and the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) were evaluated in broiler chickens compared to a normal-protein diet (designated as NPD) or to the RPD supplemented with CoQ10 alone (30 mg/kg) or in combination with vitamin E (30 mg/kg CoQ10 + 100 mg/kg vitamin E). The RPD had 30 g/kg less crude protein compared to the NPD. A total of 208 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308 strain) were used in a 42-day trial. Serum concentrations of uric acid (UA) and nitric oxide (NO) significantly (p heart and lungs of broilers fed on the RPD, which was effectively restored by supplementation of CoQ10 . The right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in birds fed the RPD, which concurred with an increase in mortality from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS). However, a significant decline in mortality from PHS was observed when birds on RPD received CoQ10 or CoQ10 + VE. In conclusion, antioxidant supplementation effectively improves pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chicken fed of reduced-protein diets. PMID:25900413
Tossenberger, J; Rademacher, M; Németh, K; Halas, V; Lemme, A
In two feeding experiments the retention of supplemental guanidine acetic acid (GAA) in broilers was investigated. In both experiments, the same three treatments were used; the basal feed was supplemented with 0, 0.6, or 6.0 g GAA per kg of feed. While in a growth study (experiment 1) day-old, male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets for 35 days, these diets were fed for only 8 days to fistulated broilers 34 days of age in a balance study (experiment 2). Feeding 0.6 g/kg GAA did not improve growth performance whereas 6.0 g/kg GAA resulted in a reduction of feed consumption and consequently of weight gain (P ≤ 0.05). Feed conversion was not affected and was 1.48 to 1.49 in all treatments. Increasing levels of dietary GAA gradually increased the creatine concentration in breast muscle and liver tissues (P ≤ 0.05) indicating a transformation and retention of dietary GAA as creatine. In experiment 2 the non-supplemented basal diet allowed us to determine the endogenous GAA, creatine, and creatinine excretions. Accordingly, only small amounts of these metabolites were recovered in feces while they were much higher in urine. Increasing dietary GAA intake increased fecal and renal GAA, creatine, and creatinine excretion and was significant (P ≤ 0.05) at 6.0 g/kg dietary GAA compared to no or 0.6 g/kg GAA supplementation. The mean true fecal digestibility of GAA (99%) was unaffected by the level of supplemental GAA. Considering renal GAA excretions, true availability of supplemental GAA was reduced with increasing dose (83% vs. 71%; P ≤ 0.05). Taking into account creatine and creatinine excretions above those of the basal diet, as they are a consequence of increasing dietary supply, true availability of supplemental GAA shrank from 76% (0.6 g/kg GAA) to 46% (6.0 g/kg GAA; P ≤ 0.05). Changes in blood creatine and creatinine levels reflected the changes observed in the liver and muscle tissues and may suggest increased transport to excretion organs. Data from these
Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources
Full Text Available A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15. A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05. Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05. Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05. According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities at week 6 (P<0.05, but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.
RL Furlan; DE Faria Filho; PS Rosa; M Macari
Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diet...
Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern diets high in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA and low in Monounsaturated (MUFA and Polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are mostly blamed for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Since dietary fatty acids are absorbed by monogastric animals and deposited in their tissues without significant modification, considerable potential exists for the manipulation of the fatty acid profile of poultry meat and eggs. In the present study, effects of different sources and levels of supplemental fat to low energy diets on energy and protein intake and efficiency during grower and finisher periods and cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG contents of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks were investigated. Approach: One hundred and eighty 1 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 15 pens containing 12 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 5 dietary treatments of 2 sources (soybean oil and beef tallow and 2 levels of fat (20 and 40 g kg-1 in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. There was also a control treatment (without supplemental fat in this experiment. All chicks were fed with a commercial starter diet from 1-10 day, where-after fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Results: There were significant differences in energy and protein intake and energy and protein efficiency among treatments in all phases of the experiment (p-1 soybean oil that compared to other groups. The effect of different sources and levels of supplemental fat on cholesterol and TG contents of thigh and breast meat of broiler chicks in 42 day of age was significant (p-1 soybean oil significantly decrease levels of cholesterol in thigh and breast meat (pConclusion: Supplementation of broiler diets with 20 g kg-1 soybean oil improved energy efficiency, decreased cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks in comparison
Mahmoodi Bardzardi M
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.
Harry T Uhi
Full Text Available Termites (Isoptera as one of local feed in several places in Indonesia just like Irian jaya, is available, easy to find and having protein in a high level. Termites nest which high about 0,5-2 metres above ground is easy to find at all low area merauke which having land areal about 20.000 ha, otherwise in other distrik, it can easily to find in a forest especialy in a new open land for Agriculture and transmigration. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of Glyptotermes montanus Kemner termites suplementation as protein resource in the diet of broiler strain Rokky-301. One hundred eighty DOC Rokky-301 were randomly divided in to five treatment with three replicates of 12 chickens each. The treatment diets were basal diet (R0, basal diet + fresh termites 0,5% (R1, basal diet + fresh termites 1% (R2, basal diet + fresh termites 1,5% (R3, and Comercial diet (R4 as positive control. The chickens were fed the treatment diets over 50 days. The results showed that the chicken fed R3 diet had significantly higher body weight gain than did chicken fed other diets except for chicken fed commercial diet (R4. Feed consumption of chicken fed R0 diet was significantly higher than other treatment diets. However 1,5% fresh termites suplementation (R3 significantly reduced feed consumption. Basal diet (R0 had highest feed conversion compared to other treatment diets. However 1,5% fresh termites suplementation (R3 was significantly improved feed conversion compared to other treatment.
Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)
Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.
CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE FRANGOS TIPO CAIPIRA ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO FARINHA DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA CARCASS TRAITS OF FREE RANGE BROILER CHICKENS FED ON DIETS CONTAINING CASSAVA ROOT FLOUR
William Maciel Cardoso
Full Text Available
Raúl D. Miazzo
Full Text Available La Levadura de Cerveza puede ser utilizada como aditivo natural en dietas de aves. El objetivo fue determinar su efecto sobre los parámetros productivos y la calidad de la canal de aves que recibieron dietas donde se les reemplazó parte del núcleo vitamínico mineral por S. cerevisiae. Doscientos pollos machos Ross fueron distribuidos en 20 corrales, de 10 aves cada uno, y 5 por ración. Desde el 32° hasta el 56° día de vida recibieron las siguientes dietas: 1. Control, sin Levadura 2. Control con un 1/3 del núcleo vit-mineral, sin Levadura. 3. Dieta 2 con 0,15 % de Levadura y 4. Dieta 2 con 0,30 % de Levadura. Se midieron Consumo Medio Diario (CMD, Ganancia Media Diaria (GMD e Indice de Conversión (IC y finalizada la experiencia, previo pesado de las aves (PV, se sacrificaron y se hizo el despiece para determinar el rendimiento de la canal (RC, peso de la pechuga (PP, de los muslos (PM y de la grasa abdominal (PGA. Las aves que recibieron el mayor % de Levadura (Dieta 4 consumieron menos; ganaron significativamente más y convirtieron mejor (p£ 0,01. Además, obtuvieron significativamente mayores (p£ 0,01 peso de pechuga y muslos. Mientras que para PGA las diferencias fueron significativamente menores (p£ 0,01 tanto para las aves de las Dietas 4 como la 3. Se concluye que el agregado de Levadura, en reemplazo de parte del núcleo vitamínico mineral, mejoró los parámetros productivos y la calidad de la canal Yeast might be used like natural additive in broiler diets. The purpose was determinate productive parameters and carcass quality in broilers fed diets with replacement part of mineral vitamin premix with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two hundred male chickens Ross were distributed in 20 pens, with 10 birds per pen and five for ration. Since 32° till 56° days old the bird received the following diets: 1. Control, without Yeast; 2. Control with 2/3 of premix, without Yeast, 3. Diet 2 with 0.15% Yeast and 4. Diet 2 with 0
Desempenho e composição corporal de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína e de aminoácidos ou com livre escolha das dietas Performance and body composition of broilers fed different protein and amino acid levels or free-choice diets
Ana Valeria Kolling
and body composition of broilers (300 males and 300 females from 1 to 49 days of age, as well as the effect of these factors on the nutrients utilization efficiency. Three isoenergy experimental diets (D were used (3000 and 3150kcal ME/kg for starter and growing phase, respectively varying the levels of crude protein (CP and the first 4 essential amino acids (AA (lysine, methionine+cysteine, threonine and tryptophan: D1, control, with 22%CP; D2: 24%CP and 20% more AA than D1 (HighCP+20%AA and D3, 20% CP and 12% less AA than D1 (LowCP-12%AA. On the growing phase the CP were 20, 22 and 18% for D1, D2 and D3, respectively, keeping the same AA proportion. A fourth diet was defined by free-choice between diets D2 and D3. Birds were alloted in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 4 factorial (sex x diets scheme and 5 replications of 15 birds each per treatment. Comparative slaughter technique was used for body fat and protein gain. Birds fed LowCP-12%AA diets showed reduced feed conversion, gain and body protein gain, but better protein intake-to-gain ratio. Broilers fed HighCP+20%AA diets had worse protein intake-to-gain ratio, but similar weight gain, cuts or carcass weight to control or free-choice birds. Fat and protein gain were similar among those 3 treatments. Free-choice birds showed the same performance and body composition of the control broilers. LowCP-12%AA diet was worse for broilers in starter phase than in growing phase. Male broilers were more efficient than females using nutrients, specially in the growing phase.
Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Böhm, J
Although acute mycotoxicoses are rare in poultry production, chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins is responsible for reduced productivity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate immune function, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of DON on the vaccinal immune response. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, an experiment with 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) was carried out to examine the effects of feeding DON-contaminated low-protein grower diets on performance, serum biochemical parameters, lymphoid organ weight, and antibody titers to infectious bronchitis vaccination in serum and to evaluate the effects of Mycofix select dietary supplementation in either the presence or absence of DON in broilers. In total, thirty-two 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets supplemented with Mycofix select; and 4) control diet supplemented with Mycofix select. Feeding of contaminated diets decreased (P = 0.000) the feed intake, BW (P = 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.044), and feed efficiency during the grower phase. Deoxynivalenol affected the blood biochemistry, whereas plasma total protein and uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were decreased compared with those of the controls. Moreover, in birds fed contaminated feeds, there was a tendency to reduce triglycerides in the plasma (P = 0.090), suggesting that DON in the diets affected protein and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. The feeding of contaminated diets altered the immune response in broilers by reducing the total lymphocyte count. Similarly, the antibody response against infectious bronchitis vaccination
The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...
Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E
This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter. PMID:26879673
Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.
Masaka, Lawrence; Mhaka, Victor; Sungirai, Marvelous; Nyamukanza, Casper
An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum inclusion levels of dried broiler litter (DBL) as a substitute for cottonseed cake (CSC) in fattening diets for Brangus steers. Thirty Brangus steers were randomly allocated to five groups of six animals each. Each group was fed one of the experimental diets which had CSC substituted for DBL at levels of 0 (DBL0), 50 (DBL50), 100 (DBL100), 150 (DBL150) and 200 g/kg (DBL200). Average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake and live weight gain (LWG) were measured over a period of 90 days, and the results were analysed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. Linear and quadratic effects of DBL inclusion on dry matter intake, LWG and ADG were also determined. Results showed interactions between diet and time that significantly affected ADG and LWG (p < 0.05). Both ADG and LWG decreased with increases in DBL inclusion with the depressed performance becoming more pronounced with time. Linear and non-linear decreases in LWG and ADG, respectively, were observed with increasing levels of DBL. The DBL50 diet resulted in performance that was similar to DBL50 and was 4% cheaper. Broiler litter can be used as a supplement for conventional protein sources, but at higher inclusion levels, it needs to be augmented by increased fermentable energy. PMID:25894822
Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within
Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted using 276 free-range broiler chickens of the Gauchão lineage to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ground sugarcane (GSC on performance, energy value of the diets, and carcass yield. The animals were assigned to three treatments and four repetitions of 23 animals each in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of the on-top inclusion or not of GSC in a balanced diet (BD (100% BD; 85% BD + 15% GSC, and 70% BD + 30% GSC. The experimental diets were offered from 29 to 85 days of age and feed intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of the chickens were evaluated at the end of the experimental period. A metabolism assay was conducted at 52 days of age to determine apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for retained nitrogen, and apparent metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MCDM, crude protein (MCCP, neutral detergent fiber (MCNDF and ether extract (MCEE. Dietary supplementation with GSC increased feed intake and worsened weight gain with increasing level of inclusion. MCDM, MCNDF and MCEE were higher for chickens receiving 85% BD + 15% GSC when compared to animals fed the control diet (100% BD, except for MCCP which was not influence by supplementation with GSC. Carcass yield, cut yield or organ weight did not differ between diets with and without GSC inclusion, while the weights of pancreas and gizzard were higher in chickens receiving 70% BD + 30% GSC compared to those receiving only BD. The on-top inclusion of GSC in the diet of free-range broiler chickens as a feed alternative is justified up to a level of 15% since it does not affect feed conversion of the animals and improves the utilization of dietary nutrients.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.
Desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo extrato de leveduras e prebiótico e criados em diferentes temperaturas Performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days old fed diets with yeast extract and prebiotic, reared at different temperatures
Vanessa Karla Silva
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de frangos criados em diferentes temperaturas e alimentados na fase pré-inicial com ração contendo ou não extrato de leveduras e/ou prebiótico. Foram utilizados 1.440 pintos Cobb 500®, machos de 1 dia de idade, criados em diferentes câmaras climáticas. As rações experimentais foram oferecidas somente na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias, de modo que, a partir do oitavo dia, todas as aves receberam a mesma ração. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2 × 2, composto de 3 temperaturas de criação (alta 34 ± 1ºC; controle 32 ± 2ºC; e baixa 27 ± 2ºC, 2 níveis de extrato de levedura (com ou sem e 2 níveis de prebiótico (com ou sem. As temperaturas ambiente alta e baixa prejudicaram o desempenho das aves aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade. A inclusão de prebiótico na ração pré-inicial melhora o ganho de peso das aves criadas sob baixa temperatura aos 21 dias de idade e aumenta a viabilidade até os 21 dias de idade. A adição do extrato de leveduras melhora a conversão alimentar aos 21 dias de idade.The performance of broilers reared at different temperatures and fed diet with or without yeast extract and/or prebiotic in the starter phase was evaluated. One thousand, four hundred and forty 1-d male Cobb-500® were reared at different climatic chambers. The diets with or without yeast extract or prebiotic were fed only in the starter phase (1 to 7 days, and from the 8th day on all broiler were fed the same commercial diet. It was used a complete randomized experimental design, as a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 3 rearing temperatures (high 34 ± 1ºC, control 32 ± 2ºC and low 27 ± 2ºC, 2 yeast extract level (with or without and 2 prebiotic level (with or without. High and low temperatures decreased the performance of brids at 7 and 21 days old. The inclusion of prebiotic in the pre-starter phase increased weight gain of birds under low
Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.
Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required to obtain good reproductive performance. Current practical feed restriction levels can result in hunger feeling and chronic stress, particularly during the rearing period. On the basis of literature data, low-density diets might improve bird welfare. Recent findings also indicate that low-density broiler breeder diets can reduce offspring mortality. In this thesis, effects of low-density breeder diets on bird welfare and breeder and offspring...
calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 18.104.22.168) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 22.214.171.124) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)
Barekatain, M R; Noblet, J; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Choct, M; Swick, R A
There is generally no information regarding the influence of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the net energy (NE) value of broiler diets. It was hypothesized that the ME content of DDGS may overestimate its productive energy, leading to higher heat increment when used in broiler diets. Furthermore, it was of interest to investigate the potential benefits of a mixture of carbohydrases and protease on energy partitioning in diets containing DDGS. In this study, 2 evaluations, comparative slaughter (CS) or indirect calorimetry (IC), were conducted using the same batch of birds and feed. Two levels of DDGS (0 or 30%) without or with an enzyme mixture were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The CS evaluation used 240 male Ross 308 broiler chicks with 6 replicates (10 birds each) per treatment from d 18 to 28. Carcass energy values were examined in 2 birds per replicate on each of d 18 and 28 to determine heat production (HP), NE, and ME. The IC evaluation used 32 birds acclimatized to 16 closed-circuit calorimeters (2 birds per chamber) following energy partitioning measurement by gaseous exchange and total excreta collection from 18 to 24 d. Birds fed DDGS had increased feed efficiency during starter and grower phases (P < 0.001). The CS showed no difference in HP between birds fed diets with or without DDGS. When measured by IC, birds fed diets containing DDGS had higher HP and lower NE (P < 0.01). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on HP, ME, or NE:ME ratio measured using CS or IC but increased NE and NE intake (P < 0.01) from d 18 to 28. Carcass fat retention was decreased (P < 0.05) and there was a lower NE (P < 0.01) in birds fed the DDGS-diets. This study showed that 30% dietary DDGS affects energy partitioning in broilers with more heat produced, decreased dietary NE, and less fat retained in the carcass. PMID:25214553
Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H
The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4 μg/2 μL) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (Pgene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. PMID:26188033
The changes in the feed efficiency (FE) (feed intake/body weight gain), energy efficiency (EE) (metabolizable energy intake/body weight gain), total protein efficiency (TPE) (body weight gain/protein intake), metabolized energy (ME) and body weight gain and in the biological aspects of the digestive organs by broiler chicks during different periods of age (14-21 days: 3 weeks, 21-28 days: 4 weeks, 28-35 days: 5 weeks, 35-42 days: 6 weeks) were evaluated in 5 groups fed on experimental diets containing irradiated meat (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy). the results showed that no significant (p0.05) with age (comparing ages 5 and 6 weeks with 3 and 4 weeks) No significant (p<0.05) differences were noticed in FE, EE and TPE between the ages 3 and 4 weeks. There was a significant increase (p.0.05) in ME values for the age 6 weeks compared to 3, 4 and 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the ME values between the ages 4 and 5 weeks. (author)
The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides(FOS),compared with direct-fed microbial bacteria (DFM),and zinc bacitracin ,on cecal microbial populations and performance of broiler Chickens. One hundred and ninety-two broilers (Avian) were randomly assigned to four groups,with four replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed with the basal diet,without any drug additive. FOS,DFM and zine bacitracin was respectively added to the basal diet at the level of 1.5% ,800 mg@kg-1 and 300 mg@ kg-1 to form the experimental diets. Body weight ,feed intake and feed efficiency were measured weekly. The feeding trial started at 1 d and ended at 21 d. At day 14 and day 21 ,four broilers per group were killed and cecum waa taken to determined microflors and pH. The results showed that dietary FOS increased bifidobactrial concentration by 1. 75-fold( P ＜0. 05) at 14 d of age and 1.45-fold( P ＜0. 05) at 21 d of age compared with control. FOS had no effect on concnetrations of E. coli and pH. There were no dietary effects of FOS,DFM,and zinc bacitracin on weight gain,feed intake,feed conversion( P ＞0. 05).
Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G
This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.
Alex Maiorka; Fabiano Dahlke; Elizabeth Santin; Luis Daniel Giusti Bruno; Marcos Macari
The feed intake and performance of the broilers fed with different levels of dietary energy in the starter diet to 21 days of age were evaluated. In Experiment 1 it was evaluated the performance of birds fed to 2,900 and 3,200kcal ME kg-1 diets, and the results show that ME intake was highest for birds 3,200kcal ME kg-1 on the 7th day of age. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion (FC) were not affected by dietary energy level on the 7th and 14th day of age, but on the 21st d...
Perfil lipídico e maciez da carne de coxa e sobrecoxa de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes lipídicas Lipidic profile and tenderness of thigh and drumstick meat of broilers fed diets supplemented with different lipid sources
diets, eight replicates and 49 birds per experimental unit was used. In the starter phase, birds received diets formulated with soybean oil, cottonseed oil, poultry offal oil, or beef tallow, and during the growing phase, each one of these diets was dismembered in two diets, so one group of birds kept receiving the same oil source used in the previous phase while the other group started to receive soybean oil in the diet. In this phase, it was used a complete random design with seven diets, each one with four replicates. There was an effect of the diets on the profile of the fatty acids in the thigh. In the experiment 2, during the starter phase (from 1 to 21 days of age, the birds received the same diets with 3% of soybean oil, and in the growing phase (from 22 to 42 days of age, they received five diets each one with a lipidic source (soybean, canola oil, sunflower oil, poultry offal oil and beef tallow evaluated in a complete random design with six replicates and 30 birds per experimental unity. It was not observed effect of the diets on pH and shear force. However, diets influence the profile of fatty acids in the thigh because accordingly to the results, the increment of the rations with oil sources promote changes on lipid composition of the broiler thigh meat, so the best profile of fatty acids is observed in the meat of animals fed ration containing soybean oil.
Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J
Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight. PMID:17234841
Maliheh Amiri Dumari
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a contaminated diet fed to broilers. Methods: Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1% were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND and influenza disease (ID in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period. Results: Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01. Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01. The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.
Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.
Six-week-old female albino rats were fed rat diet or human foods 3 days before and 6 days after a single oral dose of 115sup(m)Cd. All animals were killed 6 days after administration and the radioactivity in the whole body and in the gut-free carcass was determined in a double scintillation counter. Gut retentions were calculated as the difference: whole body minus carcass. All animals fed meat, bread or milk had much higher body retentions than animals fed rat diet. Our results point out the importance of nutritional factors in metal metabolism and toxicity. (orig./MG)
Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E
A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of modified glucomannan (Mycosorb® on plasma chemistry of broiler chicks after deoxynivalenol (DON inclusion in the diet from hatching to 6 weeks of age. Three groups of broiler chicks were formed with 14 birds in each group. The three diets included control (0.2 ppm deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol- contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol plus Mycosorb®(2 g/kg diet. After 6 weeks of feeding all birds were sacrificed and blood samples for chemical analyses were collected. Serum calcium and alanine aminotransferase activity were significantly elevated and magnesium, total protein, triglycerides and free glycerol were decreased in chicks fed deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet compared with those fed the control diet. Inclusion of Mycosorb®in the diet decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and reversed plasma levels of magnesium, triglycerides, free glycerol and total protein in chicks induced by dietary deoxynivalenol. Chloride level was not affected by diets. The inclusion of Mycosorb® to DONcontaminated diet, however, did not prevent or alleviate toxic effect on calcium metabolism. Supplementation of modified glucomannan Mycosorb® counteracted most of the plasma parameter alterations caused by deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet in chicks.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The experiment was carried out to determine whether the dietary Dried Fermented Ginger (DFG has no affecting damage on broiler growth performance and can also be applicable in tropical and subtropical area using basal diets without antibiotics. Approach: Three hundred and fifty 7-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were divided into one basal diet group (control and 6 experimental groups. The basal diets were adequately formulated, but not added with antibiotics. Among the 6 DFG groups, 3 groups were fed each basal diet supplemented with DFG at 0.25 (0.25 S, 0.5 (0.5 S and 1% (1 S levels from 7-42 days of age (starter groups. The remaining 3 DFG groups were fed the starter basal diet until 21 days of age. At 22 days of age, they were switched to finisher diet supplemented with DFG at 0.25 (0.25 F, 0.5 (0.5 F and 1% (1 F, from 22-42 days of age (finisher groups. Results: Feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency were not significantly different among the groups (p>0.05. However, when the body weight gain of the control was expressed as an index of 100, the body weight gain index of the DFG groups was better than the control except the 0.25 S groups. Compared to the body weight gain index of the starter groups, they showed the better index. The values of feed efficiency were also better in all the experimental groups than in the control. Conclusion: The present results suggest that DFG can apply to tropical and subtropical area as a natural supplementation without antibiotics and it is better to supplement to basal diet during finisher stage (from 22 days old.
The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods
Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M
Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762
Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J
Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella
Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Xu; Li, Changwu; Guo, Yuming
Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has become prevalent in the European Union due to the withdrawal of antibiotics in poultry feed. In an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 336 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 groups with or without C. perfringens challenge and fed wheat-based diets supplemented with or without xylanase at 5,500 U/kg of diet. The study aimed to investigate effects of xylanase addition on growth performance as well as nutrient digestion and absorption of C. perfringens-infected broilers. Before challenge (d 0-14), xylanase-supplemented birds had greater ADG and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR; P Clostridium perfringens infection decreased AME values and apparent ileal digestibility of DM of diets (P perfringens infection (P perfringens infection and elevated apparent ileal digestibility of CP and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in challenged birds. PMID:24570428
Full Text Available Indonesia is still importing corn for feed. Utilization of nonconventional feedstuffs may reduce this importation. One of them is solid heavy phase (SHP, i.e., a solid substance gained after filtration of liquid waste of crude palm oil factory with a potential production approximately 2 million ton/year. This research was carried out to study the utilization of SHP to replace corn in broiler’s diet. The SHP was dried and analysed for its nutrient compositions. The metabolisable energy was measured by using hens. Feeding trial was then conducted by replacing corn with SHP in various levels, i.e., 0 (Control, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. All diets were formulated to be isocalori dan isonitrogen. Five hundred broilers DOC were used in this trial and fed for 5 weeks. The performances of the birds were obsereved as parameters. Results showed that the ash, minerals crude fibre and fat contents of the SHP were higher than the corn. The crude protein of the SHP was similar to that of corn, but some amino acids content of the SHP were lower than the corn. The AME and TME values of SHP were 3271 and 3465 cal/g, respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that body weight of the birds were less as the level of SHP to replace corn increased in the diet. The FCR also showed impared as the levels of SHP increased in the diet. However, replacement of 10% corn with SHP did not significantly affect the body weight and FCR as compared with the control. Feed consumptions of the birds were not significantly affected by replacing corn with SHP. Carcass yield and relative weights of some internal organs were not significantly different between dietary treatments. It is concluded that the solid heavy phase could be used to replace 10% corn in broiler’s diet.
comparison to the control and RC HP diets. A tendency to improve the performance results for diets with rape cake (RC HP in comparison to the control diet in the second period of fattening (grower diets was observed. Application of rape cake into the diets had a significantly beneficial effect on slaughter yield, fleshiness and fatty acid composition of meat, but not so on the heart muscle, whereas phytase did not have an influence on slaughter results. It was concluded that rape cake can be used in broiler diets, but a quantity of 15% in the starter and 20% in the grower diet may have a negative effect on the heart of so fed birds.
Jamal Abo OMAR
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.
Nei André Arruda Barbosa
and eight repetitions, and the experimental unit consisted of 40 birds. To submit birds to the challenge, a basal diet was formulated with corn, soybean meal and meat and bones meal, was adopted used litter, cleaning of water troughs twice a week and were offered weekly water contaminated with litter. The variables evaluated were villus height and crypt depth of duodenum, jejunum and ileum, feed intake, weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. There was improvement in crypt depth in jejunum and in villus height in ileum of birds fed diets containing MOS. The addition of MOS, regardless of source, resulted in improvement in feed conversion ratio than birds of NC, and were similar to the birds of PC. The mannan oligosaccharides can be used as an alternative additive to growth promoters in diets for broiler chickens, but depending on the source, this can result in small differences in bird performance.
Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003
Cibele Silva Minafra
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com a enzima α-amilase produzida por dois microrganismos. Produziram-se dois extratos, um com a-amilase obtida a partir de Cryptococcus flavus em meio de levedura comercial e outro com Aspergillus niger HM2003 em meio de proteína de soja e amido comercial, com atividade de 9,58 U/mL e 10,0 U/mL, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se 360 pintos de corte Cobb 500 de 1 dia de idade e com 49,72 ± 0,68 g de peso vivo inicial. As aves foram alojadas em baterias e foram criadas até os 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados três dietas, cada uma com cinco repetições de 12 aves, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A primeira dieta (basal foi formulada sem adição de enzima e as outras duas receberam a suplementação de a-amilase produzida por cultivo de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. Dietas à base de milho e soja foram formuladas em duas fases: pré-inicial (1-7 dias e inicial (8-21 dias. Na fase pré-inicial, foram observados os seguintes valores médios para cálcio (6,90 e 5,99 mg/dL, proteína plasmática (2,0 e 2,50 g/dL e fosfatase alcalina (979,98 e 974,66 UI/L, respectivamente para Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. A dieta acrescida de a-amilase obtida a partir de Aspergillus niger HM2003 determinou maior concentração sérica de fósforo. Na fase inicial, os resultados significativos relacionaram-se a potássio quando avaliadas dietas com adição de a-amilase pelas duas fontes. A incorporação das enzimas testadas não proporciona alterações metabólicas ou toxicidade nos animais.It was evaluated the biochemical serum profile of broilers fed rations supplemented with α-amylase produced by two microorganisms. Two extracts were produced, one was produced with a-amylase obtained from Cryptococcus flavus in a commercial yeast-based medium and the other with Aspergillus niger HM2003 produced in soybean protein and commercial starch medium
Giannenas, I; Pappas, I S; Mavridis, S; Kontopidis, G; Skoufos, J; Kyriazakis, I
In this study, we evaluated the growth performance and antioxidant status of broiler chicken supplemented with the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ninety 1-d-old female broiler chickens randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments were given either a nutritionally balanced basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10 or 20 g of dried mushroom/kg of feed for 6 wk on an ad libitum basis. Body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio values were monitored weekly. To evaluate the antioxidant status of broiler chicken, refrigerated liver, breast, and thigh tissues were assayed for levels of glutathione, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as malondialdehyde at 6 wk of age. Results showed that dietary mushroom supplementation at both inclusion levels was accepted well by the broiler chicken and improved feed efficiency compared with the control diet. Dietary mushroom inclusion at 20 g/kg improved both growth performance and feed efficiency compared with control diet at 42 d of age. Dietary mushroom at both inclusion levels reduced malondialdehyde production in liver, breast, and thigh tissues and elevated glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase compared with the control treatment, the effects being dose-dependent. These results suggest that A. bisporus mushroom exerts both a growth-promoting and tissue antioxidant-protective activity when supplemented in broiler chicken diets. PMID:20075283
Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.
Prus, S E; Clubb, S L; Flammer, K
A trial was conducted to determine the doxycycline plasma concentrations attained by feeding a medicated corn diet to large psittacine birds. Doxycycline is the preferred drug for the treatment of chlamydiosis in psittacine birds. Healthy macaws were fed a 0.1% doxycycline-medicated corn diet for 45 days, and plasma doxycycline concentrations were determined by microbiological assay on treatment days 3, 15, 30, and 45. Plasma doxycycline concentrations exceeded 1 microgram/ml in 87% of the samples assayed. As blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, a doxycycline-medicated corn diet may be efficacious in the treatment of chlamydiosis in large psittacine birds. PMID:1627120
Roush, W B; Boykin, D; Branton, S L
A mixture experiment, a variant of response surface methodology, was designed to determine the proportion of time to feed broiler starter (23% protein), grower (20% protein), and finisher (18% protein) diets to optimize production and processing variables based on a total production time of 48 d. Mixture designs are useful for proportion problems where the components of the experiment (i.e., length of time the diets were fed) add up to a unity (48 d). The experiment was conducted with day-old male Ross x Ross broiler chicks. The birds were placed 50 birds per pen in each of 60 pens. The experimental design was a 10-point augmented simplex-centroid (ASC) design with 6 replicates of each point. Each design point represented the portion(s) of the 48 d that each of the diets was fed. Formulation of the diets was based on NRC standards. At 49 d, each pen of birds was evaluated for production data including BW, feed conversion, and cost of feed consumed. Then, 6 birds were randomly selected from each pen for processing data. Processing variables included live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat pad percentage, and breast yield (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor weights). Production and processing data were fit to simplex regression models. Model terms determined not to be significant (P > 0.05) were removed. The models were found to be statistically adequate for analysis of the response surfaces. A compromise solution was calculated based on optimal constraints designated for the production and processing data. The results indicated that broilers fed a starter and finisher diet for 30 and 18 d, respectively, would meet the production and processing constraints. Trace plots showed that the production and processing variables were not very sensitive to the grower diet. PMID:15339000
Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J
Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts. PMID:17369544
Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.
Galib A.M. AL-Kassie, Akhil M. Mohseen and Raghad A. Abd-AL-Jaleel
A study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with a mixture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa). A total of 300 (Arbor-Acres) day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of a mixture cumin and turmeric at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet for six weeks. Feeding period for all groups was lasted for 42 days. Results revealed that the inclusion of ...
Josefiak, Damian; Rutkowski, A; Kaczmarek, S;
1. The aim was to investigate the effect of grain type (barley or rye) and exogenous enzymes (β-glucanase or xylanase) on the composition of chicken caecal microbiota as examined by classical culturing and molecular techniques (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal...... T-RFLP profiles indicated that the caecal microbiota of birds receiving rye-based diets was more diverse than that of birds fed on barley-based diets. 5. Irrespective of the method applied, the results indicate that the cereal type as well as the exogenous enzyme supplementation influence the...... microbiota in broiler chicken caeca, and may have the effect of reducing potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae populations....
Alaeldein M. Abudabos
Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the effects on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens of 2 levels of guanidino acetic acid (GAA in a commercial form (CreAMINO® and 4 levels of metabolisable energy. The eight dietary regimens were tested for starter (0-10 d, grower (11-22 d and finisher (23-35 d periods on a total of 200 male ROSS 308 broiler chickens in a factorial arrangements of treatments (2×4, with experimental diet fed to 5 replicate pens with 4 birds each. The results revealed a positive effect for CreAMINO® supplementation on feed conversion ratio (FCR for the starter, grower, finisher and cumulative periods (P<0.05, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively; feed conversion was significantly improved in the treatment with CreAMINO® supplementation vs unsupplemented group. During the grower period, a significant difference in FCR was observed for metabolisable energy (ME level (P<0.01. When examining the cumulative period of the trial (0 to 35 days of age, two-way interaction was significant for feed intake and body weight gain. Birds receiving the control level of energy, 75 or 50 kcal/kg lower ME than the control, consumed less feed when supplemented with CreAMINO®. Birds receiving 25 kcal/kg lower ME or the control energy levels gained more weight when supplemented with CreAMINO®. In summary, GAA (as CreAMINO improved FCR of broilers in each period as well as cumulatively, while ME level also affected FCR. CreAMINO® supplementation to reduced-energy diets showed FCR improvements, while the best performance was detected for the diet with 50 kcal/kg lower ME.
In a field trial, the current study tested the effects of insoluble granite grit stones supplemented to broiler chickens on growth performance and gizzard stimulation. Particle size distribution and variation in the amount of grit retained in the gizzards were also examined at different age intervals. 880-day-old broiler chicks were allocated randomly and equally to 11 floor pens and maintained on a commercial pelleted diet. The trial consisted of two treatments: a control, or no-grit group (...
Yasar, S., D. Namik, G. Fatih, A. Gokcimen and K. Selcuk
Full Text Available This study determines possible antibacterial, antioxidant and growth-promoting effects of some selected herbs in broiler chickens. Ground aerial parts of Thymbra spicata, Origanum minutiflorum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mrytus communis, Salvia tomentosa and ground seed of Cumin were added to broiler diets at 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50% (w/w. Volatile essential oil contents were analysed. Samples of blood, digesta and intestinal tissues were analysed to determine antioxidant activity, bacteria growth and intestinal histomorphology, respectively. The results showed that at 0-21 days of age the birds performed better on the diets up to 0.25% of herbal inclusion level. Increasing the inclusion level from 0.5 to 1.5% for Origanum minutiflorum, Thymbra spicata and partially for Rosmarinus officinalis increased feed consumption with lower weight gain and depressed efficiency of feed conversion, but not for Salvia tomentosa, Mrytus communis and Cumin. The results further showed that broilers could better perform on the diets up to 0.5% of inclusion level at 42 days. All levels (except 1.5% for Cumin and Salvia tomentosa did not cause any impairment in performance of broilers. High inclusion levels (0.5 to 1.5% reduced E. coli count. The selected herbs did not cause an oxidative stress at a given inclusion level. Of the plants Rosmarinus officinalis clearly demonstrated strong antioxidant effect. The high doses of Origanum minutiflorum caused depression in growth rate associated with shortened villus development of intestinal epithelium in broilers. However, increased growth rate with Cumin associated with longer villus and increased dry matter retention in broilers at 21 days were recorded. It was suggested that some of selected herbs can be incorporated up to 0.5% into broiler diets on account of their antibacterial and antioxidant properties
Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T
The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed
Background and Problem Statement There is a great interest in recent years to replace soybean meal by cost effective protein sources such as rapeseed meal and maize gluten in animal feed. In poultry, this replacement, however, may result in a poorer performance due to among others i
Background and Problem Statement There is a great interest in recent years to replace soybean meal by cost effective protein sources such as rapeseed meal and maize gluten in animal feed. In poultry, this replacement, however, may result in a poorer performance due to among others its low ileal digestibility, which may lead to hindgut protein fermentation. This hindgut protein fermentation can result in the production of harmful compounds such as ammonia, branched chain fatty acids, biogenic ...
Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M
1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical
Yucca schidigera and quillaja saponaria are both rich in saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and have been associated with supplementary effects that improve livestock production with some ammonia emission reduction characteristics. Thus, a broiler study evaluated live performance, carcass characte...
Incidência de ascite em diferentes categorias genéticas de frangos de corte alimentados com rações de alto nível energético Incidence of ascites on different genetic categories of broilers fed with high-energy diet
Manoel Garcia Neto
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de ascite em avós, matrizes e frangos de corte, de uma mesma linhagem comercial, alimentados com ração de alto nível energético, de um dia a 39 dias de idade. Todas as aves foram criadas como frangos de corte, recebendo ração ad libitum com 3.050 kcal/EM; foram utilizadas aves da linha fêmea e linha macho e frangos de corte. Um total de 2.700 aves foram usadas, alojadas ao acaso em um galpão experimental de 8x76 m, utilizando-se 27 boxes de 3x3,5 m, com 100 aves por divisão, sendo três repetições por tratamento, em esquema fatorial. A incidência de ascite não dependeu da categoria genética das aves.The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of ascites on grand parents, breeders and commercial broilers from the same genetic strain of birds, fed with high energy level ration, from the first day of age to 39 days old. All birds were grown as commercial broilers receiving a ration ad libitum with 3,050 kcal/ME; birds from female line, male line and commercial broilers were tested. A total of 2,700 birds were housed at random in a experimental facility of 8x76 m, with 27 compartments of 3x3.5 m each and 100 birds per division. A factorial design was used with three replications per treatment. The incidence of ascites was not dependent on genetic category.
Muhammad Akram, M. Laiq Khan, Amer Tariq, Hasnat Ahmed and Rafia Firdous
Full Text Available The effect of Digestarcom, a herbal feed additive on the performance of broiler chicks fed different levels of rapeseed cake was investigated. Fourteen experimental rations containing 7 rapeseed (0,2, 4, 6,8, 10 and 12% x 2 Digestarcom (0 and 150 9 per tone feed levels were formulated and fed to 14 treatment groups in three replications having 10 chick each. A higher weight gain per bird was observed for all the levels 0( rapeseed treated with Digestarcom as compared to non-supplemented control group. The maximum feed consumption was observed in group fed 10% rape seed cake treatment and maximum weight gain was observed in 6% level. More feed was consumed and more weight was gained by the broilers fed ration supplemented with digestarcom and exhibited better feed to gain ratio than non-supplemented control
Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.
Desempenho e retenção de nitrogênio de frangos de corte dos 22 aos 42 dias alimentados com rações com diferentes níveis de cálcio e suplementadas com Fitase Performance and nitrogen retention in broilers from 22 to 42 days old fed diets with different levels in calcium supplement with Fitase
Antônio Soares Teixeira
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os níveis de cálcio na ração suplementada com enzima fitase para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade, foi conduzido um experimento com 600 frangos de 21 dias da linhagem Hubbard-MPK, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial cinco x dois (níveis de cálcio da dieta x sexos, com três repetições de 20 aves por parcela. A ração basal foi balanceada para atender às exigências nutricionais das aves, conforme o NRC (1994, exceto para o cálcio, cujos níveis foram 0,40; 0,59; 0,78; 0,97 e 1,16%, suplementada com Fitase. Aos 35 dias de idade, duas aves de cada tratamento foram transferidas para gaiolas de metabolismo para coleta total das excretas durante quatro dias. O consumo de ração e o ganho de peso foram de 12,8 e 16% respectivamente, e superiores (P0,05 para o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar em razão dos níveis crescentes de cálcio nas rações. A digestibilidade da matéria seca foi melhor com o nível de 0,88% de cálcio, e a maior retenção de nitrogênio foi obtida com 0,70% de cálcio na ração suplementadas com fitase. Conclui-se que o aumento dos níveis de cálcio em rações suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte dos 22 aos 42 dias de idade não afeta o desempenho dos mesmos, e níveis muito baixos de cálcio reduzem a digestibilidade da matéria seca e retenção de nitrogênio das rações.With the objective of evaluating the levels of calcium in the ration supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens from 22 to 42 days old, one experiment was conducted by using a total of 600 chickens of 22 days old Hubardb-MPK strain, distributed in a completely randomized design, in five two factorial arrangement (levels of calcium of the diet x sexes, with three replicates of 20 birds per plot. The basal diets was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of the broilers according to NRC (1994, except for calcium, whose
Evandro de Abreu Fernandes
Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.
Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A
Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901
Efeito da fitase e xilanase sobre o desempenho e as características ósseas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de arroz Effect of phytase and xilanase on the performance and bone characteristics of broiler chicks fed diets with rice bran
Ademir José Conte
Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso da fitase e xilanase no desempenho e na deposição óssea de minerais em frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo 15% de farelo de arroz, baixo fósforo disponível e sem suplementação de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês. A fitase utilizada foi da marca comercial Natuphos 5000 e a xilanase, da marca Avizyme 1300. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2+1. A dieta controle foi composta por níveis adequados de nutrientes, sem farelo de arroz e sem enzimas. As dietas dos demais tratamentos foram formuladas com 15% de farelo de arroz, contendo baixo fósforo disponível (40% do recomendado e sem suplementação inorgânica de Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn, com quatro níveis de fitase (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 FTU/kg, com ou sem xilanase (1 kg/t. As variáveis estudadas aos 21 e 42 dias de idade foram desempenho e cinzas, P, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu na tíbia. O peso vivo e consumo de ração aumentaram de maneira significativa com a adição de fitase, enquanto que a conversão alimentar não foi afetada, tanto aos 21 como aos 42 dias. O melhor nível de fitase foi de 1.105 e 1.023 FTU/kg para melhor desempenho, aos 21 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A xilanase não afetou significativamente o peso vivo e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou significativamente a conversão alimentar nas duas idades avaliadas, em função de menor consumo de ração nas aves que receberam xilanase. Os níveis de fitase promoveram aumento linear nos teores de cinzas e fósforo da tíbia e não afetaram a deposição de Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu, nas duas idades estudadas. A xilanase não afetou os parâmetros avaliados na tíbia.The present work was designed to verify the effect of the use of phytase and xylanase upon the performance and bone deposition of minerals in broiler diets containing 15% of rice bran, low available phosphorus and without supplementation of iron
Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.
Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael A.;
1. Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was....... Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. 5. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed CKMS-30. 6. An improved litter quality in terms of dry matter content and a lower frequency of...... foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. 7. The addition of CKMS to maize based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. 8. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and...
Full Text Available Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are composed from chemical compounds with different physical and chemical proprieties (cellulose, arabinoxylans, beta glucans and pectic polysaccharides with manans and gallactans. The antinutritional effects on monogastrics are different and in many cases extreme. Some cereals like barley, oat, wheat, contain significant quantities of NSP. The main negative effects of NSP are related to their viscous nature, to their physiological and morphological influence on the digestive tract and their interaction with the intestinal microflora. The purpose of this experiment is to establish the correlation coefficients between the values of intestinal viscosity and the levels of NSPt, NSPi and NSPs obtained by the inclusion of different percentage of barley in the structure of combined forages. The experiment was carried out on a period of 6 weeks on 120 broiler chickens divided in four experimental groups (CL, EL1, EL2 and EL3. The broiler chickens were fed with combined forages with the same nutritive characteristics but with different percentage of barley (0-40%. It has been showed that at the age of 3 and 6 weeks the intestinal viscosity rise with up to 64.67% along with the proportion of barley from the combined forages. Between the content of forages in NSP and intestinal viscosity exist a positive correlation, the highest correlation coefficient was registered in the case of NSPs, 0.92 at 3 weeks and respectively 0.99 at 6 weeks.
Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R
A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost. PMID:27107748
I.A.K Bintang; A.P. Sinurat; T Purwadaria
An experiment was conducted to study the response of broilers on the diet containing fermented palm oil sludge with Aspergillus niger stored at different length of time. The research was carried out in Research Institute for Animal Production Ciawi, Bogor. The experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design using 245 day old broiler chicks with 5 replicates. They were allotted to 7 diets containing one control without palm oil sludge (R0), 5 and 10% of fresh-fermented palm oil ...
Desempenho, digestibilidade, composição corporal e morfologia intestinal de pintos de corte recebendo dietas contendo levedura de cana-de-açúcar - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10787 Performance, digestibility, body composition and gut morphology of broiler chicks fed diets containing yeast cane sugar - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10787
Jaqueline de Cássia Ramos da Silva
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, a digestibilidade das dietas, a retenção corporal de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal de pintos de corte de 1 a 8 dias de idade, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de levedura de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se 300 pintos de corte, com um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto de cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de 0; 1,25; 2,5; 3,75 e 5,0% de inclusão de levedura. Não houve efeito da levedura sobre o desempenho zootécnico. Houve redução no coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, na energia metabolizável aparente e a aparente corrigida com os níveis crescentes. O nível de 2,09% promoveu menor retenção corporal de proteína bruta, enquanto a retenção de gordura foi linear crescente. A altura de vilos e relação vilo:cripta do jejuno aumentou linearmente, a profundidade das criptas do íleo apresentaram menor profundidade no nível de 2,40% de levedura. A inclusão da levedura de cana-de-açúcar até 5% em dietas de pintos na fase pré-inicial não afeta o desempenho zootécnico, proporciona melhor desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal; entretanto, reduz a energia metabolizável das dietas e aumenta a retenção de gordura corporal.The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility of diets, body retention of nutrients and the development of intestinal mucosa of post hatching broilers, of one up to eight day old, fed diets containing different levels of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was used 300 one day old chicks in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of increasing levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0% inclusion of yeast. No effect of yeast on performance. There was a reduction in the coefficients of apparent metabolizable of gross energy, apparent
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different concentrations of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old commercial male broilers (Cobb-500 were randomly allocated in 20 floor pens (15 chicks each. Animals of each pen were supplemented with five different concentrations of ginger and the experiment was performed in quadruplicate. The broilers were fed a wheat-soybean meal based diet containing different concentrations of ginger extract (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% supplemented to drinking water. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during 1 to 10, 11 to 21, 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age, two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing and slaughtered were dissected manually. Carcass yield, liver, abdominal fat and gut weight is expressed as percentage of live body weight. The results showed that there is no significant difference in the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio between the different treatments except the feed conversion ratio of the period 1 to 10 days of age (p<0.05. Also, different supplemented concentrations of ginger extract to drinking water of broilers influenced the carcass yield (p<0.05.
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the use of different growth promoters on the morphometry and ultra-structure of the intestinal mucosa of 42-day-old broilers. A total number of 36 male Cobb broilers was distributed in a randomized experimental design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, with 3 prebiotic and 3 probiotic sources in the feed, summing up 9 treatments, with 4 replicates each. There was a significant interaction (P<0.01 among the studied factor for villi height (VH in all intestinal segments, and for crypt depth (CD in the duodenum and the ileum. In the duodenum, higher villi were obtained in the control group, with the combination of B. subtilis and prebiotics, and with the single use of MOS+OA. No VH differences were observed between the control group and those fed prebiotics. In the jejunum, the highest villi were obtained with the use of the bacterial pool, followed by the control group, and by the use of B. subtilis. Higher villi were also obtained in the control group and in the groups fed MOS, when B. subtilis was used in combination with prebiotics, and when the bacterial pool was used individually or in combination with MOS. In the ileum, the highest villi were obtained with the individual use of B. subtilis, and when MOS+OA or MOS were individually used or in combination with the bacterial pool. As to duodenal CD, deeper crypts were observed in the control group and in those fed B. subtilis or MOS+OA. In the ileum, deeper crypts were also found in the control group and those fed B. subtilis. Deeper crypts were also found when the bacterial pool was individually used or in combination with MOS+OA, and with the individual use of MOS. It was concluded that the use of growth promoters was beneficial to increase intestinal villi height when Bacillus subtilis was used in combination with prebiotics. The other growth promoters (MOS+OA, MOS, and bacterial pool, can be individually used in most situations. The tested
Desempenho de Frangos de Corte Alimentados com Dietas à Base de Milho e Farelo de Soja, com ou sem Adição de Enzimas Performance of Broilers Fed Corn Soybean Meal Based Diets, with or without Inclusion of Enzymes
Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de um composto multi-enzimático à base de proteases, amilases e celulases (Vegpro, adicionado na proporção de 1 kg para cada 200 kg de farelo de soja, na dieta de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 2240 pintos, fêmeas, da marca comercial Ross, submetidos a oito tratamentos, com sete repetições. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas divididas. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1 (controle positivo -- ração normal, sem enzima, T2 (controle negativo -- ração com níveis energético, protéico e aminoacídico do farelo de soja, superestimados em 5%, sem enzima, T3 (ração normal, sem enzima até 28 dias, com enzima de 29 a 35 dias, T4 (ração normal, sem enzima até 21 dias, com enzima de 22 a 35 dias, T5 (ração normal, com enzima, T6 (até os 28 dias, ração normal com enzima, e ração superestimada com enzima, dos 29 aos 35 dias, T7 (ração normal, com enzima até os 21 dias e ração superestimada, com enzima, do 22º ao 35º dia e T8 (ração superestimada com enzima. Na primeira fase experimental, à exceção do T2, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para peso corporal médio, ganho médio de peso e consumo de ração, pois não foi observado efeito da inclusão de enzima. A conversão alimentar diferiu estatisticamente a 5%. Na quarta semana experimental, novamente o T2 foi o único a diferir a 5% para peso corporal médio e ganho médio de peso. Para consumo de ração e conversão alimentar, os tratamentos não diferiram significativamente. Na última semana, foram notadas as maiores diferenças entre os tratamentos. Verificou-se que a inclusão do complexo multi-enzimático não proporcionou ganhos ao desempenho de frangos de corte.This study was run to evaluate the effect of inclusion of an enzymatic cocktail, containing proteases, amilases and cellulases (Vegpro in broiler diets. The
S.G. ADEMOLA; M. D. SHITTU; M.O. AYANSOLA; T.E. LAWAL; G.O. TONA
The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade) of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and...
João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.
Leiber, Florian; Gelencsér, Tobias; Stamer, Andreas; Amsler, Zivile; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika
Protein sources other than soybean for the diets of poultry are needed for agricultural systems in temperate regions to help avoid some negative social and ecological impacts of large-scale soybean imports from overseas. The aim of the present study was to test the suitability of alternative protein sources in diets for slow-growing organic broiler chicken. Four experimental broiler diets were tested against a commercial feed for organic broiler chicken fattening (control), containing 255 ...
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley (GB on live performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks starting from 7 days of age and ending at 42 days of age. Chicks (Ross 308 were fed six dietary treatments including a corn–soy diet (corn diet, a barley–soy diet (barley diet, a barley diet plus enzymes (enzyme barley diet, and 3 other diets in which GB was replaced with barley at levels of 33%, 66%, and 100% in the barley diet (33% GB diet, 66% GB diet, and GB diet, respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed a barley diet had significantly lower performance than those fed other diets (P. Supplementing of the barley diet with β-glucanase enzyme as well as replacing GB with barley improved the performance of broilers. Birds fed a GB diet had a significantly higher carcass yield those fed other diets (P. The lowest abdominal fat percentage was observed in birds fed a barley diet or a corn diet. Thus, it is concluded that replacing GB with barley, especially at 33% level, is more effective than supplementing barley diets with β-glucanase enzyme in improving live performance of broiler chickens.
Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A
Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g
Full Text Available Foram conduzidos um ensaio de metabolismo para determinar o valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado (MP e não-processado (MNP e outro de desempenho para comparar o uso desses alimentos em dietas pré-iniciais para frangos de corte. Não foram observadas diferenças entre a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, do extrato etéreo, da proteína bruta e do amido e valores de energia metabolizável aparente dos tipos de milho avaliados. A energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do MP (3.537kcal/kg de MS foi maior (PA digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of heat-processed corn (PC and not processed corn (NPC. A trial was also carried out to evaluate the effect of PC and NPC in pre-starter diet on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age. The dry matter (DM, ether extract, crude protein and starch digestibilities and apparent metabolizable energy for PC were similar (P>0.05 to those observed for NPC. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy of PC (3,537kcal/kg of DM was higher than NPC (3,411kcal/kg of DM. The treatments in the performance trial were T1- diet formulated with NPC, T2- diet formulated with PC, and T3 - isometric substitution of NPC for PC in T1 diet. The broiler fed on NRC diets showed lower feed consumption and weight gain:feed consumption ratio from 1 to 7 days of age than broiler fed on PC diets. The isometric substitution of NPC for PC in the pre-starter diet did not affect the performance of birds. No treatment effect on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age was also observed.
The effect of irradiated complete diets at dose level of 25 KGy was studied in broad breasted bronze tome evaluating their growing performances as well as characteristics of the carcasses. Two experimental groups received irradiated and non irradiated diets for 18 weeks (from the 5th to the 23rd week of age). Four toms per treatment at the age of 23 weeks were slaughtered and the carcass was dissected. Radappertized diets improved body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion and reduced mortality rate. No significant differences were observed between toms fed processed and non processed diets on carcasses components, while the gizzard weight was greater for those fed the processed diets. Dressing and drawn weights in toms fed processed diets were 3% higher than in those fed non processed diets. The results suggest that sterilization of turkeys feed may have a beneficial effect on the body weight and deed conversion of turkeys consuming these diets without harmful effect on the bird
Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com complexos enzimáticos Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed corn soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymatic complexes
Julio Cesar Carrera de Carvalho
Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de complexos enzimáticos à dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte de ambos os sexos. Avaliaram-se cinco dietas: controle positivo - à base de milho e farelo de soja com farinha de carne e ossos, sem enzima; controle negativo - formulada com 3% menos de energia metabolizável; controle negativo + 0,05% do complexo A (xilanase, 600 U/g; amilase, 8.000 U/g; e protease, 800 U/g; controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B (α-amilase, 200 kNU/g; e β-glucanase, 350 FBG/g; e controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B + 0,01% da enzima C (xilanase, 1.000 FXU/g. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho das aves no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, os machos consumiram mais ração e as dietas com o complexo B resultaram em maior ganho de peso. Os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. No período total, o consumo de ração foi menor entre as aves (machos e fêmeas mantidas com a dieta controle positivo, enquanto o maior ganho de peso nos machos foi obtido com a dieta controle negativo contendo 0,04% do complexo B. Quanto à conversão alimentar, os machos apresentaram as melhores conversões com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre os rendimentos de carcaça, peito e gordura abdominal. Quando fornecidas dietas com redução de 3% da energia metabolizável, o uso dos complexos enzimáticos é efetivo na recuperação do desempenho das aves.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of enzymatic complexes on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from both sexes. Five diets were evaluated: positive control diet based on corn and soybean meal with meat and bone meal without enzyme; negative control diet formulated with 3% less of metabolizable energy; negative control + 0
Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D.; Selvaraj, Ramesh K.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion
Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D; Selvaraj, Ramesh K; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4⁺CD25⁺, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion
Marcelo Espósito; Édison José Fassani; Alisson Hélio Sampaio Clemente; Letícia Makiyama; Pâmela Lacombe Retes; Solange de Faria Castro
An experiment was conducted using 276 free-range broiler chickens of the Gauchão lineage to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ground sugarcane (GSC) on performance, energy value of the diets, and carcass yield. The animals were assigned to three treatments and four repetitions of 23 animals each in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of the on-top inclusion or not of GSC in a balanced diet (BD) (100% BD; 85% BD + 15% GSC, and 70% BD + 30% GSC). The exper...
Mahmoodi Bardzardi M; Ghazanfari S; Sharifi SD
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control) and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 m...
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to compare two techniques (amino acid supplementation and dilution for formulating experimental diets for pre-starter (1 to 8 days and starter (8 to 22 days broiler chicks and to estimate digestible lysine requirements using the dose-response method. In each experiment, 1,200 male Cobb 500 chickens were randomly distributed according to a 5x2 factorial arrangement (lysine level x formulation technique with six replicates of 20 birds each. For the supplemented diet, a basal diet was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements, then L-lysine HCl was added to achieve digestible lysine levels of 0.975, 1.082, 1.189, 1.296 and 1.403% in the pre-starter diets and 0.840, 0.932, 1.024, 1.116 and 1.208% in the starter diets. For the diluted diet, a diet high in crude protein (CP and relatively low in lysine was formulated and to which was added a protein-free diet until lysine levels were similar to those described above for the supplemented diet. The results suggest that the dilution technique favored the performance potential and better met lysine requirements compared with the supplementation technique. Lysine levels required for optimal feed conversion ratio of broilers during the pre-starter and starter phases were estimated at 1.361 and 1.187%, which are equivalent to lysine intake of 0.340 and 0.797 g/day, respectively.
Full Text Available The studies were designed to determine an effect of partial replacement of soybean meal with rape cake supplemented with enzymes on the nutritional value of diets and the number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the ileum and caecum of broilers. The experiment 1 (growth trial was carried out on 120 one-day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 which were randomly divided into four homogenous groups, 30 birds per group (15 males and 15 females. Each treatment consisted of six replicates of 5 birds. A control diet contained soybean meal whereas in the experimental, a part of the soybean meal was replaced by 15% rape cake from the Kaszub cultivar and supplemented with enzyme preparations containing xylanase or phytase added individually or in combination. On the 21st day of experiment six birds from each group were scarified and the ileum and caeca were isolated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB determination. The experiment 2 (digestibility trial was carried out on 60 sevenday-old chickens divided into four treatments of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds to determine nutrient digestibility of diets used in the growth trial. The digestibility test was carried out by the total collection method. The inclusion of 15 % rape cake instead of soybean meal and the addition of enzyme preparations did not decrease body weight gain and feed intake. The feed conversion ratio (FCR was higher in the group fed the diet in which phytase was added separately. A simultaneous application of xylanase and phytase statistically (P<0.05 increased the digestibility of crude fibre and N-free extracts. The lactic acid bacteria number was the highest in the caecum and ileum of birds fed the diet containing the xylanase preparation, whereas xylanase and phytase preparations added in combination had no effect on lactic acid bacteria number.
Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin
Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.
Marina Jorge de Lemos; Lígia Fátima Lima Calixto; Osvanira dos Santos Alves; Daniele Santos de Souza; Bárbara Brandt Moura; Túlio Leite Reis
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of kaolin in the diet on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Four hundred ninety-two broiler chickens distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates of 41 birds each, divided into three periods (15-21; 22-34; 35-52 days) were used. The following treatments were: Control - reference diet without added kaolin; treatment 1 - reference diet + 0.75...
A O Adegoke
Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05. The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.
Karadas, F.; ERDOĞAN, S.; Kor, D; G Oto; Uluman, M.
Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105), with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet); T2: seleniu...
Galib A.M. AL-Kassie, Akhil M. Mohseen and Raghad A. Abd-AL-Jaleel
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with a mixture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa. A total of 300 (Arbor-Acres day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of a mixture cumin and turmeric at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet for six weeks. Feeding period for all groups was lasted for 42 days. Results revealed that the inclusion of cumin and turmeric mixture at levels of 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At the same time the cumin and turmeric mixture of 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC, WBC, and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of mixture containing cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa as feed additive at levels 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.
Desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte no período de 22 a 42 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes relações lisina digestível: proteína bruta Performance and carcass yield of broiler in the period from 22 to 42 days of age fed diets with different digestible lysine: crude protein ratios
Kênia Ferreira Rodrigues
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte no período de 22 a 42 dias alimentados com rações formuladas com diferentes relações lisina digestível:proteína bruta (PB. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, segundo um modelo com dois critérios de classificação hierárquica. Foram utilizados 1.200 pintos de corte machos, linhagem Cobb, criados até 21 dias de idade. Depois desse período, as aves foram uniformizadas por peso (média de 879 ± 17 g e distribuídas nas parcelas experimentais. As dietas foram isonutritivas, exceto quanto aos níveis de PB e lisina digestível, formuladas com dois níveis de PB (17,0 e 19,5% e cinco relações lisina digestível:PB, correspondendo a 5,9; 6,4; 6,9; 7,4 e 7,9% em relação à ração com 17,0% de PB e 5,3; 5,7; 6,1; 6,5 e 6,9% em relação à ração com 19,5% de PB. Cada ração experimental foi fornecida a 20 aves em cada uma das seis repetições. Aos 42 dias, avaliaram-se as características de desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar, quando duas aves de cada parcela foram abatidas para determinação dos rendimentos de carcaça, de cortes e de gordura abdominal. O consumo de ração diminuiu e a conversão alimentar melhorou linearmente de acordo com as relações avaliadas no nível de 17,0% PB. Não houve efeito significativo dos dois níveis de PB utilizados sobre o ganho de peso e os rendimentos de carcaça e de partes. A gordura abdominal reduziu linearmente no nível de 19,5% de PB. As relações ideais foram de 5,9% para 17,0% PB e 5,3% para 19,5% PB. O nível de PB da dieta pode ser reduzido para 17,0%, pois essa redução não afeta o desempenho das aves.This paper was developed to evaluate the performance and the carcass characteristics of broiler chickens over the period from 22 to 42 days, fed with diets formulated with different digestible lysine: crude protein (CP ratio. A completely randomized
Rape seeds meal (RSM) is a high quality protein supplement suitable for all classes of livestock. The major area of concern in animal nutrition has been glucosinolates and their derivative products which cause depressed performance in poultry or may be even toxic. Therefore, these substances must be removed or inactivated before the meal can be used as potential protein source for food or feed. I the current study, RSM has been used to test whether gamma radiation processing can inactivate glucosinolates as a step towards detoxication. Samples were exposed to gamma rays of 10, 50, 100 and 250 kGy. Approximated analysis showed that RSM was not affected by irradiation processing up to 250 kGy. However, the crude fiber content decreased at the highest dose while at doses of 10, 50 100 and 250 kGy the available lysine decreased by 6.76%, 9.46%, 17.84% and 22.43%, respectively. Radiation processing at 250 kGy significantly inactivated glucosinolate by 85% from its initial value. In a 8-week chick-feeding study, raw and irradiated RSM were applied at 30%. The diets containing raw and irradiated (at 10, 50 and 100 kGy) RSM had somewhat low growth and thyroid, liver and kidney enlargement compared to the basal control group. No significant difference was observed between chicks fed on RSM irradiated at 250 kGy and those fed on basal diet. No significant differences were observed in the serum protein, albumin, GPT, uric acid, creatine and basal diet groups. Those kept on raw and irradiated at 10, 50 and 100 kGy RSM had higher GOT than those kept on irradiated at 250 kGy RSM and basal diet. Radiation treatment of RSM up to 250 kGy improved its nutritional quality by decreasing the glucosinolate and consequently maintained the chicks in a better health condition. (author)
Avaliação do desempenho e de parâmetros gastrintestinais de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas formuladas com sorgo alto tanino e baixo tanino Evaluation of performance and gastric parameters of broiler chickens fed diets formulateds with sorghum with and no tannin
Rodrigo Garófallo Garcia
Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado nas instalações experimentais da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Unesp, Campus de Botucatu e objetivou-se avaliar o efeito das dietas com milho e farelo de soja, sorgo com alto tanino e farelo de soja e sorgo com baixo tanino e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e parâmetros gastrintestinais de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1200 pintos de corte de um dia, da linhagem Ross 308, distribuídos em 24 boxes em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, três dietas: 100% milho e farelo de soja, 100% sorgo com alto tanino e farelo de soja (SAT e 100% sorgo com baixo tanino e farelo de soja (SBT e dois sexos, com 4 repetições de 50 aves cada. O desempenho foi avaliado aos 21, 35 e 42 dias de idade e aos 42 dias de idade, uma amostra de 5 aves por repetição foi abatida para a determinação do rendimento de carcaça e das partes. Foram medidos o rendimento do peito desossado, coxa e sobrecoxa, asas, dorso e gordura abdominal. Aos 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias de idade foram sacrificadas 3 aves por repetição para avaliação do desenvolvimento das vísceras e dos intestinos por meio de pesagens e medidas. Conclui-se que, ao utilizar sorgo com alto tanino (cultivar AG3002 com 1,89 g/kg e sorgo com baixo tanino (cultivar SAARA com 0,49 g/kg em substituição ao milho não foi encontrado efeito significativo (p>0,05 para os parâmetros analisados de desempenho e rendimento de carcaça, não ocorrendo também efeito evidente sobre a porcentagem das vísceras e intestinos e as medidas dos intestinos.The experiment was carried out in the experimental facilities of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of Unesp, Botucatu Campus and the objective was evaluate the effect of corn, sorghum with tannin and sorghum no tannin-based diets on the gastric and bowel parameters in broiler . One thousand and two hundred sexed Ross 308, one
Full Text Available One-day-old male Ross chicks were used in an experiment designed to compare two methionine sources, DL-methionine and methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (MHA-FA, and four different levels: 0.41; 0.47; 0.53; 0.59% (starter diet; 0.35; 0.41; 0.47; 0.53% (grower diet; and 0.30; 0.36; 0.42; 0.48% (finisher diet. One thousand two hundred and eighty chicks were housed in 32 experimental floor-pens (40 birds each and fed 8 experimental diets based on corn and soybean meal for 47 days. The effects of methionine sources and levels were evaluated by performance data, carcass and cut yields, feather yield and abdominal fat content. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (2 sources and 4 levels, with 8 treatments and 4 repetitions. Analysis of variance was performed using PROC GLM of SAS©. Data indicated DL-methionine to be more effective in promoting growth than MHA-FA, and weight gain increased numerically in response to increasing levels of methionine in all phases.
Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.
The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...... the feed conversion ratio (FCR), the feed cost (FC) and the economic feed efficiency (EFE). The model II showed that at starter phase the interaction between diet and age had a significant effect on DFI, DWG, FCR, F and EFE. At grower phase, there was no interaction effect. The age affected significantly...... DFI and DWG, while the diet had significant effect on FCR, FC and EFE. The switch of diets resulted in a compensatory growth of broilers fed Se diet previously. At the grower phase the daily feed intake and body weight were fitted by polynomial curve functions with the age as main explanatory variable....
Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of palm kernel meal (PKM and Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 fermented PKM at various levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design with one control. Two kinds of PKM (unfermented and A. wentii fermented PKM in broiler rations were used, each at 10, 20, 30 and 40 %. Increasing level of PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM higher than 20 % significantly decreased feed intake and average weight gain also decreased, while feed efficiency declined. Feed intake of growing broilers during 0 to 21 d of age fed with PKM decreased linearly followed by a quadratic response during the finishing period (22 to 42 d of age while those broilers fed with A. wentii fermented PKM exhibited a quadratic response throughout the 42 d feeding trial. Data show that feed intake and average weight gain response when fed with PKM decreased linearly while when fed with A. wentii fermented PKM it was quadratic and then slowly decreased. The poor performance of the birds fed PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM at high levels might be due to the higher in crude fiber content and the lower nitrogen retention. In the growing period PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM no more than 20 % of the broiler ration should be used while in the finishing period PKM up to 30 % is effective.
Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Parmentier, H.K.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (¿-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n¿=¿120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the rati
An, B. K.; Kim, J.Y.; Oh, S T; Kang, C. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, S. K.
This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract) for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW) and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet wer...
Full Text Available The objective of these investigations was to examine the influence of prebiotics based on mannan-oligosaccharides and polysaccharide complexes of micro elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on production results and abattoir parameters for broilers of the hybrid Arbor Acres. The experiment was performed on 186 chicken divided into three equal groups, it lasted 42 days and was divided into 3 phases. The first phase lasted 21 days, the second 14, and the third seven days. The complete mix for initial fattening of broilers was used from days 1-21, and complete fodder mixes for closing fattening from days 21-35, and on days 35-42 of the experiment. Feeding was ad libitum and the broilers were maintained in a floor system. Broilers fed mixes of standard raw material composition and the usual nutritive values achieved an average daily growth of 49.10 g at an average daily feed consumption of 115.55 g and with food conversion of 2.35, while the yield was 71.90%. The addition of prebiotics based on mannan-oligosaccharides resulted in an increased average daily growth by 14.95% with a lower feed consumption by 2.67% and better conversion by 15.32%, while the yield was approximately the same as in the control group. The use of mixes to which polysaccharide complexes of micro elements have been added (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn resulted in a higher daily growth by 11.43%, with a lower feed consumption by 4.28% and better conversion by 14%. The yield was approximately the same in this group as in the controls. The results realized in these investigations, throughout the experimental period, indicate that the use of the examined additives significantly affected the growth and body mass of chicks and that it is nutritionally and economically justified.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the carcass yields of male and female Arian broilers fed with three different lysine levels viz. high lysine (110% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (90% NRC). This experiment was conducted using 600 male and female broiler chickens in 6 treatments with 5 replicates (20 broilers) in the completely block randomized design. Increasing lysine level (110% NRC) in diet significantly increased gr...
Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C.; Tun, Hein M.; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C
Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and –resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial ...
Aim: The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. Materials and Methods: A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] lev...
Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing
The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague–Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the r...
Lee, Mi Ra; Kim, Byung Chan; Kim, Ran; Oh, Hyun In; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Choi, Kang Ju; Sung, Chang Keun
Black ginseng is produced by a repeated steaming process. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of black ginseng ethanol extract (BG-EE) in high fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Two groups were fed either a normal control (NC) diet or a HF diet (45% kcal fat). The other three groups were given a HF diet supplemented with 1% BG-EE, 3% BG-EE, and 5% BG-EE for 12 wk. The anti-obesity effects of the BG-EE supplement on body weight, the development of fat mass, and lipid mechani...
The purpose of this research is wanted to know the effect of application various level of animal protein diet to Performance of broiler. This experiment was arranged by completely random design (CDR) which consist 4 treatments and 6 replications. Therefore, there were 24 experiment units, and there were 5 DOC for each experiment unit. The parameters in this experiment are feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion. Result of this experiment showed that feed consumption and bo...
A N experiment was conducted to evaluate physiological and biochemical responses of arbor chicks from 7 to 49 days fed on diets containing raw and full-fat soybeans processed at 20 and 50 KGy. The results demonstrate that feeding chicks on raw soybeans significantly depressed growth rate and increased feed intake. A significant thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard enlargement were also noticed, in addition a significant reduction was found in total plasma protein and albumin during the experimental period. These responses were not as pronounced as when soybeans irradiated at 20 KGy were fad. Soybeans processed at 50 KGy markedly reduced trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent (71% and 87%, respectively) and resulted in improved chick performance and normalized thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard weight and total plasma protein and albumin concentrations. Plasma transaminase activities were similar in all chicks during the experimental period. The improvement in performance of groups fed processed soybeans was the correlated with reduction of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent. It is concluded that the radiation processing of soybeans up to 50 KGy is sufficiently suitable to have potential in the feed industry without any deleterious effect on chicks' performance as evidenced by the physiological and biochemical responses
Full Text Available On 26,000 Ross 508 broiler chickens (two groups of 13,000 per pen the effect of dietary substitution with in organic trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bones tructure c trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bone structure was studied. Treatments consisted of a commercial diet integrated with 0.5% of a vitamin-mineral premix containing inorganic trace minerals (CTR or organometallic chelates (MHA using Methionine Hydroxy Analog. Production performance was measured during the 52 d trial period and bone structure was evalu- ated at the slaughter (52 d. Significant (P=0.038 higher values were observed in the finishing period (41 to 52 d for the body weight of the treated group (3560 g vs. 3358 g. The same trend was observed for the ADG (MHA 87.6 g/d vs. CTR 71 g/d; P<0.05. Concerning ash percentage significant higher values were observed in the CTR group for femur (49.01% vs. 51.45%; P<0.01 and tibia (53.87% vs. 49.79%; P<0.001; femur showed also higher values for bone radiopacity (MHA 0.21 px vs. CTR 0.26 px; P=0.035. MHA group showed significant higher value for morphometric measures of the femur and tibia. Results suggest that organometallic chelates can be included in the diet without compromising broiler performance.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.
Shaw, A L; van Ginkel, F W; Macklin, K S; Blake, J P
Our study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary phytase on a natural Eimeria challenge in naive and vaccinated broilers. Prior to the experiment the litter was seeded with Eimeria by orally infecting 10-d-old chicks with a cocktail containing 100,000 and 5,000 sporulated Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella oocysts, respectively. Straight-run broiler chicks were placed across 48 floor pens on fresh or seeded litter. Eight treatment combinations were created to include 2 dietary Ca-nonphytate P (npP) levels [0.9% Ca, 0.45% npP; 0.7% Ca, 0.35% npP, 500 phytase units of Optiphos phytase (JBS United, Sheridan, IN)], unchallenged versus challenged, and unvaccinated versus vaccinated groups of chicks. Body weights and feed consumption (FC) were recorded on d 10, 18, and 21. A total of 10 birds/treatment were killed on d 10 and 18 to obtain tissue samples from the duodena and ceca for lesion scoring and cytokine response measurement. At 21 d of age, the left tibia was removed from 18 birds/treatment to assess bone strength. Body weight, FC, and bone strength were unaffected (P > 0.05) by diet or vaccination. By d 21, birds exposed to coccidia had lower FC (P 0.05). Expression of interferon-γ did not differ (P > 0.05) in the duodena or ceca at either time point. The IL-17 gene expression was increased (P < 0.05) in phytase-supplemented, vaccinated, or challenged birds by 18 d of age, with significant interactions (P < 0.05) occurring between birds challenged and fed the marginal diet or vaccinated. Phytase supplementation was unable to provide additional benefits to performance or P utilization in birds vaccinated, subjected to a coccidiosis infection, or both. Based on cytokine production in the intestinal tract on d 10 and 18 postchallenge, the response to the Eimeria challenge was characterized by a T-helper type (Th) 17-like immune response and to a lesser extent a Th1-like immune response, whereas no Th2 cytokine was detected. PMID:21406363
Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the interactions and effects of 2 and 4% addition levels of poultry slaughterhouse fat (chicken tallow and soybean oil in diets for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out using one-day-old male Cobb chicks in an entirely random design with a 2x2 factorial scheme. In the first experiment, 560 chicks were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics. In the second experiment, 100 chicks were used to determine the nutrient digestibility, dietary energy utilization and the lipase and amylase pancreatic activity. There was no interaction between the fat sources and the addition levels for any of the analyzed variables, except for the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DCDM, which was higher in diets added with 2% soybean oil when compared to chicken tallow. The addition of 4% fat in the diet, regardless of fat source, improved the digestibility coefficient of ethereal extract (DCEE and increased weight gain and feed intake. Moreover, in the initial phase, the addition of 4% fat to the diet increased lipase activity when compared to diets with 2% addition, and a positive correlation between DCEE and pancreatic lipase activity was observed. In conclusion, there is no interaction between fat sources and addition levels, except for DCDM. Carcass characteristics are not influenced by any of the studied factors. The addition of 4% fat increases pancreatic lipase activity and improves DCEE, resulting in greater weight gain, regardless of the tested fat source, making chicken tallow a great alternative to soybean oil.
Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Tillman, P B; Payne, R L
The effects of graded levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated as a partial replacement for sources of protein, energy, and other nutrients for broilers when the digestible amino acid balance was maintained. Zero, 8, 16, and 24% DDGS were incorporated into isonutritive diets at the expense of corn, soybean meal, and dl-Met. Poultry oil, l-Lys, and l-Thr additions increased with increasing levels of DDGS. Diets were each fed to 36 Cobb 500 straight-run broilers in 6 floor pens in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed ≥8% DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet during the 0- to 18-d starter period (P = 0.0164) but were almost identical in BW at 42 d (P = 0.9395). The only difference at 42 d was in the carcass fat composition of female broilers: percentage of fat pad decreased with increasing DDGS level (P = 0.0133). Corn DDGS reduced the pellet durability index. However, the pellet durability index was not related to growth or feed utilization. In experiment 2 at 42 d, broilers fed all levels of DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet. Broilers may perform well when fed properly balanced feeds containing up to 24% DDGS despite reduced pellet quality. PMID:21248334
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.
Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.
Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.
Full Text Available Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replications and each replication in one cage consisted of 5 chicks. R1 was control feed (K without jatropha seed meal., 2 R2 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Neurosphora sitophila (FNS, R3 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAS, R4 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by rumen microbes and R5 with 4% of Jatropha seed meal treated by autoclaved, refluxed by hexane and soaked in methanol (OEHM. Treated feed was given for 14 days at the end of the feeding treatment, two chickens from each replication were slaughtered and organ weights were recorded. Body weight of chicken and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The rest of the chicken was fed commercial feed for the next 7 days (recovery periode. Chicken mortality was almost 0% but 1 chicken from FAS treatment died at the recovery period. Feed consumption was lower at fermented jatropha seed meal than control (K or OEHM, resulted in lower body weight of chicken. The abdomen fat weight and organ weights especially pancreas or spleen resulted from treatment with jatropha were much lower than that of K. In the recovery period, body weight of chicken in the OEHM treatment was almost similar from that of control chicken. In conclusion, biological detoxification on BBJ was able to reduce chicken mortality but could not improve the daily gain higher than control treatment. The best method to detoxify jatropha seed meal was the combination of physical and
McGrath, Joshua M; Sims, J Thomas; Maguire, Rory O; Saylor, William W; Angel, Roselina
Adding phytase and 25- hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D(3)) to broiler diets has been shown effective at reducing total P concentrations in broiler litter. This study was conducted to determine the impact of field application of broiler litter from modified diets on P solubility in litter-amended soils and P losses in runoff. Five broiler diets and their resulting litters were evaluated: a high P diet, a low P diet, each of those basal diets with phytase added, and a low P diet with phytase and 25-OH D(3) added. A field study was initiated at two sites with each of the five broiler litters and a commercial P fertilizer (triple superphosphate [TSP]) applied at the same total P rate (150 kg P ha(-1)) and a control where no P was applied. Soil P was monitored over time at two depths (0-5 cm and 0-15 cm) soils were collected in the spring and fall to perform rainfall simulation studies. Broiler litter or TSP application increased soil water-soluble P and Mehlich 3-P concentrations relative to the control, however there were no consistent differences detected between litter treatments. Results from the rainfall simulation experiments indicate that diet modification with phytase or 25-OH D(3) does not increase the potential for P losses in runoff from amended soils relative to traditional diets. Moreover, broiler diet modification to reduce excreted P could be a potentially effective method for reducing watershed scale P surpluses in areas of intensive broiler production, without raising concerns over soluble P losses from litter-amended soils. PMID:20048320
Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.
Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Jensen, Bent Borg; Finster, Kai;
Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with sol...
Yu, S.; Berg, van den G.J.; Beynen, A.C.
Copper metabolism in male Nagase analbuminaemic (NA) rats was compared with that in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed purified diets containing either 5 or 100 mg Cu/kg diet. Dietary copper loading increased hepatic and kidney copper concentrations in both strains to the same extent, but baseline va
Cavalli Ronaldo Olivera
Full Text Available Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing different protein sources (fish, squid and mussel meals and their combinations at the proportions of 40, 30 and 30% or 60, 20 and 20% were fed for 28 days to Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Growth performance and feed utilization of shrimp fed the fish meal-based diet was comparatively inferior to those fed other protein sources or their combinations. This indicates that fish meal may not be the best protein source for F. paulensis. Feeds containing a mixture of protein sources are better utilized by F. paulensis and therefore result in significantly higher growth than those containing a single protein source.
Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%, T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%/kg feed. After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14% and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04% accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat. Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products.
Amir Attar; Farid Firouzbakhsh; Hadi Sayyahzadeh; Mansour Rezaei; Mahalam Ghiyasi
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto) in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high) and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2%) in a completely ra...
Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rat...
The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet
Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few
Karla P. Picoli
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.
Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin
Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects. PMID:23982154
Cross, Deborah Elaine; McDevitt, Regina; Acamovic, Tom
Abstract ABSTRACT 1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed wheat-soybea...
Two experiments were carried out in order to determine the effect of corn-soybean meal or wheat-soybean meal based diets containing low energy (DE) and low energy-low protein (DEDP) supplemented with enzyme on the performance of broiler chicks between 0 and 21 days of age. In the first experiment, three diets, namely, control, low energy (DE) and low energy-protein (DEDP) based on corn-soybean meal, were formulated. In the second experiment, control and three diets containing 40% wheat which ...
Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.
Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets
Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae
The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirena...
Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion for full-fat rapeseed processed through radiation treatment, as a step towards detoxification, in broiler chick's diet. Raw and processed full-fat seeds (10 and 20 KGy) were fed to arbor acres broiler chicks from 7 d of 49 d of age. Body weight of chicks fed the control diet were heaviest followed in order against those fed seed irradiated at 20 and 10 KGy weight depression relative to birds fed, over the experimental duration, of chicks fed diets containing raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy were-11.2, - 7.2 and - 0.14%, respectively. In general, the study indicates that processed seeds at 20 KGy fed to broilers resulted in body weights (7 wk) similar to the control birds. leg abnormalities were seen in birds fed raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy to be 31.1, 17.8 and 8.9%, respectively. Mortality rate of birds fed raw seeds was more pronounced than those fed the irradiated seeds. Birds fed raw seeds showed thyroid and liver enlargement. Processed seeds at 10 and 20 KGy reduced the effect on these organs. Feeding chicks irradiated seed at 10 and 20 KGy did not normalize the weight of thyroid and liver. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in relative weight of gizzard, pancreas, heart and kidney of chicks fed control diet and those fed irradiated seeds
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.
Nahashon, S N; Nakaue, H S; Mirosh, L W
Two experiments were carried out for six and seven 28-d periods, respectively, with DeKalb XL Single Comb White Leghorn laying pullets to ascertain the effect of feeding 1,100 mg Lactobacillus (Lacto)/kg diet (ppm) and 2,200 ppm Lacto diets, and the supplementation of these diets with 1 and 3% fat, on layer performance and nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal (C-S) control, C-S plus condensed cane molasses solubles (CCMS)-1,100 ppm Lacto (4.4 x 10(7) cfu/mg Lacto), and C-S plus CCMS-2,200 ppm Lacto (8.8 x 10(7) cfu/mg Lacto) without fat (Experiment 1) and without and with 1 and 3% supplemental fat to each Lacto level (Experiment 2). In both experiments, layers fed the 1,100 ppm Lacto diets had better (P Lacto. Egg mass, interior egg quality, and feed conversion (Experiment 1), mean body weight gains, and nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention (Experiment 2) were further improved (P Lacto diets. Feeding Lacto diets with 1% fat provided (P fat decreased (P Lacto diets and nitrogen and calcium retentions, daily feed consumption, and egg size were observed. Feeding 1,100 ppm Lacto diets to layers stimulated appetite and improved egg production, egg mass, egg weight, egg size, and feed conversion. Addition of fat to Lacto diets reduced daily feed consumption and provided better feed conversion, egg masses, egg sizes, body weight gains, and nutrient retentions. PMID:7862610
Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen
The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:25135491
Gaetke, Lisa M.; McClain, Craig J.; Toleman, C. Jean; Stuart, Mary A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the affects of adding yogurt to animal diets which were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 μg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, 6 groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of the following AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or...
The objective of the present study was to monitor the hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of propolis in rats fed high cholesterol diet. The rats (n=32) were divided into four equal groups. The rats of group 1 (control) were fed basal diet, whereas rats of group 2 were fed basal diet mixed with cholesterol (1%). The rats of group 3 and 4 were fed high cholesterol diet (1%) mixed with propolis powder 1 and 2%, respectively. Hematological parameters were comparable among all groups. C...
Woyengo, T. A.; Emiola, I. A.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.
The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at t...
Tiurma Pasaribu; E Wina; B. Tangendjaja; S. Iskandar
Jatropha seed meal which is a by-product of biofuel is rich in protein. Its utilization as feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds. An experiment was conducted at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production to evaluate the effect of jatropha seed meal on broiler performance. Jatropha seed meals were treated physically, chemically or their combination to reduce or eliminate the anti nutritive and toxic compounds. Then, the inclusion ...
Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification) and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old) were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replicati...